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Andhra Pradesh

State Disaster Management Plan


(AP SDMP)
VOLUME 1

August 2010

Revenue (Disaster Management II) Department


Government of Andhra Pradesh

Table of Contents
Chapter 1.0 Introduction
1.1. Introduction to Andhra Pradesh State Disaster Management Plan (AP SDMP)
Chapter 2.0 Profile of the state

PageNo.
C1
C1-1
C2

2.1. Location

C 2-1

2.2. Socio-economic profile

C 2-1

2.3. Demographic profile of the state

C 2-1

2.4. Rainfall and water resources

C 2-3

2.5. River system in Andhra Pradesh

C2-3

2.5.1. Godavari river system

C2-4

2.5.2. Krishna river system

C2-4

2.5.3. The Pennar river system

C2-4

2.5.4. The Vamsadhara system

C2-5

2.5.5. Other coastal rivers

C2-5

2.6. Economic growth

C2-5

2.7. Administrative structure

C2-5

2.8. Climate & Temperature

C2-6

2.9. Land use

C2-7

2.10. Agriculture and cropping pattern

C2-7

2.11. Fisheries

C2-8

2.12. Andhra Pradesh Education profile

C2-8

2.13. Health

C2-10

2.14. Forests

C2-10
i

2.15. Industry

C2-11

2.15. Transportation and communication Infrastructure

C2-11

2.17. Mining

C2-14

Chapter 3.0 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment

C3

3.1. Vulnerability and Risk Assessment

C3-1

3.2. Vulnerability of Andhra Pradesh to Natural Hazards

C3-2

3.3. Disaster Specific Vulnerability

C3-2

3.3.1. Cyclones
3.3.2. Floods
3.3.2.1. Floods of October-November 2009 in Kurnool and Mahbubnagar
3.3.3. Earthquakes

C3-2
C3-6
C3-15
C3-17

3.3.3.1. Largest Instrumented Earthquake in Andhra Pradesh

C3-19

3.3.3.2. Significant Earthquakes in Andhra Pradesh

C3-19

3.3.3.3. Earthquakes recorded since 2000 in Andhra Pradesh

C3-22

3.3.4. Fires

C3-22

3.3.5. Industrial accidents

C3-23

3.3.6. Tsunami

C3-24

3.3.7. Droughts

C3-25

3.3.8. Vulnerability of irrigation tanks and dams

C3-25

3.3.9. Vulnerability of Urban areas of the State

C3-26

3.3.9.1. Flash floods in Hyderabad

C3-27

3.3.10. Vulnerability to road accidents

C3-27

3.3.11. Mining and non-mining related vulnerability of the State

C3-28
ii

3.3.12. Landslides

C3-29

3.3.13. Heat Waves

C3-30

3.3.13.1. Impacts of Heat Waves

C3-30

3.3.14. Forest Fires

C3-31

3.4. Vulnerability of critical infrastructure to natural hazards

C3-32

3.5. Conclusion

C3-34

Chapter 4.0 Preparedness Measures

C4

4.1. Preparedness Measures

C4-1

4.2. Disaster specific preparedness

C4-1

4.2.1. Cyclones

C4-1

4.2.1.1. Existing Cyclone shelters

C4-1

4.2.1.2. Cyclone warning centers (CWC)

C4-3

4.2.1.3. Preparation of Cyclone forecasts

C4-4

4.2.1.4. Two-stage warning system

C4-4

4.2.1.5. Dissemination of cyclone warnings

C4-5

4.2.1.6. Disaster Warning Systems (DWS)

C4-5

4.2.2. Flood preparedness

C4-5

4.2.2.1. Flood Management

C4-6

4.2.2.2. Flood Forecasting

C4-8

4.2.3. Fire preparedness

C4-9

4.2.4. Heat wave preparedness

C4-10

4.2.4.1. Relief arrangements

C4-10

iii

4.2.4.2. Forecasting and dissemination of heat-related parameters

C4-10

4.2.5. Medical preparedness and mass casualty management

C4-11

4.2.6. District disaster management plans (DDMP)

C4-11

4.2.7. Preparedness to meet post disaster financial needs

C4-12

4.2.7.1. Calamity Relief Fund (CRF)

C4-12

4.2.7.2. Apthbandhu

C4-12

4.2.7.3. Universal Health Insurance Scheme for Tsunami affected families

C4-12

4.3. Community Based Disaster Management


4.3.1. Community Based Disaster Management (CBDM)

C4-13
C4-13

4.4. Needs and gap analysis of key government departments for disaster preparedness

C4-14

4.5. Civil Defence (CD)

C4-16

4.5.1. Synergizing efforts and resources of various agencies involved

C4-17

4.5.2. Capacity building measures for developing trained HR for CD

C4-17

4.6. Training, capacity building and other proactive measures

C4-20

4.6.1. National Cadet Corps (NCC)

C4-20

4.6.2. National Social Service (NSS)

C4-21

4.6.3. Nehru Yuva Kendra (NYK)

C4-21

4.6.4. Home Guards

C4-21

4.6.5. Self Help Groups (SHGs)

C4-22

4.6.6. Civil society and NGOs

C4-24

4.6.7. Use of Amateur Ham Radio system in disaster management

C4-24

4.7. Intuitional Mechanisms


4.7.1. Strengthening institutional frameworks for disaster preparedness

C4-25
C4-25
C4-26
iv

4.8. National Disaster Response Force


4.9. Media preparedness in disaster management

C4-26

4.10. Techno-legal regime

C4-27

4.10.1. State Level Legislation

C4-27

4.10.2. Legislative support at the Local/ Municipal/ Panchayat Level

C4-28

4.11. Application of geospatial information in disaster management

C4-28

4.12. Mock exercises

C4-29

4.13. Knowledge management

C4-30

Chapter 5.0 Prevention and Mitigation Measures

C5

5.1. Introduction

C5-1

5.2. Mitigation strategy

C5-2

5.3. NGOs, Private Sector, Government Training Intuitions

C5-3

5.4. Community efforts and mitigation

C5-4

5.5. Community level training and public awareness activities

C5-4

5.6. Pilot projects

C5-5

5.7. Disaster Management legislation, relief and rehabilitation policy

C5-6

5.8. Incentives and resources

C5-6

5.9. Insurance

C5-7

5.10. Land-use planning and regulations for sustainable development

C5-7

5.11. Mitigation measures

C5-8

5.12. Structural alterations to buildings

C5-9

5.13. Drought mitigation measures

C5-11

5.13.1. Risk financing programmes

C5-12

Calamity Relief Fund (CRF)


5.13.2. Drought proofing programmes

C5-13
C5-15

Drought Prone Areas Program (DPAP)

C5-13

Water harvesting Structures

C5-13

5.14. Coastal Mitigation measures

C5-14

Shelter belt plantations

C5-14

5.14.1. Sea wall construction

C5-15

5.14.2. Strengthening of bunds along the estuary and backwaters

C5-15

5.15. Flood mitigation

C5-16

5.15.1. Safe siting in flood hazard areas

C5-16

5.15.2. Non-structural flood proofing measures

C5-16

5.15.3. Flood proofing and elevation

C5-17

5.15.4. Modifying flooding

C5-17

5.15.5. Dams and reservoirs

C5-17

5.15.6. Shoreline Alternation

C5-17

5.16. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

C5-18

5.17. Cyclone mitigation

C5-18

5.17.1. Training of Volunteers

C5-19

5.17.2. Public Awareness

C5-19

5.17.3. Social welfare/other activities

C5-19

5.17.4. Regional awards

C5-19

5.18. Critical Infrastructure Protection

C5-20

5.18.1. Relief and rehabilitation

C5-20
vi

5.18.2. Dam protection Sileru River

C5-21

5.19. Emergency evacuation procedures

C5-24

5.19.1. Emergency Supplies

C5-24

5.19.2. Include following items as part of emergency supplies

C5-24

5.20. Emergency for evacuation of marooned persons

C5-25

5.21. Requirement of equipment and machinery in each district

C5-25

5.21.1. Equipment carried by Rescue Party

C5-25

5.21.2. Contents to be part of rescue team bag

C5-27

5.21.3. Earthquake rescue equipment

C5-27

5.21.4. Fire rescue equipments

C5-28

5.21.5. Flood rescue equipments

C5-28

5.22. Operational guidelines; dos and donts to be followed

C5-30

5.22.1 Operational guidelines of what to do in the event of a cyclone

C5-30

5.22.2. Operational guidelines of what to do in the event of floods

C5-31

5.22.3. Operational guidelines of what to do in the event of heat waves

C5-32

5.22.4. Operational guidelines for earthquake

C5-33

Chapter 6.0 Disaster Response Plan

C6

6.1. State Disaster Response Plan (SDRP)

C6-1

6.2. Disaster Response Plan Nine Core Elements

C6-1

6.3. Principle of the execution of the State Disaster Response Plan (SDRP)

C6-2

6.4. Activation Mechanism of State Disaster Management Plan

C6-2

6.5. Levels of Disasters

C6-3
C6-4
vii

6.6. Response management arrangements


6.6.1. Command

C6-4

6.6.2. Control

C6-4

6.6.3. Coordination

C6-4

6.7. System of Disaster Support Function (DSF)

C6-5

6.7.1. Primary support department

C6-5

6.7.2. Secondary support departments

C6-5

6.7.3. Nodal Officer or Incident Commander

C6-5

6.7.4. Emergency Response Management Team

C6-5

6.8. Disaster Support Function (DSF)

C6-6

6.8.1. Transportation Disaster Support Function (TDSF)

C6-8

Operating Procedure of TDSF

C6-9

Organization and responsibilities under TDSF

C6-9

6.9. State Emergency Operations Center (EOC)

C6-11

6.9.1 Warning or occurrence of disaster

C6-13

6.9.2. Location of EOC and alternate EOC

C6-13

6.10. Coordination at the state, central government level

C6-14

6.11. Constituting State Executive Committee (SEC)

C6-15

6.11.1. Responsibilities of the SEC


6.12. Setting up of State Incident Command System (ICS)

C6-15
C6-16

Command

C6-17

Planning

C6-17

Operations

C6-17

viii

Logistics

C6-18

Finance/Administration

C6-18

6.12.1. Key functions of the divisions, units and branches

C6-19

Operations section

C6-19

Services branch

C6-20

Infrastructure branch

C6-20

Logistics branch

C6-20

Health branch

C6-20

Communication and information management branch

C6-21

6.13. Disaster Response Structure

C6-22

6.13.1. Early warning dissemination

C6-22

6.13.2. Evacuation

C6-23

6.13.3. Medical Aid

C6-24

6.13.4.Shelter Management

C6-25

6.13.5. Infrastructure Restoration

C6-26

6.13.6. Search and Rescue Operation

C6-27

6.13.7. Emergency Relief/Free Kitchen Operation

C6-27

6.13.8. Caracas Removal

C6-28

6.14. Delegation of power

C6-28

6.15. Personnel Safety

C6-29

Chapter 7.0 - Mainstreaming DM concerns into Development projects

C7

7.1. Relevance of mainstreaming to Disaster Management

C7-1

7.2. Mainstreaming of DM concerns into development what and how?

C7-1
ix

7.3. Mainstreaming disaster management at the level of the state

C7-2

7.4. Identification of development induced disasters

C7-2

7.5. Developing sector-specific guidelines on mainstreaming

C7-3

Housing: Urban and Rural Housing Development

C7-3

Infrastructure: Public works, Roads and Construction

C7-4

Health

C7-5

Agriculture

C7-5

Education

C7-6

Finance services

C7-6

7.6. Cross-sector analysis

C7-7

7.7. Developing area specific guidelines on mainstreaming

C7-7

7.8. Creating techno-legal regime for mainstreaming

C7-7

7.9. Conducting Disaster Impact Assessment

C7-8

7.10. Public-Private Partnership (PPP)

C7-8

7.11. Awareness generation, training and capacity building

C7-9

7.12. Recognition of best efforts

C7-9

7.13. Integrating disaster management into development planning

C7-9

7.14. Optimize existing government infrastructure

C7-10

7.15. Inter-department co-operation and co-ordination

C7-10

7.16. Capacity building

C7-10

7.17. Multi-hazard approach to disasters

C7-11

7.18. Sustainable and continuous approach

C7-11

Chapter 8.0 - Training, capacity building and other proactive measures

C8

8.1. Introduction

C8-1

8.2. Training for Disaster Management

C8-2

8.3. Development of Trainers

C8-3

8.4. Identification of Training Needs

C8-3

8.5. Training Action Plan

C8-3

8.6. Training of Professionals

C8-4

8.7. Strengthening training institutes

C8-4

8.8. Preparation of District Drought Management Plans at the District Level

C8-4

8.9. Education and school curricula

C8-5

8.10. Community Education

C8-8

8.11. Capacity Up-gradation

C8-9

8.12. Knowledge resource centers

C8-9

8.13. Specific areas for Training and Capacity Development

C8-10

8.14. Networking with the Organizations/ Institutions

C8-12

8.15. Target groups for capacity building and training

C8-13

8.15.1. Line Departments of State Government

C8-13

8.15.2. Capacity building and training of other stakeholders

C8-13

8.16. Specific trainings identified

C8-13

8.16.1. Principles of Soil Management

C8-14

8.16.2. Principles of Crop Management

C8-14

8.16.3. Principles of Water Management

C8-14

8.17. Documentation and developing best management practices

C8-17

xi

Chapter 9.0 - Role of key state government departments and frame work for SOPs

C9

9.1. Background

C9-1

9.2. Department of Agriculture

C9-1

9.2. Department of Health

C9-4

9.3. Department of Animal Husbandry

C9-7

9.4. Irrigation and Command Area Development Department (I & CAD)

C9-9

9.5. Police Department

C9-11

9.6. Fire and Emergency Services Department

C9-12

9.7. Department of Fisheries

C9-14

9.8. Civil Supplies Department

C9-15

9.9. Panchayati Raj Institutions

C9-16

9.10. Forest Department

C9-18

10.0. Illustrative framework of DM Plans for Government Departments:


Agriculture and Horticulture departments

C9-19

Chapter 10.0 Financial arrangements


10.1. National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP)

C10
C10-1

10.1.1. Last Mile Connectivity

C10-1

10.1.2. Creation of physical infrastructure for mitigating impact of cyclones

C10-2

10.1.3. Technical assistance for capacity building on hazard risk management

C10-2

10.1.4. Project Management and Monitoring

C10-3

10.2. Cyclone Hazard Mitigation Project

C10-3

10.2.1. Decision support system and data base

C10-4

10.2.2. Training of local staff

C10-4

10.3. Incident Command System (ICS): USAID

C10-4
xii

10.4. Calamity Relief Fund (CRF)

C10-5

10.5. Apthbandhu

C10-6

10.6. Universal Health Insurance Scheme for Tsunami affected families

C10-7

10.7. GoI-UNDP Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Programme in Andhra Pradesh

C10-7

10.8. Budget allocation on five-year plan basis

C10-8

10.9. Budget provisions of Revenue (Disaster Management) Department

C10-8

10.10. Budget for line departments

C10-11

10.11. State Disaster Response and Mitigation Funds (SDRMF)

C10-12

10.11.1. Financial arrangements to SDRF: FC-XIII recommendations

C10-14

Chapter 11.0 Review and updation of SDMP

C11

11.1. Review and updation of SDMP and other plans

C11-1

11.2. Action Taken Reports (ATRs)

C11-1

11.3. Periodic update of the plans

C11-2

Chapter 12.0 Coordination and Implementation

C12

12.1. Coordination and Implementation

C12-1

12.2. India Disaster Resource Network (IDRN) and SDRN

C12-1

12.3. Andhra Pradesh State Disaster Management Authority (AP SDMA)

C12-2

12.3.1. Composition of the State Authority

C12-3

12.3.2. Annual report

C12-4

12.4. Setting up of District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA)

C12-5

12.5. Cross-cutting government department and other stakeholder activities

C12-5

12.6. Institutionalizing Disaster Management Plan

C12-6
xiii

12.6.1. Constituting District Disaster Management Committees


and preparation of District Disaster Management Plans (DDMPs)
12.7. Management Information System (MIS) for Disaster Management

C12-6
C12-7

xiv

List of Tables
TableNo. Table Title

PageNo.

Table 1

Demographic Profile of Andhra Pradesh (2001 Census)

C2-2

Table 2

Government Medical (Allopathic) Facilities in Andhra Pradesh

C2-10

Table 3

Forest cover and growing stock in AP

C2-11

Table 4

Industrial facts of Andhra Pradesh

C2-11

Table 5

Infrastructure connectivity of Andhra Pradesh

C2-12

Table 6

District-wise distribution of cyclones crossing AP Coast (1891 2009)

C3-3

Table 7

Profile of coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh

C3-4

Table 8

Season-wise rainfall data, 2008 -09 (in millimeters)

C3-4

Table 9

Net Area Irrigated (in Hectares) in the coastal districts, 2007 -08

C3-5

Table 10

Maximum storm surge of sea waves

C3-8

Table 11

Peak Discharge of Krishna River

C3-9

Table 12

Peak Discharge of Godavari River

C3-10

Table 13

Peak Discharge of Penna River

C3-12

Table 14

Peak Discharge of Vamshadara River

C3-12

Table 15

Peak Discharge of Nagavalli River

C3-13

Table 16

Human, livestock and crop losses recorded between 2003 and 2008

C3-15

Table 17

Region falling in various zones of the country (Source: Earthquake manual,


GoAP)

C3-18

Table 18

Historical record of earthquakes in Andhra Pradesh

C3-20

Table 19

Classification of fires based on fuel and media

C3-23

Table 20

Fire related accidents, property and human losses

C3-23

Table 21

Number of Industrial accidents in AP (1994 2006)

C3-24

Table 22

Property and other losses in Hyderabad due to floods

C3-27

Table 23

Accidents and fatalities reported at SCCL

C3-28

xv

Table 24

Loss of horticultural crops due to excessive heat of May 2003

C3-31

Table 25

Details of district-wide villages with cyclone shelters

C4-2

Table 26

Embankment and drainage channel length in Andhra Pradesh and the


Country

C4-6

Table 27

River basin-wide surface and ground water details

C4-9

Table 28

Number of flood forecasting stations and per cent of area liable to floods

C4-9

Table 29

Flood warning levels and danger levels of Godavari

C4-9

Table 30

Tools and methods in the process of identifying community risk assessment

C4-14

Table 31

Sector-wide needs and gap analysis of key Andhra Pradesh government


departments

C4-15

Table 32

District-wise SHGs and women swarozgaries assisted under SGSY in AP


(1999 06)

C4-23

Table 33

Calamity Relief Fund for Andhra Pradesh, 2000 2005 (in Rs. Lakhs)

C5-13

Table 34

State-wide Disaster Support Functions and Responsibility Chart

C6-7

Table 35

Department-wide specific areas for capacity building

C8-15

Table 36

Financial Investment Proposal under NCRMP

C10-3

Table 37

Year-wise releases and expenditure under CRF and NCCF (in Rs. Crores)

C10-5

Table 38

Year-wise breakdown of funds spend under CRF and NCCF (in Rs. Crores)

C10-6

Table 39

Budget provisions of Revenue (DM) Dept for preparatory, mitigation and


relief measures

C10-8

Table 40

Budget allocation for relief on account of Natural Calamities

C10-10

Table 41

Template for district-wise training and capacity building plans

C10-12

Table 42

Template to identify requirements of district specific DM trainings

C10-12

Table 43

Scheduling of Action Taken Reports (ATRs)

C11-2

Table 44

Time-frame for reviews and updates of SDMP and DDMPs

C11-3

xvi

List of Figures
FigureNo. Figure Title

PageNo.

Fig 1

Andhra Pradesh Physical Map

C2-3

Fig 2

Cyclone affected areas in Andhra Pradesh

C2-4

Fig 3

Map showing Administrative Divisions of Andhra Pradesh

C2-6

Fig 4

Road Map of Andhra Pradesh

C2-12

Fig 5

Andhra Pradesh Hydel Plant network

C2-13

Fig 6

Approach of typical cyclone covering coastal AP districts

C3-3

Fig 7

Net Area Irrigated (in Hectares) in the coastal districts, 07 08

C3-6

Fig 8

Map showing flood hazard map of the state (storm surge risk)

C3-8

Fig 9a

1 in 100 year Flood Event of Krishna and Inundation areas

C3-9

Fig 9b

1 in 100 year Flood Event of Krishna and Inundation areas

C3-10

Fig 10a

1 in 100 year Flood Event of Godavari and Inundation areas

C3-11

Fig 10b

1 in 100 year Flood Event of Godavari and Inundation areas

C3-11

Fig 11

1 in 100 year Flood Event of Penna River and Inundation areas

C3-12

Fig 12

August '06 Flood Event of Nagavalli River and Inundation areas

C3-13

Fig 13

Map showing September 2005 Floods in Khammam

C3-14

Fig 14

October 2009 Floods of Kurnool and Inundation areas

C3-16

Fig 15

Seismic zones of India (Source: Earthquake manual, GoAP)

C3-17

Fig 16

Map showing seismic zones of Andhra Pradesh

C3-19

Fig 17

Details of district-wide villages with cyclone shelters

C4-2

Fig 18

Average distance of cyclone shelters from the Sea coast (in km.)

C4-3

Fig 19

A typical cyclone shelter with access road

C4-4

Fig 20

Reservoir/dam, embankment and areas liable to floods in AP

C4-8
xvii

Fig 21

Locations of NDRF in the country

C4-26

Fig 22

Different parameters as GIS-enabled layers for spatial analysis

C4-29

Fig 23

Existing coordination mechanism central to state; state to district


in AP

C6-14

Fig 24

Typical organizational chart to set up Incident Command


System (ICS)

C6-19

Fig 25

Year-wise releases and expenditure of CRF & NCCF (in Rs. Cr)

C10-6

Fig 26

Framework of IDRN data storage

C12-2

xviii

List of Annexures
Annexure

Title

A P Disaster Management Rules 2007

II

Inventory of Fire stations, contact information

II a

Andhra Pradesh Fire Services Act

II b

Guidelines to conduct mock drills

III

Self appraisals/checklist for fire safety measures

IV

List of NGOs in Andhra Pradesh

Va

Vulnerability assessment templates - Floods

Vb

Vulnerability assessment templates - Earthquakes

Vc

Vulnerability assessment templates - Cyclones

VI

Delegating of power - mechanism developed for Zonal Disaster Management


Eastern Railway Board

VII

Templates for Incident strategic analysis as part of Incident Command System (ICS)

VIII

Training schedule of Dr. MCR HRD Institute of Andhra Pradesh

IX

Training schedule of APARD

List of Andhra Pradesh based research and academic institutions

XI

List and inventory of rescue equipment and templates of IDRN

XII

List of AP Government Departments that nominated Nodal Officers

XIII

List of Hazardous Industries with/without Fire Safety measures

XIV

List of Cyclone Shelters in the Andhra Pradesh

XV

Government Order No. 150 constituting SEC in AP

XVI

Government Order Ms.No.9 School Curriculum on DM

XVII

13th Finance Commission Recommendations

XVIII

Fire Maps

xix

ABBREVIATIONS

AP
APARD
APGENCO
APSDMP
APSRAC
ARMVs
ATIs
ATRs
BMTPC
CBDM
CBOs
CD
CDP
CRF
CSCs
DDMPs
DDMA
DM
DM ACT, 2005
DPAP
Dr MCR HRD IAP
DRR
DSF
EOC
I&CAD
IDRN
IMD
GIS
GoAP
GoI
HFL
HPC
HRD
HR
HRVA
ICS
IT
MIS
MHA

Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh Academy of Rural Development
Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Company
Andhra Pradesh State Disaster Management Plan
Andhra Pradesh State Remote sensing Applications Center
Accident Relief Medical Vans
Administrative Training Institutes
Action Taken Reports
Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council
Community Based Disaster Management
Community Based Organizations
Civil Defense
Center for Disaster Preparedness
Calamity Relief Fund
Community Service Centers
District Disaster Management Plans
District Disaster Management Authority
Disaster Management
Disaster Management Act, 2005
Drought Prone Areas Programme
Dr. Marri Chenna Reddy Human Resource Development Institute of AP
Disaster Risk Reduction
Disaster Support Function
Emergency Operations Centre
Irrigation and Catchment Area Development
India Disaster Resource Network
India Meteorological Department
Geographic Information System
Government of Andhra Pradesh
Government of India
High Flood Level
High Powered Committee
Human Resource Development
Human Resources
Hazard Risk & Vulnerability Analysis
Incident Command System
Information Technology
Management Information System
Ministry of Home Affairs
xx

NCC
NCDM
NCCF
NCRMP
NCTI
NDMA
NDMRCs
NDRF
NGRI
NIRD
NRSA
NSS
NYK
NGOs
PPP
PRIs
SDMA
SDRF
SDRP
SEC
SHGs
SOPs
XIII-FC
ULBs

National Cadet Corps


National Committee on Disaster Management
National Calamity Contingency Fund
National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project
National Chemical Technology Institute
National Disaster Management Authority
National Disaster Mitigation Resource Centers
National Disaster Response Force
National Geological Research Institute
National Institute of Rural Development
National Remote Sensing Agency
National Service Scheme
Nehru Yuva Kendra
Non-Governmental Organizations
Public-Private Partnership
Panchayati Raj Institutions
State Disaster Management Authority
State Disaster Relief Fund
State Disaster Response Plan
State Executive Committee
Self-Help Groups
Standard Operating Procedures
Thirteenth Finance Commission
Urban Local Bodies

xxi

Chapter 1.0
Introduction

Chapter 1.0
1.1. Introduction to Andhra Pradesh State Disaster Management Plan (AP SDMP)
Andhra Pradesh is one of the major states in India and ranks fifth in terms of population. The
population of the state was about 75.7 million in 2001 (Census 2001). Its geographical spread of
274.4 lakh hectares accounting for 8.37 per cent of countrys geographical area pegs it at fourth
largest state in the country. The state capital Hyderabad was classified as an A1 city in 2007 with
5. 4 million in 2001 (Census 2001). There are twenty-three districts and 1,128 Mandals in the
state. Andhra Pradesh has three regions which are distinct in terms of socioeconomic
characteristics and have region specific resource base. Of the twenty-three districts, nine are in
Coastal Andhra region; ten in Telangana region and four in Rayalaseema region.
Andhra Pradesh (A.P.) is highly prone to natural disasters. Floods and cyclones are a recurrent
phenomenon in Andhra Pradesh. Susceptibility to disasters is compounded by frequent
occurrences of manmade disasters such as fire, industrial accidents etc. While accurate data is in
the process of being collated and analyzed; recent floods in Kurnool and other coastal districts in
October-November 2009 have reversed the development growth experienced by Andhra Pradesh
in the last decade. Frequent disasters lead to erosion of development gains and restricted options
for the disaster victims. Physical safety, especially of the vulnerable groups, is routinely
threatened by natural hazards. Recent floods in A.P. have very clearly illustrated the need for
multi-hazard prevention, response and recovery plans for natural hazards so that threat to human
life and property is minimized.
Disaster management is a development problem; preparedness and mitigation planning will have
to be taken up in perpetuity and in tandem with environmental and developmental concerns in
the state. Following the enactment of The Disaster Management Act, 2005, the Government of
Andhra Pradesh formulated a set of Disaster Management Rules 2007 under the provisions of
Disaster Management Act 2005 (Annexure I).
The State Disaster Management Plan establishes the policies and structure for state government
management of disasters; Prevention, Mitigation, Preparedness, Response, Relief and Recovery.
The State Disaster Management Plan (SDMP) is for Floods, Cyclones, Earthquakes, Industrial
accidents (chemical spills), Oil spills, Dam breaches and Mine disasters. This plan assigns
responsibilities for actions and tasks that the state will take to provide for the safety and welfare
of its citizens against the threat of natural, technological and human-caused disasters.
The State is primarily responsible for the management of natural and human-caused disasters
identified above at the state level and has a shared responsibility with the Government of India
for preparedness and for identified catastrophic disasters. The States responsibility necessitates
the preparation of a Disaster Management Plan, with detailed operational procedures that the
state departments will assume and a framework to set up Emergency Operation Center (EOC).
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Plan preparation efforts are made as general as possible to insure flexibility to combat the impact
of all types of disasters at the state level. The approved State Disaster Management Plan (SDMP)
will be a sub-plan of the states annual and five-year plans.
The state plan is prepared with an emphasis on close coordination with the National Disaster
Management Plan (NDMP) of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). It
establishes a base on which further plans, procedures, guidelines, logistical arrangement plans,
district-level DM plans, mandal-level DM plans can be prepared.
The State Disaster Management Plan has been prepared on the following principles:

Assimilating the lessons learnt from past disasters, especially floods and cyclones in the
State.

Bringing together information and knowledge available globally, nationally and at state level
in preparing a comprehensive plan of risk assessment, preparedness, recovery and response
systems.

Strengthening vertical linkages and effective coordination of stakeholders from central


government, state government, districts and mandals. Horizontal linkages and coordination
between state-wide departments is reinforced and considered an important element of state
machinery.

Holistic management of the disasters both natural and manmade is another premise. While
management of events to minimize the damage during a disaster is paramount, preparedness
and mitigation to reduce the risk and losses is a critical aspect highlighted in the plan.

Adaptability of the plan to different hazards and incremental evolution of the plan to be
dynamic and flexible.

Other sectors such as Agriculture, Industrial, Environmental and Social get severely impacted
when disasters strike. It is the collective responsibility of all stakeholders, organizations and
governmental and non-governmental agencies that are charged with the responsibility.
The stated goal and vision of the State of Andhra Pradesh to ensure economic and social
development will be the overarching policy. Policies cutting across all sectors, including disaster
management will sub-serve this broad goal. Disaster prevention and preparedness therefore will
be integral to every development policy within the state, to ensure sustainable development.
Development planning and strategies at the state level shall therefore address disaster
management as a core part of short and long-term planning.
Traditionally, hazards and incidents that lead to disastrous repercussions have been handled by
instituting mechanisms that addressed recovery and relief measures, which are typically,
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activated post disasters. There is a need to reorient and internalize paradigm shift in the approach
of managing disasters and hazards. Integrating preparedness into the development plans of all
government departments; identifying preventive measures; optimal utilization of government
infrastructure in mitigating hazards; integrating disaster preparedness and knowledge
management into capacity building policies of the departments, civil society, corporate sector
and educational institutions; and finally integrating disaster management as part of sustainable
development model of the state are critical in achieving states goal of ensuring economic and
social development. In view of this, the revised vision and goal of the state is to prepare and
strengthen the society, government and private enterprises to meet challenges posed by recurrent
hazards and in the process achieve economic prosperity and social development.
There are varying levels of vulnerability to different disasters. While cyclones and floods are
perennial occurrences, the severity of these incidences determine the level of disasters. Similarly,
droughts, heat waves and monsoon storms are regular incidents in the state; these incidents are
seasonal and region specific. Based on severity of the disaster, extent of material and physical
losses and assistance requirements different levels of disasters are being identified. The
activation of state disaster management plan will be dependent on the declared level of disaster.
Financial preparedness and identifying resources that come into play when disasters are declared
at one of the identified levels is critical to successful implementation of the SDMP.
The State Disaster Management Plan is a strategic planning document for State-wide Disaster
Management; with broad responsibilities as outlined below
1. The state is primarily responsible for natural and technological emergency preparedness, but
has a shared responsibility with the central government for national security preparedness
and for catastrophic natural and technological hazards.
2. The states responsibility necessitates the development of the state disaster management plan
with functional annexes and detailed procedures, prepared by concerned departments and
districts. Planning efforts are made as general as possible to insure flexibility in combating
the impact of all types of hazards.
3. Emergencies or disasters could, individually or in combination, cause a grave emergency
condition in any area of the state. Emergencies vary in scope and intensity, from a small local
incident with minimal damage to a multi-district (and at times multi-state) disaster with
extensive devastation and loss of life.
4. The initial actions of prevention, mitigation, preparedness, and response and recovery
operations are conducted by mandal and district-level administration with close coordination
by state-level departments. District and mandal officials will exhaust their resources first, and
then tap into state and central government resources depending on the severity and levels of
disaster.
State of Andhra Pradesh
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5. State assistance will supplement local efforts and central government assistance will
supplement state and local efforts when it is clearly demonstrated that it is beyond local and
state capability to cope with the emergency/disaster.
Finally, following objectives are identified in implementing AP SDMP for better organization
and promoting a paradigm shift in the approach to facilitate planning, preparedness, operational
coordination and community participation.

Prevention and preparedness to be promoted as highest priority at all levels.

Mitigation measures to be encouraged based on state-of-the-art technology and


environmental sustainability.

Efficient response and relief operations with a caring approach towards the needs of the
vulnerable sections of the society are ensured.

Undertaking reconstruction as an opportunity to build disaster resilient structures and habitat.

Undertaking recovery to bring back the community to a better and safer level than the predisaster stage.

Community to be considered as the most important stakeholder in the DM process.

Disaster Management concerns to be integrated into the developmental planning process.

Legal and technical framework to be put in place to enable regulatory environment and
promote compliance regimen.

Contemporary forecasting and early warning systems backed by responsive fool-proof


communications and Information Technology (IT) support to be developed.

Promoting a productive partnership with the media to create awareness and contributing
towards capacity development.

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Chapter 2.0
Profile of the state

Chapter 2.0
Profile of Andhra Pradesh
2.1. Location
The state of Andhra Pradesh is situated on the globe in the tropical region between 12014' and
19054' North latitudes and 76046' and 84050' East longitudes. It is bounded on the North by
Maharashtra, on the North-East by Orissa, Chattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh, on the East by Bay
of Bengal, on the South by Tamilnadu and on the West by Karnataka States. The state has a long
coastal line extending over 960 km from Ichapuram sands in Srikakulam district to Pulicat lake
in Nellore district. Andhra Pradesh is ranked fifth in terms of population.
2.2. Socio-economic profile
Andhra Pradesh had a population of about 76.2 million in 2001 (Census 2001). It was projected
that the state would grow at around 7.2 per cent by March 2009. Geographically, the state is
spread around 274.4 lakh hectares accounting for 8.37 per cent of the total area of the country,
making it the fourth largest. Majority of the state population, 73 per cent, resides in rural areas,
making it one of the major agrarian states of the country. However, the process of urbanization
until the nineties has been one of the fastest. The urban growth is stagnated in the last decade.
The state consists of three major urban agglomeration areas Hyderabad, Vijayawada and
Visakhapatnam accounting for about 35 per cent of total urban population of the state.
Andhra Pradesh is blessed with wide-range of natural resources; coastline being one important
resource. The state has three distinct physical or topographical zones; 1) Coastal Plains, 2)
Eastern Ghats and 3) Western Peneplains. While the coastal plains covering all of Coastal
Andhra region are rich in water resources, the western peneplains covering the entire Telangana
region and a part of Rayalaseema region are rich in mineral resources.
2.3. Demographic profile of the state
The total population of Andhra Pradesh in 2001 was 762.1 lakhs, which grew by 14.59 per cent
from previous decade. A total of 385.27 lakh male and 376.83 lakh female population was
recorded with 978 females per 1,000 males. Similarly, the literacy rate among males was
recorded to be 70.32 per cent whereas it was 50.43 per cent among females. State-wide literacy
rate was 60.47 per cent. Census 2001 also enumerated 170.04 lakh households which include
126.07 lakh rural households and 43.97 urban households. While the proportion of total workers
was 348.94 lakhs, the state-wide agricultural workers were 216.92 lakhs and non-agricultural
workers were 132. 02 lakhs.

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Table 1. Demographic Profile of Andhra Pradesh (2001 Census)


Sl.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

15

16

17

18

Item

2001 Census

Unit

Total Population
Growth rate over the previous Census
Birth rate (during the decade)
Death rate (during the decade)
Density of Population
No. of Households
Rural
Urban
Household size
Rural
Urban
Male Population
Female Population
Sex Ratio

762.1
14.59
19.0*
7.0*
277
170.04
126.07
43.97
4
4
5
385.27
376.83
978

Lakhs
Percentage

Rural Population
Urban Population
Urban Population as a percentage of Total Population
(a) Scheduled Caste Population
(b) Scheduled Caste Population as a percentage of Total
Population
(a) Scheduled Tribes Population
(b) Scheduled Tribes Population as a percentage of Total
Population
(a) Literates - Males
(b) Literates - Female
(c ) Literates - Total Population
(a) Literacy rate - Male
(b) Literacy rate - Female
(c ) Literacy rate - Total Population
(a) Workers - Total
(b) Workers - Agriculture
(c ) Workers - Non - Agriculture

554.01
208.09
27.3
123.39
16.2

Lakhs
Lakhs
Percent
Lakhs
Percent

50.24
6.6

Lakhs
Percent

234.45
164.89
399.34
70.32
50.43
60.47
348.94
216.92
132.02

Lakhs
Lakhs
Lakhs
Percent
Percent
Percent
Lakhs
Lakhs
Lakhs

Births per 1,000 people


Deaths per 1,000 people

Persons per sq. km


Lakhs
Lakhs
Lakhs
Persons per HH

Lakhs
Lakhs
Females per 1, 000
males

Sources: (1) Directorate of Census Operations, AP


(2) Registrar General of India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Grihmantralaya, Delhi

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Fig 1: Andhra Pradesh Physical Map


2.4. Rainfall and water resources
The state receives rainfall from South-West and North-East monsoons; however there is large
variation in the distribution of rains. While Rayalaseema region is a zone of precarious rainfall,
Telangana receives modest rainfall and the Coastal area generally receives highest average
rainfall in the state.
2.5. River system in Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh is one of the states in India blessed with rivers that supplement water needed for
non-rainfed agriculture. There are thirty-four rivers in the state, both major and minor rivers. The
rivers are rain-fed including the five major rivers: Godavari, Krishna, Pennar, Vamsadhara and
Nagavali. The total surface water of the entire river system in the state is estimated at 2,764
TMC. This river system besides being useful for agriculture and power generation is also prone
to flooding and inundation. Figure 2 below depicts perpetual cyclone affected areas of Andhra
Pradesh. The state has the advantage of most east flowing rivers in the heart of the state bringing
in copious water flow from the Western and Eastern Ghats and Deccan plateau up to the Bay of
Bengal.
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Fig 2: Cyclone affected areas in Andhra Pradesh


2.5.1. Godavari river system: Godavari originates at Triambakam near Nasik in
Maharashtra and flows 692 kms before entering Andhra Pradesh in Adilabad
district. At Dowlaiswaram in East Godavari where a barrage has been constructed
it gets divided into two branches - the Gautami and Vasishta. The Godavari delta
is formed in between these two branches of the river. Godavari flows through the
districts of Adilabad, Nizamabad, Karimnagar, Warangal, Khammam, East
Godavari and West Godavari in Andhra Pradesh. It is fed by number of
tributaries; important among them are Pranahita, the Penganga, Wardha,
Waiganga, Kinnerasani, Manjira, Sabari and Indravati. Most of the water in
Godavari is contributed by Pranahita (40%), followed by Indravati (20%), Sabari
(10%) and Manjira (6%). Almost two-thirds of the catchment of the Godavari
flows into Bay of Bengal after traversing a total length of 1,446 kms. It has a
catchment area of 3,10,692 sq.kms of which 23.62% lies in Andhra Pradesh.
2.5.2. Krishna river system: Krishna, the second largest river in the state, flows
780 kms from Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra before entering Andhra Pradesh.
The main tributaries are Koyna, Bhima, Ghataprabha, Mallaprabha, Tungabhadra,
Yerla, Warna and Dudhganga. The river gets most of its water from Western
Ghats. The catchment area of the river is 2,58,818 sq.kms., of which 29.45% is in
Andhra Pradesh.
2.5.3. The Pennar river system: River Pennar, also known as Uttara Pinakini,
enters Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh after traversing 40 kms from
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Nandidurg hills of Mysore. Important tributaries of Pennar are Jayamangali,


Chitravati, Kunderu, Papagni, Sagileru, Cheyyuru, Boggeru and Biraperu. It falls
into Bay of Bengal 29 km. North of Nellore.
2.5.4. The Vamsadhara system: Vamsadhara river is the biggest of the river
systems flowing from Eastern Ghats into Bay of Bengal mostly through
Srikakulam district. It runs for 250 kms with a catchment area of 41,400 sq.kms.
2.5.5. Other coastal rivers: There are seventeen minor rivers flowing from Eastern
Ghats to the Bay of Bengal. Rivers Bahuda, Gosthani, Sarada, Varaha, Thandava,
Pumpa and Swarnamukhi are the most important among them.
2.6. Economic growth
Water resources and river system of the state have aided A.Ps agriculture. The contribution of
agriculture to states GSDP, although declining over the years, is one of the major sources of
livelihoods in the state for about 60 percent of the population. While the share of agriculture in
the state GSDP declined, the contribution of non-agricultural sector during this corresponding
period had steadily increased, from a little below 50 percent in the 1960s to around 80 percent.
Industrial growth, service sector growth has been phenomenal in the last decade in AP, although
there are certain constraints in realizing full potential. Information Technology, which is a
component of service sector, has emerged as the fastest growing sector in India as well as in
Andhra Pradesh (APHDR, 2009). Software products (IT and ITES) contribute about half the
value of total exports from the state and the state is the fourth largest contributor in terms of IT
exports in India. While the state is among the top performing states in India in terms of growth in
per capita income, the relative performance of Andhra Pradesh among Indian states in terms of
growth of GSDP is modest.
2.7. Administrative structure
Andhra Pradesh has twenty-three districts and 1,127 mandals. The erstwhile taluka system (subdivision within the district) was changed to mandal system in the 1980s; this is specific to the
state. Andhra Pradesh has three regions which are distinct in terms of socio-economic
characteristics owing to historical reasons and region specific resource base. Of the twenty-three
districts, nine are in Coastal Andhra region; ten in Telangana region and four in Rayalaseema
region.

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Name of the
region

Districts

Geographical area; total


population in relation to
State

Telangana

Mahbubnagar; Ranga Reddy;


Hyderabad; Medak;
Nizamabad; Adilabad;
Karimnaga; Warangal;
Khammam and Nalgonda

41.8% and 41.8%

Coastal
Andhra

Srikakulam; Vizianagram;
Viskhapatnam; East Godavari;
West Goadavari; Krishna;
Guntur: Prakasam and Nellore

33.8% and 41.6%

Chittoor; Kadapa; Anantapur


and Kurnool

24.5% and 17.7%

Rayalaseema

Fig 3: Map showing Administrative Divisions of Andhra Pradesh


2.8. Climate & Temperature
The state has a tropical climate with moderate diffusion to subtropical weather. Humid to semihumid conditions prevail in the coastal areas while arid to semi-arid situations are prevalent in
State of Andhra Pradesh
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the interior parts of the state, particularly Rayalaseema and some districts of Telangana. The
areas covered by Deccan Plateau are characterized by hot summers with relatively mild winters.
Summer temperatures range from a mean maximum of 40 degrees centigrade to a mean
minimum of 30 degrees centigrade, while winter temperatures range from 22 degrees centigrade
to 14 degrees centigrade. The monsoon season from June to December registers rainfall of about
89 cms.
2.9. Land use
Land is predominantly used in agricultural terms in Andhra Pradesh, especially with reference to
cultivated; and the rest as other land uses such as Forests, Barren & uncultivated lands. Net sown
area in the state in 2008 2009 was 39.4 per cent of the total geographic area of the state.
Similarly, forests occupy 22.6 per cent, where as barren and uncultivable land is around 7.5 per
cent. Overall, the state has around 19.5 per cent of wasteland land to the total geographical area
and around 14.3 per cent as fallow lands.

Sl No.

Land use

1.
2.
3.

State-wide
(in Lakh
ha.)
275.04
62.10
20.59

% to State
Geographic
al area
100
22.6
7.5

Total Geographical area


Forests
Barren & Uncultivable
land
4.
Land put to non
26.37
9.6
Agricultural use
5.
Cultivable Waste
6.59
2.4
6.
Permanent Pastures and
5.71
2.1
other grazing lands
7.
Misc. land (tree crops)
3.06
1.1
8.
Other fallow Lands
15.00
5.5
9.
Current fallow
27.19
9.8
10.
Net area sown
108.43
39.4
(Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics: A.P., Hyderabad)
2.10. Agriculture and cropping pattern

The performance of Andhra Pradesh agriculture sector was poor in Ninth and Tenth Plan periods
which are similar to agriculture performance in the country. The state has experienced
decelerated growth in agriculture after 1990 (AP HDI, 2009). Trend analysis to determine
agriculture growth of aggregate crop output indicated severe decline in land under cultivation
and increase in fallow land during 1991 92 to 2004 05. This period also witnessed decline in
irrigated area. The net area sown declined by 9.5 lakh hectares (8.6 per cent) and net irrigated
State of Andhra Pradesh
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area by 6.4 lakh hectares (14.7 per cent). Significant changes have also taken place in cropping
pattern in Andhra Pradesh. The share of rice, millets and groundnut decreased while the share of
maize, pulses and cotton crops has increased in the nineties. Although share of rice in terms of
net sown area has decreased, the overall production of rice was compensated by increase in the
yield.
2.11. Fisheries
Andhra Pradesh is one of the biggest maritime States of India with 508 maritime villages and
280 fish landing centers along nine coastal districts. There are three major functional fishing
harbours at Visakhapatnam, Kakinada and Nizampatnam. The coastal zone, an interface between
land and water is transversal by important rivers such as Krishna, Godavari and other minor
rivers such as Penna, all of which drain into Bay of Bengal. Despite a long coastline the share of
marine fish in total fish production of the State is lower than that of inland fish. Inland fishery
production is well developed. The State has 723 sq km of area under aquaculture, including an
area of 400 sq km under fresh water fish culture. Shrimp farming has come up on a large-scale in
some of the coastal districts, though its economic and ecological sustainability is of serious
concern. Aquaculture has spread fast in Coastal region of Andhra Pradesh during the last two
decades.
2.12. Andhra Pradesh Education profile
The state has 65, 609 government primary schools with close to 5.6 million enrolment; there are
14,942 Upper primary schools and 17,376 High Schools with enrolments of 2.49 million and
5.36 million students enrolment respectively. Number of schools and enrolment statistics as
reported in 2009 A P Statistical Abstract is presented below. Similarly, enrolment numbers and
number of colleges are also furnished below.

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Table: Andhra Pradesh Education Profile (Source: www.andhraeducation.net)


Number of schools
Boys
Enrolment
Girls
Nos.
Primary Schools
Total
Men
No. of
Women
Teachers
Total
Number of schools
Boys
Enrolment
Girls
Upper Primary
Total
Schools
Men
No. of
Women
Teachers
Total
Number of schools
Boys
Enrolment
Girls
High Schools
Total
Men
No. of
Women
Teachers
Total
Higher Education Enrolment in AP

Category

65,609
28,75,478
28,10,567
56,86,045
95,486
87,711
1,83,197
14,942
13,02,469
11,89,729
24,92,198
53,351
41,311
94,662
17,376
27,47,809
26,22,153
53,69,962
99,013
68,146
1,67,159

Total Number

Total Enrolment

923

461,896

Engg. College

38

44,234

Medical College M.B., B.S.

31

10,384

All University (M.A.,


M.Sc., M.Com)
Teacher Training College

20

37,911

74

9,492

25
101
459

3,845
36,487
36,364

Degree College (B.A., B.Sc.,


B.Com)

(B.Ed., B.T.)

Teacher Training School


Polytechnic Institutes
Tech/Industrial/Arts &
Craft School
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2.13. Health
Andhra Pradesh has 481 hospitals that include 269 general hospitals, 41 hospitals with special
treatment facilities and 171 allied hospitals spread across the state. The number of primary health
centers (PHCs) in the state are 1, 581. While the total number of beds available in the state are
39,059, Andhra Pradesh Statistical Abstract (2009) divides these beds into 6,785; 6,299; 1,903
and 20,072 for men, women, children and common respectively. Number of doctors in the state
including contract doctors are 10,117 (2009 Statistical Abstract A.P.)
Table 2: Government Medical (Allopathic) Facilities in Andhra Pradesh
(Source: Statistical Abstract of AP, 2009)

Details

General
Type of
Hospitals

Hospitals

Special
Treatment

Allied
Primary Health Centers
Men
Women
Beds
available Children
Common
Dispensaries
Doctors
Contract Doctors

Medical
Edn.
Dept.

A. P.
Vaidhya
Vidhana
Parishad

Directorate.
of Health

Insurance
Medical
Services
Dept.

Total

14

197

50

269

25
1
10
6,562
5,581
1,782
2,367
0
4,158
59

10
0
0
0
450
50
15,674
25
1,272
413

6
106
1,571
0
0
0
6,111
123
3,409
256

0
64
0
223
268
71
330
141
482
68

41
171
1,581
6,785
6,299
1,903
24,072
289
9,321
796

2.14. Forests
The recorded forest area of Andhra Pradesh is 63,814 sq.km, which is 23.2% of the geographic
area of the State (2009 AP Statistical Abstract). By legal status, Reserved Forests constitute
79.1%, Protected Forests 19.4% and un-classed forests 1.5%. Andhra Pradesh has got a strong
network of Protected Areas (PA) consisting of six National Parks spread over an area of
1,388.391 sq.km and twenty-one Wildlife Sanctuaries covering an area of 11,617.35 sq.km.

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Table 3: Forest cover and growing stock in AP


(Source: AP Forest Inventory Report, 2010)

Canopy cover class

Forest area
in sq. km

Growing stock
in million M3

Dense Forest (> 0.4 cm)


Open Forest (0.1 - 0.4 cm)
Scrub Forest (< 0.1)

28,309
19,498
4,898

168.66
56.89
6.53

% to State
Geographical
area
10.29
7.09
1.78

2.15. Industry
Number of registered factories in Andhra Pradesh are 36,747 and there are 3,601 major and
minor industries in the state. The state promotes establishment of new industries through its 272
Industrial Estates spread over 14, 170 hectares. Agro-industries and mineral processing
industries dominate industrial establishments. Andhra Pradesh is the second largest producer of
horticulture products in the county. The State's 1,000 kilometer coastline, 8,577 kilometer river
length and 102 reservoirs spread over an area of 2.34 lakh hectare have been the principal
sources of its marine foods, fresh water foods, including fish and prawn.
Table 4: Industrial facts of Andhra Pradesh (Source:
http://industriesportal.apcgg.gov.in/StateProfile/Pages/Demographic.aspx)

Number of registered factories in the state


Industries
Units
Industrial Estates

36,747
3,601
1,46,142
272 (14,170 ha.)

2.16. Transportation and communication infrastructure


Infrastructure, communication and water networks fuel growth and development. Andhra
Pradesh has good road and communication network. The state has 1.78 million kilometers of
road network which includes both national and state highways. Twelve national highways cross
the state facilitating faster import and export of freight and other resources. South Central
Railways which is strategically positioned in the southern peninsula has its headquarters at
Secunderabad and serves economically vibrant states of Andhra Pradesh, parts of Maharashtra,
Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. There are 620 railway stations with 5,107 kilometers of rail
length.

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C2 - 11

Details on the extent of road network, rail connectivity and other communication means are
furnished in the table below.

Fig 4: Road Map of Andhra Pradesh


Table 5: Infrastructure connectivity of Andhra Pradesh
(Source: http://industriesportal.apcgg.gov.in/StateProfile/Pages/Demographic.aspx)

Length of rail tracks


5,107 km.
Rail stations
620
Total Road Network (all)
1,78,747kms.
Road
Number of National Highways(12) 4,014 kms.
State Highways
8,763 kms.
International Airport
1
Airways
Domestic Airports
4
Major Sea Ports
2
Sea Ports
Minor Sea Ports
3
Offices
16,190
Communication
Number of Telephone Exchanges
3,341
Length of transmission lines
6,70,800
No. of substations
2,874
Power
Average plant load power factor
85.20%
Consumption
575 KWh
Capacity addition
2,207 MW
Railway

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C2 - 12

International connectivity by air has significantly grown with large number of air carriers using
the recently built Shamshabad International Airport. There are five other domestic airports which
are in different stages of upgradation and support domestic air traffic.
To support freight movement, export and import of heavy industrial goods, Andhra Pradesh is
bestowed with two world class ports Visakhapatnam and Gagavaram Deep water port (under
completion). There are three small ports in Kakinada, Krishnapanam and Machilipatnam.
While mobile telecommunication has revolutionized conventional communication systems in the
country, the state commands decent traditional communication network. There are 3,341
telephone exchanges and 16,190 telephone communication offices supporting this massive
infrastructure. Growth in mobile connectivity is only adding strength to the overall
communication network of the state.
The length of power transmission lines in the state is estimated to be around 6,70,800 kms. There
are 2,874 substations in the state supporting power consumption of around 575 KWh. An
additional 2,207 MW of power is estimated to support the demand.

Fig 5: Andhra Pradesh Hydel Plant network

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C2 - 13

2.17. Mining
Andhra Pradesh is a mineral rich State, ranking 2nd in the Country, containing a variety of
Mineral Wealth, particularly Industrial Minerals. Andhra Pradesh is engaged in mining of 42
Industrial Minerals; to name a few Limestone, Mica, Barytes, Bauxite, Beach Sands, Steatite,
Quartz, Feldspar, Manganese, Dolomite etc.
The State accounts for considerable reserves of important minerals, such as Barytes (97%),
Calcite (75%), Vermiculite (27%), Limestone (44%), Garnet (23%), Feldspar (5%) Fuller's Earth
(6%), Dolomite, Asbestos (96%), Fire clay, Ball clay (55%) and other minerals such as Quartz,
Silica sand, Graphite, Quartzite, Diamond, Corundum, Mica etc.

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C2 - 14

Chapter 3.0
Vulnerability and Risk Assessment

Chapter 3.0
3.1. Vulnerability and Risk Assessment
In peninsular India, cyclones occur frequently on both the coasts i.e. The West Coast (Arabian
Sea) and East Coast (Bay of Bengal). But the East Coast is considered to be one of the most
cyclone prone areas of the world. An analysis of the frequencies of cyclones on the East and
West coasts of India during 1891- 1990 shows that nearly 262 cyclones occurred (92 severe) in
a50 km wide strip on the East Coast, Less severe cyclonic activity on West Coast amounting to
33 cyclones in the same period.
About eighty tropical cyclones (with wind speeds equal to or greater than 35 knots) form in the
worlds waters every year. Of these about 6.5% develop in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea.
Since the frequency of cyclones in the Bay of Bengal is about 5 to 6 times the frequency of those
in the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengals share comes out to be about 5.5%. The Bay of Bengal is
one of the major centers of the world for breeding of tropical storms. Cyclones over the Bay of
Bengal usually move westward, northwestward, or northward and cross the east coast of India or
Bangladesh. When this happens, it brings strong winds and high rainfall to the coastal region,
causing damage to property and loss of life.
A comparative study showed that both the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea are located in the
same latitude band and receive same amount of solar radiation from the Sun. The Bay of Bengal
is much warmer than the Arabian Sea and many more storms brew over the bay. Rainfall is much
less on an average over the Arabian Sea. Winds over the Arabian Sea are stronger because of the
presence of the mountains of East Africa; these strong winds force a much more vigorous
oceanic circulation and the heat received at the surface is transported southward and into the
deeper ocean. In contrast, the winds over the Bay of Bengal are more sluggish and the bay is
unable to remove the heat received at the surface resulting in higher probability of storms and
cyclones brewing out of the Bay of Bengal.
The criteria followed by the Indian Meteorological Department to classify the low pressure
systems in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea as adopted from the World Meteorological
Organization (W.M.O.) classifications are as given in the following table.
Category
Super Cyclonic Storm
Very Severe Cyclonic Storm
Severe Cyclonic Storm
Cyclonic Storm
Deep Depression
Depression
Low Pressure Area

Wind speed (km per hour)


222
119 to 221
89 to 118
62 to 88
50 to 61
31 to 49
< 31

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C3 - 1

3.2. Vulnerability of Andhra Pradesh to Natural Hazards


Andhra Pradesh is exposed to cyclones, storm surges, floods and droughts. Every two to three
years, Andhra Pradesh experiences a moderate to severe intensity cyclone or landfall. According
to an estimate by the Department of Disaster Management, Government of Andhra Pradesh,
about 44 percent of the state is vulnerable to tropical storms and related hazards. Similarly,
drought is recognized as one of the most crippling hazards that impact the state. The
Departments of Agriculture and Disaster Management of Government of Andhra Pradesh have
detailed procedures of declaring droughts based on several factors.
Andhra Pradesh has 3,601 major and minor industries mostly spread in and around urban
conglomerations such as Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada and Tirupati. The
vulnerability due to industrial hazards, fires and accidents is high due to higher density of
population in urban areas.
3.3. Disaster Specific Vulnerability
3.3.1. Cyclones
Cyclones on the east coast originate in the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea or the South China
Sea, and usually reach the coastline of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal,
which are most vulnerable to this type of hazards. Two of the deadliest cyclones of this century,
with fatalities of about 10,000 people in each case, took place in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh
during October 1971 and November 1977 respectively. The super cyclone of Orissa in 1999
caused large scale damage to life and property. Along Andhra Pradesh coast, the section between
Nizampatnam and Machilipatnam is most prone to storm surges. Vulnerability to storm surges is
not uniform along Indian coasts. Andhra Pradesh coast between Ongole and Machilipatnam is
recognized as vulnerable to high surges among the segments of the east coast.
The Bay of Bengal accounts for seven percent of the annual tropical cyclone activity worldwide;
the recorded frequency of cyclones per year along the Bay of Bengal is four and inevitably one
of the four transforms into a severe cyclone causing human and property losses. Although the
percentage of cyclonic activity along the coast is relatively low, the level of human and property
loss that cyclones cause around the Bay is very high. Cyclonic landfall usually lead to heavy
rains accompanied with high speed winds and eventually translate into floods, as was the case
with the damaging cyclone-induced floods in the Godavari delta in August 1986. While the
entire coast of Andhra Pradesh is vulnerable to Cyclones, nine districts identified in the map
below are most vulnerable and have recorded some levels of landfall in the last century as shown
in the table in the following page.

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C3 - 2

Fig 6:
6 Approachh of typical cyclone
c
coveering coastall AP districtss
Followinng table gives district-wise distributioon of cyclonnes that madee landfall duuring the passt
century in Andhra Prradesh. Out of
o the nine coastal
c
districcts that are vulnerable
v
too cyclonic
landfall, Nellore has experiencedd the most laandfalls withh eleven seveere cyclone landfalls
l
andd
twenty-one medium to
t normal cyyclones. Krisshna, East Godavari
G
andd Srikakulam
m districts haave
also expeerienced severe landfallss of 8, 4 and 4 respectiveely. The coasst line of Vijjayanagram is
small andd therefore no
n landfall was
w recordedd. West Godaavari districtt also has nott experienceed
any cycloone land falll in the last century.
c
Table 6: District-wise distribution of cyclonees crossing AP
A Coast (18891 2009)
(Source: Reevenue (Disaster Management II)) Department, GoAP)
G

Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

District
Nellore
Krishna
East Godav
vari
Srikakulam
m
Visakhapattnam
Prakasam
Guntur
West Godavari
Vijayanagaaram

No. of cyyclones crosssing the coaast


Seevere cyclonne
Meedium-Norm
mal Cyclone
11
21
8
15
4
11
4
10
3
7
2
4
1
2
0
0
0
0

More thaan 103 cyclones have afffected AP this century. The


T incidencce of cyclonees seems to have
h
increasedd in the past decades to the
t extent thaat severe cycclones have become a coommon evennt
occurringg every two to three yearrs severely affecting
a
statte's economyy while challlenging its
financial and institutiional resourcces. Out of 31.57
3
millionn people from
m Coastal diistricts of
Andhra Pradesh,
P
app
proximately 2.9
2 million people
p
are vuulnerable to cyclones [Source: Revenue (Diisaster
State of Anddhra Pradesh
State Disasteer Management Plan
P

| C3 - 3

Approximately 3.3 million people are within five km of the coastline.


Except for some districts of Telangana; almost all coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh receive an
average rainfall of 675.95 millimeters. Table 8 gives season-wise rainfall distribution of nine
coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh. Similarly, Table 7 presents population distribution in various
Mandals of the coastal districts. The number of deaths and loss of lives in the last twenty years
signifies the vulnerability of these districts to the cyclones. Approximately 10,000 people were
killed in November 1977 cyclone of Guntur and surrounding districts. Similarly, 1990 cyclone
the death toll was close to 1,000 causing approximately USD 1.25 billion damages in ten
districts. Between 1977 and 1992, about 13,000 lives and 338,000 cattle were lost due to
cyclones and floods, and nearly 3.3 million houses damaged [Source: Revenue (Disaster Management)

Management) Department, GoAP].

Department, GoAP]

Table 7: Profile of coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh


(Source: Statistical Abstract, AP 2009)

District

No. of
Mandals

Coastal
Mandals

Area
(Sq.Km.)

Population
(lakhs)

Population
Density

Length
(kms.)

Srikakulam
Vizianagaram
Vishakapatnam
East Godavari
West Godavari
Krishna
Guntur
Prakasam
Nellore
Total

38
34
43
60
46
50
57
56
46
430

11
12
9
13
9
5
4
10
12
85

5,837
6,539
11,161
10,807
7,742
8,727
11,391
17,626
13,076
92,906

25.28
22.45
37.9
48.73
37.96
42.18
44.05
30.55
26.6
315.7

433
343
340
451
490
483
387
173
203
3,303

182
25
155
177
17
122
62
116
174
1,030

Table 8: Season-wise rainfall data, 2008 -09 (in millimeters)


(Source: Statistical Abstract, AP 2009)

District
Srikakulam
Vizianagaram
Vishakapatnam
East Godavari
West Godavari
Krishna
Guntur
Prakasam

South West Monsoon (June Sept)


Actual
Normal
763.5
705.7
812.1
692.7
672.4
712.6
807.2
751.7
948.6
785.0
905.9
685.1
633.9
525.8
288.7
388.3

Nellore

251.3

331.3

North-East Monsoon (Oct Dec)


Actual
Normal
29.8
276.0
37.7
245.8
81.8
297.2
171.6
319.6
151.4
245.4
185.9
249.4
194.5
228.9
418.4
393.7
675.8

661.4

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C3 - 4

Loss of lives and livestock is compounded by the loss of agricultural crops. While the nine
coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh are severely vulnerable to cyclonic storms and damages
resulting due to cyclones, agricultural crop losses could be devastating. The delta region of the
coast is recognized as the rice bowl of Andhra Pradesh. Trend analysis to determine agriculture
growth of aggregate crop output indicated severe decline in land under cultivation and increase
in fallow land during 1991 92 to 2004 05. This period also witnessed decline in irrigated
area. The net area sown declined by 9.5 lakh hectares (8.6 per cent) and net irrigated area by 6.4
lakh hectares (14.7 per cent). Significant changes have also taken place in cropping pattern in
Andhra Pradesh. Besides Warangal (52,207), Khammam (42,199) districts in Telangana, the net
area irrigated by tanks and canals in the nine coastal districts is the highest in the state. Table 9
and Fig 7 shows district-wise canal and tank irrigated net sown area. When cyclones and
resulting floods occur, the loss of crops, irrigation infrastructure due to severe inundation and
cyclonic damages is significant in the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh.
Table 9: Net Area Irrigated (in Hectares) in the coastal districts, 2007 -08
(Source: Statistical Abstract, AP 2009)

District
Srikakulam
Vizianagaram
Vishakapatnam
East Godavari
West Godavari
Krishna
Guntur
Prakasam
Nellore

Tanks
70,609
80,809
28,578
36,113
22,744
22,299
4,119
27,814
73,840

Net Area Irrigated by


Canals
Wells
1.05,843
20,970
46,572
19,130
43,106
13,600
1,80,880
64,459
1,88,497
1,55895
2,28,562
54,146
3,05,702
62,210
66,690
84,400
87,727
73,828

Other sources
2,206
4,898
19,713
12,029
8,399
13,749
14,184
15,706
9,191

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C3 - 5

Fig 7: Neet Area Irrigated (in Hecctares) in thee coastal disttricts, 2007 -08
(Source: Staatistical Abstractt, AP 2009)

250,0
000
200,0
000
150,0
000
100,0
000
50,0
000
0

NetAreaIrrigatedbyOthersources
NetAreaIrrigatedbyCanals

NetA
AreaIrrigatedbyWells
NetA
AreaIrrigatedbyTanks

Cycloness in the montth of May arre relatively rare in the region; in thee last centuryy only thirteen
cyclones have been recorded
r
in AP
A in this month. May iss usually ricee harvestingg season
attractingg good numb
ber of itineraant laborers from
f
other reegions of thee state in seaarch of workk.
Their lacck of local kn
nowledge annd permanennt residence make
m
them most
m vulneraable when
cyclones make land fall
f during thhis season. Similarly,
S
reccent growth in shrimp faarming botth
fresh watter and seaw
water, has ledd to families immigratingg to coastal districts
d
from
m other regioons
of the staate. They eng
gage in the collection
c
off fingerlings, making a living for sevveral months a
year in makeshift
m
sheelters along the
t marshes.. Early warnning systems that are in place,
p
usuallyy do
not reachh this transient populatioon on time; even when suuch warnings reach, lackk of access too
high elevvated areas and
a permanennt homes cooupled with inexperience
i
e makes them
m highly
vulnerable group.
3.3.2. Flooods
Floods arre characteriized as any high
h
stream flow
f
which overlap
o
natuural or artificcial banks off a
river or a stream and are markedlly higher thaan the usual;; and the inundation of loow lands.
Sometim
mes copious monsoon
m
rainns combinedd with massiive outflows from the rivvers cause
devastatiing floods. Flooding
F
is caused by thee inadequate capacity wiithin the bannks of the rivvers
to containn the high fllows broughtt down from
m the upper catchment
c
duue to heavy rainfall.
r
Areaas
having pooor drainagee characteristics get flooded by accum
mulation of water from heavy rainfaall.
Floodingg is accentuatted by erosioon and siltinng of the riveer beds resulting in reducction of carryying
capacity of river chan
nnel, earthquuakes and laandslides leadding to channges in river courses,
obstructions to flow, synchronizaation of floods in the maain and tributtary rivers annd retardatioon
due to tiddal effects.
State of Anddhra Pradesh
State Disasteer Management Plan
P

| C3 - 6

Floods by nature depend on several factors; one being incessant rains, cyclonic rains in a short
period of time crippling natural drainage. However, other factors such as nature of the collecting
basin, nature of the streams, type of soil, natural and man-made vegetation, amount of rainfall
etc. determine type and extent of floods. The inundation patterns and potential areas that would
be inundated due to river outflow and heavy rain is fairly certain; and the concerned departments
usually have the information. However, inundation due to storm surges and cyclonic landfall is
unpredictable and depends on the wind direction.
Floods in Andhra Pradesh have caused widespread loss to human lives, livestock, damaged
homes and caused crop destruction over the decades. Infrastructure damage due floods is well
recorded.
The Godavari and the Krishna rivers have well-defined stable courses; their natural and manmade banks are capable of carrying flood discharges with the exception of their delta areas.
Because of lackluster attitude of the community, unplanned growth, lack of maintenance of
natural tanks and improper upkeep of drainage systems, floods have been construed as natural
although in reality they are human-caused. Traditionally, flood problem in AP had been confined
to the spilling of smaller rivers and the submersion of marginal areas surrounding Kolleru Lake.
However, the drainage problem in the delta zones of coastal districts has deteriorated in the last
couple of decades, thereby multiplying the destructive potential of cyclones and increasing flood
hazards. Finally, a critical additional factor affecting the flood management and the irrigation
systems is the lack of maintenance. On several occasions, such as the May 1979 cyclone, most of
the deaths were occasioned by breaches to the chains of tanks and canals, and over-flooding due
in part to the choking of drains by silting and growth of weeds.
It is estimated that 44% of APs total territory is vulnerable to tropical storms and related
hazards, while its coastal belt is most vulnerable region; Khammam district in Telangana region
is most prone to monsoon floods along with five districts in coastal region. Along the coastline,
the section between Nizampatnam and Machilipatnam is the most prone to storm surges. The
fertile Delta areas of the Godavari and the Krishna rivers, which contribute substantially to the
States agriculture economy, experience recurrent flood and drainage problems. Table 10 below
depicts approximate storm surges along the coastal areas. Fig 8 below depicts state-wide flood
hazard map which also shows storm surge risk.

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C3 - 7

Fig 8:
8 Map show
wing flood hazard map of
o the state inncluding storrm surge heiight (in mts.))
(Source: BMTPC,
B
MoHU
UPA, Vulnerabbility Atlas of India)
I

Table 10: Maximum storm surgee of sea wavees


(Source: Reevenue (Disasterr Management) Department,
D
GooAP)

Placee
Kaalingapatnam
m
Viisakhapatnam
m
Kaakinada
Machilipatnam
M
m
On
ngole
Neellore

Probablee maximum surge


s
2.8 mts.
2.6 mts.
3.0 mts.
5.5 mts.
4.5 mts.
2.8 mts.

Besides natural
n
surgees and outfloow of waterss from stream
ms and riverss, floods are also causedd by
peak disccharges. As part
p of Andhhra Pradesh Hazard
H
Mitiigation and Emergency
E
C
Cyclone
Recoveryy Project, An
ndhra Pradessh State Rem
mote Sensingg Applicationn Center, Deepartment off
Statisticss and Plannin
ng, GoI havee prepared seeveral 100-yyear return period maps for
f all majorr
river systtems of the state.
s
These maps are preesented alonng with peakk discharge details
d
providded
by the Reevenue (Disaaster Managgement II) Deepartment off GoAP. Rivver-wide peaak discharge
State of Anddhra Pradesh
State Disasteer Management Plan
P

| C3 - 8

details arre presented in tables 10 - 14 followeed by 100-yeear flood eveent maps (Fiigures 9 throough
13) for eaach river.
Table 11: Peak Disch
harge of Krisshna River
(Source: Reevenue (Disaster Management) Department,
D
GoA
AP)

Peeak dischargge
att Vijayawadda
18,,800 m3s-1

Eveent
July 19889
Septembber
1989
August 1990

12,,200 m3s-1

Septembber
1991
Septembber
1998
Octoberr 2009

12,,200 m3s-1

12,,200 m3s-1

12,,200 m3s-1
34,,000 m^3s-1

Nature of evvent
Flow generated
g
in tributaries
t
downsttream of NS Dam
Flow generated
g
by
discharrges from NS
S Dam
Flow generated
g
by
discharrges from NS
S Dam
Flow generated
g
by
discharrges from NS
S Dam
Flow generated
g
by
discharrges from NS
S Dam
Flow generated
g
by
discharrges from NS
S Dam

Districtts affected
Guntur, Krrishna,
Nalgonda
Guntur, Krrishna,
Nalgonda
Guntur, Krrishna,
Nalgonda
Guntur, Krrishna,
Nalgonda
Guntur, Krrishna,
Nalgonda
Nalgonda, Kurnool,
Mahaboobnnagar,
Krishna annd Guntur

9a

Fig 9aa: 1 in 100 year


y Flood Event
E
of Krisshna and Inuundation areaas (indicatedd in light bluee)
(Sourrce: APSRAC))

State of Anddhra Pradesh


State Disasteer Management Plan
P

| C3 - 9

9b

Fig 9bb: 1 in 100 year


y Flood Event
E
of Krisshna and Inuundation areaas (indicatedd in light blue)
(Sourrce: APSRAC))

Table 12: Peak Disch


harge of Goddavari Riverr
(Source: Reevenue (Disaster Management) Department,
D
GoA
AP)

August 1986

Peeak dischargge
at Perur
67,746
6
m3s-11

August 1990

66,918
6
m3s-11

August 1992

35,046
3
m3s-11

July 19994

41,064
4
m3s-11

August--Sept
1994
August 2004;
July 20005;
Sept 20005;
Aug 20006;
Sept 20006

39,559
3
m3s-11

Eveent

Not
N Available

Nature of evvent

Districtts affected

Flow generated
g
in tributaries
t
due to rainfall
r
Flow generated
g
in tributaries
t
due to rainfall
r
Flow generated
g
in tributaries
t
due to rainfall
r
Flow generated
g
in tributaries
t
due to rainfall
r
Flow generated
g
in tributaries
t
due to rainfall
r
Flow generated
g
in tributaries
t
due to rainfall
r

Khammaam, East andd


West Godavari
Khammaam, East andd
West Godavari
Khammaam, East andd
West Godavari
Khammaam, East andd
West Godavari
Khammaam, East andd
West Godavari
Khammaam, East andd
West Godavari

State of Anddhra Pradesh


State Disasteer Management Plan
P

| C3 - 10

10a

Fig 10a: 1 in 100 year


y Flood Event
E
of Goddavari and Innundation areeas
(indiicated in lighht blue) (Souurce: APSRAC))

10b

d 10b: 1 in 100
1 year Flood Event of Godavari annd Inundatioon areas
Fig 10a and
(indiicated in lighht blue) (Souurce: APSRAC))

State of Anddhra Pradesh


State Disasteer Management Plan
P

| C3 - 11

Fig 11: 1 in 100 yeaar Flood Eveent of Penna River and Innundation arreas (indicatted in light blue)
b
(Sourrce: APSRAC))

Table 13: Peak Discharge


D
off Penna Riveer
(Source: Revenue
R
(Disasteer Management)) Department, GoAP)

Event
Aug
gust 1988
Nov
vember 19911
Octo
ober 2001

Peak discharge
d
at
Nelloore m3s-1
2,956
6,549
1
10,368

Districtts affected
Neellore
Neellore
Neellore

Table 144: Peak Disccharge of Vaamshadara River


R
(Source: Revenue
R
(Disasteer Management)) Department, GoAP)

Event
Aug
gust 1990
Octo
ober 1990
Nov
vember 19900
July
y 1992
Septtember

Peak discharge
d
at
Gotta Barrage
B
(I &
CAD
D), m3s-1
2,749
1,588
2,347
3,695
2,886

Districtts affected
Srikaakulam
Srikaakulam
Srikaakulam
Srikaakulam
Srikaakulam

State of Anddhra Pradesh


State Disasteer Management Plan
P

| C3 - 12

Table 15: Peak Discharge of Nagavalli River


(Source: Revenue (Disaster Management) Department, GoAP)

Event
September 1990
July 1991
September 1991

Peak discharge at
CWC gauge at
Srikakulam, m3s-1
1,009
1,671
845

July 1992

1,835

September 1994

1,616

July 1996

992

Districts affected
Srikakulam,
Vijayanagaram
Srikakulam,
Vijayanagaram
Srikakulam,
Vijayanagaram
Srikakulam,
Vijayanagaram
Srikakulam,
Vijayanagaram
Srikakulam,
Vijayanagaram

Fig 12: August 2006 Flood Event of Nagavalli River and Inundation areas
(indicated in light blue) (Source: APSRAC)

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C3 - 13

While cooastal districtts are prone to cyclones and resultannt floods, Khhammam in Telangana
T
reegion
is the moost vulnerablle to floods. As part of Andhra
A
Pradeesh Hazard Mitigation
M
annd Emergenncy
Cyclone recovery pro
oject, APSR
RAC preparedd Khammam
m flood map based on 20005 floods.

Figg 13: Map sh


howing Septtember 20055 Floods in Khammam
K
(iindicated in light blue)
(Sourrce: APSRAC))

With a cooastline of 1050 kilometters, Andhra Pradesh hass experienced more thann 103 cyclonees
and resullting floods in
i the last ceentury. Detaiils of humann lives lost, livestock losses, crop lossses
between 2003 and 20
008 are preseented in Tabble 16 below.

State of Anddhra Pradesh


State Disasteer Management Plan
P

| C3 - 14

Table 16: Human, livestock and crop losses recorded between 2003 and 2008
(Source: Revenue (Disaster Management) Department, GoAP).

Year

Type of
calamity

Date Month

Cyclone

15-16
Dec,
2003
18-19
Sept,
2005
2-5
Aug,
2006
14-22
Sept,
2006

2003-04
2005-06

Heavy
Rains
Floods

2006-07

Floods
due to
Heavy
Rains
Ogni
Cyclone
Drought
Flash
Floods
Floods
due to
heavy
rains

2007-08

Unseasonal
heavy
rains
Unseasonal
heavy
rains

28 oct
4
Nov,
2006
2006
21-26
June,
2007
Sept,
Oct
and
Nov,
2007
9-13
Feb
2008
22-29
March
2008

Estimat
ed value
of loss
(in
Crore
Rs.)

No. of
Districts
affected

Populatio
n affected
(in Lakhs)

Human
Deaths

Livestoc
k losses

Houses
damaged

Cropped
area
damaged
(in Ha.)

42.68

44

1,02,324

17,147

2,65,741

765.92

10

350.00

107

14,416

1,18,618

5,51,966

2,697.9

10

13.84

165

20,530

2,76,567

2,19,897

3,455.2
3

0.23

52

4,849

29,837

2,19,950

188.44

13.85

41

3,50,000

95,218

3,84,550

7,135.2

NA

NA

NA

NA

6,63,671

NA

11

9.19

52

9,316

1,75,640

17,426

1,539.1

15

30.66

122

3,871

6,54,394

87,127

1,308.4

NA

3,000

122

2,92,854

141.76

17

NA

36

1,643

3,556

1,33,556

102.95

3.3.2.1. Floods of October-November 2009 in Kurnool and Mahbubnagar


Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh is located towards the west-central part of the state. It is
situated in the southern banks of Tungabhadra and Handri rivers. Kurnool district has 54
Mandals under 3 revenue divisions; Adoni, Nandyal and Kurnool. Hundri is a small river that
pass through the heart of Kurnool. Normally, the river course receives small discharge up to
State of Andhra Pradesh
State Disaster Management Plan

| C3 - 15

50,000 cuusecs. Howeever, by Octoober 02, 20009 the river had


h receivedd 2,00,000 cuusecs resultinng in
flood water entering the flanks of the river annd inundatinng 80% of Kuurnool townn and surrounnding
areas. Sim
milarly, the capacity
c
of Tungabhadra
T
a river coursse is 4,00,000 cusecs. Hoowever by
October 02,
0 2009, ap
pproximatelyy 9,50,000 cuusecs was diischarged ressulting in flooods and
inundatioon of Kurnoo
ol and neighhboring distriicts in Karannataka.
While Mantralayam
M
in Kurnool along
a
with other
o
towns were
w severely affected duue to the floods,
a combinned total of 87
8 Mandals; 525 villagess were affectted, which inncludes Kurnnool,
Mahbubnnagar and oth
her surroundding districtss. Followingg map (Fig 144) shows inuundated Manndals
due to Occtober 2009 floods in Anndhra Pradessh. An estim
mated 20.72 lakh
l
people were
w affecteed
due to the floods.

Figg 14: Octoberr 2009 Floodds of Kurnoool and Inunddation areas (indicated inn light blue)
(Sourrce: APSRAC))

Incessantt rains and in


nevitable disscharges from
m upstream reservoirs of Narayanpuur and
Tungbhaadra dams weere one of thhe primary reeasons of unnprecedentedd inundation in Kurnool and
Mahbubnnagar districts between September
S
30 and Octobber 3, 2009. The
T averagee rainfall of
Kurnool is around 14
49.6 mm andd for Mahbubbnagar it is 120.9 mm duuring North--East monsooon.
Between September 30 and Octoober 5, 2009,, these two districts
d
and surroundingg catchment areas
a
received an average of
o 205 mm and
a 284 mm rainfall resppectively. Similarly, during five-dayys of
incessantt and unpreccedented rainnfall, Krishna and Pennaa catchment and
a basin recceived an
average of
o 750 TMC
C (equivalentt to 21,000 million
m
tons of
o mass) where as the caapacity of thee
dams was around 150
0 TMC floodd cushion (R
Revenue (Dissaster Managgement II) Department,
D
GoAP).
State of Anddhra Pradesh
State Disasteer Management Plan
P

| C3 - 16

Although district administration of both districts mustered all resources to meet the challenges
during disastrous floods, a flood plan of the region based on rainfall patterns, discharge of water
from the dams and catchment areas would have prevented human and property losses. Districtwide risk and vulnerability analysis, especially for districts that have historically been subjected
to different disasters is required to be undertaken by the district administration on priority basis.
Since weather and flood modeling is required to plan for scenario-based flooding, roping in
institutes such as APSRAC, NRSA, IMD by the districts is crucial in achieving fool-proof
planning for future disasters. The scope of the SDMP is limited to identifying the vulnerability of
the districts and state as a whole to different disasters and provide framework for the
administration to further build on preliminary analysis presented in this section of the plan.
3.3.3. Earthquakes
Most of India is prone to damaging earthquakes. According to seismic zoning of India, the
country is divided into five seismic zones based on severity. Andhra Pradesh lies in three zones
Zone I, Zone II and Zone III. All three zones are relatively low risk zones. Zone IV and Zone V
are considered high risk zones. Most of Himalayas fall under this category as shown in Fig 15.

Fig 15: Seismic zones of India (Source: Earthquake manual, GoAP)

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C3 - 17

Table 17: Region falling in various zones of the country (Source: Earthquake Manual, GoAP)
Zone
Zone V

Zone IV

Zone III

Zone II
&I

Damage risk and Intensity


(Earthquake Very high
damage risk zone areas
may expect intensity
maximum of MSK IX or
more)
(Earthquake High damage
risk zone areas may
expect intensity maximum
of MSK VIII)
(Earthquake Moderate
damage risk zone areas
may expect intensity
maximum of MSK VII)
(Earthquake Low damage
risk zone areas may
experience intensity MSK
VI)

Region
The entire North-east, including all the seven
sister states, the Kutch district, parts of
Himachal and J & K, and the Andaman and
Nicobar islands.
Parts of the Northern belt starting from J & K
to Himachal Pradesh. Also including Delhi
and parts of Haryana. The Koyna region of
Maharashtra is also in this zone.
A large part of the country stretching from
North including some parts of Rajasthan to
the South through the Konkan coast, and also
the Eastern parts of the country.
These two zones are contiguous, covering
parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa,
Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan known as
low risk earrthquake zones.

Andhra Pradesh lies in the central part of the Peninsular Indian Shield; and is considered as
stable and not prone to earthquakes. However, the Koyna earthquake in 1967, Latur earthquake
in 1993 and Jabalpur earthquake in 1997, which also fall in Peninsular Indian Shield completely
changed the perspective. As a result a few zones of weakness in the crystal layers in the
Peninsular Region have been identified within which reactivation along some faults may have
taken place causing tremors and minor earthquakes.
The Eastern coastal tract and the adjoining area are characterized by many faults/fractures
displaying evidence of seismic activity. There are many NE-SW trending fault-bound basement
ridges and depressions traversed by transverse features like the Onglore, Avanigadda,
Chintalpudi, Pithapuram and Vijayanagaram cross trends [Source: Earthquake Manual, Revenue
(Relief) Department, GoAP]. These NE and NW trending discontinuities may be vulnerable to
reactivation with progressive build up of stress. Among these the most active zone is the Ongole
area which has records of mild earthquakes during the last 30 years. These events might have
been caused by tectonic activity along the Ongole cross trends. Similar activity to a lesser degree
occurred in Vijayanagaram area. The Seismic zones of Andhra Pradesh are shown in the
following map (Fig 16)

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C3 - 18

.
Fig 16: Mapp showing seeismic zoness of Andhra Pradesh
(Source: Earthhquake Manuaal, GoAP)

3.3.3.1. Largest
L
Insttrumented Earthquake
E
e in Andhraa Pradesh
Kichanappalle-Gollag
gudem area, Andhra
A
Praddesh, Mw 5.77 (13 April 1969);
1
17.8110 N, 80.6700 E,
D=025.0 kms, OT=15:24:55 UTC
C. This event is often reeferred to as the Bhadracchalam
earthquakke of 1969. It
I is among the
t strongestt earthquakees in the soutthern peninsula. The shoock
caused coonsiderable damage in and
a around Bhadrachalam
B
m. The maxiimum observved intensityy was
VII (accoording to old
d zones). Thee quake interrrupted the functioning
f
o the Kinneersani reservoir
of
for a whiile. It was felt all over soouth India, inncluding Hyderabad.
3.3.3.2. Significant
S
Earthquake
E
es in Andhraa Pradesh
A list of known and recorded
r
earrthquakes froom the year 1800, in the state of Anddhra Pradeshh is
shown inn table 18. Th
he list brieflyy outlines knnown earthqquakes in thee region whicch either hadd
observedd intensities of
o V or highher (historicaal events) or had known magnitudes
m
of M5.0 or more
m
(instrumeented eventss). General loocations are provided forr historical events
e
for whhich
"generaliized" epicentral co-ordinnates are avaailable.

State of Anddhra Pradesh


State Disasteer Management Plan
P

| C3 - 19

Table 18: Historical record of earthquakes in Andhra Pradesh


(Source: Earthquake Manual, GoAP)

Area/Location
Ongole-Kanuparti
Nellore-Kovur
Chittoor
Visakhapatnam
Hyderabad
Visakhapatnam
Srikakulam
Guntur-Tenali
Guntur-Tenali
Guntur-Tenali
Visakhapatnam
Tirupati
Krishna
Krishna
Kennalapudi
Vinukonda
Ongole
Nellore
Kakinada
Visakhapatnam
Sironcha
Secunderabad
Bagapally
Vijayanagaram
Vijayanagaram
Visakhapatnam
Gandhari
Kothagudem
Ongole
Vijayanagaram
Uppugunduru
Ongole
Vijayanagaram
Ongole-Guntur
Guntur
Ongole
Vinukonda
Bhadrachalam
Rayachoti
Bhadrachalam

Date
October 18, 1800
December 31, 1820
January 01, 1822
January 06, 1927
March 12, 1843
February 21, 1853
October 12, 1858
July 21, 1859
August 02, 1859
August 09, 1859
August 24, 1959
February 02, 1860
July 24, 1861
January 13, 1862
January 3, 1867
January 6, 1867
March 11, 1867
September 1, 1869
December 19, 1869
December 19, 1870
October 22, 1872
October, 1876
April 28, 1879
December 31, 1881
April 17, 1917
1927
1935
January 5, 1954
October 13, 1956
August 9, 1959
August 21, 1959
October 12, 1959
December 23, 1959
October 8, 1960
December 5, 1963
March 27, 1967
August 11, 1967
July 27, 1968
January 16, 1969
April 13, 1969

Longitude/Latitude
15.600 N, 80.100E
14.500 N, 80.000 E
12.500N, 79.700E
17.700 N, 83.400E
17.500N, 78.500E
17.700N, 83.400E
18.300 N, 84.000E
16.299N, 80.500E
16.299N, 80.500E
16.299N, 80.500E
17.700N, 83.400E
13.700N, 79.400 E
16.400N, 77.300E
16.400N, 77.300E
16.100N,79.600E
16.100N,79.800E
16.000N,80.300E
14.500N,80.800E
17.900N, 82.300E
17.700N,83.400E
18.800N, 80.000E
17.500N, 78.500E
13.800N, 77.800E
18.700N, 83.500E
18.000N, 84.000E
17.700N, 83.400E
18.400N, 78.200E
18.000N, 81.300E
15.700N, 80.000E
18.100N, 83.500E
15.800N, 80.200E
15.700N, 80.100E
18.100N, 83.500E
16.000N, 80.300E
17.300N, 80.100E
15.600N, 80.000E
16.000N, 80.000E
17.600N, 80.000E
14.100N, 78.700E
17.900N, 80.600E

Magnitude
4.3
4.3
5.0
4.3
3.7
3.7
5.0
4.3
3.7
3.7
4.3
4.3
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.7
4.3
3.7
3.7
5.0
5.0
3.7
4.3
5.5
4.3
3.7
4.3
5.0
3.7
3.7
5.0
4.3
4.3
3.7
5.4
3.5
4.5
4.1
5.7

Intensity
VI
V
V
V
IV
IV
V
VI
V
V
V
V
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
V
IV
IV
VI
VI
IV
V
VII
V
IV
V
VI
IV
IV
VI
V
V
IV
VII
IV
V
IV
Mb5.3

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C3 - 20

Kothagudem
Bhadrachalam
Ongole V
NE of Ongole
Cuddapah
Ongole
Darsi-Ongole
Yellandpad
Nalgonda
Addategala
Rampachodavaram
Rajamundry
Chirala
Medchal
Bellampally
Bellampally
Vizag
Vamsadhara
Hiramandalam
Ongole region
Ongole
Ongole
Ongole region
Nellore
Manthani
Barapadi
Manuguru
Manuguru
Manuguru
Bhadrachalam
Jangareddygudem
Koonavaram
ESE of Ongole
Guntur
Ongole
Addanki
Guntur
Manthani
Manthani
Yellandu

September 15, 1969


July 11, 1970
July 28, 1971
November 28, 1974
February 9, 1975
October 25, 1976
May 25, 1977
November 24, 1978
October 10, 1979
March 31, 1980
March 31, 1980
October 2, 1980
November 2, 1981
June 30, 1983
December 14, 1983
April 24, 1984
August 23, 1984
May 12, 1985
May 12, 1985
August 18, 1986
August 19, 1986
December 3 1987
December 3 1987
March 21, 1988
January 12, 1990
May 3, 1990
June 9, 1990
June 9, 1990
June 9, 1990
June 9, 1990
July 24, 1990
July 30, 1990
November 14, 1992
May 24, 1995
October 21, 1995
August 4, 1996
April 14, 1997
October 29, 1997
June 29, 1998
February 3, 1999

17.600N, 80.500E
17.900N, 80.600E
15.500N, 79.600E
15.600N, 80.200E
14.700N, 78.100E
15.500N, 78.500E
15.500N, 79.600E
17.600N, 80.000E
16.700N, 79.400E
17.600N, 81.900E
17.400N, 81.700E
16.900N, 82.000E
15.900N, 80.200E
17.600N, 78.500E
18.800N, 79.500E
18.800N, 79.500E
17.300N, 83.300E
18.700N, 83.900E
18.700N, 84.000E
15.500N, 80.500E
15.300N, 79.800E
15.300N, 79.800E
15.500N, 80.200E
14.400N, 80.300E
18.600N, 79.600E
20.500N, 86.800E
18.100N, 80.500E
18.100N, 80.500E
17.900N, 80.600E
17.900N, 80.500E
17.100N, 81.300E
17.600N, 80.900E
15.500N, 80.100E
15.600N, 79.400E
15.400N, 79.800E
15.800N, 80.000E
16.600N, 80.000E
18.600N, 77.200E
18.600N, 79.700E
18.100N, 80.400E

3.8
4.0
4.3
3.9
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.8
3.6
3.9
3.8
4.0
3.5
4.0
3.5
3.5
3.6
3.9
3.8
3.5
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.1
3.7
4.1
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.6
3.6
3.6
4.0
3.9
4.1
3.8
3.8
3.8
4.0

Mb5.3
Mb5.3
Mb5.3
Mb5.3
Mb5.3
Mb5.3
Mb5.3
Mb5.3
Mb5.3
Mb5.3
Mb5.3
Mb5.3
Mb5.3
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
IV

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C3 - 21

3.3.3.3. Earthquakes recorded since 2000 in Andhra Pradesh

In September 2000, a magnitude of 2.816 earthquake was recorded in Hyderabad area at


17.707 N, 78.295 E, D = 015.0 kms, OT = 19:20:22 UTC.

A mild earthquake struck the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad on 17 September
2000 at 00:50 AM local time. It had a magnitude of 2.8.

Extended effects of Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, Mw9.1 was felt in Andhra Pradesh on


December 26, 2004 at 03.298 N, 95.778 E, D = 010.0 kms, OT = 00:58:50 UTC. A "very
great" earthquake struck the North Indian Ocean & the Bay of Bengal at 00:58 UTC on 26
December 2004. 2,30,210 people were estimated to have been killed in the Indian Oceanwide tsunami generated by this earthquake, including at least 105 in Andhra Pradesh.

The past seismicity map of the state shows only three earthquakes of magnitude more than 5.0 on
Richter scale. These are located in the two major tectonic zones of the state; Godavari valley
(Bhadrachalam) where the built-up pressure is occasionally released. Seismologists believe once
a strain release in the form of tremors or earthquake of greater than 5.0 magnitude occurs in
Peninsular Shield, it may usually take long time for the stress to build up to the required level for
subsequent tremors and earthquake.
3.3.4. Fires
Fire Service Department of Andhra Pradesh is a statutory department in fire fighting with
jurisdiction all over the state and is bound by the AP Fire Service Act of 1999. The Fire Service
Department provides five main services:
Community fire safety: This service covers a range of initiatives that are aimed at reducing the
number of fires and the number of deaths and injuries caused by fire.
Legislative fire safety: This service makes sure that the people are not put at risk from fires in
the workplace and fire hazardous buildings. It is mandatory of Fire Department to make sure
constructed buildings comply with fire safety legislation and are issued No Objection
Certificate from Fire Service Department.
Special services: This service responds to other types of incident, for example vehicle accidents,
trapped people and animals, storms and floods.
Emergency planning: Services that plan and prepare for large-scale emergencies, for example
large rail and road accidents, aircraft crashes, cyclones, severe floods and earthquakes.

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C3 - 22

Four different fire classifications are followed by the Fire Department according to the type of
fuel burning:
Table 19: Classification of fires based on fuel and media
(Source: AP State Disaster Response & Fire Services, GoAP)

Class/Type
Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D

Type of fuel/media
This type of fire generally leaves ash. Combusting materials include wood,
paper, cloth, trash, plastic; solid combustible material that are not metals.
This type of fire involves materials that boil. Materials included in this type
are Flammable liquids like petrol, diesel, kerosene, oils, grease, acetone;
Any non-metal in a liquid state on fire or bubble
This type of fire generally deals with an electrical current. Materials include
Metals: Sodium, Aluminum, Potassium, Magnesium, Zirconium
Electrical: Energized electrical equipment
Metals: Sodium, Aluminum, P

Fire related incidents and damages to property and human losses as reported by AP State
Disaster Response and Fire Services, GoAP is presented below.
Table 20: Fire related accidents, property and human losses
(Source: AP State Disaster Response & Fire Services, GoAP - http://fireservices.ap.gov.in/)

Year
2000-2001
2001-2002
2002-2003
2003-2004
2004-2005
2005-2006
2006-2007
2007-2008
2008-2009
2009-2010

Serious

Medium

Small Rescue

Total

Property (Rs. in
crores)

Human lives

Damaged

Saved

Lost

saved

1,017

3,696

10,969

182

15,864

101.81

462.7

113

123

789

2,834

8,298

188

12,109

67.4

391.32

100

118

1,098

4,416

12,111

202

17,827

108.85

380.94

115

186

1,184

4,586

12,036

317

18,123

95.59

349.99

225

354

1,213

4,448

10,766

312

16,339

117.34

432.34

195

205

1,079

4,320

11,349

311

17,059

149.95

419

15

19

1,293

5,737

11,761

365

19,156

144.49

131.80

262

408

1,571

6,232

12,882

511

21,249

358.99

893.25

221

367

1,421

6,659

12,445

570

21,005

206.35

817.35

407

557

1,843

8,073

13,870

639

24,425

172.03

679.62

472

705

3.3.5. Industrial accidents


Number of registered factories in Andhra Pradesh is 36,747 and there are 3,601 major and minor
industries in the state. The state promotes establishment of new industries through its 272
Industrial Estates spread over 14, 170 hectares. As a result, there is increased risk of industrial
State of Andhra Pradesh
State Disaster Management Plan

| C3 - 23

accidents. Table 21 shows number of accidents recorded in the state between 1995 and 2006. On
average among different sectors of industries, the number of accidents reported annually hovered
around 500 fatal accidents. Similarly, around 360 non-fatal accidents were reported between
1994 and 2006.
Accidents and fatalities that occur on the premises of an industrial establishment is a common
occurrence; government regulations in labor safety, safety guidelines issued by the Chief
Inspector of Broilers and Commissioner of Industries would cover on-site industrial incidents.
However, industrial catastrophe of the magnitude of Union Carbide Industrys in Bhopal would
lead to mass casualties and the impact is beyond industrys location. Fortunately, Andhra
Pradesh had not encountered a tragedy of the magnitude of Bhopal. However, casual attitude and
negligence to follow industrial safety regulations could prove catastrophe. Andhra Pradesh Fire
Services department maintains a list of hazardous industries that meet or not meet fire code as
per AP Fire Act. The list of hazardous industries in different districts is appended as Annexure
XIV.
Table 21: Number of Industrial accidents in AP (1994 2006)
(Source: Commissioner of Labor & Directorate of Economics & Statistics, GoAP)
Industry

1994

1995

1996

1997

Sugar
Cement
Textiles
Paper
Others
Total

6
22
2
538
568

2
5
314
321

6
24
15
5
498
548

2
27
16
3
596
644

1998 1999 2000 2001


Number of Fatal Cases
9
12
11
8
8
8
14
6
1
1
2
371
432
474
341
389
453
499
357

Sugar
Cement
Textiles
Paper
Others
Total

4
1
5
438
448

5
6
3
764
778

1
39
2
479
521

3
38
1
373
415

Number of Non-Fatal Cases


1
2
5
2
2
3
1
3
1
1
2
1
2
1
112
148
253
142
117
156
260
149

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

7
5
2
3
637
654

4
2
5
2
708
721

5
1
0
2
379
387

1
3
0
1
478
483

2
5
0
2
501
510

1
1
2
294
298

2
1
0
0
667
670

1
0
0
3
160
164

0
0
0
1
491
492

1
0
0
4
197
202

3.3.6. Tsunami
A tsunami or tidal wave is a series of water waves (called a tsunami wave train) caused by the
displacement of a large volume of a body of water, such as an ocean or a large lake. Although
tsunamis are a regular phenomenon in the Pacific coast, India in general and Andhra Pradesh in
particular had no historical record in the last century until 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake
induced tsunami that hit coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh.
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Tsunami of December 26, 2004 affected nine districts of Andhra Pradesh (Nellore, Prakasam,
Guntur, Krishna, East Godavari, West Godavari, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram and
Srikakulam). A total of 301 coastal villages and 2,11,670 people from these districts were
affected due to the December 2004 tsunami (Source: Revenue (Disaster Management II)
Department GoAP). While 107 people were reported to have lost lives due to tsunami, 1,554
houses were damaged; predominantly fishermen community was the worst affected in Andhra
Pradesh due to tsunami. A total of 2,418 boats were completely lost; 8,976 traditional boats and
180 mechanized boats were damaged. It was reported that 47,370 fishing nets that are crucial to
livelihood of fishermen were lost due to tsunami
3.3.7. Droughts
Revenue (Relief) Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh defines drought as a condition
arising out of scarce rainfall. Drought is a normal, recurrent feature of climate. It occurs in
virtually all climatic zones, but its characteristics vary significantly from one region to another.
Drought is a temporary aberration; it differs from aridity, which is restricted to low rainfall
regions and is a permanent feature of climate.
While drought is an insidious hazard of nature, it originates from a deficiency of precipitation
that persists long enough to produce a serious hydrologic imbalance. Drought should be
considered relative to some long-term average condition of balance between precipitation and
evapo-transpiration (i.e., evaporation and transpiration) in a particular area. Drought differs in
three essential characteristics: intensity, duration and spatial coverage. Because of these reasons,
although it adversely affects people dependent on subsistence agriculture, drought ought not be
classified along with other hazards that are short-duration and sudden in nature. Andhra Pradesh
has historically been prone to drought like conditions especially in Rayalaseema, Telangana and
parts of Andhra region. It is beyond the scope of SDMP to assess risk and undertake
vulnerability assessment of drought in Andhra Pradesh. Departments of Agriculture and Revenue
along with other departments of Government of Andhra Pradesh tackle drought as a recurring
phenomenon.
3.3.8. Vulnerability of irrigation tanks and dams
Tanks are an essential feature of Andhra Pradesh, especially in the rural areas. There are
irrigation tanks, percolation tanks or general-purpose village ponds. They could be perennial,
long-seasonal or short-seasonal, based on the water retention period. Historically, tank irrigation
in Andhra Pradesh has played a vital role in the development of its agricultural economy. Andhra
Pradesh has the distinction of having large number of tanks and the largest area irrigated under
tanks in the country. According to the 2nd Minor Irrigation Census, there are 79,953 irrigation
tanks in Andhra Pradesh. Of the data available for 73,604 tanks, the area covered under the tanks
is about 1,750,087 ha. The proportion of area irrigated under tanks showed a significant decline
State of Andhra Pradesh
State Disaster Management Plan

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from 39 % in 1955 to 14 % in 2005. Most of the tanks in the state perform below their capacity
level and the gap between the irrigation potential created and actual irrigated area under tanks
has been reported at about 40 to 60 % depending upon the rainfall during a year. The 2nd Minor
Irrigation Census reported that at the time of the census, 29,187 tanks were not in use in the
State, which is 36.4 % of the total number of tanks.
The decline in tank irrigation is taking a serious turn and poses threat to the agricultural economy
of the State. It is estimated that there is an economic return of about Rs 37,500 per ha of area
cultivated under minor irrigation per year. This amounts to a loss of about Rs 2,250 crores per
year for the 6 lakh ha of arable land lost under tank irrigation. This loss is further aggravated as
these tanks also provide other vital uses like domestic and drinking water to the poor people.
Damage done to the vital agriculture infrastructure when cyclones and resultant floods hit is
compounded by the wear and tear of usage. To mitigate the problems the GoAP has initiated a
comprehensive program for restoration of tanks and revitalization of irrigation potential under
them in a decentralized manner through farmer involvement.
Andhra Pradesh has multipurpose dams serving the purposes of irrigation, thermal power and
drinking water. Nagarjuna Sagar dam, Srisailam Project, Nizam Sagar Joorala project, Telugu
Ganga, Nizam Sagar reservoir and Osman Sagar dams are few of the prominent dams. These
dams and barrages are built on Pennar, Musi, Tungabhadra, Godavari and Krishna rivers. Most
of the dams are young and have not experienced any recorded catastrophic breaches. There is a
record of Kaddam Project Dam in Adilabad where breach occurred in 1957-58. The dam was a
composite structure, earth, and/or rock and gravel filled dam. It was 30.78 mt high and 3.28 mt
wide at its crest. The dam was overtopped by 46 cm of water above the crest. This led to a major
breach of 137.2 meters wide on the left bank of the dam. Two more breaches developed on the
right section of the dam.
3.3.9. Vulnerability of Urban areas of the State
Andhra Pradesh is primarily an agricultural state with about 70% of the population depending on
agriculture for livelihood. Increased attention and investment on large, medium and small scale
industries have led to significant growth of urban population. Urban areas in AP include:
Municipal Corporations, municipalities, nagar Panchayats, cantonments boards etc. Out of 7.57
crore people living in Andhra Pradesh (2001 census), 2.05 crores (27.08 per cent) live in urban
areas of the state. The share of urban population in Andhra Pradesh, which can also be taken as
the indicator of degree of urbanization in the state, had increased more than 2.5 times between
1901 and 2001 (10 per cent in 1901 to 27 per cent in 2001).
Increased urbanization has been one of the most prominent features of the society in the postIndustrial Revolution era. While deterioration of environment and the local eco-system becomes
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State Disaster Management Plan

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the direct fallout of this uncontrolled expansion, greater vulnerability to disasters is an added
complication. Most disasters have complex ramifications in urban areas. Added to this is the
threat of dangers like fires, building collapse etc; giving new dimensions to the vulnerability of
urban areas.
Most prominent among the disasters striking urban settlements frequently are floods and fire,
with occasional incidences of earthquakes, and rains associated with cyclone in coastal districts
of the state. Urban seismic risk is compounded due to non-adherence of building codes and lack
of retrofitting to withstand earthquake tremors.
Urban growth in Andhra Pradesh has accelerated alongside its rapid economic growth. Road
accidents due to congestion and increased ratio of vehicle to roads; water-borne diseases; health
related vulnerability in the event of disasters such as floods or earthquakes are a result of
unplanned urban growth in the state.Urban flooding is largely human-caused; water logging due
to clogged up storm drainage systems, expansion in urban settlements without proper planning of
storm and sewer drainage systems lead to waterlogged roads. Years of siltation of tanks;
encroachment of nalas, river beds choke the streams and reduce water storage capacity.
3.3.9.1. Flash floods in Hyderabad
City of Hyderabad experienced unprecedented flooding in August 2000 leading to massive
property damages and some human loss. City of Hyderabad with a population of around 3.82
million (2001 Census) and spread over an area of 55sq.km had severe floods in September 1908;
August 2000 and August 2008. Property losses and human lives lost along with extent of people
affected in these floods is presented in table 22 below. The current water drainage capacity of
Hyderabad is to handle 12 mm/hour rainfall. Clogged up drains, unauthorized encroachments of
moosi river beds and development along river banks that block natural drains further reduce
storm water drainage capacity of the urban areas.
Table 22: Property and other losses in Hyderabad due to floods
(Source: IMD, New Delhi)

Details

28/29 February 1908

23/24 August 2000

8/9/10 August 2008

Rainfall
Property loss/worth

430 mm
80,000 homes

240.5 mm

237 mm
Rs. 49.2 lakhs

Human lives lost


Population affected

1,500
6,00,000

35,693 homes; Rs. 135.0


lakhs

26
2,00,000

Nil
1,50,000

3.3.10. Vulnerability to road accidents


Economic growth and increase in per capita income of the state has resulted in phenomenal
growth in number of motor vehicles in the state. Besides railways, road transportation is the
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principle mode of transportation of majority of the people of the state. Not counting the number
of people losing lives due to boat capsizing, railway accidents, the number of people losing lives
in road accidents in the state is exponentially increasing with increase in number of motor
vehicles registered.
The number of vehicles registered in the state in 1998-99 was 33 lakh. This number has more
than doubled in the past decade to reach 78,71,610 motor vehicles registered in the state. A
natural consequence due to increased vehicles is increase in number of road accidents. Although,
road accidents cannot be construed as disasters per se, the sheer number of human lives lost
makes it comparable to other natural disasters. According to Ministry of Road Transport &
Highways, GoI statistics, between 2004 and 2007, number of people killed in road accidents in
Andhra Pradesh was a staggering 47,396 people. These numbers are much higher in terms of
human lives lost compared to other natural disasters for the same years. Not considering the type
of injury, for the same period of 2004 and 2007, number of injuries reported due to road
accidents were 2,15,241 people.
Department of Transportation and other related government departments in the state need to
initiate community outreach programmes in educating the people on safe driving. Regulatory
mechanisms to ensure road safety; vehicular safety etc. must be ensured. It is outside the scope
of State Disaster Management Plan to undertake comprehensive risk assessment related to road
accidents; however, the plan identifies loss of human lives due to road accidents as a significant
consequence with disastrous proportions.
3.3.11. Mining and non-mining related vulnerability of the State
Andhra Pradesh is home to the Singareni Collieries Company Limited (SCCL). The Singareni
coal reserves stretch across 350 Km of the Pranahita Godavari Valley of Andhra Pradesh with
a proven geological reserves aggregating to whopping 8791 million tonnes. SCCL is currently
operating 13 opencast and 42 underground mines in 4 districts of Andhra Pradesh with
manpower around 78,000. The nature of operations makes the mines vulnerable to mine
accidents.
Table 23: Accidents and fatalities reported at SCCL
(Source: Singareni Collaries Company Limited)

Type of incidents
Fatal accidents
Fatalities
Serious accidents
Serious injuries

2004
11
14
61
163

2005
12
12
787
789

2006
16
19
620
624

2007
10
10
552
557

2008
12
13
420
422

State of Andhra Pradesh


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While accidents in coal mines are a recurring feature, Andhra Pradesh also has high fatalities in
non-coal mining operations. Ministry of Labor & Employment, GoI has a record of five fatal
accidents and eight human losses in non-coal mine accidents in the state. State Disaster
Management Authority (SDMA) should initiate coordination with major coal and non-coal
mining industries in Andhra Pradesh to develop comprehensive plan to manage accidents and
disasters.
All natural hazards are usually followed by epidemics of communicable and non-communicable
diseases like psychological trauma, diarrhea, water-borne diseases etc. Andhra Pradesh is prone
to several health epidemics and biological hazards. Ecological changes and regular impact of
different kinds of natural disasters like floods, cyclones, droughts and weather fluctuations like
heat waves create favorable climate for emergence of new type of pathogenic agents.
Preparedness to meet these hazards is paramount in reducing losses arising out of the outbreaks.
Epidemics among livestock; poor disease surveillance system, lack of trained personnel and
resources and traditional/cultural beliefs resulting in not slaughtering of diseased animals
infected with diseases like Tuberculosis, anthrax etc. are breeding grounds of disease spread
among human habitations.
Andhra Pradesh, due to socio-economic conditions is highly vulnerable to threats such as bombs,
terrorist attacks and sporadic civil (communal) unrest. Urban conglomeration of Hyderabad has
several research institutions both defense related and academic that deal with radioactive and
nuclear materials. SDMA should ensure that these institutions undertake periodic risk assessment
and come up with risk management plans that are specific to their installations. It is beyond the
scope of SDMP to undertake nuclear risk assessment due to sensitive nature and strategic
importance of nuclear installations located in the state.
3.3.12. Landslides
The landslide hazard in Andhra Pradesh is generally confined to Eastern Ghats. Urbanization,
encroachment on hilly slopes and denuding vegetative cover from the slopes are known reasons
causing landslides. Granite quarry mining operations being carried out by a private industry at
Chimakurthi, near Ongole, Prakasam district on February 25, 2010 recorded a major landslide
leading to 20 workers getting buried under the debris (Source: Geological Survey of India, GoI).
Expansion of settlements especially along the roads with steep slopes is one of the important
causes of frequent landslide hazards in the hills besides un protected mining operations. Multi
storied buildings without proper planning along the roads on the steeper slope increase the
vulnerability to landslides.

State of Andhra Pradesh


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3.3.13. Heat Waves


A heat wave is a climatological extremity involving abnormally higher temperature relative to
the normal during the months of April-June. During the year 2003 (between May and June) heat
wave conditions in Andhra Pradesh claimed more than 3,000 lives. Several hundreds more
suffered from heat stroke and related ailments. Large number of poultry, damages to sweet
orange, mango, acid lime crops in an extent of 23,000 hectares were reported. Historically, the
frequency of severe heat waves and the duration of heat wave spells have increased noticeably
since 1994 (Source: Report of the state level committee on Heat Wave conditions in Andhra
Pradesh). Following are the historical record of heat waves recorded in Andhra Pradesh

During 1986-1993, the heat waves were mainly of moderate nature with maximum duration
of seven days. The highest maximum temperature of 47 degrees celcious was recorded at
Rentachintala, Nalgonda and Ramagundam on 11 May 1988.

From 1994 onwards, the frequency of severe heat waves and the duration of heat wave spells
have increased significantly. In 1997 (18 May to 5 June, 1997) and 1998 (23 May to 10 June)
the duration of moderate to severe heat wave spells had extended upto 19 days.

In May 2002, the heat wave conditions, especially in coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh were
markedly severe, where Vijayawada Airport (Gannavaram) recorded the highest maximum
temperature of 48.8 degrees Celsius on 11 May. The heat wave occurred in two separate
spells of seven days and six days.

There is a shift in the trend of highest maximum temperature being recorded from interior
districts of Andhra Pradesh in Telangana to coastal districts of the state.

3.3.13.1. Impacts of Heat Waves


According to government information, the total number of deaths in Andhra Pradesh in 2003 was
3,054. Most of the deaths were from the coastal districts such as East Godavari, Guntur, Krishna,
Nellore, Prakasam and West Godavari; while in Telangana region, the districts affected were
Karimnagar and Nalgonda. The occupational profile of most of the victims was ascertained as
agricultural laborers. From the brief profile of all the victims (compiled by the district
administration) it was observed that the victims were in below poverty level (BPL) category with
outdoor occupations. Four main medical disorders result from excessive exposure to heat waves
such as heat syncope, heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke.
Heat waves have deleterious impacts on both plants and animals. In plants, excessive heat results
in loss of turgor in leaves due to high evaporation. The loss of turgor is maximum during the
windy hours of the day and causes desiccation resulting in dehydration of the plant during the
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| C3 - 30

day. The high temperature and low relative humidity experienced in the state during May 2003
caused total depletion of moisture from leaves and led to the drying of leaves, branches and
finally the whole tree was lost especially in sweet orange and mango crops. Losses to these crops
are presented in table 24 below.
Table 24: Loss of horticultural crops due to excessive heat of May 2003
(Source: Report of the state level committee on Heat Wave conditions in Andhra Pradesh)

Crop
Mango
Sapota
Sweet Orange
Acid lime
Cashew
Pomegranate
Total

Damaged area
(Ha.)
7,322.86
27.86
12,741
2,657.69
307.0
19
23,075.41

Number of
plants damaged
6,66,233
2,297
21,96,347
2,52,066
23,085
3,800
31,43,828

3.3.14. Forest Fires


The recorded forest area of Andhra Pradesh is 63,814 sq.km, which is 23.2% of the geographic
area of the State (Source: 2009 AP Statistical Abstract). By legal status, Reserved Forests
constitute 79.1%, Protected Forests 19.4% and un-classed forests 1.5%. Man-made causes such
as illegal tree felling and forest fires are the primary causes of forest degradation. Large forest
areas and grasslands are burnt every year due to natural as well as human-caused fires. Andhra
Pradesh has wide variety of forest types with different species composition with species like
Teak, Terminalia, Anogeissus, Bamboo, Dalbergia, Lannea, Red Sanders etc. The leaf fall starts
towards the end of December. The combination of dry leaves on the ground along with naturally
dried grass are prone to combustion and triggers fires leading to loss of hectares of forest land.
To develop a proper forest fire management and information on forest fire prone areas, the Forest
Department has developed forest zonation based on the risk and vulnerability. Forest fire
zonation of some of the forest divisions in Andhra Pradesh are appended in Annexure XVIII.

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3.4. Vulnerability of critical infrastructure on natural hazards


A. Potential effects of natural hazards on water supply system
Type of hazard
High winds

Infrastructure affected
- Reservoirs
- Over head cables

Storm surge

Earthquake

Treatment works
Pumping stations
Reservoirs
Groundwater
availability
Transmission mains
Irrigation canals
Pumping stations below
and above ground
Distribution system

Impact
- Wave surge
- Over topping of
dams blown down
- Flooding
- Structural failure of
dams
- Liquefaction of
deposits
- Line fracture
- Damaged canals
- Damage
- Pipe fracture

Consequences
Endangered dams
Power and telecom
failure
Close down of
pumping stations
Loss of supply,
flooding damage
Fracture of wells,
water supply failure
Supply disruption
Supply disruption
Loss of operation,
reduced output &
closure

B. Potential effects of natural hazards on electricity generation and distribution


Type of hazard
High winds
Storm surge
Heavy rain

Earthquake

Infrastructure affected
Transmission towers and
power lines
Power generating
stations, cooling towers
and sub-stations
Distribution lines
(overhead)
Power generating stations
and other facilities
Distribution cables
Reservoirs
Power generating stations
and other facilities
Dams
Generating power
stations, sub-stations,
other facilities
Distribution lines

Impact
- Collapsed towers and
power lines
- Damage and partial
collapse
- Collapsed lines
- Flooding and damage
to equipments
- Flooding
- Overtopping of dams
- Flooding
- Damage from ground
failure and motions
- Damage from ground
failure and loss of
machinery;
equipment due to
tremors
- Collapse of power
lines and pole
transformers

Consequences
- Loss of power supply
- Loss of power
supply, disrupted
power supply
- Loss of power supply
- Shut down
- Loss of power supply
- Possible progressive
failure
- Loss of power supply
- Loss of power supply
- Loss of power supply

- Loss of power supply


in local areas

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C. Potential effects of natural hazards on communication systems


Type of hazard
High winds

Infrastructure affected
- Radio and TV towers

Impact
- Transmission
disruption

- Overhead cables
- Serving of cables
Earthquake

- Radio and TV towers;


overhead cables
facilities

- Damage and partial


collapse
- Loss of service
- Damage/collapse;
collapse of poles;
severed cables
equipments

- Underground cables
- Telephone exchanges

Heavy rain

- Radio and TV towers;


Underground cables
- Telephone exchanges

Strom surge

- Radio and TV towers


- Overhead cables
facilities

- Damage to cables
and broken ducts

Consequences
- Disruption or loss
of transmission
capability
- Transmission loss
- Transmission loss
- Complete loss of
transmission
- High fault rate and
loss of service
- Total loss of
service; long-term
loss of services

- Dislocated printed
circuit boards;
collapse of building
- Interference with
- Temporary loss of
signal path and
service
flooding
- Loss of services
- Flooding
- Flood damage to
- Complete loss of
radio equipments
transmission
- Collapse of poles,
severed cables

- Underground cables

- Loss of service
- High fault rate

- Flooding
- Telephone exchanges
- Flooding and major
damage

- Total loss of
service

State of Andhra Pradesh


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| C3 - 33

3.5. Conclusion
The State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) will undertake scenario-based risk
assessment and vulnerability of the districts to each of the disasters where possible using the
scientific methodologies available involving computer simulation and modeling methods.
NDMA has initiated a nation-wide Hazard Risk & Vulnerability Analysis (HRVA); Andhra
Pradesh is one of the states where this assessment will be carried out.
Premier research institutions such as Indian Institutes of Technology, National Remote Sensing
Agency (NRSA), Andhra Pradesh State Remote Sensing Application Center (APSRAC),
National Geological Research Institute (NGRI) and others have the capacity to undertake
technology-driven risk assessment in the state. The NDMAs process of risk and vulnerability
assessment in the state will be complemented by the capacities of the premier institutes.
When independent Hazard Risk & Vulnerability Analysis (HRVA) of NDMA is completed the
findings of the analysis specific to state will be incorporated to the SDMP. Similarly,
administration heads and concerned departments at the districts may need to undertake districtspecific HRVA and tie up such analysis with the District Disaster Management Plans.

State of Andhra Pradesh


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Chapter 4.0
Preparedness Measures

Chapter 4.0
4.1. Preparedness Measures
Disaster preparedness involves forecasting and taking precautionary measures prior to an
imminent threat when advance warnings are possible. Preparedness planning improves the
response to the effects of a disaster by organizing the delivery of timely and effective rescue,
relief and assistance. Preparedness involves the development and regular testing of warning
systems (linked to forecasting systems) and plans for evacuation or other measures to be taken
during a disaster alert period to minimize potential loss of life and physical damage.
A critical component of preparedness is education and training of officials and the population at
risk, training of intervention teams, and establishment of policies, standards, organizational
arrangements and operational plans to be applied following a disaster.
4.2. Disaster specific preparedness
4.2.1. Cyclones
4.2.1.1. Existing Cyclone shelters
Buildings designated as cyclone shelters or exclusively constructed structures become critical
during cyclone landfall in coastal districts. Cyclone shelters are considered important
infrastructure in determining the preparedness of coastal villages that are prone to cyclones in
coastal districts. Different departments such as Panchayati Raj, Roads & Buildings and other
agencies have built cyclone shelters in the nine coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh. The
Financial Investment Proposal submitted by GoAP to Government of India under NCRMP
(shown in Table 25) will further augment this key infrastructure in mitigating the impact of
cyclones. There are around 1,136 cyclone shelters built in as many villages in the nine coastal
districts between 1978 and 2000 as shown in Fig 17. Table 25 below shows district-wide
breakdown of number of cyclone shelters, distance of the shelter from sea coast, year built and
plinth area covered is presented. The average distance of the cyclone shelters from the sea coast
in each of the coastal districts is shown in figure 18 below; Srikakulam has the shortest distance
at 1.85 kilometers from the seacoast and Krishna has the longest distance at 13.62 kilometers. A
list of cyclone shelters is included in Annexure XV.

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Table 25: Details of district-wide


d
e villages wiith cyclone shelters
s
(Source: Revenue
R
(Disaster Management II) Departm
ment)

Diistrict

Number off
villages with
h
cyclone
shelters

Aveerage
distancce of the
shelter from
f
sea
coast (in
( km.)

Built year
B
d
duration

P
Plinth
area
ccoverage in
sq. km.

139

1.85

1982-93

1,171.1

42

4.36

1982-93

2,164.8

146

4.42

1978-93

177.32

170

4.68

1979-00

112.93

66

100.20

1978-99

Not available

166

13.62

1978-98

430.32

120

7.15

1979-85

1,786.55

90
191
6

2.83
4.61

1979-99
1980-99
1998-00

Not available

Srikakuulam
Vizianagaram
Visakhhapatnam
East Godavari
West Godavari
G
Krishnna
Gunturr
Prakasam
Nelloree
Khamm
mam

Not avvailable

149.86
Not available

Department/
Agency
constructeed

IRCS, R&B
B,
PR
IRCS, R&B
B,
PR
IRCS, R&B
B,
PR
IRCS, R&B
B,
PR
IRCS, R&B
B,
PR
IRCS, R&B
B,
PR **
IRCS, R&B
B,
PR
IRCS, PR
IRCS, PR
PR

Fig
g 17: Detailss of district-w
wide villages with cycloone shelters
(Source: Revenue
R
(Disaaster Managem
ment II) Departm
ment)
N
Number
of villlages with cycclone shelters
200
150
100
50
0

Numberrofvillageswitthcycloneshelters

State of And
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State Disasteer Management Plan
P

| C44 - 2

Fig 18: Average


A
distaance of cycloone shelters from the Seea coast (in km.)
k
(Source: Revenue
R
(Disaster Management II) Departm
ment)

Average disstance of thee shelter from


m sea coast (in
( km.)
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

Averagedistaanceofthesheelterfromseaccoast(in

Fig 19: A typical cycclone shelterr with accesss road

State of And
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State Disasteer Management Plan
P

| C44 - 3

4.2.1.2. Cyclone warning centers (CWC)


Early warning of cyclones based on technology is critical in reducing the risk and planning for
evacuation of villages. India Meteorological Department (IMD) has been entrusted with this
function since its inception in 1875. Early warning of cyclone in 1865 actually preceded setting
up of IMD in 1875. In 1864, two severe cyclonic storms in quick succession hit the east coast of
India, causing enormous loss of human lives and property the first one struck Kolkata in
October and the second one struck Machilipatnam in November. Concerned with these disasters,
the Government appointed a committee in 1865 to formulate a scheme to develop system of
cyclone warnings. On the recommendations of the committee, Kolkata became the first port
where a storm warning system was established in 1865.
In 1969, the Government of India appointed a committee called the Cyclone Distress Mitigation
Committee (CDMC) for Andhra Pradesh among other states, to examine various measures to
mitigate human suffering and reduce loss of life and property due to cyclonic storms. The
Cyclone Distress Mitigation Committees for Andhra Pradesh and Orissa recommended in 197172 that the India Meteorological Department would establish storm warning centers at
Visakhapatnam and Bhubaneswar for issuing cyclone warnings to coastal Andhra Pradesh and
coastal Orissa respectively (IMD). These centers were later renamed to be called Cyclone
Warning Centers (CWCs).
The present organizational structure for cyclone warnings is a three-tier one, with the
ACWCs/CWCs actually performing the operational work of issuing the bulletins and warnings to
the various user interests, while the cyclone warnings (Directorate) New Delhi and the Deputy
Director General of Meteorology (Weather Forecasting), through Weather Central, Pune
coordinates and guides the work of the ACWCs/CWCs.
4.2.1.3. Preparation of Cyclone forecasts
The important components of cyclone warning are the forecast of future path, intensity and the
associated destructive weather such as strong winds, heavy rainfall and associated storm surge.
For the preparation of forecast of path of cyclone and storm surges, the modern methods which
utilize computer modelling are used in addition to conventional methods. For the intensity
forecast, satellite techniques are used.
4.2.1.4. Two-stage warning system
The cyclone warnings are provided in two stages. In the first stage, a cyclone alert is issued 48
hours before the commencement of adverse weather along coastal districts. In the second stage, a
cyclone warning is issued 24 hours before the cyclones anticipated landfall. Cyclone warning
bulletins are generally a priority message for exchange of tropical cyclone information and
advisories. The ports and fisheries warnings start much earlier. Ports are warned day and night
State of Andhra Pradesh
State Disaster Management Plan

| C4 - 4

with a specially designed port warning system. Information bulletins are issued for TV
broadcasting, All Indian Radio (AIR) as soon as tropical cyclones are detected in the Bay of
Bengal (BMTPC, Vulnerability Atlas of India).
4.2.1.5. Dissemination of cyclone warnings
Cyclone warnings are disseminated by the following means:

Telegrams with highest priority


Telecast of warning bulletins through TV broadcasting
Broadcast of information through AIR
Bulletins to the press
Broadcast through Postal and Telegraphs (P&T) coastal radio stations for ship in high seas
and coastal areas
INSAT based Disaster Warning System

4.2.1.6. Disaster Warning Systems (DWS)


Telecommunication network and other conventional networks like P & T services are the first
casualty during disastrous situations such as high speed winds, heavy rainfall etc. To overcome
this difficulty, Disaster Warning Systems (DWS) are in place. Through this system rapid and
direct dissemination of cyclone warnings are made through INSAT satellite to designated
addresses at isolated places in Telugu. In the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, DWS receptors
have been installed and relaying distress information.
Cyclone warning is a priority message containing tropical cyclone warning and advisories issued
generally 24 hours in advance of the commencement of adverse weather. Depending on the
nature and wind speed, following different warnings are issued: Low pressure area, Depression
or deep depression, Cyclone with moderate wind speed and Cyclone with a core of hurricane
wind. The criteria followed by the Indian Meteorological Department to classify the low pressure
systems in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea as adopted from the World Meteorological
Organization (W.M.O.) classifications are as given in the following table.
Category
Super Cyclonic Storm
Very Severe Cyclonic Storm
Severe Cyclonic Storm
Cyclonic Storm
Deep Depression
Depression
Low Pressure Area

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

Wind speed (km per hour)


222
119 to 221
89 to 118
62 to 88
50 to 61
31 to 49
< 31

| C4 - 5

Depending on the intensity of the cyclone and winds, different departments will have different
roles in alerting the community. While the fisheries department will have to work closely with
Revenue (Disaster Management) Department in alerting and issuing advisories to the fishermen,
farmers will receive similar advisories from agriculture department and district administration in
coordination with the Revenue (DM) Department.
4.2.2. Flood preparedness
Flooding is caused by the inadequate capacity within the banks of the rivers to contain high
flows brought down from upper catchment due to heavy rainfall. Areas with poor drainage
characteristics get flooded by accumulation of water from heavy rainfall. Flooding is accentuated
by erosion and silting of the river beds resulting in reduction of carrying capacity of river
channel; earthquakes and landslides leading to changes in river courses, obstructions to flow,
synchronization of floods in the main and tributary rivers and retardation due to tidal effects.
Use of embankments as flood protection measures is common. A number of well-planned
embankments were constructed on some of the rivers in Andhra Pradesh, which were causing
recurrent flood damage. These measures were largely to give protection to the deltaic tracts of
east flowing rivers in Andhra Pradesh. Table 26 below shows the extent of embankments in
Andhra Pradesh compared to the country.
Table 26: Embankment and drainage channel length in Andhra Pradesh and the Country
(Source: Center for Disaster Preparedness, Dr. MCR HRD IAP, Hyderabad)

State and Country

Maximum flood prone


area (Mill Ha.)

AP
India

1.4
36.7

Length of
embankments (kms.)

572
16,200

Length of drainage
channels (kms.)

13,569
32,003

4.2.2.1. Flood Management


Andhra Pradesh has strong flood monitoring system. The office of Engineer-in-Chief, Irrigation
Department administers flood control room and relays information such as reservoir levels,
inflows, outflows, capacities, gate opening positions etc. to all district collectors and other
stakeholders. The flood control room operates round the clock between June and December of
every year. The flood review committee under the chairmanship of Secretary, Irrigation and
Command Area Development (I&CAD) reviews the reservoir status and forecasts floods in the
state. Review is done on a day-to-day basis especially during monsoon season between June and
December. As shown in the figure 20 below, there are eight major reservoirs (including
Nagarjuna Sagar, Thungabhadra, Sriram Sagar, Singur, Jurala, Somasila, NSR Sagar and
Kandaleru). The geographical area affected by floods does not remain static every year. Because
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of the asynchronous nature of the floods, prediction and management of floods is a challenge in
Andhra Pradesh.
The main thrust of flood protection measures undertaken in Andhra Pradesh are in the nature of
structural measures like

Embankment, flood walls


Construction of dams and reservoirs
Natural detention basin
Channel and drainage improvement measures
Diversion of flood waters

Among non-structural measures, initiatives such as flood plain zoning and flood proofing are
undertaken. Flood plain zoning aims at disseminating information on a wider basis so as to
regulate indiscriminate and unplanned development in flood plains and is relevant both for
unprotected as well as protected area. Additional non-traditional flood management measures are
discussed in details in section 5.11 of Chapter 5.

Contd

State of Andhra Pradesh


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Fig 20: Reservoir/da


R
am, embankm
ment and areeas liable to floods in AP
P including surge
s
heightt (m)
((Source: BMTPC,
B
MoH
HUPA, Vulneraability Atlas off India)
4.2.2.2. Flood
F
Foreccasting
Among the non-strucctural measuures of flood managemennt, flood foreecasting is veery effectivee and
w
the rivver is
has wide acceptance of the public. Flood foreecasting enaables forewarrning as to where
d plain, to whhat extent annd for how loong the floodd waters willl stay in the
going to use its flood
flood plaain zones. Th
he system unnder Central Water Comm
mission (CW
WC) is largelly on major
interstatee rivers and states
s
suppleement these by
b their ownn efforts at other
o
stationss. With reliabble
advance information warning aboout impendinng floods, looss of humann lives and moveable
m
propertiees and human
n miseries caan be reduceed to a considerable exteent. People and
a livestockk can
be shiftedd to safer plaaces. Similarrly, valuablee moveable properties
p
caan be removeed to safer places
p
beyond areas
a
likely to
t be inundatted.
As shownn in Table 28, Andhra Pradesh has eleven
e
flood forecasting stations alonng Godavarii and
Krishna rivers
r
flowin
ng through thhe state. As in other partts of India, flood
fl
forecassting done byy
State of And
dhra Pradesh
State Disasteer Management Plan
P

| C44 - 8

CWC as well as Andhra Pradesh specific every-day water level forecasting is proving critical
tools in accurate flood forecasting. Information such as the water levels crossing danger levels as
shown in Table 29 for Godavari when relayed to field officers and district administration,
evacuation plans and other mitigation measures could be used efficiently in managing floods and
evacuation.
Table 27: River basin-wide surface and ground water details (in Km3) & * cubic meters
(Source: Central Water Commission and Rashtriya Barh Ayog)

Name of
River basin

Godavari
Krishna
Pennar

Av annual
surface water
potential

Estimated
utilizable flow
(groundwater
(excluded)

Total
replenishable
groundwater
resources

Per capita
available
surface
water*

Per capita
surface and
groundwater*

110.54
78.12
6.32

76.30
58.00
6.86

40.65
26.41
4.93

2,048
1,285
652

2,801
1,720
1,160

Table 28: Number of flood forecasting stations and per cent of area liable to floods
(Source: Central Water Commission (CWC) and Rashtriya Barh Ayog)
Geographical area
of the state

Area liable to
flood (m. ha.)

% of area
liable to flood

Area protected (m.ha.)


(per RBA)

No. of Flood
Forecasting stations

27.51

1.39

5.05

0.700

11

Table 29: Flood warning levels and danger levels of Godavari


(Center for Disaster Preparedness, Dr. MCR HRD IAP)

Name of the place


Kaleswaram
Eturunagaram
Dummugudem
Bhadrachalam
Kunavaram
Dawaleshwaram
Sukma

Warning level
12.170 mts.
8.500 mts.
8.000 mts
43.00 ft.
40.00 ft.
3.580 mts.
11.00 mts.

Danger level
15.750 mts
12.000 mts
10.000 mts.
53.00 ft.
44.00 ft.
5.140 mts.
12.00 mts.

4.2.3. Fire preparedness


Fire and Emergency Department of Government of Andhra Pradesh has the mandate of
mitigating fire hazards in the state. Primary functions identified by the department meet many
disaster preparedness measures transcending beyond state-wide fire hazards. Key functions of
the department are:

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The Department plays a vital role in the area of fire fighting and fire prevention. Apart from fire
fighting, the department also undertakes rescue operations and saves hundreds of people,
marooned in floods, trapped in the debris of fallen buildings, road and rail accidents and other
natural and human-caused disasters.
The department renders advice on observing fire safety measures and methods to implement
them. It conducts awareness programmes on fire prevention and fire safety in all the hazardous
premises and propagating fire prevention measures to the rural and urban population. There are
319 fire fighting vehicles and appliances stationed at 251 Fire Stations in twenty-three districts of
the State. All the Fire Stations respond to fire and emergency calls promptly at free of cost.
Ambulance services are available in thirteen Fire Stations. The sick and injured are shifted to
hospitals for immediate medical aid at reasonable cost.
Inventory of fire stations, contact address and numbers along with fire fighting instruments are
appended in Annexure II. Also appended under Annexure II a is copy of the Fire Service Act.
The department also has detailed guidelines to practice and exercise mock drills for apartments,
commercial buildings, businesses and educational buildings. The guidelines to conduct mock
drills are appended in Annexure II b. Self-appraisal/checklist for fire safety measures for hotels,
pharmaceutical industries, fire cracker industries, chemical industries, educational buildings and
saw-mills & timber warehouses is appended as Annexure III.
4.2.4. Heat wave preparedness
Some districts of Andhra Pradesh are vulnerable to heat waves and/or excessive heat. By and
large every village is covered by a health worker and medical camps are organized from time to
time to familiarize the vulnerable groups about the effects of heat-wave and their medical
consequences. Depending on the gravity of the cases, the health workers recommend cases to
government health centers/ main hospitals.
4.2.4.1. Relief arrangements
In addition to medical arrangements Chalivendrams (Drinking water camps) are also provided
by the Government and by voluntary organizations in areas where more number of people work
and require drinking water. In absence of community halls for resting during mid-day the
government also provides shelters.
4.2.4.2. Forecasting and dissemination of heat-related parameters
At present the IMD center in Hyderabad issues district-wise warnings to vulnerable districts on
the likely hood of heat wave conditions prevailing and the duration. These warnings are
disseminated through all leading regional as well as national newspapers. All India Radio (AIR),
TV channels carry these warnings extensively. On many occasions senior Meteorological
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Officials discuss the severity of heat waves through TV channels in order to provide greater
awareness and publicity. The district administration takes follow-up measures for generating
intensive awareness among vulnerable people.
4.2.5. Medical preparedness and mass casualty management
Medical preparedness is a crucial component of state disaster management plan. The State
Disaster Management Authority in close coordination with the Department of Health, state
medical institutes and premier private medical institutions will formulate policy guidelines to
enhance capacity in emergency medical response and mass casualty management. Disaster
management plans for hospitals will include developing and training of medical teams and
paramedics, capacity building, trauma and psycho-social care, mass casualty management and
triage. The surge and casualty handling capacity of all hospitals at the time of disasters will be
worked out and recorded through a consultative process by all mandals and districts in the predisaster phase. The district hospitals and PHCs will be encouraged to formulate appropriate
procedures for treatment of casualties during disasters; private hospitals will also be encouraged
to prepare similar plans. These plans will also address post-disaster disease surveillance systems,
networking with hospitals, referral institutions and accessing services and facilities such as
availability of ambulances and blood banks.
Creation of mobile surgical teams, mobile hospitals and heli-ambulances for evacuation of
patients is a crucial component of disaster management efforts. EMRI services, private
ambulance operators, St. Johns ambulance services, and where available the Accident Relief
Medical Vans (ARMVs) of the Railways will be utilized for emergency medical response.
Proper and speedy disposal of dead bodies and animal carcasses will be given due attention in
the guidelines.
4.2.6. District disaster management plans (DDMP)
All districts in the state of Andhra Pradesh are mandated to prepare District Disaster
Management Plans (DDMPs); districts that have prepared plans already, the plans will be
updated in line with SDMP. When emergencies impact the state (see previous sections in
Chapter 3), the preparedness mechanisms at the district, mandal, village level are most crucial in
combating the emergency. When DDMPs are prepared, scientific analysis of vulnerability to
different disasters along with current preparedness will be included in the plan. Similarly,
assessing current preparedness mechanisms, gaps and needs from capacity and equipment,
technology perspectives will also be part of the DDMPs. To facilitate vulnerability assessment of
the districts and assess structural damages that result due to floods and cyclones, templates to use
have been included as annexure V a (for floods), V b (for earthquakes) and V c (for cyclones) to
this plan.
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4.2.7. Financial preparedness to meet post disaster relief efforts


4.2.7.1. Calamity Relief Fund (CRF)
Calamity Relief Fund (CRF) is set up to meet the expenditure for providing immediate relief to
the victims of cyclone, drought, earthquake, fire, flood, tsunami, hailstorm, landslide, cloudburst
and pest attack. Government of India contributes 75% of the yearly allocation in the form of nonplan grant and remaining 25% is covered by the state government. Outlay of funds in
consultation with the state government is allocated by the Finance Commission. For example for
the financial year of 2006-07, the twelfth Finance Commission had recommended an outlay of
Rs 361.28 crores. In the event of shortfall of funds, on the request of the state government,
additional financial assistance from National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF) is provided by
the Government of India.
4.2.7.2. Apathbandhu
Apathbandhu scheme to provide financial insurance to people falling below poverty line (BPL)
was introduced in 1998-99 for the age group of 18-69 years. Eligibility criteria and nature of
death determine financial support provided under this scheme. Below Poverty Line (BPL)
families are covered under the scheme for deaths resulting from accidents caused by external,
violent and visible means. Deaths due to floods, cyclones and other disasters have also been
traditionally been covered under this scheme. The Government of Andhra Pradesh through a
MoU with General Insurance Company Limited provides financial support. Insurance period is
covered from October 2nd of every year to October 1st of subsequent year. Target for the policy
period for the State is decided depending on the number of deaths reported during the previous
year and district wise target is fixed on pro rata basis.
Insurance schemes especially focused on fishermen as preparedness measures will be promoted;
similar schemes to cover the hutments and accidental deaths due to fires and heat waves will be
promoted.
4.2.7.3. Universal Health Insurance Scheme for Tsunami affected families
As a result of 2004 tsunami, an estimated 2.11 lakh people from nine districts were impacted. In
association with United Insurance Company Limited, Government of India initiated Tsunami Jan
Bhima Yojana Scheme to cover tsunami affected families. Under the scheme unique health cards
were issued to 65,069 people in Andhra Pradesh. The scheme covered families with five people
in a family; comprehensive cover for health and accidents; personal accident death cover for the
head of the family. A maximum ceiling of Rs. 30,000 claim per year was fixed and for illness the
ceiling was at Rs. 15,000 per year. Government of India (GoI) contributed Rs. 3.01 crores to
cover 60,231 people @ Rs 500 per family.
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4.3. Community Based Disaster Management (CBDM)


The need for community based disaster management (CBDM) stems from the inadequacy of topdown management approaches in addressing the needs of vulnerable communities. Increase in
disaster occurrence and disaster related loss is due to exponential increase in occurrence of small
and medium scale disasters such as flash floods or low-key cyclones affecting coastal districts of
Andhra Pradesh. AP SDMP encourages directly involving vulnerable communities in planning
and implementation of mitigation measures. The bottom-up approach has received wide
acceptance because communities are considered the best judges of their own vulnerability and
are in better position to make decisions for their well-being.
A thorough assessment of a communitys exposure to hazards and an analysis of their specific
vulnerabilities and capacities will be the basis for activities, projects and programs of CDBM.
Because a community will be involved right from the inception of CBDM, community needs as
well as resources available locally are optimally used and disaster mitigation planning will be
sound. This will contribute in strengthening communitys capacities; ensures livelihood security
and sustainable development. CBDM emphasizes the importance of community as the primary
stakeholder in risk reduction and development process.
4.3.1. Community Based Disaster Management (CBDM) will have following essential
features
1. The focus of attention in long-term and short-term disaster management will be the local
community. Disaster risk or vulnerability reduction will be the foundation of CBDM. The
primary content of disaster management activities revolve around reducing vulnerable
conditions and removing root causes of vulnerability. This is achieved through strengthening
communitys capacity and by providing disaster mitigation resources such as readily
accessible cyclone shelters.
2. Enhanced risks due to poorly planned development programmes turn minor emergencies into
disasters. Adopting CBDM approach in managing disasters contribute to peoples empowerment
by way of physical safety; guaranteed access and more on resources; promotes communitys
participation in decision making related to risk reduction.

3. In CBDM approach, community is a key resource in disaster risk reduction. Priority is given
to improve the conditions of the most vulnerable mobilization/evacuation to safe places.
4. CBDM brings together the multitude of community stakeholders for disaster risk reduction;
enables expansion of resource base. Linking up communities that are most vulnerable with
key systems such as early warning mechanisms, resource mobilization etc. at state and
central government will be critical to the success of CBDM approach.

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Before designing and implementing Community Based Disaster Management (CBDM)


programmes, proper identification of vulnerable communities will be undertaken; the focus will
be identifying vulnerable households. To enrich communitys involvement in risk reduction, self
risk assessment exercises will be carried out. There are specific tools and methods that make the
process of self community risk assessment most effective. Table 30 summarizes these tools.
Table 30: Tools and methods in the process of identifying community risk assessment
Tools

Description
Collection of relevant information from published or unpublished
Review of secondary
sources
data
Direct observation

Systematic observation of people and relationships, objects, events,


processes

Semi-structured
interviews

Informal discussions with the community members using a flexible


guide of questionsinterviews, group discussions

Drama, role play and


Acting out a particular situation
simulations
Drawing maps, diagrams, etc. to illustrate, analyze, make relations or
draw trends. Historical profile, mapping, modeling, transect, seasonal
Diagramming and
calendar, institutional and social network analysis, livelihood/ class
visualization tools
analysis, problem tree, gendered resource mapping are some
examples of diagrammatic tools

4.4. Needs and gap analysis of key government departments for disaster preparedness
There is a shift in the policies of state as well as central governments approach to manage
disasters and emergencies from relief centric response to preparedness. To achieve this goal on
the ground requires assessing current strengths, capacities and preparedness of the departments
and identifying gaps and needs to prepare the departments to realize their potential in optimizing
the meager resources. The SDMP will provide a general frame work in the assessment of the
needs of each department and identifies the gaps; it is for the respective departments to undertake
an elaborate exercise of undertaking self-assessment of their capacities, current strengths and
identify gaps. Preparing action plans along with budgetary requirements to be submitted to the
Government of Andhra Pradesh is mandated to every government department. Table 31 presents
the needs that may arise in rural as well as urban areas of the state under the categories of food
(relief supplies), water, sanitation, health and shelter needs. A similar framework may be
developed and used when the departments undertake needs and gap analysis as part of the action
plan and preparation of standard operating procedures (SOPs).
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Table 31: Sector-wide needs and gap analysis of key Andhra Pradesh government departments
Sectors in
which needs
may arise
Food, Cash
Income

Key Government
Departments
Dept of public
distribution/Revenue
Department ofAgriculture
Department of Revenue
Department of Health
Dept of Health; Revenue

Health
services

Water supplies

Sanitation

Shelter and
other needs
Essential
Infrastructure
Roads
Power
Water

Dept of Health & Local


bodies
Dept of Health & Local
bodies
Dept of Health & Local
bodies
Dept of Health & Local
bodies
ULBs & Local bodies
ULBs & Local bodies

Needs and Gaps


Short-term general ration distribution

Sudden
disaster/emergencies
Cy
Fl
Ea
Ep
U/R

Agriculture production
Long-term selective provision of
employment & food
Reinforcement of management and
personnel
Reconstruction, transport and
equipment

U/R
U/R

U/R
U/R

Immunization
Diarrhea control
Distribution, storage, treatment
Rehabilitation/development of water
source
Garbage/refuse disposal

U
U

ULBs & Local bodies

Personal hygiene

ULBs & Local bodies

Vector control

Department of Revenue

Emergency cyclone shelters

Department of Revenue

House Reconstruction

Department of Revenue

Blankets/other supplies

Department of Revenue

Household utensils etc.


Construction and maintenance
strategic plan

U - Primarily in urban areas


R - Primarily in Rural areas; U/R Both Urban
and Rural

Medicines and other supplies


Surveillance for communicable
diseases

Sludge/Sewer disposal

Public Health and


Municipal Engineering

U/R

ULBs & Local bodies

APTRANSCO

U/R

U/R

ULBs & Local bodies

Roads and Buildings Dept

U/R

U/R

U/R

U/R
U/R

U/R

U/R

U/R

U/R

U/R

U/R

U/R

U/R

Maintenance and reconstruction plan


Water purification, disinfection

U/R

Cy - Cylones; Fl - Floods
Ea - Earthquakes; Ep Epidemics:
Fi - Fires

4.5. Civil Defense (CD)


The Civil Defense being a community based voluntary organization can, in addition to rescue,
relief and rehabilitation, also play a stellar role in the field of public awareness and also
community capacity building to face any disaster situation. The present role of Civil Defense, in
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State Disaster Management Plan

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terms of the Civil Defense Act, is to provide protection to individuals, properties and
establishments against any hostile act. However, vide order dated 5 September, 2003 the MHA
conveyed its approval to the state governments to utilize the services of Civil Defense volunteers
for mitigation, prevention and preparedness for disaster as also for response and relief after a
disaster has struck. In pursuance of this order, Civil Defense is already being utilized by some of
the states not only in response activities during disaster, but also in pre-disaster activities,
particularly in the field of community capacity building and generating public awareness.
Existing Civil Defense structure
In its instructions issued from time to time, the GoI has authorized the scale of permanent Civil
Defense staff at state, district and town levels. The smallest unit of Civil Defense is a Division,
per 2,00,000 of population. The existing staff authorization at different levels of the
administrative units in the states is:
Town Level: One Division, per 2,00,000 of population, or part thereof, consisting of two Civil
Defense instructors, one clerk and one messenger. The Civil Defense instructors in the divisions
are the primary trainers of the enrolled volunteers.
District Level: One Deputy Controller of Civil Defense with support staff (12 persons). The
Controller of Civil Defense at district level is District Magistrate, ex officio.
State Level: Directorate of Civil Defense is headed by Director Civil Defense. While in some of
the states, there are separate Directorates for Home Guards and Civil Defense in many states, a
combined Directorate of Home Guards and Civil Defense is authorized.
In view of the new policy measures, following changes are made to the existing structure of Civil
Defense. The district headquarters will be the hub of all CD related activities; the reach of the
Civil Defense at the grass roots level is expected to be achieved through proper selection of
persons with commitment for community service as Wardens by the district level CD officers
assisted by Chief Wardens, Divisional Wardens and Post Wardens. Some of the target groups,
from among whom Wardens may be selected are ex-service personnel, office bearers of
PRIs/RWAs and professionals, etc. These Wardens, after basic training, would become the keyresource persons for training the community and raising a cadre of volunteers.
In consonance with the new role envisaged for Civil Defense, the capability of the Civil Defense
staff wardens and volunteers to deal with disaster situations will be enhanced through training, to
be eventually utilized during disasters. Quick Response Teams (QRTs) will be set up for specific
functions such as search and rescue, fire rescue and first aid. The concept of QRT would not only
ensure the active involvement of Civil Defense in emergency management activities, but would
also enhance its profile by allowing it to act as the first responder to disasters. The composition

State of Andhra Pradesh


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of QRTs (for districts) will comprise of 2 Leaders; 4 Members (Wardens/Volunteers) and 1


Driver (A van/SUV to be authorized).
Andhra Pradesh has two categorized Civil Defense towns at present: Hyderabad-Secunderabad
(Category II) and Visakhapatnam (Category II). With the inclusion of Disaster Management as
the primary responsibility of the Civil Defense, the concept and orientation of Civil Defense
coverage will change from town specific to district specific with the area of responsibility
covering the entire district. In this changed concept, in the long run, all the twenty-three districts
of the state will have Civil Defense coverage because no district in the state may be considered
to be fully safe from disasters. The existing central training institute (for civil Defense and home
guards), Hyderabad will be further strengthened and expanded to impart training to district based
civil Defense teams.
4.5.1. Synergizing efforts and resources of various agencies involved
The youth organizations namely, NCC, NSS, and NYKS have the inherent advantage of reach at
the grass-roots level and also have the advantage of ready availability for immediate assistance at
the ground level in the event of any disaster. In the present system, the District Collector, in the
capacity of controller of Civil Defense, invariably gets in touch with the concerned
NCC/NSS/NYKS authorities for pooling of resources in the event of occurrence of a disaster. To
synergize and consolidate the efforts and resources of the various agencies, following actions
will be undertaken:
(i) Establishment of reliable and speedy communication channels between the concerned
authorities (DDMA/Deputy Controller of Civil Defense) and chief coordinators of these
organizations in the districts in view of the special requirements arising out of emergency
situations.
(ii) Preparation of a district-wise directory of the concerned authorities of NCC/NSS/NYKS and
Civil Defense, giving complete details of the officers in-charge.
4.5.2. Capacity building measures for developing trained human resource for civil Defense
The cadres of NCC/NSS are essentially voluntary comprising school and college students. In
both cases students are part of these organizations for a limited period of 2 to 3 years. Further, it
is not advisable to enlist the junior segments of these organizations for Disaster Management
operations. The availability of the services of the senior segment of NCC/NSS is purely
voluntary exercise. The NYKS, on the other hand, can provide the most stable volunteer group
for Disaster Management efforts.
In this back drop, efforts will be focused primarily towards capacity building measures of these
organisations. In other words, the NCC/NSS/NYKS cadres will be given appropriately designed
modules on Disaster Management in order to train them and equip them suitably for assisting in
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Disaster Management efforts as responsible citizens. In order to achieve this preparedness


measure, the following measures will be undertaken:
Specific training modules designed by the National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) on
Disaster Management along with relevant training aids/material/ literature for the
NCC/NSS/NYKS trainers and coordinators taking into consideration the specific requirement of
each organization will be procured and widely made available.
Based on the training modules designed by the NIDM, capsule courses on Disaster Management
and community capacity building for the trainers/coordinators of NCC, NSS and NYKS will be
held at the training institutions of NCC/NSS/NYKS or at the state Civil Defense Emergency
Relief Training Institute, Hyderabad. These capsule courses will mainly be on the following
subjects:
a) Search and rescue;
b) Medical first aid;
c) Community capacity building; and
d) Public awareness.
NCC/NSS/NYKS will be strongly advised to include training in Disaster Management as a part
of their curriculum/ calendar of activities. Existing training arrangements on the subject will be
reviewed to suggest improvements.
Disaster Management training will be included in the schedule for the camps of NCC/NSS/
NYKS where the services of trainers/coordinators of these organizations trained by CDERTI,
Hyderabad will be utilized.
In these efforts, the thirteen multi-hazard districts/areas (shown in table below) will acquire
priority. The multi-hazard districts are those which are vulnerable from at least three major
hazards. For these districts, at least one annual training camp on Disaster Management will be
organized with the participation of NCC/NSS/NYKS/Civil Defense and NIDM.

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Consolidated table of existing CD towns and BMTPC list of Multi-hazard districts in Andhra
Pradesh (Source: Revamping of CD in the country policy paper by NDMA)

Sr. N.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

District

Adilabad
East Godavari
Guntur
Hyderabad
Karimnagar
Khammam
Krishna
Nellore
Prakasham
Srikakulam
Visakhapatnam
Vijianagaram
West Godavari

Existing Categorized
CD towns
NonActivated
Activated

BMTPC List
Multi-hazard districts
Very
High

High

Medium

Low

Consolidated table showing BMTPC list of Multi-hazard districts in Andhra Pradesh


(Source: Revamping of CD in the country policy paper by NDMA)
Sr. N.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Districts
Adilabad
East Godavari
Guntur
Karimnagar
Khammam
Krishna
Nellore
Prakasham
Srikakulam
Visakhapatnam
Vijianagaram
West Godavari

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Wind
Cyclone
M(A)
VH(B)
VH(B)
M(A)
M(A)
VH(B)
VH(B)
VH(B)
VH(B)
VH(B)
VH(B)
VH(B)

Flood
Zone
FLZ
FLZ
NFZ
NFZ
FLZ
FLZ
FLZ
FLZ
FLZ
FLZ
FLZ
FLZ

Earthquake
Zone
III
III
III
III
III
III
III
III
II
II
II
III

EQ Risk
M
M
M
M
M
M
L
M
L
L
L

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4.6. Training, capacity building and other proactive measures


Proactive measures such as strengthening community defense, training and enhancing capacities
of non-government stakeholders in disaster management will supplement SDMAs efforts in
achieving risk reduction and well prepared civil society. There are several institutions such as
NCC, NSS, NYK, NGOs, SHGs that are active in the state. While the mandate of these groups is
specific, their activities transcend the preparedness measures being identified in this chapter.
Detailed framework and needs assessment on capacity building and training aspects are covered
in Chapter 8 Training and capacity building.
4.6.1. National Cadet Corps (NCC)
National Cadet Corps is a Tri-Services Organization comprising the Army, Navy and Air Force,
engaged in grooming the youth into disciplined and patriotic citizens.
The National Cadet Corps came into existence with following aims:

Development of leadership, character, comradeship and the ideals of service


Stimulation of interest in the defense of the country, to the widest possible extent
Building up of a reserve of potential officers to enable the Armed Forces to expand rapidly in
a national emergency

Induction into the NCC is voluntary; boys/girls join at the age of 13 years in junior division
(generally Class VIII to X) and in senior division from 11th class onwards.
NCC is known to extend help during natural and other calamities and accidents. NCC in Andhra
Pradesh is well received in schools and over the years the state has received around Rs. 8.2
millions, training close to 1,87,213 cadets between 2001 and 2003. On average approximately
60,000 school students enroll in NCC in the state and state also receives approximately Rs. 2.3
million rupees annually for its operations (Source: indiastat.com; and
http://nccindia.nic.in/rti.htm) offering enormous potential to involve the cadets in disaster
management.
NCC has internalized extending help during natural and other calamities and accidents. Over the
years, NCC cadets have rendered service during floods, earthquakes, cyclones, tragic train
accidents and provided the healing touch in riot affected areas. Their response to situations
during floods in Andhra Pradesh is well recorded. Recently, NCC cadets actively assisted in the
relief operations during the tsunami impact in the state.
Streamlining NCC training to include disaster management tasks and identifying NCC cadets as
ambassadors of disaster management in their respective schools will be encouraged; concerted
efforts will be undertaken to harness trained NCC cadets in disaster management in the state.
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4.6.2. National Social Service (NSS)


National Social Service (NSS) was set up to strengthen the idea of involving students in the task
of national service. NSS volunteers generally work with villages, slums and voluntary agencies
to complete 120 hours of regular activities during an academic year. As per the fundamental
principles of National Service Scheme, a volunteer is expected to remain in constant touch with
the community. The basic principle of the programme organizing volunteer work by the students
themselves and both students and teachers through their combined participation in social service,
get a sense of involvement in the tasks of national development.
Colleges and Universities in Andhra Pradesh have adopted NSS as integral to learning and
undertake several village development activities. Between 2001 and 2003, approximately
2,96,802 volunteers from Andhra Pradesh colleges and Universities participated in various social
service activities state wide. Andhra Pradesh received on average Rs. 2.0 crores for NSS related
activities. In 2003-04, the funds were to the tune of 2.06 crores (indiastat.com).
Expanding the activities covered under NSS to include disaster management awareness in the
villages and training youth from the villages by NSS volunteers in the field of mitigation and risk
reduction measures would strengthen the mission of disaster-free state. Concerted efforts will be
undertaken to harness trained NSS volunteers in disaster management in the state.
4.6.3. Nehru Yuva Kendra (NYK)
The National Advisory Board on youth recommended taking up of national programme for nonstudent youth. It also recommended setting-up of one district youth centre and two block centres
in every district. As part of Silver Jubilee Year of India's Independence Nehru Yuva Kendra
centres at the district level were established in 1972-73. The NYKs objectives are to provide
rural non-student youth avenues to take part in the process of national development and
opportunities for the personality and skill development.
Expanding the activities covered under NYK to include disaster management awareness in the
villages and training the youth in the field of mitigation and risk reduction measures would
strengthen the mission of disaster-free State. Concerted efforts will be undertaken to harness
trained NYK youth in disaster management in the state.
4.6.4. Home Guards
Home Guards are a voluntary force, first raised in India in December, 1946, to assist the police in
controlling civil disturbance and communal riots. Subsequently, the concept of the voluntary
citizens force was adopted by several States. The role of Home Guards is to serve as an
auxiliary to the police in maintenance of internal security, help the community in any kind of
emergency such as an air-raid, fire, cyclone, earthquake, epidemic etc., help in maintenance of
essential services, promote communal harmony and assist the administration in protecting
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weaker sections, participate in socio-economic and welfare activities and perform Civil Defense
duties. The concept of Civil Defense owes its origin to erstwhile ARP Organization raised and
operated during World War II. Training plays an important role for human resource development
in Civil Defense, Home Guards and Fire Services.
Expanding the trainings imparted to Civil Defense and Home Guards to include disaster
management; training on recovery and relief operations would strengthen the mission of disasterfree state and will yield significant results in mitigating disasters in Andhra Pradesh. State
government will identify appropriate courses and nominate line department officials for training
at National Civil Defense College and National Fire Services College at Nagpur.
4.6.5. Self Help Groups (SHGs)
Self help groups (SHGs) are community-based development groups formed principally to
microfinance entrepreneurial initiatives. Women predominantly are the members, although there
are mixed groups. The Government of Andhra Pradesh has taken up the theme of womens
empowerment as one of the strategies to tackle poverty and undertake developmental activities in
the villages. A primary function of SHGs is self promoting thrift savings. Government of Andhra
Pradesh under the aegis of different development programmes has promoted the SHGs.
Similarly, banks have tied up with SHGs in promoting SHGs and linking their loans schemes to
SHGs. Development Agenda of the State in the last few years placing people, especially women
in the forefront; has enabled formation of a large number of Self Help Groups (SHGs).
Currently, there are approximately 4.52 lakhs SHG groups in Andhra Pradesh covering nearly
6.17 million poor women throughout the state. District-wise break down of SHGs in the state is
presented in table 31 below.
The SHGs are synonymously grouped as DWCRA groups since majority of womens groups
were assisted initially through Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA)
programme.

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Table 32: District-wise SHGs formed and women swarozgaries assisted under Swarnjayanti
Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) in Andhra Pradesh (1999 2006)
(Source: Rajya Sabha Unstarred Question No. 2699, dated 10.05.2006)

District
Adilabad
Anantapur
Chittoor
Cuddapah
East Godavari
Gantur
Karimnagar
Khamman
Krishna
Kurnool
Medak
Mehboobnagar
Nalgonda
Nellore
Nizamabad
Prakasam
Rangareddy
Srikakulam
Vishakhapatnam
Viziyanagaram
Warangal
West Godavari
Andhra Pradesh

Total SHGs
groups

Women SHGs

24,088
15,824
23,380
36,967
20,620
28,884
20,322
29,388
5,852
18,565
11,492
26,311
26,602
6,386
11,165
18,833
10,343
16,382
29,975
18,481
15,478
37,534
452,872

24,088
15,824
23,380
36,967
20,620
28,884
20,322
29,388
5,852
18,565
11,492
26,311
26,602
6,386
11,165
18,833
10,343
16,382
29,975
18,481
15,478
37,534
452,872

Women
Swarozgaries
assisted
23,580
25,463
19,598
18,728
41,857
31,643
15,391
15,780
37,172
23,324
16,720
33,800
29,227
19,270
21,059
29,632
11,429
28,761
20,197
20,514
15,743
17,193
516,081

The group corpus consists of savings, government assistance and also bank loans. Members are
loaned on the recommendation of the core committed for entrepreneurial and personal uses.
Since inception approximately an amount of Rs.1,556.90 crores have been mobilized as corpus
by these groups.
Self help groups and its members in villages command great influence in developmental
activities. Streamlining these groups in disaster preparedness is a logical and prudent measure.
Since their outlook is microfinancing and entrepreneurial development, concerted efforts will be
initiated by SDMA to identify their training needs; train them in disaster preparedness and
mitigation efforts. Women are known to assume the leadership role during hazardous situations
especially if their family safety is at stake. A collective effort of the women at village level will
have a long way to go in disaster management; strengthening SHGs, utilizing the financial
independence of SHGs through State Disaster Response and Mitigation Fund (SDRMF) will
prepare the community to meet emergencies efficiently.
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4.6.6. Civil society/NGOs


The number of people becoming vulnerable and the extent of vulnerable areas are ever
increasing. Planning and interventions in disaster preparedness and mitigation is falling short of
expectations. Civil society has a big stake in the preparedness to meet the challenges presented
due to emergencies and disasters. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play an important
link between the Government and the community. NGOs potentially have role to play in all three
phases of disaster management - viz, pre-disaster during disaster and post-disaster phase.
The Disaster Management Act, 2005 has given legislative back-up to the State Executive
Committees and District Authorities with the responsibility to solicit advise, seek assistance and
coordinate the activities of NGOs engaged in disaster management. The District Authorities are
mandated to encourage the involvement of NGOs and social welfare agencies working at grass
root level in the districts for disaster management. Not all NGOs have the capacity and required
skills in handling disaster management functions. While some large relief agencies and NGOs
provide material and coordinate in rescue operations; smaller and localized NGOs usually
depend either on international agencies or larger NGOs in fulfilling their responsibilities.
Strengthening the capacities of small and community based organizations would ensure in-situ
skill enhancement and capacity building of the civil society.
The role of NGOs in the pre-disaster phase will include awareness generation, education,
training, formation of village level Task Force, Disaster Management Committees and Teams,
contributing in the development of Disaster Management Plans, facilitating the conduct of mock
drills, vulnerability assessment and coordination with government departments.
4.6.7. Use of Amateur Ham Radio system in disaster management
The use of amateur radios in times of crisis and disasters is well recorded and has wide
acceptability. The use of ham radio has higher significance when wire lines, cell phones and
other means of conventional communication become inadequate or under distress. Unlike
commercial systems, Amateur radio is not as dependent on terrestrial facilities that can fail. It is
dispersed throughout a community without choke points such as cellular telephone sites that can
be overloaded. Although amateur radio operators are experienced, capacity building measures
identified in improvising antennas and setting up systems at relatively short time will be needed.
Training youth from local community on the techniques of handling amateur radio systems,
maintenance and setting up will prove beneficial and sustainable means of preparedness of the
community.

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4.7. Institutional Mechanisms


4.7.1. Strengthening institutional frameworks for disaster preparedness
Strengthening and developing capacities of government departments and institutions is one of the
core objectives of SDMP. Based on the risk assessment and vulnerability and gaps analysis done
in Chapter 3, needs of different departments will be assessed and a need-based capacity building
strategies will be drawn. Disaster vulnerability assessment will be incorporated in the state
development process so that projects and future investments reduce vulnerability. Areas
frequently exposed to severe hazards will be considered for investing an appropriate portion of
the state revenue in disaster reduction activities for sustainable development.
In order to overcome resource constraints and to be effective, the action plans for disaster
reduction will be incorporated in the overall economic and social development plans. The
development programmes can be monitored to ensure that hazard reduction components are
applied, such as building up the infrastructure and increasing the resilience to disasters in the
long term. No matter what loss-reduction strategy is used, major reduction in losses of life and
property can only come when the emphasis shifts from reactive measures to proactive measures.
In view of the recurrent nature of natural hazards impacting the state and considering the efforts
needed in mitigating and preparing the state departments, a permanent administrative structure at
state, district, mandal and village level will be created. This structure will monitor developmental
activities across departments, providing suggestions for incorporating necessary mitigation
measures.
Professionals like architects, structural engineers, and risk managers in financial organizations
dealing with loan sanctioning and hazardous chemicals are encouraged to form consortiums to
review and incorporate mitigation aspects for all projects in their respective fields. A separate
design review and approval cell consisting of architects and civil engineers trained in disaster
management will be established at the state level as part of SDMA. Similar cells in vulnerable
districts shall be promoted. The core function of this cell would be to review and suggest
appropriate structural and design changes to suit disaster management especially in government
initiated projects. When these cells become functional both at state and district level, periodic
visits to government structures such as offices, government officials residences etc will be
undertaken to assess the risks and suggest appropriate retrofitting measures. Existing bodies like
the Chamber of Commerce, Confederation of Industry, and A.P. Agricultural Marketing
Committees will also be encouraged to promote disaster mitigation measures among their
members.

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4.8. National Disaster Response Force


At present, National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is constituted with eight battalions, two
each from the BSF, CRPF, CISF and ITBP. Each battalion has eighteen self-contained specialist
search and rescue teams of 45 personnel each including engineers, technicians, electricians, dog
squads and medical/paramedics. The total strength of each battalion is approximately 1,158. All
eight battalions are equipped and trained to combat natural disasters including four battalions in
combating nuclear, biological and chemical disasters. Out of the two additional new battalions
being proposed, one battalion will be located in Vijayawada (NDMA, New Delhi). Figure 21
below presents the locations of NDRF in the country including Andhra Pradesh. To supplement
NDRFs efforts, SDMA will also identify exclusive state-level response force or identify and train
state paramilitary forces in disaster mitigation and relief measures. This force will be
strategically located in regions that are prone to recurring hazards like cyclones, floods and even
droughts.
Fig 21: Locations of NDRF in the country
(Source: NDMA, New Delhi)

4.9. Media preparedness in disaster management


The media plays a critical role in information and knowledge dissemination in all phases of
disaster management. The versatile potential of both electronic and print will be fully utilized at
the state as well as districts level. Role of media in post disasters or reporting extent of damages
is well recognized. Media electronic as well as print media has great potential in raising
general awareness and preparedness. Print media Telugu, English as well as Urdu can carry
special series on states vulnerability to different disasters. Similarly, the print media can also
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carry summarized and succinct preparedness measures that civil society could follow. Electronic
media especially TV and cable have greater impact in every-day life in the state. SDMA and
GoAP will engage electronic media in developing disaster-based feature films or programmes,
these measures will prove beneficial in the long-run. Media will also play significant role in
collaborating with the schools by promoting essay competitions on disaster management.
4.10. Techno-legal regime
Andhra Pradesh is prone to disasters and emergencies; the risk and vulnerability of the state is
extensively demonstrated in Chapter 3. The risk prone nature of certain regions of the state
emphasize the need to adopt a multi-dimensional, multi-disciplinary and multi-sectoral approach
involving diverse scientific, engineering, financial and social processes for risk reduction. While
the state has strong legislative tools, the disperse nature and lack of coherent regulations make it
difficult to achieve a state of complete preparedness. For instance, lack of adequate land use
restrictions in hazard prone areas in the town and country planning laws, urban areas in the state
tend to sprawl in all directions. Resulting development without adequate infrastructure,
construction of buildings that is inadequate to cope with hazards such as floods, cyclone and
earthquakes etc. increase the risks manifold.
In view of this, proper techno-legal regime will be established by providing adequate safety
measures against natural hazards. Under 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments, the village
panchyats and ULBs have the powers to initiate preparedness, mitigation, recovery and
rehabilitation measures. While there is legal framework available to decentralize disaster
management, concerted efforts will be initiated on the part of the government to translate this
framework on the ground.
Under different programmes and schemes, the state government is modifying existing laws,
development control rules, bye-laws to make techno-legal regime in the state; efforts will be
made to consolidate the gaps identified and requisite measures will be taken up to fill the gaps in
achieving ideal techno-legal framework. This will enable streamlining disaster management as
top priority of the government. Among the revisions underway include preparing model town
and country planning legislation, development control, building regulations/bye-laws etc.
Building regulations/bye-laws provide the mandatory techno-legal framework for regulating
building safety in terms of planning, design that can withstand hazards like flood, cyclone and
earthquakes.
4.10.1. State Level Legislation
Planning and development are mainly the state subjects. Development in the state is based on the
legislative support as applicable in the town and country planning legislation pertaining to
Andhra Pradesh. The legislative support in the state is applicable to formulate Master Plans,
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Zonal Plan, Development Plans and Development Schemes for their implementation and
enforcement. Appropriate modifications in consultations with legal, professional and
administrative authorities shall be undertaken to meet disaster management preparedness.
4.10.2. Legislative support at the Local/ Municipal/ Panchayat Level
At the local level, the Municipal authorities and Panchayat regulate the
development/construction of buildings through the building regulation/building bye-laws as
followed in their respective areas. The State Government from time to time issues
directions/guidelines for safety against natural hazards, which are followed by local bodies while
granting permission for construction of buildings/structures. Appropriate modifications in
consultations with legal, professional and administrative authorities shall be undertaken to meet
disaster management preparedness.
4.11. Application of geospatial information in disaster management
Disaster management is a multi-sectoral and multi-disciplinary effort. As much as community
participation and government involvement both at state and local is essential, the role of
Geographic Information Science (GIS) and Remote Sensing in equally paramount in achieving
fool-proof preparedness in disaster management. While GIS and Remote Sensing are technology
based tools, these technologies have significant role in raising awareness and preparedness.
In designing awareness and preparedness programmes as part of SDMP action plan, use of
spatial data becomes imperative. Disaster preparedness needs thorough understanding of geospatial, socio-economic and scenario and intensity based computer simulations. Geographical
Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing tools are appropriate technical tools to achieve
this objective. GIS allows spatial analysis of parameters such as population density, economic
losses, and loss of infrastructure due to disasters along with the progression of hazards such as
cyclones, floods and winds. A pictorial representation of GIS can be used in disaster
management is presented in Fig 22. Andhra Pradesh State Remote Sensing Applications Center
(APSRAC), Planning Department has the capacity to undertake extensive GIS and Remote
Sensing based modeling. APSRAC will be strengthened to prepare intensity and scenario based
computer modeling and simulations in disaster management preparedness and mitigation efforts.

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Fig 22: Use of different parameters (in shapefiles) as GIS-enabled layers for spatial analysis

4.12. Mock exercises


To facilitate the adequacy, efficacy and preparedness of the departments and district
administration and identify gaps in resources and systems, the State Disaster Management
Authority in coordination with the vulnerable districts will embark on conducting mock exercises
on various types of natural and manmade disasters. This will also help in inculcating culture of
preparedness. Detailed guidelines on the preparations and the resources required for mock
exercises based on the type of business such as residential apartments, hospitals, multi-storied
apartments, schools etc. are appended in Annexure IIb.
The Mock Exercises will be conducted in a systematic step-by-step approach as follows:
Step 1. Coordination and Orientation Conference, to sensitize the various stakeholders and
delineate their roles during the Table Top and Mock Exercises.
Step 2. Conduct Table Top Exercise by projection of the scenarios at various levels from
preparedness to early warning to rescue and relief phases and response of the stakeholders.
Step 3. Actual conduct of the Mock Exercise takes place by mobilization of the resources
according to developing situations. The situations are conceptualized to derive certain lessons
and final gaps if any in the resources/systems.
NDMA in coordination with the vulnerable states has conducted several Mock Exercises on
various types of natural and manmade disasters. Andhra Pradesh was one of the states where
Flood Hazard Mock Exercises were conducted (at Kakinada).

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4.13. Knowledge management


Disaster preparedness is achieved among others by developing strong knowledge base on the
subject. Andhra Pradesh has high quality educational and research institutions spread across the
state. While dispersed and non-coordinated knowledge generation related to state specific
hazards is going on, there is a need to develop DM specific knowledge management center. The
state Administrative Training Institute (Dr. MCR HRD IAP) conducts wide range of trainings to
state as well as other stakeholders. The Dr. MCR HRD Institute will be strengthened to develop
as a knowledge resource center in disaster management. The Center for Disaster Preparedness at
Dr. MCR HRD IAP is currently specialized to train state government officials on disaster
preparedness. The center will be further strengthened as a knowledge hub of disaster
management.

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Chapter 5.0
Prevention and Mitigation Measures

Chapter 5.0
Prevention and mitigation measures
5.1. Introduction
Prevention includes the identification of hazards, the assessment of threats to life and property,
and initiating measures to reduce potential loss of life and property damage. Mitigation measures
range from community awareness campaigns to increase knowledge of how to deal with disaster
situations, land use planning and design decisions to stop development which may be dangerous
in the event of a disaster, to capital works such as levee bank construction to reduce the impacts
of flooding. All mitigation measures are important as they can not only reduce the cost of
disasters to the community, but they help save lives.
Prevention and mitigation plans will be evolved for vulnerable areas to reduce the impact of
disasters. Extent of prevention and mitigation strategies will vary depending on the hazard and
degree of vulnerability of specific areas. These strategies will be concentrated more towards the
social and economically backward communities.
In some cases, particularly in urban areas, with high density of poor people, preventive measures
cannot reach everybody resulting in large sections of people being left to face the impact of the
hazards with their own means. Prevention and mitigation strategies will have to be oriented in
such a situation to higher degree of community involvement and participation.
In rural areas, characterized by inadequate infrastructure and below poverty level groups,
mitigation efforts will be complementary to the on-going social development and livelihood
programmes. Regular review of development policies and programmes will be undertaken to
ensure equity and social justice; these measures are pre-requisites of successful implementation
of mitigation efforts identified in this plan.
The key tasks in risk reduction are:

Identify areas vulnerable to specific disasters


Prevent development/construction along the flood zones/hazard locations
Avoid habitation in hazardous areas
Develop structures resistant to the onslaughts of hazards
Promote and construct flood resistant housing
Construct barriers to prevent coastal erosion
Develop the ability to rapidly evacuate hazardous areas or to shift residents to hazardous
resistant structures.
Reduce or eliminate natural hazards thorough technological intervention (eg. Construction of
dams, planting, beach groins etc.).

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5.2. Mitigation strategy


There is a definite frequency and pattern in the occurrence of hazards such as cyclones and
floods in the state. Technological advances and increased understanding of natural phenomenon
is making it possible to combat the disasters scientifically and efficiently. Conventional
knowledge followed by the local communities in cyclone warning and flood level predictions
will be integrated with the scientific methods being put in place in the state.
Strategies to mitigate natural disasters in the state will be achieved with the backing and support
of all stakeholders such as the government machinery, research institutions, non-government
agencies and the community. Imperative steps of having built-in institutional arrangements and
legislative backing along with power delegation will be integral in the development of fail-proof
mitigation strategy in the state.
The main steps in mitigation strategy include:

Risk assessment and vulnerability analysis


Applied research and technology transfer
Public awareness and training
Promoting intuitional mechanisms
Incentives and resources for mitigation
Mainstreaming land use planning and regulations to disaster management

Monitoring mechanisms set up by the early warning centers etc. do not look at historical trends
Mitigation strategies evolved based on previous disasters data analysis are crucial in
regions/areas where monitoring mechanisms are poorly developed. Reliable feedback
information on warning systems, public reception, response and susceptibility of the warning
systems to damage will be collected to strengthen the mitigation strategy at the state level. In this
regard, there is a great need to

Upgrade or set up observation equipment and networks


Monitor trends in the loss of property due to hazards
Strengthen quality of forecasts and warning systems
Disseminate warnings quickly through different means.
Undertake disaster simulation exercises by tying up with research/technology institutions
with the capability

Space technologies such as remote sensing, satellite communication and geo-position system
(GPS) have wider use in early warning and monitoring mechanisms of different types of
disasters. Remote sensing is extensively used in tracking and monitoring the progress of hazards
especially cyclones and floods. National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), National
Geographical Research Institute (NGRI) and Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT)
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located in the state will be utilized in augmenting the emergency monitoring mechanisms in the
state. Technological tie up with these institutes in mitigating disasters in the state will be initiated
as a priority. Similarly, Andhra Pradesh State Remote Sensing Center (APSRAC), a premier
remote sensing center located in Hyderabad has state-of-art technology and capacity in
identifying areas of potential exposure to hazards. Concerted efforts in building strong network
of these institutes will be undertaken; such a network of institutions will bode well in mitigating
natural as well as human-caused disasters in the state. Apart from monitoring and observations
through the use of GPS and remote sensing, applied research on formulating various mitigation
strategies specific to a district or a local area, will be carried out through educational institutions
or universities located in the region.
Universities and technical educational institutions will be encouraged to include disaster
mitigation as a part of graduate training programmes. The contents of such a course can be
location-specific to the intuitions. For example, institutions located in areas of high seismic risk
(like the Deccan plateau) can have earthquake mitigation as specialization where as flood-prone
areas (coastal districts) can have flood mitigation topics. Similarly, Acharya N. G. Ranga
Agriculture University and its research centers will supplement existing drought mitigation
efforts with undertaking specialized drought mitigation courses. Engineering and architectural
institutions will be encouraged to introduce disaster management courses as part of structural
engineering and civil engineering curriculum.
5.3. NGOs, Private Sector, Government Training Intuitions
The Non-government organizations (NGOs) play important role in disaster management and
provide valuable resources and extended manpower during and post disasters. Flexible and
informal functioning of NGOs is a unique strength; the outreach efforts combined with the
flexibility is very crucial in disaster management. The outreach capability of community groups
and operational sensitivity to local traditions of the community is an added advantage. Some of
the agencies, both from within and outside the state have evolved technical expertise and
capabilities which can be brought into managing disasters. NGOs can play important role in pre,
during and post disaster management efforts.
There are area-specific functions that NGOs are capable to perform. NGOs specialized in rural
development, social and livelihood improvement will find disaster mitigation and preventive
programmes as integral to their mandate. Recognizing NGOs as important stakeholders in
executing prevention and mitigation measures in vulnerable areas is critical to disaster
management in the state. It is proposed to include NGOs working in different parts of the state in
the capacity building efforts of the community in prevention and mitigation activities. Line
departments of the government will be required to involve NGOs in mitigation efforts at the
local level. List of NGOs that are working within Andhra Pradesh are appended as Annexure IV.
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5.4. Community efforts and mitigation


Mitigation through development policy, planning and initiating appropriate steps through line
departments in mitigation efforts will need to be backed up through community efforts to ensure
its effectiveness. At the community level apart from households, the stakeholders include local
self governments (LSG), community based organizations (CBOs) such as SHGs, NGOs and
private sector. The local communities, in spite of their limitations and inadequacy of resources,
are highly motivated and bring traditional knowledge to minimize the impact of disasters through
individual and collective actions.
A conscious effort on the part of community level actors such as LSGs, CBOs and NGOs
including private sector, to adopt community based mitigation strategies, will strengthen and
stabilize the efforts of development in evolving comprehensive mitigation strategy. The district
administration shall encourage and support initiatives from LSGs, CBOs, NGOs and private
sector for promoting community based mitigation strategies thorough Community Needs
Assessment (CNA) exercises.
5.5. Community level training and public awareness activities
The impact of disasters is heavy on the community; economic impact and infrastructural damage
further cripples marooned families. A better prepared community through awareness on the
degrees of impact; dos and donts of specific emergencies that are known to impact the
community; and leadership that take charge during the emergency will lead to lower damages.
Community based organizations as well as NGOs play significant role in preparing the
community. In order to strengthen the community in preparedness, following general guidelines
will be followed:

Developing programmes that include awareness, training manuals in Telugu outlining the
dos and donts of all-hazards. The programmes shall also include evaluation and
monitoring mechanisms that will help in revision and improvement of training and awareness
measures.
Encouraging community drama enacting, organizing skits and making disaster management
as central to village/community level social gatherings.
Developing capacity building and technical training programmes targeted at state and local
elected officials to encourage the development of legislation and administrative policies that
support hazard mitigation.
Promoting strategies encouraging public-private partnerships, to educate employees and
customers about mitigation.
Developing training programmes for teachers to ensure that they understand disasters, likely
effects and the precautions to be taken.

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Organizing disaster simulations within schools; organize mock drills in evacuation; review
with staff and students emergency procedures in the event of disasters/emergencies.

The community will be helped to determine ways to avoid or reduce the impact of the next
disasters. Local administration shall promote following suggestions of mitigation efforts to
encourage local communities engaged in mitigation and relief efforts either at
individual/household or community level to avoid loss of life, reduce damage to property and
crops.
1. Assist in disposal of properties located in disaster-prone areas e.g., flooding areas, landslides
prone areas etc. and purchase of safe sites in return
2. Integrate traditional knowledge and guidance of village elders in rebuilding or retrofitting
houses that can sustain earthquake and high winds.
3. Ensure availability of required material (for retrofitting etc.) through local government,
hardware dealer or private building contractors.
4. Encourage households to undertake not only corrective repairs, but also preventive repairs;
explain options for flood-proofing houses, like elevation, drainage etc.
5. Encourage compliance in construction with local building codes that pertain to seismic,
flood, fire and wind hazards. Encourage compliance by the contractors and inspection by
local authorities. Include local building regulations as part of training and awareness efforts
designed for community to encourage compliance.
6. Determine ways to prevent hazards such as securing light fixtures, moving heavy or
breakable objects to low shelves, etc.
7. Make sure documents such as local disaster management plans, zoning and building norms,
DDMPs are available to local communities.
5.6. Pilot projects
Pilot projects that demonstrate advantages of retrofitted homes for earthquake or flood
emergencies will encourage community to adopt these measures quickly. To raise the awareness
among community, pilot projects will be executed in the villages that are vulnerable. These
projects could be supported through State Disaster Mitigation Funds that is being set up. CBOs
and NGOs working in the village or mandal will be given appropriate training to become trainers
in building earthquake and flood proof homes and structures. As initial step, village community
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halls, primary health centers, schools may be retrofitted with techniques and guidelines discussed
in Section 7.5 of Chapter 7 depending on the type of disaster specific to the village/mandal.
5.7. Disaster Management legislation, relief and rehabilitation policy
Over the years, the government efforts to regulate relief and rehabilitation with respect to various
disasters have resulted in a number of policy guidelines and government orders. Apart from
intent and overall objectives, the policy statement will specifically emphasize the need for
reaching out to the poor and the marginalized. The policy will incorporate various packages for
rehabilitation specific to disaster and the extent of impact on the community. The comprehensive
DM policy will also include resettlement and development of safe sites. Both directly and
indirectly impacted families will be brought within the purview of the policy. Disaster
Management legislation will be primarily aimed at operationalizing DM action plan documents
at the state and district levels. The scope for community participation will be clearly emphasized
and will be given legal mandate.
Strengthening of line departments, developing training capabilities partnerships with NGOs and
private sector, disaster funding, insurance, mitigation requirements etc. are some of the critical
areas which will find appropriate expression in the legislation. The importance of mitigation and
preparedness will be emphasized and set the tone of comprehensive DM policy.
5.8. Incentives and resources
The continued development and applications of hazard mitigation measures will depend largely
on the existence of stable funding sources and effective incentives that encourage mitigation in
both the public and private sectors. Mitigation, therefore will be a primary consideration in all
state actions and linked with grants and loan programmes.
More emphasis is needed on pre-event planning and on the development of state funding
mechanisms. Incentives and funding for mitigation measures will include:

Developing mechanisms to provide stable sources of funding for preparedness and mitigation
activities at all levels of government. State Disaster Mitigation Fund being set up will be the
primary source of funding government initiatives.
Review of current incentives and disincentives for undertaking both pre and post disaster
mitigation action will determine what additional incentives and disincentives are required to
ensure sustainable development that has DM concerns mainstreamed.
Incentives for relocation of commercial and residential properties outside the hazardous and
disaster-prone areas.
Incentives for retrofitting of commercial and residential structures located in disaster prone
areas.

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Providing resources for state and local governments to ensure adequate levels of coordination
and effective implementation of mitigation activities.
Introducing disaster insurance, based on community rating systems that recognize adoption
and enforcement by communities of building codes, that contain all-hazards building
standards.
Establishing disaster relief fund at the state level for meeting the requirements of immediate
relief.
Encouraging the formation of partnerships among private industry, academia, and the state
and local governments to maximize resources for mitigation activities. Major business
organizations like the Chamber of Commerce and Agriculture Marketing Committees in the
state will be contacted for introducing mitigation measures in their projects; and also
providing funds for state initiated mitigation activities. Appropriate incentives for such
activities will be considered by the state.
Credit finance and housing finance companies will be encouraged to mandate new
constructions to follow specified building codes or zoning regulations as part of loan
requirements.

5.9. Insurance
Insurance is a mechanism for spreading the cost of losses over time that are known to impact the
community. Introduction of disaster linked insurance will be actively pursued and insurance
cover will be made available not just for life but also for household goods, livestock, structures
and crops. Apathbandhu scheme currently in operation will be strengthened and expanded to
include fishermen, landless laborers, hutment residents who get affected during disasters.
Since insurance premiums are based on the location of a structure within the disaster-prone
areas; and are determined essentially on the extent of risks, different slab rates may be developed
where higher rates may be applied to structures with high risk. Strategies for introducing disaster
insurance for structures will include:

More stringent enforcement by lenders of the mandatory purchase/construction requirements


Increasing public awareness of the hazard
Imposing risk disclosure requirement on real estate agents
Offering special insurance converge and policy riders
Maintaining premiums at affordable rates.

5.10. Land-use planning and regulations for sustainable development


The physical impacts of hazards in urban areas can be reduced by preventing or modifying the
occurrence of the hazard, such as in the case of floods. In areas where structural measures would

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be difficult or expensive to implement, disaster mitigation will be achieved through land-use


planning and management by taking up non-structural measures.
Rapid urbanization has led to higher concentration of people living in hazardous areas;
consequently loss of lives is higher when disasters occur. Disregard and non-compliance of
building codes, un-checked construction in flood plain zones in the cities and ULBs is exposing
large population to dangers of emergencies/disasters. Watershed catchment areas especially in
the peri-urban areas, with lack of proper storm drainage planning experience floods and massive
inundation during cyclone and heavy rains.
Long-term disaster reduction efforts need to aim at promoting appropriate land uses and
compliance of building and other development codes in the disaster-prone areas. Siting heavy
industries, chemical industrial plants that have combustible products or by-products are
discouraged closer to residential development is crucial. Fire and industrial accidents can be
reduced if the land-use planning ensures separation of industrial units from residential areas, and
or fire-prone industries from other industries. Licensing authorities of industries shall examine
site location and land use codes. The measures to promote proper land use shall include both
legislative and economic investments and creation of public awareness of proper land use
practices. Formulation of land-use policies for long-term sustainable development is an
imperative action needing immediate attention.
Large concentrations of people live in potentially hazardous zones, such as along river
bunds/shores, not capable or unwilling to move to safer areas will be educated and provided
awareness on the dangers of inundation, loss of property and lives. Introduction of legal
enforcement of property insurance against damage inflicted by disaster events may be considered
as effective ways to ensure that building codes are followed. Development that conforms to
regulation is less prone to damage than pre-existing development. Enforcing the regulations
requires training of personnel and financial resource besides providing techno-legal regime as
back up to the local governments and ULBs.
5.11. Mitigation measures
The level of disaster preparedness is a major factor in mitigation of natural disaster.
Technological advances are enabling accurate forecasting of cyclone path, wind speeds and the
mandals/villages likely to be impacted. Similarly, tracking flooding and the areas that will be
inundated have become relatively easier with technology. Relaying the information of impending
hazard, mobilizing and evacuating people to safer grounds and cyclone shelters shall be the
priority of local administration.
Migrant laborers in search of work usually occupy dry river beds, drains, abandoned tanks and
low lying areas, especially in urban areas; mechanisms will be evolved to evacuate this
vulnerable population during emergencies. Mitigation efforts shall include identifying slums and
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hutments that are situated on potentially dangerous areas that are vulnerable to cyclone/floods
and inundation and developing strategic plans of evacuation and resettling the vulnerable
population through programmes aimed at poverty alleviation and slum-free development
programmes of the state.
Mitigating the effects of disasters and protection against hazards require both structural and nonstructural measures. The conventional approach of undertaking structural modifications and
constructing levies and channel improvement in the case of floods or retrofitting vulnerable
structures with appropriate reinforcements needs to be complemented with non-structural
measures. Revising buildings codes that encourage design changes, siting construction on nonflood plain zones, mandating home insurance, providing incentives to developers undertaking
flood-proof and earthquake proof designs etc. are some of the non-structural measures of
mitigation. Environmental planning measures such as green and brown area planning; integrating
solid waste management, sewer planning, and storm drainage planning with infrastructure
development in peri-urban development will reduce the risk of hazards.
Disaster-proof structures such as shelters, raised platforms, emergency food, grain silos, drinking
water storage tanks and health facilities will be built in high-risk villages and mandals. Design
codes for buildings and other structures will be regularly reviewed in light of historical
occurrence of emergencies.
5.12. Structural alterations to buildings
Many of the public buildings and transport infrastructure are vulnerable to damage from
earthquakes, cyclones, winds and other hazards. Departments like Roads and Buildings
department, Municipal Administration and Urban Development, Panchayati Raj Engineering etc.
are responsible for construction and maintenance of critical infrastructure, public buildings and
installations in the state. As part of mitigation strategy, these departments will consider both
structural design and material standards to ensure strengthening and protection of these structures
and installations.
Modifications to conceptual design of critical infrastructure and buildings will be carried out in
consultation with the user-departments/institutions and professionals such as building &
sanitation inspectors, civil engineers, utilities engineers and engineers from R&B department.
The building performance evaluation is guided by the following objectives:

The damage caused by the disaster is repairable and it does not pose threat to life
Users, beneficiaries and visitors are protected during disasters.
The emergency services of the organization will remain operational after the disasters
The occupants and rescue emergency personnel are able to move safely inside the
installations.

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At the same time, it is possible to reduce the vulnerability of existing buildings through minor
adaptations or alterations, thereby enhancing the safety of these facilities and installations. The
standard methods for retrofitting existing structures generally include following elements.
Standard retrofitting methods (for seismic activity):
-

Stiffness reduction: For equal mass the stiffness reduction produces a period elongation
and a consequent reduction of the seismic action.
Ductility increase: Is achieved locally by confinement of reinforced concrete flexural as
well as compressed structural members. Using new materials such as fiber reinforced
polymers ductility increase is achieved.
Damage controlled structures: To the primary structure, by inserting an auxiliary
structure that introduces stiffness and a large energy dissipation capacity. Damage occurs
only in the auxiliary structure in which damaged elements may be replaced after seismic
activity.
Composite materials: Composite materials promise applications for the seismic retrofitting of
old masonry constructions. The application of composite laminae to masonry panels confers a
strong traction resistance to masonry, limiting crack extension and width and favoring the closure
of open cracks.

Standard retrofitting methods (for flooding):


-

Elevation: Elevation of the existing structure on fill or foundation elements like solid
perimeter walls, piers, posts, columns etc.
Relocation: Relocating existing structure outside the flood plain
Dry Flood Proofing: Strengthening of existing foundation, floors and walls. Sealing the
portion of structure below flood level. Use of sealants, wall coating, water proofing for
sealing components. Door-window, sewer and water lines and vents closed with
permanent or removable vales.
Wet Flood Proofing: Making utilities, Structural Components and content flood and
water resistant during the period of flood within the structure. Modifying structure to
allow flood water to enter in a way to minimize damage; feasible only if structure has
space available, basement etc

Measures for protection against Flood damage


-

Proper drainage system around the building, slope adjustment etc


Raising the plinth level to high flood level (HFL)
Grounded edge near the building to protect against scouring by
pitching, vegetation etc
Flood Wall/Levee

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Measures for protection against rain damage


-

Water Proof Plastering on Leaky Roofs


Proper drainage of roof through adequate slope adjustment
Plastering the top of parapet wall to avoid water absorption in walls
Damp proof layer on wall upto minimum 450 mm or till high flood level

Retrofitting for Cyclone safety


-

Improving connection of wall to roof


Wind bracing through diagonal strap with metal/RCC on walls and roof to prevent
pushing against wind
Installing load wall/parapet on roof to hold the roof firmly
Provision of vertical bands at corners of building and door-window openings to provide
them tensile strength against vertical bending; additional anchorage of door-window
frames with holdfasts
Connecting metal sheets to roof through J or U bolts

5.13. Drought mitigation measures


The drought manual of the state defines drought as a condition arising out of scarce rainfall.
While there are different types of droughts, agricultural drought is the most common and it links
various characteristics of meteorological and hydrological droughts to agricultural impacts. It is
related to precipitation shortages, differences between actual and potential evapo-transpiration,
soil water deficits, etc.
Crop water requirements depend on prevailing weather conditions, agronomical characteristics
of the specific crop, its stage of growth, and the physical and biological properties of the soil.
Agricultural drought is able to account for the variable susceptibility of crops during different
stages of crop development, from emergence to maturity. Deficient topsoil moisture at planting
may hinder germination, leading to low plant populations per hectare and a reduction of final
yield.
Parameters considered for prioritization for taking up of drought mitigation activity are as
follows:

Average rainfall
Coefficient of variation of rainfall
Met drought frequency
Hydrological drought frequency
Agricultural drought frequency

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Ground water status


Feed and fodder availability
Percent irrigated areas (kharif)
Percent irrigated area (rabi)
Rural water supply
Drought severity

Andhra Pradesh has adopted several drought mitigation measures that include financial and
technological approaches.
5.13.1. Risk financing programmes
Crop Insurance: The National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (NAIS) has been implemented in
Andhra Pradesh since 1999-2000. The schemes are a mix of voluntary and mandatory
participation. They are voluntary at the state level in terms of specific areas and crops. Once the
specific area-crop combinations have been notified, participation is mandatory for farmers in
those areas cultivating the specific crops and taking agricultural loans. In the case of loaned
farmers the sum insured may be at least equal to the crop loan advanced. All farmers can insure
to the value of the threshold yield of the insured crop.
Eighteen crops are currently insurable under NAIS during Kharif season (e.g., rice, maize,
sunflower, groundnut, sugarcane, and cotton) and ten crops during Rabi season (e.g., rice, maize,
sunflower, and groundnut). The standard area yield insurance scheme has recently been extended
to farm income insurance and rainfall insurance (Revenue (DM) Department). Expanding the
coverage to include marginal farmers especially in drought prone areas is a sound drought
mitigation strategy.
Calamity Relief Fund (CRF): This fund was established separately for each state on the basis
of recommendations of the IX Finance Commission and has since been approved for
continuation by the X and XI Finance Commissions. This fund is used for meeting the
expenditure for providing immediate relief to the victims of cyclone, drought, earthquake, fire,
flood and hailstorm. Table 33 below presents the financial status of this fund between 2000 and
2005.
Table 33: Calamity Relief Fund for Andhra Pradesh, 2000 2005 (in Rs. Lakhs)
(Source: Revenue (Disaster Management) Department, GoAP)

Share
GoI
State
Total

2000-01
14,854
4,951
19,806

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2001-02
15,597
5,199
20,796

2002-03
16,377
5,459
21,836

2003-04
17,196
5,732
22,928

2004-05
18,056
6,019
24,074

Total
82,080
27,360
1,09,440

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5.13.2. Drought proofing programmes


Drought Prone Areas Program (DPAP): DPAP is GoI sponsored scheme in operation since
1973. The aim of the programme is restoring ecological balance in the drought prone areas and
mitigation of the adverse effects of drought on crops and livestock through integrated
development of natural resources by adoption of appropriate technologies.
DPAP is aimed at developing the drought prone area with an objective of drought proofing by
taking up of soil land moisture conservation, water harvesting structures, afforestation and
horticulture programs on a comprehensive micro watershed basis. During 1994-95 the program
was implemented in 69 Mandals in eight districts. The programme was extended to eleven
districts covering additional 94 Mandals from 1995-96. Sixteen districts of Anantapur district
were covered under Desert Development Programme (DDP). As part of this programme
development activities in 3,518 watersheds were taken up covering 110 blocks in 12 districts. An
extent of 17.6 lakh hectares was covered; land reclamation, land development activities were
central activities of the programme.
Water harvesting Structures: Andhra Pradesh Forest Department has taken up large-scale
water conservation structures in forest areas under Neeru -Meeru (Water and You) programme.
The structures such as continuous Contour Trenches, Check dams, Rockfill dams, Percolation
tanks and sunken gully pits etc. were taken up as part of this programme.
Under several other projects such as micro irrigation project, joint forest management
programme of AP Forest Department, Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihood Project, extensive
drought mitigation measures were undertaken throughout the state.
Following simple measures may be undertaken by Agriculture, Horticulture, Rural Development
and Revenue Departments:
When the rains are delayed

Use short duration varieties


Transplant seedling instead of direct seeding
Dry seeding when the land is ready but dry at normal sowing seasons
Increase the seed rate to get more population as late sown ones do not make much growth

If rain stops after germinations

Inter-cultivate to remove weeds


Remove week seedlings and reduce populations
Irrigate from farm pond water
Gaps fill after rains revive and top dress with nitrogenous fertilizers

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If rain stops before stipulated time:

Irrigate from farm ponds


Inter-cultivate to reduce evaporation
Mulching with organic residues, including removed weeds from the fields

5.14. Coastal Mitigation measures


Quasi-natural methods such as beach nourishment or artificial sand dune building are used to
attempt to restore an eroding beach as well as protect development. However, these methods
provide only temporary solutions. Periodic beach nourishing is required to prevent chronic longterm erosion caused by the diminishing supply of sediments in the littoral system.
Structures like sea walls, bulkheads and revetments protect development, but are not intended to
nourish or widen the beach. Erosion can occur in front of them because the natural movement of
the shoreline gets affected. Proofing of structures such as breakwaters and jetties, which are
designed to protect harbors and navigation channels with sand bypassing system will be required
to prevent erosion on the down drift side.
Shelter belt plantations: As a long-term plan to combat coastal erosion, cyclone and sea level
rise and reduce the impact of possible tsunami and cyclone sea surges, greenbelts are viable
solution.
Shelterbelts or greenbelts are natural plantations that break the wind and wave force; reduce the
impact on the shore reducing the coastal erosion. Shelterbelts are also proven barriers in
mitigating salt water inundation into horticultural plantations and agricultural fields.
In coastal districts, Pandanus, Callophyllum and cashew plantations are common on sand dunes
to protect the villages from the sea wind during monsoon. These plantations have the ability to
break the wind force and reduce the intensity. The plantation efforts as wind shelters will be
scaled up keeping in view the the importance of these plantations along the coastal villages. A
staggered plantation with first line of Ipomea and Sinifex (creepers) followed by bushes such as
Pongamia and Pandanus and alter tree forms like Callophyllum and Cashew plantation will to be
undertaken especially along the coast line of vulnerable villages. Forest department has specific
role of undertaking wind break plantations. The entire work of green belt formation will be
carried out incrementally by the Forest Department (FD) in association with the community and
NGOs specialized in this activity.
As action steps, FD will spearhead the exercise of identification of species and plantation areas;
quantifying, preparation of saplings in the nursery and distribution; generating awareness about
importance of shelterbelts.

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5.14.1. Sea wall construction


Creating wind breaks and shelterbelts is a long-term process (at least 5-10 years before the
plantations fully establish to offer protection). To meet emergency situations, in addition to
shelterbelts, constructing sea walls using local material will mitigate sea surge and cyclonic
winds. Villages that are highly vulnerable to frequent sea surges and cyclonic winds will be
identified before executing sea wall construction efforts.
5.14.2. Strengthening of bunds along the estuary and backwaters
Cyclonic storms enter the estuary and create havoc particularly to the agricultural fields.
Constructing bunds where necessary and/or strengthening bunds especially in the mouth will be
taken up to protect fertile agricultural lands from salination as well as to protect lands under
crops. Structural alteration of other installations require

Using disaster resistant high tension towers and poles when laying down new electric lines;
replace vulnerable poles with disaster resistant high tension towers and poles where feasible.

Setting poles to adequate depth to prevent overturning or leaning from wind pressures
especially when the ground is waterlogged.

Modifying design specifications and quality of construction for concrete poles to ensure
cyclone resistance.

Upgrading the specifications of wooden pole use; making sure the poles are cured adequately
and that the wood has been treated by a proper impregnations method against moisture and
insect damage.

Replacing pole-mounted transformers with plinth-mounted transformers.

Where feasible and required, the low tension main supply cables shall be placed underground
especially in urban areas.

Upgrading outside telecommunication equipment to withstand wind speeds of at least 120


mph (192 kmh).

Installing electrical and switching equipment in storm-proof buildings above flood level.

Replacing overhead cables with underground armoured cables in areas of high vulnerability.

Upgrading pumping stations to make them damage-proof.

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New water tower storage tanks will be designed to withstand cyclonic winds, earthquake and
floods; existing water tanks will be retrofitted to make them disaster resistant.

5.15. Flood mitigation


Modifying susceptibility to flood damage and disruption are among effective floodplain
management strategies of avoiding life threatening, economically devastating floods. Reviewing
and revising regulations, revising and modifying development policies are some of the tools in
implementing this strategy. Some other measures listed below should also be considered.

Not permitting unrestricted new development in the hazard prone areas


Anchoring and floodproofing structures to be built in known flood prone areas
Built-in safeguards for new water and sewage systems and utility lines from flooding
Enforcing risk zone, base flood elevation and floodway requirements
Prohibition on development in wetlands
Prescribing standards for different flood zones on flood maps.

To meet these requirements the government will adopt specific floodplain management or storm
water management regulations as part of town and country planning bye-laws, housing and
building codes, and resource protection regulations.
5.15.1. Safe siting in flood hazard areas
Low-lying areas close to the coast, flat lands in river valleys have the potential for coastal and
river flooding. Flash floods are regular phenomenon in urban habitations, geologically younger
river valleys and Eastern Ghats. In order to mitigate floods in these areas, it is advised to adopt
following principles:

Mapping the extent of land covered by past floodwaters


Restoring old ways of marking flood levels along water bodies
Getting an indication of the depth of past flood waters
Recording the severity of past floods; extent of damage caused, velocity of the flow and the
extent of debris left behind and
Finding out how often flooding has happened, over at least past 20 years.

5.15.2. Non-structural flood proofing measures


Non-structural flood control solutions will be used wherever possible, including limiting
development in historically flood-prone areas, regulating structural design and limiting increases
in peak flow runoff from new upland developments. Structural solutions to reduce shoreline
damage will be allowed only after calculated proof that non-structural solutions would not be
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able to reduce the damage. Whenever feasible, natural vegetation systems for bank stabilization
shall be used in place of protective structures.
5.15.3. Flood proofing and elevation
Flood proofing is the use of permanent, contingent or emergency techniques to either prevent
flood water from entering buildings or to minimize the damages from water that does get in.
Some of the techniques involve using water-tight seals, closure of barriers, ensuring waterresistant and safe materials, and temporarily relocating buildings. Elevating a structure means
raising it on fill or pilings so that it is above expected flood levels. It is possible to apply flood
proofing retroactively (retrofitted) to existing structures.
5.15.4. Modifying flooding
Modifying flooding is a floodplain management strategy by using structural means to divert the
flood water. Structural measures such as dams, reservoirs, dikes, levies, flood walls, channel
alterations, high flow diversions, spillways, land treatments measures, shoreline protection
works, and storm water management facilities permit deliberate changes in the volume of runoff, peak stage of the flood, time of rise and duration of flood waters, location of flooding, extent
of area flooded and velocity/depth of flood waters. These measures will be adopted for
protecting property and safeguarding lives. Maintenance and upkeep of ageing inventory of
existing flood control structures in the state shall be given priority.
5.15.5. Dams and reservoirs
Storing flood water in reservoirs can modify floods by reducing the speed at which the water
flows, limiting the area flooded, reducing and altering the timing of peak flows. Reservoir
sedimentations significantly reduce flood control capacity; competing uses of the reservoir also
impairs flood control. In addition, most dams are designed for purposes other than flood control,
although they do have the temporary effect of flood reduction through storage. Use prioritization
of the reservoirs and dams will be reinforced, especially in vulnerable areas.
The abundance of water and power in and around dams attracts new developments regardless of
the flood risk or the ability of the dam to provide flood protection. Physical development beyond
the carrying capacity overwhelms the dams. Once signs of dam failure become visible breaching
can occur within minutes or a few hours; leaving little or no time for evacuation. The massive
volume of water and its high velocity will cause severe damage.
5.15.6. Shoreline Alternation
Flood protection and stream-way modification are activities occurring within stream way and
wetland areas which are designed to reduce overbank flow from high waters and stabilize
eroding stream banks. Reduction of flood damage, bank stabilization to reduce sedimentation
State of Andhra Pradesh
State Disaster Management Plan

| C5 - 17

and protection of property from erosion is possible through watershed and floodplain
management and by structural works. Economically and ecologically significance areas such as
prawn culturing, nesting, and rearing shall be given due consideration while reviewing shoreline
alteration and protection actions. Other measures such as high flow diversion, preparing storm
water management strategies are also effective shoreline alteration methods.
5.16. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA)
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) was enacted in 2006 to guarantee at least
100 days of employment especially to land-less laborers in rural areas. Andhra Pradesh is in the
forefront of implementing this programme successfully.
The demand driven scheme, which aims to offer 100 days of unskilled manual work to people in
rural areas is promoting programmes that are distinctly part of disaster mitigation measures.
NREGAs public investment directed at increasing the labor-supporting capacity of land
development of the farms through massive rainwater harvesting, soil conservation and treatment
of their catchment areas will form the centre piece of rural employment guarantee in Andhra
Pradesh. Strengthening the popular schemes under NREGA by expanding to include investments
required in education and health care will be initiated as part of implementing strategy of SDMP.
Strengthening the employment guarantee measures would, besides providing relief in times of
distress, it would also be a move towards long-term drought and flood-proofing.
5.17. Cyclone mitigation
Cyclone mitigation and preparedness depend on communitys preparedness. Cyclones are natural
phenomenon; mitigating cyclone impacts entails preparing to face and minimize the damages
when cyclones land fall. An important factor that influences peoples attitude to cyclone
preparation is the emotion they associate with cyclones. Proactive measures by civil society and
other stakeholders will prepare the community and assuage the anxieties experienced by the
communities.
Based on the technical knowledge and community volunteering, a community preparedness
programme (CPP) will be devised. Through the technical expertise accurate information on
impending cyclone land fall, accurate path, wind speed etc. will be communicated to vulnerable
villages at least 48 hours in advance.
Through CPP a mechanism of collecting information from Cyclone Warning Center,
Visakhapatnam and IMD, Hyderabad including designated warning signals of approaching
cyclones will be developed. Bulletins will be prepared based on the information collected and
transmitted to all coastal district administration for necessary action. Evacuation warnings
depending on the intensity will also be included in the bulletins. Each vulnerable village will be
encouraged to form a team of volunteers headed by a team leader or local CBO or NGO. The
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State Disaster Management Plan

| C5 - 18

bulletins prepared will be transmitted to these teams; the team leaders and volunteers in turn
will relay the information door to door using megaphones, hand sirens and public address
system.
5.17.1. Training of Volunteers
For maintaining a high level of efficiency the volunteers shall be given training on the Red Cross
and Red Crescent movement, cyclone and its behavior, warning signals and their dissemination,
evacuation, sheltering, rescue, first aid and relief operation. The first aid volunteers are given
first aid training by CPP officers. Training of volunteers could be handled by the trainers trained
at Dr. MCR HRD IAP. Traditional cyclone warnings and local villagers wisdom will be included
as part of the trainings.
5.17.2. Public Awareness
Public awareness is integral and important part of cyclone mitigation and preparedness activities.
Keeping this in view, the CPP will implement following public awareness activities in cyclone
prone coastal areas:

Cyclone drills and demonstration


Film/ Video Shows/folk songs
Publicity campaign
Radio and Television
Posters, leaflets and Booklets
Staging of street acts/drama

5.17.3. Social welfare/other activities


Other than the mandatory responsibilities, the volunteers under CPP will be encouraged to get
engaged in social welfare and development activities during non-season period. Local NGOs
and administration could utilize the services of the volunteers and keep them engaged. The
village level disaster management committees may also be administered by the volunteer groups.
The CPP volunteer groups at the village level will assume the charge of civil defense force for
non-cyclone duration to undertake protection and relief activities during road accident, fire, boat
capsize, river erosion, epidemic etc at the village level.
5.17.4. Regional awards
To encourage villages and communities in cyclone mitigation and preparedness, district-level as
well as state-level awards shall be instituted to be awarded to best prepared village/community.
Vulnerable villages and the CPP volunteer groups from these villages will be encouraged to
compete for these awards. Appropriate incentives besides wide recognition through media will
be accorded as part of the award.
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State Disaster Management Plan

| C5 - 19

5.18. Critical Infrastructure Protection


Natural disasters such as cyclone, floods and earthquakes are inevitable occurrences. The extent
of losses varies depending on the degree of vulnerability of the villages or mandals. Natural
occurrence of hazards assumes disastrous proportions if the critical infrastructure such as
approach roads, communication channels are breached. Transportation facilities and roads,
especially in vulnerable mandals and villages are intended to provide smooth mobility. Routine
monitoring of critical roads, bridges, dams and other infrastructure such as irrigation channels
will prevent severe losses. New infrastructure projects initiated by the government departments
such as new road constructions, bridges, free-ways, public buildings, government offices etc.
will be audited to verify the veracity of the designs and structures to meet disaster management
policy and guidelines.
Emergency response operations require transport of humanitarian aid, personnel and equipment
to the disaster sites. Logistics and transport issues are crucial to successful response and
mitigation measures. The following aspects of logistics and transport shall be considered disaster
mitigation measures:

Identify normal aid delivery routes especially in vulnerable areas and affected populations.
Identify and locate available sites for emergency storage of resources.
Identify transportation modes (road, railway, air) for evacuation and availability of resources.
Identify critical transport roads that will get marooned and impede relief measures.
Strengthen capacities of key government department personnel in maintaining critical
infrastructure
Infrastructure departments are advised to include critical infrastructure maintenance budgets
in annual planning process.

5.18.1. Relief and rehabilitation by local administration


In order to maintain fail-proof preventive and mitigation measures of the critical infrastructure,
the local administration will have to periodically review and prepare maintenance plans of
critical infrastructure. Following measures will be undertaking by the local administration to
achieve this goal.

Continuing round the clock inspection and repair of critical roads, bunds, dams, irrigation
channels, bridges, culverts, control gates and overflow channels.
Inspection and repair of pumps, generators, motor equipment and station buildings.
Clearing the inlet and outlet to tanks to ensure that waterways are unobstructed by trees or
vegetation on an on-going basis.
Preparing information formats and monitoring checklists for monitoring and reporting to
Emergency Operations Centre.

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C5 - 20

5.18.2. Protection of dams and emergency action planfor the downstream areas of five
dams in Sileru River Basin
Uncontrolled or excessive release of large volume of water has great potential for loss of life and
damage to property in the downstream areas due to excessive flooding. Breach of dams occurs
due to several reasons:

Extreme storm events occurring in the catchments necessitating excessive release of water
from the storage reservoir,

Geologic factor (earthquake, landslide),

Structural failure (faulty foundation, excessive seepage) and even man-made sabotage.

The damaging potential of all such disaster situations is partial or catastrophic failure of the dam
leading to uncontrolled release of water resulting into flood wave up to tens of meters deep,
gushing down a valley at quite high velocity, inundating and causing widespread damages.
Central Water Commission (CWC) has evolved detailed guidelines to prepare Emergency Action
Plan (EAP) to deal with such situations. Ministry of Environment & Forest, Govt. of India has
made Disaster Management Plan (DMP) / Emergency Action Plan (EAP) a mandatory
requirement for all existing dams and proposed dams for obtaining statutory environmental
clearance for all river valley projects in India.
Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation (APGENCO) is the dam owner in respect of
Guntawada Dam, Donkarayi Dam and Forebay Dam and Water Reservoir Department, Govt. of
Orissa is the dam owner in respect of Jalaput Dam and Balimela Dam in Sileru river basin. All
five dams are situated in Sileru River in a radius of 250 kms and basin area of 6261 sq. km.
Sileru River originates in Eastern Ghats. Salient features of the dam pertaining to storage and
dam heights are given below.
Salient Features
Jalaput
Catchment Area (sq.km)
1955
Gross Storage (M.cum)
971
Type of Dam
Masonry
Dam Height (m)
41
FRL* (m)
+ 838
*FRL Full Reservoir Level

Balimela
4910
3695
Earthen
70
+ 462

Guntawada Donkarayi
5164
668
NA
470
Masonry
Masonry
18
49
+ 414
+ 316

Forebay
NA
40
Masonry
67
+ 283

Emergency Action Plan (EAP) for Dams in Sileru Basin (Source: APGENCO):
An EAP is a formal document that identifies potential emergency conditions at a dam and
specifies pre-planned action to be taken immediately to minimize loss of life and danger to
property. EAP specifies a set of actions, a dam owner should take to moderate or alleviate the
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State Disaster Management Plan

| C5 - 21

problems at the dam site as well as in the areas downstream of the dam. It contains exhaustive
procedures and information to assist the dam owner in issuing the early warning and notification
messages to responsible management authorities, viz. District Magistrate / Collector, Police,
Armed Forces, Paramilitary Forces, Project Authorities, Dam Safety Organisation and other
Central / State Agencies. It also contains inundation maps clearly indicating the extent of area
which would be adversely affected so that various management authorities may take up
necessary relief and rescue actions in case of an emergency. Following emergency action plan is
in operation with respect to the five dams in Sileru river basin. Four alert levels coded in
different colors have been devised as presented in the following table. Detailed emergency action
plan and inundation maps in the downstream areas of Jalaput, Balimela, Guntwada, Donkarayi
and Forebay dams in Sileru river basin are available with Andhra Pradesh Power Generation
Company.
Sl.
No.

Alert
Level

Official / Authority Responsible


Jalaput Executive Engineer (C )

Measure to solve problem

Balimela Executive Engineer (C )

Give internal alert signal of blue level

Guntawada

Information to:

Upper Sileru E.E (C )

a) Dam Supervisor or Divisional


Engineers, Superintending
Engineer and C.E.( Upper Sileru,
Lower Sileru), C.C.E., P.I.P.,
Balimela

Lower Sileru E.E (C )


Blue

Response / Action to be taken

Donkarayi E.E. (C )

b) CMD APGENCO and E. I. C.,


(WR), Odisha
Dam supervisory office or Divisional Authority responsible shall get full
Engineers, S.E.( Upper & Lower report and shall satisfy themselves
regarding appropriateness of the
Sileru), C.E.( Upper & Lower Sileru)
measures being taken to solve the
Chief Construction Engineer, P.I.P., problem.
Balimela

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C5 - 22

Sl.
No.

Alert
Level

Official / Authority Responsible


Jalaput Executive Engineer (C )
Balimela Executive Engineer (C )

Response / Action to be taken


1. Measure to solve problem
2. Give internal alert signal of
Yellow level
3. Information to:

Guntawada
Upper Sileru E.E (C )
Lower Sileru E.E (C )
Donkarayi E.E. (C )
Yellow
Dam supervisory office or Divisional
Engineers, S.E.( Upper & Lower
Sileru), C.E.( Upper & Lower Sileru)
E. E., E. D. Division, Chitrokonda,
C. C. E., P.I.P., Balimela

Orange

a. Dam Supervisor or Divisional


Engineers, Superintending
Engineer and C.E.( Upper Sileru,
Lower Sileru), E. I. C., W. R.,
Orissa
b. CMD (APGENCO) and
Director, S. S. & D. S., Odisha,
BBSR
1. Authorities responsible shall get
full report and shall satisfy
themselves regarding measures
being taken to solve the problem.
2. Shall seek expert advice, if
considered necessary
3. Shall inform civil administration
Disaster Management Authority
for their preparedness.

Dam operation office for each of the 1. Measure to solve problem


five dams, concerned E.E.s / S.E.s, 2. Give internal alert signal of
Orange level
Dam Supervisory office or concerned
3. Review preparedness Information
E.Es, S.E.( Upper & Lower Sileru) &
to:
C.E.( Upper & Lower Sileru),
a. District Collector & S.P.
APGENCO.;
b. State Flood Control Cell
E. I. C., (W. R.), Odisha, C. C. E.,
PIP, Balimela
Warning: Population downstream of
the affected dam(s) ready for
evacuation.
Local disaster management authority

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

1. Inform all officers responsible for


District Disaster Management for
preparedness.
2. Inform all residents of affected
regions through the various
communication
systems
mentioned

| C5 - 23

Sl.
No.

Alert
Level

Official / Authority Responsible

Response / Action to be taken

Dam operation office for each of the 1. Give external alert signal of red
level.
five dams, concerned E.E.s / S.E.s,
2.
Inform to:
Dam Supervisory office or concerned
a. Local
disaster management
E.Es, S.E.(Upper & Lower Sileru) &
authority.
C.E.( Upper & Lower Sileru),
APGENCO.;
b. State Flood Control Cell
Director Dams (OHPC).
Red

Warning: Population downstream of


the affected dam(s) to be evacuated
CMD (APGENCO) and E. I. C., (W.
quickly.
R.), Orissa.
Local disaster management authority

1. Involve all officers responsible


for District Disaster Management
in rescue and mitigation.
2. Inform all residents of affected
regions
through
different
communication
systems
at
disposal; initiate search, rescue
and relief operations.

5.19. Emergency evacuation procedures


Families will be encouraged to take adequate supplies of water, food, clothing and emergency
supplies. The families are encouraged to assemble the following disaster supplies kit and keep it
handy.
5.19.1. Emergency Supplies

Keep enough supplies at home to meet the needs for at least three days

Assemble emergency supplies kit with items that are needed if evacuation is imminent, store
these supplies in sturdy, easy-to-carry containers such as backpacks, duffle bags or covered
trash containers.

5.19.2. Include following items as part of emergency supplies

A three day supply of water (4 liters per person per day) and food that would not spoil.

One change of clothing and one blanket or sleeping bag per person

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State Disaster Management Plan

| C5 - 24

A first aid kit that includes familys prescriptions

Emergency tools including a battery-powered radio, flashlight and additional batteries

Sanitation supplies

Special items for infant, elderly or disabled family members

Storing important family documents in water proof container.

5.20. Emergency for evacuation of marooned persons


With all the intention on district administrations part for early warning and evacuation, there
may not be adequate time, opportunity for evacuation of all individuals. In case of marooned
communities, the district administration shall reach out to the community and provide following
basic resources on priority basis:

Supplying food, safe drinking water and first-aid medicines


Identifying and evacuating vulnerable individuals such as elders, children and disabled
Moving marooned community to safe higher grounds
Evacuation must be carried out within the shortest possible time.
The marooned persons must be transferred to transit camps.
Seriously injured individuals are to be transported by motor boats.
Senior medical officer of PHC shall accompany the rescue team along with the required
medical kit and endure priority of shifting of those seriously injured or requiring immediate
medical attention.

If there is enough time to plan evacuation of vulnerable villages, the district administration shall
identify the transportation means, route of evacuation and designated destination points. At the
destination, basic living amenities shall be quickly established following Incident Command
System procedures.
5.21. Requirement of equipment and machinery for disaster management in each district
5.21.1. Equipment carried by Rescue Party
1. Iron shod levers, 10 ft.' long
2. Heavy Block for Fulcrum
3. Crowbars
4. Picks
5. Shovels (or Phawrahs)
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State Disaster Management Plan

| C5 - 25

6. Half round files


7. Sledge Hammer
8. Heavy Axe
9. Light Axe
10. Two handled cross-cut saw
11. Hand Saw
12. 100 ft. length, 3 in. fibre rope
13. 100 ft. length 5/8" wire rope
14. 40 ft. length 1 1/2 fiber lashing lines
15. Chain tackle
16. Single sheave snatch block
17. 20 ft. bamboo ladders
18. Petromax lamp
19. Torches electric
20. Hurricane lanterns
21. Tarpaulin 12' x 12'
22. Box of miscellaneous tools
23. Set of rope tackle, 3 sheaves-2 sheaves
24. Jack with 5 ton lift
25. 20 ft. length of fibre ropes 1
26. Rubber gloves (pair) (tested up to 25000 voltage)
27. 200 ft. length fibre rope 3" or 4" (when needed)
28. Stretcher harness (set)
29. Scaffold poles for sheer legs
30. Debris baskets
31. Fireman's axes (with carrying pouches)
32. Short ladder (8 or 10 ft.)
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State Disaster Management Plan

| C5 - 26

33. Buckets
34. Tarpaulins or stout canvas sheets 12'xl2' (to protect trapped persons from falling debris until
released)
35. Leather gloves
36. First aid pouches
37. First aid box
38. Stretchers
5.21.2. Contents to be part of rescue team bag
1. Bandages triangular
2. Canes for tightening improvised tourniquets
3. Dressing Shells
4. Dressing First, Aid
5. Labels, casualty identity, packets of 20
6. Safety pins (large) Cards of 6
7. Scissors
8. Tourniquet
5.21.3. Earthquake rescue equipment
1. Concrete cutters
2. Steel cutters
3. Wood cutters
4. Emergency Lights
5. Hand Held Cutters
6. Spreaders
7. Combitools and Mini Cutters
8. Lifting Kit
9. Head Torch
10. Helmet and Search Lights
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State Disaster Management Plan

| C5 - 27

11. Leather and Rubber Hand gloves


12. Insulated Firemen Axe
13. Pneumatic Jack with air cylinders with compressor
14. Breathing apparatus set
15. Binoculars (2-3 Kms range)
5.21.4. Fire rescue equipments
1. Proximity suit
2. Water C02type
3. CO2Type
4. Foam Type
5. DCP Type
6. Thermal image camera
7. High pressure portable pumps with pipes
8. Ropes (manila)
9. Chargeable Torches
10. Generators with flood light stand with wire 2.4 Kv
11. Breathing Apparatus Set
5.21.5. Flood rescue equipments
1. Borewell camera/under water searching camera
2. Inflatable Boat with OBM & Without OBM( 10 HP)
3. FRP Boats with OBM & without OBM(10 HP)
4. Life Buoys
5. Life Jackets
6. Gumboots
7. Helmets
8. Stretchers
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State Disaster Management Plan

| C5 - 28

9. Safety Goggles
10. Chain Pulley Block
11. Global Positioning System
12. Rope ladders
13. Diamond Saw Cutter
14. Search Lights
15. Hi-Power Torches
16. Hydraulic Jack
17. Petrol Driven Wood Cutter
18. Diving suits with air cylinder
19. Petrol operated compressor

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C5 - 29

5.22. Operational guidelines; dos and donts to be followed


5.22.1 Operational guidelines of what to do in the event of a cyclone
Dos
Listen to radio/TV/Public Announcement
System for advance and accurate
information

Prepare a list of valuable documents


(such as property and others) and life
saving drugs as well as essential food to
last for at least couple of days
Cyclone paths change swiftly and speed
of winds fluctuate within a few hours;
stay tuned and follow updates

Stay away from loose electric cables,


fallen tree branches and old trees;
damaged bridges and structures
Do not go for sightseeing or clutter around
places that have experienced inundation or
water submerged
Open windows on the stronger sides of the
house if the roof has begun to lift

Nail large windows and doors with


wooden planks or other material to
prevent from shattering

Find safe shelters if you are in the open

Move to nearest safe shelter or structures


that are on elevated lands; heed the
advise of the authorities to evacuate

If evacuated or left the house heeding to


the advice of authorities, do not return
until the structures are pronounced safe for
habitation; or have the structures checked
with structural engineers

Stay indoors and take shelter in the


strongest art of the house if evacuation is
impractical or not necessary to overcome
the impact

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

Donts
Do not go outside or into a beach during
cyclonic storms

| C5 - 30

5.22.2. Operational guidelines of what to do in the event of floods


Dos
Listen to radio/TV/Public Announcement
System for advance and accurate
information

Do not allow children or disabled people


from family to move into the flood water
without supervision or help at hand

Do not operate personal vehicles or board


vehicles that are stranded in flood waters

Do not consume flood water

Stay away from loose electric cables,


fallen tree branches and old trees;
damaged bridges and structures

If evacuating and time permits lock


house, windows before leaving the house

Nail large windows and doors with


wooden planks or other material to
prevent from shattering

Do not go for sightseeing or clutter


around places that have experienced
inundation or water submerged

Find safe shelters if you are in the open

If evacuated or left the house heeding to


the advice of authorities, do not return
until the structures are pronounced safe
for habitation; or have the structures
checked with structural engineers

Prepare a list of valuable documents


(such as property and others) and life
saving drugs as well as essential food to
last for at least couple of days
Disconnect electric and gas fittings;
move all valuable personal as well as
household items including clothing to
higher decks or on top of almirahs or
cupboards

Move to nearest safe shelter or structures


that are on elevated lands; heed the
advise of the authorities to evacuate

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

Donts
Do not enter flood waters if it is
avoidable

| C5 - 31

5.22.3. Operational guidelines of what to do in the event of heat waves


Dos
Listen to the radio/TV and public
announcement system for heat wave
warnings

Try to stay in cold places; use umbrella


during hot hours of the day.

Avoid outdoor physical activity from


12:00 pm to 4:00 pm. If unavoidable,
attend to only light physical activity
under the hot sun. Finish work in the
morning hours and stay indoors during
peak mid-noon hours

Hydrate well and carry plenty of water if


going out is inevitable

Protect head with appropriate measures


such as cloth/umbrella/caps/hats

Wear light colored dressing

Shift people with heat stroke symptoms


to a cool dwelling; if the person affected
with heat stroke does not show
improvement, shift the person
immediately to hospital with cooling
facility

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

Donts
Avoid going out under sun

If going out is unavoidable, do not stand


or work under direct sun

Delay in shifting the person suffering


with heat stroke to a cool place.
Do not allow hot air into the living
rooms.

| C5 - 32

5.22.4. Operational guidelines for earthquake


Dos
Listen to radio/TV/Public Announcement
System for advance and accurate
information

Donts
Do not roam or wander around the streets
without knowing the veracity of safety of
the rubble

Keep away from electric cables, slopes,


bridges or highly damaged buildings that
have not collapsed

Do not rush to doors, exits and clog the


exits; follow evacuation plan of the
building

Prepare emergency list of life saving


drugs and essential food items to last for
at least couple of days in areas vulnerable
to seismic activities; keep the kit handy
to be picked up easily and quickly leave
the house

Turn off electricity and gas connections if


time and opportunity presents

Protect self and family by staying under


lintel of an inner door, in the corner of a
room or under a table or even under a cot

Keep away from old, tall or dilapidated


buildings, loose electric cables, slopes
and walls. Similarly

If travelling by motor vehicle, stop


vehicle away from buildings, walls,
slopes, electric wires and bridges

Leave badly damaged house and stay


outdoors to avoid aftershocks

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

Never use lift; keep away from windows,


mirrors, chimney and furniture

Do not reenter badly damaged structures


or buildings

If physically able and have first-aid


knowledge help paramedics or rescue
team members.

| C5 - 33

Chapter 6.0
Disaster Response Plan

Chapter 6.0
6.1. State Disaster Response Plan (SDRP)
Providing public safety, minimizing damages to property and protecting public lives are the
primary goals of disaster response plan. The Disaster Management Act, 2005 requires that the
State Disaster Response Plan (SDRP) incorporates the results of vulnerability and risk
assessment of the state. The response plan includes plans, procedures and identification of
support functions and the agencies that will be responsible for the support functions. The
response plan also provides framework for the standard operating procedures to be further
developed by the state government departments.
At the time of situations arising out of disasters and hazards, villages, Mandals or municipality
are worst affected; the first line of defense and response mechanism at this level will be
developed. If the response required exceeds available resources at the local levels, support will
be sought in the order: Villages/mandals/municipality with the district; districts with the state
and finally state with the central government. In the event of multi-state disasters, optimal
utilization of resources and coordination between states is essential.
6.2. Disaster Response Plan Nine Core Elements: The State Disaster Response Plan is based
on the following key elements that are instrumental in making the response plan fail-proof.

Activation mechanism

Levels of disasters

Response management arrangements

Disaster support functions (DSF)

Emergency operations center (EOC)

Incident Command System (ICS)

Disaster response structure

Delegation of powers

Personnel safety

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State Disaster Management Plan

| C6 - 1

6.3. Principles of execution of the State Disaster Response Plan (SDRP)

Village/mandal or ward (in case of municipalities) is the smallest unit of planning and action;
at village level, gram panchayat will be the lowest level of coordination and management.

Delegation of power to lower level government functionaries and elected representatives of


PRIs; devolution of financial power to ensure effective management. Increase in the ceiling
expenditure based on the level of disaster.

Focus will be on the safety and security of personnel (both government and non-government)
involved in rescue, evacuation and first-aid; equipping the personnel with state-of-art
communication and other equipment.

Minimizing overlapping functions of departments and government officials during disasters


to ensure unified command and effective coordination.

6.4. Activation Mechanism of State Disaster Management Plan


Andhra Pradesh has varying levels of vulnerability to different disasters. While cyclones and
floods are perennial occurrences, the severity of these incidences determine the level of disasters.
Similarly, droughts, heat waves and monsoon storms are regular incidents in the state; these
incidents are season and region specific. The state has recorded varying degrees of hazards such
as earthquakes, chemical disasters (more specific to areas where oil industries are located).
While focus of the plan is more on identified disasters such as cyclones, floods, earthquakes and
other chemical disasters, the frame work outlined in the plan is replicable to other hazards.
While Revenue (Disaster Management) Department is the coordinating body for disaster
management in the state, other line departments have critical role to play in the management of
disasters. The Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and action plans of all key departments
come into play when the state disaster management plan is activated. Finally, the management of
disasters is to bring organizational network of the departments, optimal utilization of available
resources with the departments.
Activation of the plan shall lead to spontaneous mobility of all disaster management activities
identified in this plan for response and recovery. Quick response without the loss of valuable
time is required to minimize the damage. Activation of the plan is also dependent on the
concerted efforts that the Revenue (Disaster Management) Department can muster in
coordination with other critical departments to quickly identify the magnitude of the incident;
alert district administration and arrange critical infrastructure for evacuation and relief.
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Periodic risk and vulnerability assessment of the state, preparedness measures, mainstreaming
disaster management concerns into development programmes at the state and capacity building
require round the year attention and are helpful in preparation and planning during peace time.
Action plan on the mechanisms of activating the state disaster management plan will be
prepared. On receipt of early warning and signal of an impending disaster or on the occurrence
of sudden disaster, the response and mitigation mechanisms of the state disaster management
plan will be activated simultaneously.
Preparing post disaster plans that identify evacuation, search, rescue, identifying temporary
shelters, arrangement of food distribution, making drinking water available, clothing, health and
sanitation, temporary communication network establishments, and most crucially developing
public information system with update information, are critical components of Disaster
Management.
6.5. Levels of Disasters
Based on severity of the disaster, degree of material and physical losses and assistance
requirements different levels of disasters are being identified. The activation of the plan will be
dependent on the declared level of disaster.
Level 0 (L0) This is a level during peace and normal times; time will be utilized for monitoring,
prevention and preparatory activities. Capacity building of key departments, mock rescue,
rehearsals, testing evacuation plans is rehearsed during this level. Similarly, response and
recovery mechanisms are reviewed at state, district, mandal/village level.
Level I (LI) At this level, district machinery can manage the disaster; state and central
governments will monitor the progress and remain alert to activate other mechanisms if needed.
General inundation, crop losses, livestock losses, minor property losses and disrupted normal life
due to disaster/incident.
Level II (LII) At this level, active participation of state departments, mobilizing resources at the
state level and close monitoring in coordination with district machinery is warranted. Mobilizing
rescue and recovery teams consisting of paramilitary forces may be required at this level. In
addition to losses identified in LI, human and livestock losses and substantial property losses
such as damaged homes, damaged infrastructure and isolation of an area due to the severity of
the disaster are part of Level II.
Level III (LIII) This is critical and highest level. State and district machinery would need active
assistance from the union government. Mobilizing rescue and recovery teams consisting of
paramilitary forces may be required at this level. Early warning mechanisms both at state and
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central government play significant role in identifying situations that may be declared as Level
III disasters. Similar levels of losses are identified in LI and LII at higher proportions.
Activation of the plan would vary depending on the level of disasters and intensity as identified;
however, at all levels, certain activities especially preparedness, prevention and capacity building
are round the year functions. Based on the information received from competent agencies like
IMD, district administration and the degree of intensity, the State Executive Committee (SEC) in
consultation with Revenue (Disaster Management) Department will identify the level of disaster
and notify the impacted districts.
6.6. Response management arrangements
The response management task is to optimally utilize meager resources for effective response
operations. Three Cs define the response management tasks; Command, Control and
Coordination.
6.6.1. Command
Command reiterates the hierarchical administrative set up in existence in the department that has
either primary or secondary function. Command outlines the amount of physical, financial and
personnel resources that would be handled at different levels in the performance of that
departments role in the Disaster Support Functions (DSF). Existing departments administrative
hierarchy shall be basis in setting up the command system.
6.6.2. Control
Control is similar in nature to command when it comes to exercising administrative authority;
with a basic difference that Control provides the general direction of best possible utilization of
resources and optimal deployment of personnel during disasters.
6.6.3. Coordination
Coordination is the key element of disaster response plan. Coordination brings together
departments and agencies to execute command and control of DSFs. It is primarily concerned
with the systematic acquisition and application of resources (rescue material, personnel,
equipment etc.) in accordance with the requirements imposed by emergencies. Coordination
aims at bringing out synergy in operation and execution of SDRP.

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6.7. System of Disaster Support Function (DSF)


Disaster Support Function system is developed to identify responsibilities and functions of key
government departments pre, during and post disasters. The system is constituted of key
coordinating agencies to manage and coordinate specific functions that are common to all
hazards identified above. For each DSF, there will be a primary department or agency and
support departments or agencies.
6.7.1. Primary support department
The primary department for the Disaster Response Functions (DSF) is responsible for the
management of the disaster support function in close coordination with support departments.
While the primary department may vary depending on the DSF, for instance for Health function
Department of health will be the primary support department; the overall responsibility lies with
Revenue (Disaster Management) Department and SDMA. During the response, the primary
departments role may be changed according to the need and situation. The administrative head
of the primary department may delegate the authority by nominating a subordinate or one of the
support department as primary department based on the situation and need.
6.7.2. Secondary support departments
Secondary support departments are a group of departments discharging functions under the DSF
based on their strengths. The administrative head of the primary department may identify a
reputed NGO or rope in departments not included in the identified list of secondary support
departments to discharge support functions based on the situation and need. Each secondary
support department will also identify a deputy incident commander or nodal officer to coordinate
with the Incident Commander during disasters.
6.7.3. Nodal Officer or Incident Commander
A nodal officer nominated from each department is the incident commander of the respective
department. In the event that the nominated nodal officer is not the administrative head of the
primary support department for each DSF, the administrative head may nominate a separate
incident commander or take charge him/herself based on the need and situation.
6.7.4. Emergency Response Management Team
The nodal officers from the Primary support department (or Incident Commander in case of
Primary support department) and secondary support departments (or their representatives) will
be the core members of the emergency response management team. Based on the need and
situation, additional members to the team may be nominated by the Incident Commander.
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6.8. Disaster Support Function (DSF)


The DSF will be a key function of the Emergency Operations Center (EOC) at the state level.
The functions will include identification, mobilization, and coordination of available state owned
and private resources, manpower and technical expertise to meet the requirements of providing
essential emergency response in the event of an emergency or disaster.
The primary department identified in each DSF will coordinate with their counterpart
departments at the district level during LII disasters and with central government
ministries/agencies during LII and LIII disasters. When emergencies or situations such as
earthquakes (in recent past Andhra Pradesh did not encounter this situation); biological and
nuclear installation disasters either under LII or LIII, the state government will seek assistance
and guidance from NDMA or central government.
Following key DSFs are identified under the SDMP
Disaster Support
Function (DSF)
DSF # 1
DSF # 2
DSF # 3
DSF #4
DSF # 5
DSF # 6
DSF #7
DSF # 8
DSF # 9
DSF # 10
DSF # 11
DSF # 12
DSF # 13
DSF # 14

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Type of DSF
Communication
Public health and medical assistance
Transportation
Search and Rescue
Public works and Engineering
Relief supplies
Food & Drinking water
Shelter
Irrigation
Information and Planning
Power
Help line (24x7)
Training and capacity building
Public safety and police

Primary Department
EOC, Revenue (DM) Dept
Department of Health
Transport Department
Home Dept; Revenue (DM)
R&B; MA & UD
Revenue (DM) Department
Revenue (DM) & ULB, GP
Revenue (DM) Department
Department of I&CAD
Revenue (DM) Department
TRANSCO
EOC/Revenue (DM) Dept
Dr. MCR HRD IAP & APARD
Home Department

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A matrix of DSFs with primary and secondary responsible departments and agencies has been
prepared as presented below:

DSF # 7 Food and drinking water

DSF # 8 - Shelter

DSF # 12 Help line (24 x7)

DSF # 13 - Training and capacity building

Department of Revenue

Commissioner of Agriculture

Commissioner of Horticulture

DG and IG of Police

Director of Animal Husbandry

Commissioner of Fisheries

Commissioner of civil supplies

Director of Backward classes


Commissioner of social welfare
Commissioner of women devt and
child welfare

AP Transco

MCR HRD IAP

Commissioner of Family Health

P/S

Director of Health

P/S

Forest Department
AP State Council of Higher Education
Director General of Fire and
Emergency

S
S

AP State Housing Corporation Ltd.

Commissioner of Industry
Engineer-in-Chief (Irrigation)
Chief Engineer, Inter State and Water
Resources
Commissioner and Director of
Municipal Admin
State of Andhra Pradesh
State Disaster Management Plan

DSF # 14 Public safety and police

DSF # 6 Relief supplies (Resources/Material


support)

DSF # 11 Power

DSF # 3 Search and rescue

DSF # 10 Information and planning

DSF # 3 - Transportation

DSF # 9 - Irrigation

DSF # 2 Public health and medical assistance

Commissioner of Disaster
Management (EOC)

Departments and Heads of


Departments

DSF # 5 Public works and engineering

DSF # 1 - Communication

Table 34: State-wide Disaster Support Functions and Responsibility Chart

P
P

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Engineer-in-Chief (Public Health)

HMWSSB

APSRSAC

Transport Commissioner

APSRTC

Chief Engineer (Roads & Buildings)

Telecom Department

Doordarshan and Electronic media

NGOs

DSF - Disaster Support Function


P - Primary
S - Secondary

Key departments identified in Table 34 have the responsibility of preparing an operational


procedure to execute their support function. While departments could include specific roles the
departments will assume during disaster management, the principle of disaster support function
is coordination and cooperation. While one department may not have all resources to meet
disaster management challenges, other departments need to complement their strengths to fulfill
the functions.
For instance to meet transportation needs during an emergency, Andhra Pradesh State Road
Transportation Corporation (APSRTC) has specific role to play in making available buses to
transport marooned population to safe areas away from incident site. Other departments that have
motor vehicles within their jurisdiction will play support function in supplementing the demand
for transportation. In situations or places where it is not feasible to operate motor vehicles and
boats are the only means of transportation, A.P. Tourism Department and other appropriate
agencies (either central government or state government) would assume support role and
discharge the function of disaster support function. Detailed sub-plan of Transportation Disaster
Support Function (TDSF) is developed; sub-plan of the remaining twelve disaster support
functions following the illustration of Transportation Disaster Support Function will be prepared
by the concerned departments.
6.8.1. Transportation Disaster Support Function (TDSF)
Purpose:
Transportation DSF provides transportation out of a disaster area for people in need, and
provides transportation essential to support emergency response in the event of a disaster.

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Scope:
Primary functions provided under this DSF will include the identification, mobilization, and
coordination of available state owned and private industry transportation, manpower and
technical expertise to meet the requirements of providing essential emergency response in the
event of an emergency or disaster.
Operating Procedure of TDSF for
1. Mitigation: The Commissioner of Transport will designate a nodal officer to organize and
coordinate transportation services during the emergency/disaster.
2. Preparedness: Designated Nodal Officer will develop plans and procedures to mobilize
transportation to support emergency evacuation for at risk populations and to support other
operations of GoAP agencies. The transport means also include speed boats, boats and inflatable
boats. Plans will include coordination with the GoAP Police Department and temporarily
suspending load limits and hindrances for rapid evacuation, deployment and mobility of at risk
population.
The Nodal Officer will prepare an inventory of both public and private transportation vehicles,
sources of vehicles during emergency, enlist companies that could provide transportation means
during disaster. Having easy access to helicopters to evacuate marooned population is included
as key function of preparedness.
3. Response: The Nodal Officer will establish immediate contact with district counter parts
during emergency and will process requests for transportation and arrange for state resources and
private industry resources to be allocated for response and recovery.
The Nodal Officer will continue to acquire, allocate and monitor transportation resources as the
emergency continues/progresses. The TDSF will also establish food and essential medicine
supply routes to marooned villages/mandals.
4. Recovery: When the emergency is concluded, the TDSF Nodal Officer will release
transportation assets acquired for emergency services to their respective owners; will prepare
action taken report (ATR) to be submitted to the Commissioner, Transport and DG, APSRTC.
Organization and responsibilities under TDSF
1. The Department of Transportation; APSRTC has the primary responsibility for emergency
transportation when disaster management plan is activated and the level of disaster is identified

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to be LII or LIII. That responsibility includes coordinating with identified support department
listed below and prepare TDSF SOP in close coordination with support departments.
2. The support departments identified below for TDSF are responsible for developing and
maintaining plans, procedures and asset inventories to support the TDSF Nodal Officer.
Support Departments include, but are not limited to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

A. P. Tourism Department (for boats)


Fisheries Department
Home Department
Revenue Department
Roads & Buildings Department
Ministry of Railways
BSNL and MTNL
Army When needed (LII or LIII)

3. Based on disaster levels, some departments listed above will have primary responsibility as
primary support function of other Disaster Support Functions. For instance, Revenue Department
is identified as one of the support departments in TDSF, because of overwhelming responsibility
of coordinating other essentials their contribution in TDSF will be limited. Recognizing such
difficulties, other support departments are required to step up and fill the gap.
4. It is required for the Nodal Officer of TDSF and support departments to have respective SOPs
and department action plans prepared before disasters strike. Such SOPs should have evacuation
and food supply routes established.
5. If transportation needs exceed identified resources, the TDSF Nodal Officer will report the
situation to the EOC and the Commissioner, Disaster Management who will seek additional
resources from Central Government Ministries pursuant under Disaster Management Act of
2005.
6. Every department both at state and district level providing emergency transportation support
will maintain records of the operations, including cost records for eventual reimbursement during
relief and recovery operations.
7. TDSF Nodal Officer is responsible for developing, maintaining and coordinating plans,
procedures, arrangements and agreements in support of transportation needs during disasters.

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Sub-plans of the remaining thirteen disaster support functions following the illustration of
Transportation Disaster Support Function (TDSF) will be prepared by the concerned primary
departments identified in table above.
6.9. State Emergency Operations Center (EOC)
The emergency operations center (EOC) will be the central control room when hazards affect the
state and the State Disaster Management Plan (SDMP) is activated. Regardless of the level of
disaster and intensity the EOC will be operational 24 x 7 during monsoon months since AP is
most vulnerable during the monsoon season. During normal months (peace time), the EOC will
have different sets of roles in preparedness and coordinating mitigation measures with key
government departments.
The EOC is designed to offer the flexibility to expand and contract depending on the need and
type of hazard/disaster. The primary function of the State EOC is to implement SDMP action
plan which include:

Coordination
Policy-making
Operations management
Information gathering and record keeping
Public information
Resource management

EOC as the coordination and control point during disasters will be the place where quick
decision-making is done. The EOC system and the procedures are designed in a way where
information is quickly received, assessed and relayed to concerned officials within the state
government machinery and to the filed based EOCs and district administration. It is the nerve
center to support, coordinate and monitor disaster management activities at the district level.
The EOC under normal circumstances will work under the supervision of Commissioner,
Disaster Management Department. Depending on the intensity and level of emergency as
discussed in this chapter, the operations of the EOC will come under the command of Chief
Secretary or designated officer of the rank of Principal Secretary to the Government and
discharge the functions as Chief of Operations.
The Chief of Operations or the Commissioner, Disaster Management Department during normal
times will ensure the following functions as part of EOCs preparedness:

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The standard operations procedures (SOPs) of all key government departments are prepared
and are fail-proof.
Issue directives to the district administration especially districts that are prone to hazards like
cyclones, floods, drought etc. to set up district EOCs under the command of the District
Collector.
Periodically (every six months) receives preparedness reports from the district administration
and prepare review report to be submitted for the consideration of Chief Secretary, GoAP.
Ensure every district has a district disaster management action plan (DDMAP) along with
SOPs of the key departments at the district level; encourages districts to prepare area and
disaster specific management plans.
Set up study groups or expert groups drawn from technical, social and government
administration backgrounds; undertake specific vulnerability studies and submit the report
for the consideration of Chief Secretary, GoAP.
Set up a knowledge center as part of EOC; collate and disseminate key information to line
department nodal officers on the latest developments and know-how of disaster mitigation
measures and maintain upto date manuals.
Seek and receive appropriate proposals on preparedness, risk reduction and mitigation
measures from key state government departments, technical institutions, ATI (MCR HRD
IAP) and NGOs; prepare appropriate budgetary provisions and forward for the consideration
of Chief Secretary, GoAP.
Act as key nodal agency in reviewing appropriate policy guidelines and changes related to
disaster management and convey such changes or updates to all government departments and
other key stakeholders.
Be responsible to implement and update the SDMP; disseminating salient features of the
SDMP as well as copies of the SDMP along with action plan to all government departments
and other stakeholders in the state.
Coordinate with SDMA, NDMA on policy issues related to disaster management as pertains
to the state.
Prepare action plans on preparedness, mitigation, capacity building, relief and rehabilitation
as identified in the SDMP.
Monitor the training programmes conducted by Dr. MCR HRD IAP on disaster management;
encourage other institutions such as APARD, NIRD, EPTRI, APSRAC etc. to carry out
Needs Assessment of training and technology in managing disasters.
Develop post-disaster evaluation mechanisms and institute appropriate M&E systems for
periodic up-gradation of the state plan.
Ensure the EOC has state-of-the-art communication technology including wireless, computer
and live-feed systems. Also ensure that the district EOCs are also well equipped and are
operational throughout the year.

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Maintain liaison with funding agencies dealing with disaster mitigation and humanitarian
assistance.

6.9.1 Warning or occurrence of disaster


On receipt of warning and/or alerts from appropriate agencies such as IMD, Cyclone Warning
Centers, the EOC will be operationalised and the state plan will be activated. The Chief
Secretary or designated Secretary-level officer will assume charge as Incident Commander and
Chief of Operations. The Chief of Operations will immediately establish contact with the district
administration to assess the situation. Other functions of the EOCs as discussed below will come
into play after the SDMP is activated.
6.9.2. Location of EOC and alternate EOC
The current emergency operations center (EOC) at the secretariat will continue to be the chief
EOC for Andhra Pradesh. The EOC located in the office of Engineer-in-Chief, Irrigation and
Command Area Development department will continue to be the monitoring and warning center
for floods monitoring. A close communication between these two centers will be established
especially in the event of cyclones and floods.
To meet emergency situation and in the event that the EOCs at the Secretariat and Irrigation and
Command Area Development becomes marooned and in-operational, an alternate EOC at Dr.
MCR HRD IAP will be established. The alternate EOC at the MCR HRD IAP will have all
facilities that the principal EOC will have.
The occurrence of the disaster will bring into force the following:

The EOC will be put on full alert and expanded to include appropriate number of branch
operations centers with responsibilities for specific tasks depending on the nature and
intensity of the disaster. The number of branch centers to be activated will be decided by the
Chief of Operations (Chief Secretary, GoAP or designated officer).

All designated line department nodal officers and head of the departments will work under
the overall supervision and administrative control of Chief of Operations.

Immediate access to the disaster site and depending on the nature/intensity of the disasters, a
team of appropriate government officials will be dispatched to the site.

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Wireless and radio communications along with 24x7 hotline will be activated with the
district collectors of the affected districts.

The EOC in its expanded form will continue to operate as long as the need for disaster
management continues and the long-term plans for rehabilitation are finalized.

6.10. Coordination at the state, central government level


The state level high power standing committee, which is currently operational in the state to
mitigate and manage disasters/emergencies meets twice a year to review administrative
preparedness and response mechanisms. State Executive Council (SEC) of the State Disaster
Management Authority has been constituted under the chairmanship of the Chief Secretary. The
SEC at the state level and other agencies from central government complement the functioning
of SDMA in executing disaster management functions. Figure 23 below presents the
coordination between central government with state and state with district/ULB level.
Fig 23: Existing coordination mechanism between centre to state and state to district in Andhra
Pradesh (Source: Deputy Director, Revenue (DM) Department, GoAP)

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6.11. Constituting State Executive Committee (SEC)


Under the provisions of Disaster Management Act 2005, The Andhra Pradesh Disaster
Management Rules 2007 were issued. As part of the rules, State Executive Committee (SEC) has
been set up under the chairmanship of the Chief Secretary, GoAP through G.O. Ms. No. 150
(Annexure XVI). The composition of SEC consists of following members:
1. Chief Secretary to State Government, Chairperson, ex- officio
2. Other members of the committee are
(i) Principal Secretary/Secretary Finance Department
(ii) Principal Secretary/Secretary Panchayat Raj& Rural Development Department.
(iii)Principal Secretary /Secretary Irrigation & Command Area Development Department.
(iv) Principal Secretary Labour, Employment, Training and Factories Department
(Permanent member).
(v) Commissioner, Disaster Management Member Convener
3. The Chairperson of the State Executive Committee may co-opt any other Special Chief
Secretary / Principal Secretary /Secretary as a special invitee taking the nature of the Disaster
into consideration for the meetings of the State Executive Committee (SEC).
6.11.1. Responsibilities of the SEC

Coordinate and monitor the implementation of the national disaster management policy, the
national plan and the state plan.

Provide information to the NDMA relating to various parameters of disaster management

Earmark funds for prevention and integration of disasters in their development plans and
projects.

Put in place techno-legal regimes; e.g., amending building bye-laws, bringing in flood plain
zoning legislation etc.

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6.12. Setting up of State Incident Command System (ICS)


Andhra Pradesh is vulnerable to number of natural disasters such as floods, cyclones, droughts
and other hazards such as heat waves etc. There are significant losses due to recurring incidents
that impact the state. Previous experiences in handling the disasters have highlighted gaps in
coordination, delay in mobilizing and deploying resources at the site of the incident.
Planning and logistic support at the incident site will improve efficiency in providing life saving
logistics as well as resources. It is necessary to address the requirement of specialized disaster
management functions at different levels such as state, district, panchayat and village level. The
designated coordinating officers at these levels are not backed up with professional teams whose
members are trained to perform specialized functions such as materials/ logistic management,
management of search and rescue operations, management of personnel, communications etc.
Systemic approach in handling the incident leads to bringing hazardous situation under control
faster. Due to overwhelming demands expected out of the in-charge officers at all levels
especially at the incident site, rescue and relief efforts suffer. Optimal utilization of resources
that start reaching the incident site does not get utilized due to lack of planning, proper
management and disorder.
Shift in approach and policy for disaster management as a result of DM Act of 2005 entails
better management. The field functionaries at these levels responsible for overall coordination
need to have organized support systems for mobilizing different agencies, monitor the situation,
coordinate the response, handle logistics, dispatch resources and provide assistance in the event
of a disaster. To address these issues, Ministry of Home Affairs in collaboration with the United
States Agency for International Development (USAID) developed a program for
institutionalizing Incident Command System (ICS) in India. Andhra Pradesh was one of the
states this programme was implemented.
Setting up incident command system is effectively pre-planning, preparing for comprehensive
management of the incident as opposed to knee-jerk reaction after the incident of flooding or
cyclones have hit the state. While central planning and management at state level is critical for
effective management of disasters, incident command systems are typically a function of
district/mandal administration. ICS planning given in this plan is more suited to set up ICS at the
district, mandal and village level. The Incident Commander to head the ICS may be an
appropriate level government official at district, mandal and village level.
Pre-incident planning is essential for gathering information relevant to anticipated incidents. It
includes data gathering, acquiring maps, visiting vulnerable sites and analyzing the data for
appropriate decision making. Pre-incident planning also involves identifying clear roles and
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responsibilities; identifying officials who assume different charges such as logistics officer,
information officer, finance officer etc. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) to be prepared by
each department is nothing but decision-making before an incident usually hits the state.
The Incident Command System (ICS) is a standardized method of managing disasters. It is
primarily a management system that is flexible and adaptable to suit any scale of natural as well
as human-caused emergency/incidents. Through ICS, the main intention is to transform the
confusion during the early stage of an emergency situation into a well managed response process
by providing answers to questions such as "whos in charge? " and "whats my role?" The ICS is
broadly based on five-management principle

Command
Planning
Operation
Logistics
Finance and administration.

Command
The command of an incident, for example, the incident may be a road accident or a major
earthquake is headed by an Incident Commander (IC) who is in overall charge. The Incident
Commander may appoint Deputy Commander and other command staff namely Safety officer,
Information officer and Liaison officer. The IC also appoints various other positions in the
organization and is responsible for positions, which are not implemented. Based on the nature
and extent of the emergency, the District Collector or his designated officer at the rank not below
Dy. Collector may be deputed as Incident Commander.
Planning
The Planning Section is responsible for the collection, evaluation, and display of incident
information, maintaining status of resources, and preparing the incident action plan and incidentrelated documentation. Planning section of ICS works in close contact with logistics and
operations section.
Operations
The Operations Section is a key section of ICS responsible for directing the tactical actions to
meet incident objectives. Road plan of managing incident/emergency on the ground is handled
by the operations section. Often IC is in-charge of this section, however deputy commanders are
appointed to assist in operations. Staging areas to execute ICS activities are established by the
operations division of ICS. Usually the staging areas should be on higher ground and preferably
away from the incident site.
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Logistics
The Logistics Section is responsible for providing adequate services and support to meet all
incidents or event needs. Logistics also deals with transportation, setting up of base camp, setting
up emergency medical treatment or trauma centers. Preparing list of volunteers, their
assignments, keeping tab on the inflow of personnel from non-government agencies etc. is also
included in logistics. Often during hazardous incidents or emergencies, personnel in rescue and
relief operations get exhausted and go without basic services; logistics part of ICS shall plan for
the needs of personnel engaged in relief and rescue. Setting up temporary housing will also be
included in logistic planning.
Finance/Administration
The Finance/Administration Section is responsible for keeping track of incident-related costs,
personnel and equipment records, and administering procurement contracts associated with the
incident or event.
Each of these functional areas can be further expanded as needed into additional organizational
units with delegation of authority. Some of the most important features of Incident Command
Systems are Management by Objective, Common Terminology, Unity and Chain of Command,
Span of Control and Organizational Flexibility. An illustration of the organizational chart of
typical ICS is presented in Fig 24 below.
While setting up ICS as part of SDMP during emergencies, four essential elements shall be
followed:
1. The system will be organizationally flexible to meet the needs of the incident of any kind and
size.
2. The system will be sufficiently standardized to allow personnel from a variety of
organizations and diverse geographical locations to rapidly merge into a common
management structure.
3. Departments/ Agencies should be able to use the system on a day to day basis for routine
situations as well as for major emergencies.
4. The system has to be cost effective.

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Fig 24: Typical organizational chart to set up Incident Command System (ICS)
(Source: Adopted from Emergency Management Institute)

6.12.1. Key functions of the divisions, units and branches


Key functions identified as parts of Incident Command System (ICS) illustrated in Fig 22 are
given below:
Operations section
1. Planning support for response action

Emergency supplies of water and cooked food


Rescue and evacuation
Restoration of essential services
Disinfection of water bodies
Salvage operations
Disposal of carcass
Transit camps
Coordination with district control room about budget allocations for relief operations

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2. Implement procurement/purchase/hire/requisition plans of materials which are not available at


the district level
3. Establish communication links with appropriate central government departments, agencies and
institutions for financial, personnel or military assistance as needed; and at the state level with
police, fire brigade, PWD, Irrigation, Agriculture etc. and private sector stakeholders for
assistance at the state level
Services branch
Assess search and rescue requirements as per information from the district control room and take
necessary action. Direct, supervise and provide assistance wherever necessary for the following:

Set up relief camps; livestock camps


Relief supplies to relief camps or to staging areas
Supplies of fodder and cattle-feed to livestock camps
Supply of seeds, agriculture inputs and services to staging areas
Maintain law and order through district police

Infrastructure branch
Coordinate with respective departments for restoration of damaged infrastructure by fulfilling the
responsibilities identified under preparedness responsibilities (see section 6.12.7)
Roads
Power
Water
Telephones
Public buildings
Bridges
Logistics branch
Respond to reinforcement needs including manpower and deployment of inter departmental and
inter-district resources as per information received from the district control room. Ensure safe
storage and transport of relief supplies and materials from approach roads, railways, airports and
handling of the required formalities. Coordinate with NGOs and other organizations including
private donors in distribution of supplies.
Health branch
Organize mobile medical teams consisting of specialists from within the state (and outside if
necessary) for immediate response. Coordinate with adjoining districts on request from district
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control room for supply of medical relief for the injured, ambulances required, medical
equipment, medicines, blood and ensure supervision of medical relief camps.
Communication and information management branch
Set up a media center preferably at the Department of Information and Public Relations; organize
sharing of information with radio, television, print media and issue bulletins with appropriate
information
The objective of setting up ICS as part of the state is to increase efficiency in managing
emergencies and disasters. Setting up ICS at the site of incident is to facilitate efficient
functioning of varied stakeholders including district administration. While the focus of ICS will
be rightly on managing the emergency, an efficient ICS will enable and facilitate government
officials in quickly analyzing data and preparing first incident reports. Annexure VI illustrates
data analysis and preparing reports based on the information collected.
When the state plan is activated and EOC becomes operational depending on the nature and
extent of disaster impact, coordination with following central, state government departments,
INGOs/NGOs and private agencies will be established at appropriate levels.

Central Government
Departments/agencies

State Departments

INGOs/NGOs
Private agencies

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

NDRF
Ministry of Defense
IMD
Central Reserve Police Force
Central Industrial Security Force
Railways
Navy and Air Force for helicopters
Coast Guards
Food Corporation of India
Doordarshan
Fire Brigade
District Administration
State Police
Department of Health
Home Guards; NCC; NSS
Port Trust
International aid agencies
Red Cross
Local NGOs
St. Johns Ambulance Services
Electronic and Print Media

| C6 - 21

6.13. Disaster Response Structure


Preparedness and having functional systems in place that are tested significantly reduces the
severity of the disasters; a better prepared community may force disaster level to be lowered
from higher levels to lower.
6.13.1. Early warning dissemination
Response activities
- Setting up Control Rooms round the clock at the
site/district
-

Assigning duties/functions to the District officials and


sub-Collectors/Tehsildars.

Arranging vehicles and sound system for information


broadcasting

Alerting NGOs and seeking assistance from them;


assigning responsibilities

Early warning to communities close to coast and


fishermen

Holding District-level natural calamity meeting by the


District Collector

Insure functioning of warning systems and


communication systems

Drafting local cable operators to broadcast alerts as


running flashes on the TVs/SMS

State-wide amber alerts

Drafting local radio stations/Ham radios with early


warning message

Undertaking mock drills and rehearsals of


preparedness

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

Responsibility
Special Relief Commissioner
Revenue (Disaster
Management II) Department
Government Departments, both
at state and district level
District Collector
Emergency Officers
All district level officials
Local cable operators and radio
stations
State and local NGOs

| C6 - 22

6.13.2. Evacuation
-

Response activities
Prepare and communicate village level evacuation
plans, especially for the most vulnerable villages
Early warning to most vulnerable villages of
impending disaster as declared by competent
authorities

Coordination with civil defense/NGOs/gram


panchayats and local police departments

Alerting villages/communities on earmarked boats and


vehicles for evacuation; arranging boats and vehicles
to most vulnerable villages/mandals

District Collector and other


district level officials

Government functionaries at
Panchayat, mandal and district
level

Local cable and radio operators

Doordarshan and All India


Radio

Evacuation of people from areas most affected and


administering emergency relief

Police, Army (based on level of


disaster), Civil Defense

Train and organize village level task force for


emergencies; identify NGO to take up the
responsibility of training the task force

NGOs

Drafting local cable operators to broadcast alerts as


running flashes on the TVs

State-wide amber alerts

Deploying police to maintain law and order; peace


keeping during evacuation

Identifying disaster shelters (such as high


grounds/schools if not affected or other such places)
and managing people mobility to these shelters

Deployment of power boats/country boats as needed

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

Responsibility
Special Relief Commissioner

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6.13.3. Medical Aid


Response activities
- Stock piling of life saving drugs; water treatment
tables such as Halogen tablets
-

Special Relief Commissioner

Prepare protocol and train local youth and similar


groups on the use of medical kits

Commissioner &Director of
Health

First-aid treatment of injured and transporting injured


to nearest hospitals

Commissioner of Animal
Husbandry

Awareness and public outreach on the outbreak of


epidemics post disasters

Commissioner of Fisheries

Commissioner of Women and


Child Development

Information and Public


Relations Officer

Chief Medical Officers of


District/PHCs

The Accident Relief Medical


Vans (ARMVs)

St. Johns Ambulance Services

Surveillance of the outbreaks, diseases and developing


mechanisms in transmitting information to medical
and relief authorities at the state and district level.

Arranging vaccination for common diseases pre and


post disasters

Constitute mobile medical teams and deploy such


teams to most affected areas

The Accident Relief Medical Vans (ARMVs) of the


Railways where available will be utilized for
emergency medical response.

Protection/treatment and disinfection of drinking water sources


Coordination with local Veterinary Hospitals and
insuring fodder/medicine availability for the livestock -

NGOs

Identify ideal carcass disposal locations away from


habitation; monitor proper carcass disposal

Zilla Parishads

Forming youth brigades for emergency operations;


training and equipping the groups with first-aid kits
under the supervision of gram panchayats

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

Responsibility
District Collector

Local private hospitals


Panchayats/mandal officials

| C6 - 24

6.13.4. Shelter Management


Response activities
- Inventory of pucca and kutcha; temporary shelters;
identify capacity of these shelters
-

Identification of shelters/temporary structures in


higher grounds (if available)

M.D.O/ R.D.O

Special Relief Commissioner

Supply of tents in advance to critically vulnerable


villages and mandals

Commissioner, Director of
Health

Arrangement of food/drinking water/medicine in the


shelter places

Commissioner of Animal
Husbandry

Identify and assign responsibility to key panchayat


functionary for each shelter or group of shelters

Commissioner of Women and


Child Development

Identify means of transportation to the shelters by


foot/boat/vehicle or other means

Information and Public


Relations

Identify animal shelters and supply fodder and


essential medicines

Chief Medical Officers of


District/PHCs

For emergency backup, identify shelters with alternate


lighting facilities

NGOs

Local private hospitals


Panchayats/mandal officials
Zilla Parishads

Temporary supply of safe drinking water

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

Responsibility
District Collector

| C6 - 25

6.13.5. Infrastructure Restoration


Response activities
- Emergency cleaning of debris to enable review and
assessment by Revenue Department
-

Coordinate road-cleaning activities to assist relief


work in close coordination with Transport
Commissioner

Contacting companies that have available resources to


remove debris

Assess damage to roads; repair roads that need minor


maintenance and prepare road repair and
reconstruction plan of heavily damaged roads

Commissioner, Disaster
Management

Transportation Commissioner

Assess damage to water tanks, bunds and dams;


undertake repair of minor dam breaches; prepare
reconstruction plan to restore irrigation channels and
dams

Clear highways and state highways by removing fallen


trees and other debris; prepare and identify source of
electrical saw and other tree removal machinery; enlist
this machinery during cleaning operation

VC& MD, APSRTC


Engineer-in-Chief, Irrigation
District Collector and other
district level officials
Government functionaries at
panchayat, mandal and district
level

National Highways Authority

R&B

Assess damage to water bodies; undertake minor


repairs and prepare reconstruction plan of water bodies and structures based on the assessment

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

Formation of task force and identifying team leaders to clear debris; local people willing to volunteer and
work on daily-wages to be roped in; providing tool
kits
Preparing inventory of private companies that supply
earth moving equipments, cranes to clear concrete
debris and any dilapidated homes

Responsibility
District Collector

All line departments


Police

| C6 - 26

6.13.6. Search and Rescue Operations


Response activities
- Deployment of Police and/or Fire Brigade for search
and rescue
-

Deployment of Army and paramilitary forces


depending on the level of disaster

Responsibility
Superintendent of Police (SP)

Home Department

SDRF/NDRF

Special Relief Commissioner

District Collector and other


district level officials

Seeking help and co-ordinating with NCC, NSS and


other such civil defense structures

Organize and make available rescue materials

Prepare inventory of disaster shelter places; broadcast


their location in advance and direct people movement
to the shelters in orderly fashion

Government functionaries at
panchayat, mandal and district
level

Identify most vulnerable villages/mandals based on


historical data; equip the communities with rescue
kits; train village youth and such groups in the use of
these kits

Local cable and radio operators

Civil Defense structures such


as NCC/NSS

NGOs

Responsibility
District Collector

Special Relief Commissioner

District Collector and other


district level officials

Government functionaries at
Panchayat, Mandal and District
level
Civil supplies department
Police
Civil Defense structures such
as NCC/NSS
NGOs

6.13.7. Emergency Relief/free kitchen operation


Response activities
- Identifying and deploying vehicles
-

Identifying and assigning one high ranking district


official to coordinate setting up kitchen operations

Procuring and transporting relief materials to affected


Mandals/villages
Setting up free kitchen for affected villages in the
vicinity of shelter camps or in shelter camps itself
Coordinating with the NGOs/CBOs and other
voluntary groups to continue kitchen operations
beyond required period
Monitoring and assessing the need to continue kitchen
operations by assigned authority

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6.13.8. Carcass Removal


Response activities
- Each mandal and village to identify ideal locations that are far from human habitations and water bodies for
emergency carcass disposal
- Identify and enumerate number of vehicles available
with local municipalities; Panchayat bodies for the
purpose of carcass removal
-

Identify religious heads of villages willing to perform


last rites as per customs for mass carcass disposal

Similarly each mandal and village

Identify ideal locations far from human habitations


and water bodies for livestock and animal carcass
removal and burial

Deployment of local police for law and order during


carcass removal operations; and for search of carcass
Disinfecting areas/streets where dead animals and
human bodies were recovered to prevent disease
spread

Responsibility
Commissioner, Disaster
Management
District Collector and other
district level officials
Government functionaries at
panchayat, mandal and district
level

Municipalities; gram
panchayats

Government and private


hospitals

Police

Civil Defense structures such


as NCC/NSS

NGOs

6.14. Delegation of power


Quick response and mobilization of resources; timely decision-making and acquiring essential
resources are critical to mitigate the impact of emergencies and disasters. Government hierarchy
impedes achieving desirable efficiency and management. . Following routine procurement
procedures and hierarchy during emergencies and disasters (similar to the intensity of October
2009 floods) will impede quick response. While coordination between states, district
administration with state, mandal administration with district follow established protocols; to
effectively manage activities on ground, a mechanism of delegating special powers during
disaster management will be evolved.
A systematic mechanism of power delegation and emergency procurement rules for each
department will be developed; these rules and appropriate financial and power delegation will
come into play during emergency situations or with the activation of the state plan. The
mandated standard operating procedures that are to be prepared by the state government
departments will identify the mechanism of power delegation as principal function of the
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operational procedures of each department. The disaster management and crisis response plan
prepared by Eastern Railway Board has developed a system of power delegation as presented
in Annexure VII. This illustration may form the basis in developing similar power delegation
mechanism in the state to meet disaster management requirements.
6.15. Personnel Safety
Disaster management, preparedness and mitigation measures are mostly for the vulnerable
population. Incidentally, personnel involved in executing the plan on the ground get exposed to
hazardous situations. Government department personnel in-charge of mitigation and relief
operations, their residential property/quarters also gets impacted equally. District and mandal
administration shall include safety measures of government officials responsible for executing
the state as well as district disaster management plans. The standard operating procedures that
each department is mandated to prepare as part of the state disaster management plan must
prominently identify and prepare exclusive precautionary measures to be observed by the
government officials for their and family safety.

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Chapter 7.0
Mainstreaming DM Concerns into Development Projects

Chapter 7.0
Mainstreaming Disaster Management concerns into Development projects
7.1. Relevance of mainstreaming Disaster Management concerns into development
Disasters considerably impact all the sectors of development resulting in a serious social and
economic setback to the overall physical and social development of the community. The process
of development and the models of development choices made sometimes lead to disaster risks.
There is a paradigm shift in the approach to disaster management in the country. The new
approach proceeds from conventional approach that development cannot be sustainable unless
disaster mitigation is built into the development process. The new policy also emanates from the
belief that investment in mitigation is much more cost effective than expenditure on relief and
rehabilitation. The relationship between disaster and development is reviewed from SDMP
preparation perspective in the following table.
Factors
Disaster
limits
development

Development
causes
disaster risk

Economic Development
Destruction of fixed assets
Loss of production capacity, market
access or material inputs
Damage to transport,
communications or energy
infrastructure.
Erosion of livelihoods, savings and
physical capital

- Unsustainable development practices


that create wealth for some at the
expense of unsafe working or living
conditions for others or degrade the
environment.

Social Development
- Destruction of health or education
infrastructure and personnel.
- Death, disablement or migration of
key social actors leading to flight
of social capital.

- Development paths generating


cultural norms that promote social
isolation or political exclusion.

7.2. Mainstreaming of Disaster Management concerns into development


Mainstreaming disaster management concerns into development cooperation is the process of
assessing the impact of disasters and hazards on the social, economic and industrial development
within the state. The impacts of disasters have trickling effect on the functioning of several key
government departments. It is a strategy for making disaster management concerns and
experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of
policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that the state as a
whole and vulnerable people benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal
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is to achieve better prepared government, civil, private industry and other stakeholder in
mitigating natural as well as human-caused disasters.
Mainstreaming development to reduce risk is a cross-cutting issue which requires public
cooperation and understanding, scientific knowledge and know-how, responsible risk sensitive
development planning and practice, a people-centered early warning system and disaster
response mechanisms at state and district level.
Safeguarding human rights and integrating gender concerns are central to achieving
mainstreaming concepts at the local and state level. Because disaster risks impact multi-sector
development activities (such as education, health, environment, governance, employment and
livelihoods) they influence development gains. An assessment of the extent to which these social
domains consider natural or human-induced factors or risks (existing and prospective) in the
conceptualization and implementation of programmes is crucial for successful execution of risk
mitigation plan.
This also means that development programmes need to assess whether a development project
could cause/increase risk of any kind of disaster in future and if necessary identify and integrate
counter-measures for risk mitigation. The key to achieving sustained disaster loss reductions lie
in factoring risk considerations into both development and post-disaster recovery activities.
Robust economic growth brings positive impact on housing, education, nutrition, health; helps
vulnerability reduction.
7.3. Mainstreaming disaster management at the level of the state
The mainstreaming of disaster management in government policy and practice is key function of
the plan. While key departments like Revenue (Disaster Management II) Department,
Agriculture and similar other departments have been prudent in preparing hazard specific
manuals for the state, there are several gaps that need to be plugged especially from
mainstreaming disaster planning into other development activities of the departments. A
comprehensive approach by each and every department of the state in identifying disaster
management as a fundamental strategy and priority in the preparation of annual or five-year
business plans is critical to achieve the goals and vision of the state plan.
7.4. Identification of development induced disasters
Un-planned settlements, migration of population to urban centers in search of livelihood
contribute to enhanced hazard risks. Rapid urbanization and migration are prime examples of
economic growth and social improvement leading increased disaster risk. New settlement spring
up year after year along ravines, on steep slopes and along the banks; these settlements pre-empt

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the capacity of the river to naturally surge during monsoons leading to floods and inundation of
urban settlements.
7.5. Developing sector-specific guidelines on mainstreaming
Development projects, implemented by both government and bilateral agencies often have
implementation guidelines and methodologies. State-wide new projects and development
programmes must identify guidelines to reduce risks. It will also be mandatory to develop sectorwide guidelines. General guidelines of key sectors are outlined as follows:
a. Housing: Urban and Rural Housing Development

Promote use of hazard-resilient designs (e.g., flood proofing, or seismic safety) in rural
housing programmes especially in hazard-prone areas.

Promote use of national building codes that have special provisions for enhanced design
standards for buildings in areas affected by natural disasters.

Ensure compliance and enforcement of local building laws requiring prescribed standards
under natural building codes in urban hazard-prone areas.

Introduce retrofitting of public buildings and provide incentives for private building
owners/hotel owners for retrofitting the structures with seismic resistant designs.

For retrofitting of buildings to withstand natural disasters, classification of buildings based


on ownership, design of the buildings and physical conditions shall be undertaken by the
ULBs.

Retrofitting of buildings based on the classification will be prioritized. Prioritization of


public buildings/government buildings shall be done in phase I of the scheme. Retrofitting of
multi-storied buildings is done either by reinforcing additional beams to add strength or by
removing a floor to reduce total mass.

Standard retrofitting methods for seismic activity, flood proofing & damage, cyclone safety
and rain damages are included in 5.12 section of prevention and mitigation chapter.

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Approximate cost proportionate to cost of building for the type of structures is presented below:
Type

Non-engineered
building/thatched
house

Tiled house

Compound wall

Lamp masts

Water tanks; Ferrocement/other


lightweight tanks

Retrofit/Maintenance measures

Approximate cost
proportionate to cost of
building

- provision of metal straps and


nails at joints
- holding down coir ropes
- replacing worn out coir ropes
- concrete strips
- holding down rods
- metal straps for connection to
trusses
- provision of eves holding down
- maintenance and replacement of
broken tiles, worn out bolts,
metal straps, etc.
- R.C.C. holding down rafters
- Checking available capacity and
detailing retrofit measures
consisting of reinforced concrete
bends to obtain required strength
- Provision of foundation block
and extending it upto appropriate
height so that natural frequency
is above 1.5 Hz.
- Underground cables to reduce
load on lamp mast or failure of
masts by falling tree branches
- Provision of holding
down/prevention sliding etc.

- Retrofit cost 4 or 5%
- Maintenance cost 1%

- Retrofit 8%
- Maintenance 1%

Cost of individual lamp


mast with foundation will
be 40-50%

b. Infrastructure: Public works, Roads and Construction

Review and revise land-use planning and zoning regulations that promote hazard risk
information.

Mandate disaster risk impact assessment as part of the planning process before construction
of new roads etc.

c. Health

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Local government/ULBs, departments/district officials shall prepare inventory of hospitals


and available facilities especially in hazard-prone areas; analyze their internal and external
vulnerability during emergencies and increase hazard resilience of these hospitals.

Promote proactive measures in public display of these facilities and keep the hospitals
accessible during emergencies.

Institute incentive mechanisms to the private hospitals that agree to be identified as nodal
hospitals during emergencies.

All hospitals to have hospital preparedness plans to meet emergencies.

d. Agriculture

Identify and promote effective programmes for contingency crop planning to deal with year
to year climate variations.

Promote crop diversification including the use of hazard resistant crops, to deal with shifts in
climate patterns.

Promote and implement sustainable livelihood programmes in risk-prone areas (i.e., arid and
semi-arid zones, flood and cyclone prone areas) by promoting supplementary income
generation from off-farm (e.g. animal husbandry) and non-farm activities (e.g. handicrafts).

Promote insurance and credit schemes to compensate for agricultural related damage and
losses to livelihoods due to natural hazards.

The importance of disaster management in agriculture is well recognized; mainstreaming of


comprehensive disaster management policy by the Government of Andhra Pradesh by
providing a renewed focus on anticipatory preparedness, prevention and rehabilitation is
needed.

Proactive initiatives will be taken up in handling disaster related issues leading to effective
management in agriculture.

The cropped area throughout the state is vulnerable to one or the other pest disease, insects
and weeds; pest surveillance system linked to robust agriculture extension work shall be
strengthened.

In the context of National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF) the existing process of
preparing a memorandum of the state government, review by central government team and
assessing the damage will be replaced by a mechanism that acts faster and quicker to meet
demands on the ground.

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Disaster management in agriculture curricula will be developed and certified to establish


joint standards of practice in the state. This is necessary to ensure uniformity in standards of
humanitarian and mitigation practices in the region.

Research support systems will be strengthened to evolve continuous process of analysis,


action/reflection which will help in deciphering the gaps in disaster management plans from
agriculture sector perspective.

To deal with location-specific coping strategies based on time-tested traditional knowledge,


integrated with conventional science and technology shall be included in training and
education of disaster management in agriculture.

e. Education

Incorporate Disaster Risk Mitigation modules into the school curriculum.

Every school to have school preparedness plans and evacuation/exit routes identified and
displayed in school premises at easily accessible and visible locations.

Promote school children as ambassadors of disaster preparedness for their individual families
and community.

Design programmes that promote leadership among school children to become disaster
management sensitive and act as future disaster management community leaders.

Schools in cyclone-prone areas and other hazard prone areas to have features that could
double up as emergency shelters; retrofitting schools with facilities to meet water, sanitation
and cooking needs during emergencies.

f. Financial services

Incorporate provisions in micro-financing schemes to have flexible repayments schedules


that can be activated in the event of recipients being affected by natural disasters.

Encourage financial services/banks to design loan schemes for retrofitting homes to meet
emergencies such as floods, cyclones and earthquakes; the schemes shall have flexible
repayments schedules especially in disaster-prone zones/areas.

Encourage financial services sectors and local capital markets to develop schemes for
financing disaster risk reduction measures.

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7.6. Cross-sector analysis


Development programmes and schemes being implemented in the state across sectors needs to
be reviewed to identify activities that could strengthen disaster management preparedness or to
identify activities that may increase the risks/vulnerability. Future programmes shall keep
disaster management preparedness measures as part of implementing principles. On-going
projects and schemes will also be reviewed and if possible mid-course corrections to include
disaster preparedness measures.
7.7. Developing area specific guidelines on mainstreaming
Area specific guidelines for mainstreaming Disaster Preparedness in development will be
formulated with particular reference to coastal, Eastern Ghats and urban areas.
Coastal Zone Management: Preparing coastal zone management plans separately is critical
in successful implementation of SDMP.
Eastern Ghats: Eastern Ghats have sensitive ecosystem with rich biodiversity and natural
resources. Because of physio-geological nature of this region, development plans targeted in
this region will identify disaster preparedness as integral to the plans.
Urban areas: Each ULB and local governments shall undertake risk assessment of the area
and identify preparedness measures to meet disaster emergency situations. Similarly,
integrating development activities with SDMP and District Disaster Management plans is
critical in reducing losses during disasters.
7.8. Creating techno-legal regime for mainstreaming DM concerns
The risk prone nature of certain regions of the state emphasize the need to adopt a multidimensional, multi-disciplinary and multi-sectoral approach involving diverse scientific,
engineering, financial and social processes for risk reduction. The disperse nature and lack of
coherent regulations impede achieving a state of complete preparedness. Urban and other
development activities without adequate infrastructure, construction of buildings that is
inadequate to cope with hazards such as floods, cyclone and earthquakes set back the
development paradigm. Enforcing land use restrictions in hazard prone areas in the town and
country planning laws will reduce the vulnerability risk of people living in developments that
lack infrastructure facilities.
In view of this, the need to establish proper techno-legal regime by providing adequate safety
measures against natural hazards will be actively pursued. Under 73rd and 74th constitutional
amendments, the village panchayats and ULBs have the powers to initiate preparedness,
mitigation, recovery and rehabilitation measures. While there is legal framework available to
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decentralize disaster management, concerted efforts will be needed on the part of the
departments to translate this framework on ground.
7.9. Conducting Disaster Impact Assessment
Government departments execute development works as part of annual or five-year plan outlay.
When emergencies impact the state, the regular activities/functions of the departments gets offtrack. Resources and energies are diverted on relief and rehabilitation works. Once the task at
hand of relief and rehabilitation is over, it is recommended that every department that was
impacted due to the onset of emergency or disaster utilize the opportunity to conduct internal
impact assessment. This assessment will be two-fold:
1) Assessing the time, energy and resources that were specific to each department in mitigating
the disaster/emergency and
2) Assessing the overall impact of the emergency/disaster from development perspective on the
ground.
Deriving lessons from these assessments, the annual work plans specific to each department will
be revised; budget items specific to impending emergencies that are known to impact the state
recurrently such as floods/cyclones etc. will be earmarked. The overarching objective in
undertaking impact assessments is to internalize the lessons and identify mechanisms to
mainstream disaster management concerns with regular development works of each department.
7.10. Public-Private Partnership (PPP)
In order to achieve community resilience and preparedness, public and private owners of critical
infrastructures and key resources need to work together, before, during and after a disaster.
Corporate houses have begun foraying into community development; by participating in
community development, the corporate sector is making efforts to fulfill social responsibility.
Identifying disaster management and preparedness as one key aspect of social welfare will
prompt private corporations to streamline in the sphere of disaster management.
The social and economic networks that exist in Andhra Pradesh will ultimately influence the
ability to adapt and respond to the consequences of disasters. This includes both private and
public entities. The key issue is to recognize and embrace the public-private interfaces that can
improve the ability of a community to manage the response and recovery phases of disaster
management. Community preparedness is a dependent variable; it is influenced by the
relationships government departments develop with private sector partners.
Development activities involve both private and public enterprises. To mitigate disasters and
create better prepared society for disasters and other hazards, strong public-private coordination
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is critical. Communication, outreach and educational measures are keys to successful mitigation
of disasters. Involvement of private corporations especially in urban conglomerations in raising
public awareness, community involvement and citizen participation especially pre-monsoon
season is possible through mutual cooperation and fulfilling social responsibility of both public
and private sectors.
7.11. Awareness generation, training and capacity building
Awareness and public outreach is critical to successful implementation of the plan. Scores of
private sector agencies, especially Information Technology (IT) companies and academic
institutions organize regular trainings for their personnel. Integrating Disaster Management as
part of training modules or curricula will result in achieving awareness and strengthening
capacities of stakeholders in meeting challenges during and after disasters. Capacity building
through education, training and mid career intervention using on campus as well as off campus
model must be streamlined. The plan envisages activities such as interacting with private sector
management to impress the need to internalize disaster management as key capacity building.
7.12. Recognition of best efforts
Individuals and communities are stimulated when good actions are incentivized and actions that
reduce risk and best practices in disaster mitigation are recognized. Awarding cash and other
incentives in recognition of best practices and efforts will be promoted to encourage active
participation. Similar efforts will also be instituted to recognize non-government agencies and
community based organizations that devote programmes in educating and training communities
to better prepare in disaster management.
Government of Andhra Pradesh is one of the pioneering states in implementing social welfare
programmes initiated by both the state as well as central government. Andhra Pradesh has ranked
as one of the top implementing states of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment
Guarantee Scheme (NREGA). Disaster Management Department is in the forefront of
implementing several schemes and projects that supplement relief measures immediately after
disasters such as floods or cyclones hit the state.
7.13. Integrating disaster management into development planning
The stated goal and vision of the State of Andhra Pradesh is to ensure economic and social
development. Policies cutting across all sectors, including disaster management will sub-serve
this broad goal. Disaster prevention and preparedness therefore shall be integral to every
development policy within the state to ensure sustainable development. Development planning
and strategies at the state level shall therefore address disaster management as a core part of short
and long-term planning.
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7.14. Optimize existing government infrastructure


The GoAP will strive to ensure that the long-term approach to disaster management utilizes the
existing administrative structure of the State Government at all levels within the state. Utilizing
already available resources optimizes communication, capacity creation, relief, rehabilitation,
and reconstruction, information collection and dissemination and sharing of disaster management
best practices. All Government departments, agencies, corporation, authorities and bureaus at
state and local levels are encouraged to utilize available resources within their respective areas
for disaster management. Strengthening existing institutions and establishing new institutions is
encouraged where existing mechanisms are found inadequate.
7.15. Inter-department co-operation and co-ordination
Unpredictable nature of disaster occurrence requires effective and efficient methods of
organizing rescue and rehabilitation efforts. The plan has therefore focused on establishing
quick, effective and co-ordinated response mechanisms. Pro-active and pre-defined coordination
between key Government departments; efficient preparedness, active participation of affected
communities, non-governmental agencies, private sector and various government departments
like Fire, Police, Health and ULBs is critical in efficient management of the disasters.
7.16. Capacity building
Communities that have the capacity and means to effectively plan and manage pre and post
disaster incidence would overcome economic, social and infrastructure losses that result due to
hazards. Managing disasters is a multi-stakeholder effort. Civil society, civic bodies,
Government departments, NGOs, private sector etc. have equal and significant role in
overcoming disasters when they occur. The state plan recognizes the need to strengthen the
resilience and capacity of these stakeholders to cope with the disasters. Building the capacity of
the government structure and key departments will be integral to the departments planning.
Outreach efforts, prior to actual occurrence of disasters, on the part of government and nongovernment agencies in educating vulnerable groups like women, landless labor etc. is critical to
effective disaster management.
Further, NGOs, private sector and the community must understand and be familiar with disaster
management principles and practices, their responsibilities, their capacity in contributing to
manage the incidence. Training is an integral part of capacity building. Government departments
will identify disaster preparedness as integral to the capacity building needs of the department.
Training and academic institutions will be encouraged to develop curriculum to address these
needs. Similarly private sector will be encouraged to integrate disaster preparedness as part of
their business practices and hold mock drills and develop plans to manage disaster incidences.
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7.17. Multi-hazard approach to disasters


Disasters are natural, manmade or technological causes. The preparedness of long-gestation
disasters such as droughts is well established and adequate; the disaster management plan at the
state level needs to be augmented to meet the needs in the aftermath of unexpected and largescale disasters such as cyclones and floods etc. The implementation process of the disaster
management plan will address all types of hazards and disasters that are known to occur in the
state.
7.18. Sustainable approach
Inherent strength and capacity of government agencies and other stakeholders is critical in
coping with disasters. Sustainable development depends on perpetual growth in the strengths of
community, Government and other stakeholders. Achieving this objective requires sustained
initiatives encompassing social, economic and infrastructure development. Once capacity is
strengthened, it must be sustained and this is an ongoing and continuous activity. The
Government of Andhra Pradesh aims to improve on a continuous and sustainable basis, the
infrastructure and processes for relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction and institutionalize
capacity building at all levels within the state in order to be able to prevent and mitigate the
impact of disasters.

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Chapter 8.0
Training, Capacity Building and Other Proactive Measures

Chapter 8.0
Training, capacity building and other proactive measures
8.1. Introduction
Human resource development, training, education and capacity building are integral and
essential strategies of Disaster Management. The objective of capacity building is to put in place
systematic functional mechanisms with trained human resources. Capacity building needs a
broad perspective to include Knowledge, Skill, Attitude and Resources in an integrated manner.
A realistic state training and capacity building programme for disaster management will be
formulated and implemented as part of the plan. A programme of resource enhancement
encompassing all state-level training institutions, organizations and individuals will be
developed.
Capacity building is a long-term process requiring incremental strengthening of institutions and
personnel involved in disaster management. Internalizing capacity building at the policy level,
plan implementation level, government department level and individual levels is paramount in
preparing for disaster management in the state. The process of capacity building also includes
development of appropriate tools that can be used to convey useful information pertaining to
disasters.
Capacity development generally encompasses various layers of governance by the central and
state governments, district administration, local authorities, PRIs and NGOs. Capacity building
measures shall address the needs of all target groups within the government and private sector.
Components of the multi-layer capacity development framework include training, techno-legal
framework, knowledge management and developing organizational, institutional and individual
capacities.
As per the Disaster Management Act, the State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) and the
state plan are mandated to provide direction and coordination to ensure the implementation of all
disaster management policies and plans. Strengthening training and capacity building
interventions for effective disaster mitigation and management at the state is one of the stated
objectives of the state plan.
Training is the central activity of the overall capacity development strategy. Training needs have
to be identified; appropriate training programmes need to be designed and conducted at all levels
involving broad spectrum of stakeholders (from government, NGOs and civil society) to fully
realize the needs of sensitization, knowledge/information management and skill development of
personnel involved in the disaster management functions.

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The target groups identified for training and capacity development shall include government
officials, elected representatives, scientific and technical institutions NGOs, PRIs, other
Community Based Organisations (CBOs) and private sector etc.
No single training institute or agency has requisite expertise, infrastructure and resources to
fulfill the needs of training and capacity building in disaster management at the state level.
Different agencies and organizations would play different roles in training and capacity building
in specific disasters. Because of disperse and varied strengths of the training institutes/agencies,
coordination and systemic networking among the agencies is key in achieving the goal of trained
personnel in disaster management.
8.2. Training for Disaster Management
Trained personnel respond swiftly and efficiently to disasters and hazard management. The
performance of the personnel can be improved by appropriate need based training; functionaries
at various levels in all government departments, organizations and institutions must be
empowered through training and capacity building to exercise their responsibilities.
Non-government organizations, community based organizations such as voluntary agencies play
significant role in disaster mitigation and preparedness. Training and capacity building of these
agencies and private institutions/organizations is the key strategy of the plan. Educational and
training institutions such as Dr. MCR HRD IAP, APARD, NIRD, MANAGE etc. have the
capacity and know-how of imparting hazard specific training and management.
The Center for Disaster Preparedness (CDP), Dr. MCR HRD IAP, Hyderabad is carrying out
several trainings to government functionaries. List of trainings conducted by MCR HRD Institute
is appended in Annexure VIII. Andhra Pradesh has number of universities and colleges with
capacity to conduct training at the district level. Strengthening these institutes with specific
resources and manpower to undertake training programmes will supplement Dr. MCR HRD IAP
and other such institutions at the state level. For instance, technical aspects of flood and drought
management could be undertaken by Acharya N. G. Ranga Agriculture University in
collaboration with JNTU or other engineering colleges that have civil engineering department.
The Andhra Pradesh Academy of Rural Development (APARD) is also at the forefront of
training and building capacities for sustainable development of the rural poor. APARD is the
apex training institute in AP for capacity building of rural development officers and panchayat
raj officials. APARD as part of their regular training programmes has a schedule of training
programmes with disaster management focus. A copy of their schedule is appended as Annexure
IX. Departments are strongly encouraged to identify and nominate appropriate officers for
training courses depending on the needs of the personnel.

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8.3. Development of Trainers


Imparting training to each and every individual stakeholder at the ATIs is non-pragmatic
approach; training of trainers to meet the demand of training majority of government personnel is
the key. Identified trainers with specific capacities could be trained as trainers. Once Training of
Trainers (ToTs) is completed, by strengthening the ToTs with training material and resources,
outreaching other stakeholders at the district and mandal level becomes easier and practical.
Identification of stake holders at various levels in all the relevant government departments and
organisations, NGOs, VOs, CBOs is required. Creating a pool of trainers at district and mandal
level to facilitate decentralized and region-hazard specific training is identified as the approach.
8.4. Identification of Training Needs
Training as a process is ad-hoc and tentative; internalizing training of personnel is not carried out
by the government departments. Comprehensive Training Needs Assessment (TNA) with
specific reference to disaster management matching SDMAs mandate will be undertaken.
Similarly, training needs at different levels of government machinery is also needed to identify
different levels of training programmes. The training needs of policy makers will be significantly
different to the needs of field-based executive officers. Similarly, the training needs of line
departments will be different than those departments that have ancillary and support functions in
disaster management.
The training needs assessment (TNA) will take cognizance of the need to develop competent and
responsible personnel; strengthening their capacity to work in disaster situations through the
delivery of continuous, competence based training. Every department will identify the training
needs and include exclusive budget for training and capacity building as part of its annual budget
preparation process.
8.5. Training Action Plan
A comprehensive action plan on capacity building and training, specific to the hazards that are
specific to Andhra Pradesh needs to be developed. The list of training institutes and
organizations identified in section 8.14 will have to evolve a combined action plan. The Center
for Disaster Preparedness (CDP) at Dr. MCR HRD IAP may take the lead in preparing
comprehensive curriculum, formulating training modules for various target groups. The Center
for Disaster Preparedness currently has an extensive training schedule covering several courses.
Preparing course material, trainers manual and other reading material for training programmes in
the field are needed. Collaboration with state universities and other technical institutions that
have the capacity to prepare user-friendly training modules and training material will be needed.

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8.6. Training of Professionals


Disaster management is multi-dimensional and multi-sectoral, requiring professionals trained
specifically to meet the challenges. Professional training in disaster management shall be made
an integral part of all foundational and professional courses being conducted in Dr. MCR HRD
IAP and other government-sponsored/supported training institutes. Specialized courses for
hazard-specific management may be developed and implemented exclusively for specific target
groups.
The Dr. MCR HRD Institute in collaboration with National Institute for Disaster Management
(NIDM) and in consultation with reputed knowledge institutions on Disaster Management will
develop comprehensive programmes for creating trainers from among departments of Disaster
Management, Revenue, Home, Agriculture, Horticulture, Irrigation& CAD, R & B, Panchayat
Raj, Rural Development and Animal Husbandry.
8.7. Strengthening training institutes
The capacities of existing training institutes and technical institutes in the state need
augumentation. The number of training and awareness programmes on disaster management is
limited. With paradigm shift in the policy from relief and humanitarian assistance oriented
post-disaster intervention to pro-active prevention, mitigation and pre-disaster preparedness,
the need and demand for training programmes on disaster management will increase. Expanding
to include more training institutes with capacity to undertake training programmes, specific to
state disasters will reduce the burden on Dr. MCR HRD IAP and APARD. Similarly, expanding
traditional training modules to include disaster management tools in other training institutes will
be required. Training progrtammes conducted by institutes like NIRD, MANAGE, EPTRI will
be expanded to include basic training modules on disaster management. Training needs of
executive heads of key departments will be fulfilled through collaborating with NIDM and other
national training institutes.
Capacity building shall not be limited to professionals alone (e.g., executive personnel from
Irrigation, Health, Revenue, Agriculture or similar departments). The focus shall also be on
knowledge building, change in attitudes of government functionaries and enhancing the skills of
community to cope with adverse effects of disasters. Capacity building for effective disaster
management needs to be grounded and linked to the community and local level responders on
the one hand and to the institutional mechanism of government departments on the other hand.
8.8. Preparation of District Disaster Management Plans (DDMPs) at the District Level
As per the Section 31 of the DM Act, 2005 each district must have a district disaster
management plan. Planning for disasters is to be done on a decentralized basis: village to
mandal; mandal to district model. The planning for disaster management shall enlist horizontal
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partnership of the community which has to be sought through well recognized techniques like
participatory rural appraisal, focused group discussions, etc., by involving District Disaster
Management Committees PRIs, NGOs, SHGs CBOs and, most importantly, the vulnerable
population.
In accordance with the provisions of the Disaster Management Act, all districts must prepare
District Disaster Management Plans and also update these plans from time to time. Historical
knowledge and lessons learnt in handling earlier disaster situations and traditional coping
mechanisms and skills shall be incorporated in these plans. The Disaster Management
Department will ensure that every district in the state has prepared District Disaster Management
Plans, containing specific action plans to meet the training needs of the personnel.
8.9. Education and school curricula
Schools lay foundation in meeting real-life challenges. In order to create an understanding of the
causes, consequences of disasters and increase awareness, introducing disaster management
approaches in the school curriculum will be the first step. The Central Board for Secondary
Education in India has introduced Disaster Management as a separate curriculum for standard
VIII from the academic year 2003-2004, IX from 2004 2005 and standard X from 2005-2006.
Similar to the Central Board for Secondary Education in India, through a government order
(G.O. Ms. No.9 dated 8.6.2010 copy is appended as annexure XVI) the Education Department,
GoAP has included Disaster Management in high school curriculum. To further the cause of
streamlining DM curricula activities outlined below will be taken up by the Education
Department:

Module Development
Circular on school safety
Awareness generation in form of painting competitions, exhibitions, debates and essay
competitions
Development of Standard VIII, IX and X textbooks on Disaster Management.

The course content for Standard VIII will focus on preparedness measures to be taken by
students and teachers for various hazards; for Standard IX on mitigation measures and for
Standard X on the role of Government and other agencies in DM, role of Science and
Technology in DM and on initiating the concept of volunteerism among children.
For the Primary classes, DM will be integrated in the form of extracurricular activities like Plays,
Painting Competitions. Training of teachers on DM course curriculum will also be carried out.
Schools at mandal and district level are strongly encouraged to prepare school disaster
management plans with aims to identify and manage hazards in the school, prepare and respond
to emergencies in school, and to mitigate the effect of disasters on the school. Disaster
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management planning in the school begins with awareness on the part of teachers and students.
The awareness raising exercise consists of a guided dialogue led by the teacher.
Following course content for different class standards is suggested to be included in the school
curriculum by the School Education Department in the state
Classes

Course Content
1. Introduction:

Concepts in disaster management, with emphasis on disaster preparedness.


Natural and manmade disasters.
Importance of disaster management and introduction to mitigation methods
Concept of Community Contingency Plan

2. Earthquakes:

Causes and effects.


Relative disaster vulnerabilities among people.
Earthquakes in India, introduction to seismic zones and related damages,
scales for measurement
Preparing for earthquakes

3. Cyclones:
VIII
Standard
syllabus

Causes and effects


Cyclone-prone areas in India
Preparing for cyclones

4. Floods:

Causes and effects


Flood-prone areas in India
Preparing for floods

5. Drought:

Concept of slow-onset disaster


Causes and effects
Drought-prone areas in India and relative vulnerabilities of people
Mitigating drought and preparedness

6. Manmade Disasters

Types of manmade disasters (accidents, nuclear, chemical, biological),


Concept of WMD (Weapons Mass Destruction)

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Part I: Getting Acquainted with Disaster Management

Awareness on Disaster Management


Understanding Key Terms
Components of Disaster Management

Part II: Disaster Risk Reduction

XI Standard
syllabus

Introduction to Disaster Risk Management


Understanding Disaster Mitigation
Specific Hazards and Mitigation

Part III: Some Common Manmade Disasters

Preventing Common Manmade Disasters

Part IV: Community Based Disaster Management

Community Based Disaster Management

School Planning for Disasters

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)


Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Tsunami The killer sea waves
Chapter 3: Survival Skills
X Standard
syllabus

Chapter 4: Alternative Communication Systems during disasters


Chapter 5: Safe Construction Practices
Chapter 6: Sharing Responsibilities
Chapter 7: Planning Ahead

XI Standard
syllabus

Chapter 1
Introduction to Disaster Management
Chapter 2
Natural Hazards: causes, distribution pattern, consequences and mitigation
measures for :
Earthquake
Tsunami
Cyclone
Floods
Drought
Landslides

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Developing high-quality educational material, textbooks, field training, and a high standard of
teaching at all levels shall be given due emphasis. Education and training programmes will be
designed with greater focus on the development of the capacity and skills of trainers and
teachers. The state government shall encourage knowledge institutions to undertake research,
teaching, and training, in disaster mitigation and management.
Establishment of an annual calendar to take account of cyclical hazards shall be undertaken by
every school in the state. Mapping the main physical features around the school will also support
the disaster management planning process. The final planning document includes a resource
matrix, details of coping capacity, and list of safe places and evacuation plans.
To integrate disaster management with learning and research, higher education department at the
state level shall coordinate with appropriate regulatory bodies such as Indian Council for
Agriculture Research (ICAR) and University Grants Commission (UGC) to introduce disaster
management as core curriculum of college education. Similarly, emphasis on research and
knowledge building will be promoted to address disaster management as multi-disciplinary
approach. The curricula of graduate and postgraduate level courses in architecture, engineering,
earth sciences and medicine shall be reviewed by the competent authorities to include
contemporary knowledge related to Disaster Management in their respective specialized fields.
8.10. Community Education
Building the capacity of the communities, as they are the first responders to disasters, is a
significant part of the capacity development process. Community preparedness and awareness to
meet disasters is an important capacity building measure. It is necessary to evolve a joint action
plan by the government and the community. Achieving community engagement is possible
through involving NGOs, CBOs and other voluntary agencies. Other means of community
outreach on awareness raising through published materials in Telugu and Urdu (where needed);
organizing street corner plays; short electronic media programmes that can be shown in the
community centers or in schools needs to be prepared.
Investments in disaster education, public awareness, community leadership development, and
education of unemployed youth, physically challenged, elderly, women, and school children
shall be encouraged. Low income groups are often the most vulnerable and affected by the
disasters. Awareness raising material will be prepared in Telugu and Urdu (where needed) with
schematic/pictorial illustrations to reach illiterate/under educated masses. Besides highlighting
the causes of disasters and measures to be taken to be prepared, the community education
material shall also identify information on shelters, temporary kitchens, livelihood sources etc.
Disaster mitigation and management approaches shall also be disseminated through the PRIs and
local bodies which are ideally suited for Community Based Disaster Management (CBDM)
initiatives at district and mandal level. The overall responsibility to give impetus to leadership
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and motivation will rest with the local authorities, PRIs and ULBs under the overall guidance of
State and District authorities.
8.11. Capacity Up-gradation
A mechanism will be developed to identify institutions involved in the field of Disaster
Management, assess their capabilities, and enhance and strengthen their capacities in terms of
expertise, knowledge, and resources. The main areas requiring capacity development in the
context of disaster management are as follows:
1. Establishment of a state-wide, systematic, and scientific institutional network.
2. Enhancement of expertise and capacities of knowledge centers in different parts of the state.
3. Strengthening of few identified institutions with capacities to act as core nodal institutions to
train trainers.
All the organizations, institutions, officers, and other personnel involved in the disaster
management operations need to draw upon knowledge of best practices and resources available
to them.
8.12. Knowledge resource centers
Disaster preparedness is achieved among others by developing strong knowledge base on the
subject. Andhra Pradesh has high quality educational and research institutions spread across the
state. While dispersed and non-coordinated knowledge generation related to state specific
hazards is going on, there is a need to develop Disaster Management specific knowledge
management center. The state Administrative Training Institute (Dr. MCR HRD IAP) conducts
wide range of trainings for state as well as other stakeholders. The MCR HRD Institute will be
strengthened to develop as a knowledge resource center in disaster management. The Center for
Disaster Preparedness at Dr. MCR HRD IAP is currently specialized to train state government
officials on disaster preparedness. The center will be further strengthened as a knowledge center
on disaster management.
Awareness programmes on disaster management consisting of sensitizing the vulnerable
communities, farmers and other stake holders will be taken up at house hold level, community
level and organizational institutional level by involving NGOs, VOs. Involving schools, colleges
and other educational institutions will be made mandatory. Awareness has to be sustained
through regularly updating and incorporating latest innovations and technologies. Traditional
knowledge, indigenous wisdom and good old practices will be widely documented and
disseminated in Telugu and Urdu (as required).

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8.13. Specific areas for Training and Capacity Development: Listed below are some of the
specific areas of intervention for training and capacity enhancement in Disaster Management.
Specific Disaster

Areas for training and capacity development


- Natural resources management with specific focus on water
conservation and management , watershed development
- Water quality and public health
- Credit insurance, micro-finance, Alternate occupation/
enterprises/cottage industry
- Social regulations and accountability
- Financial, social, legal rules and regulations
- Village-level information centre/use of information technology

Cyclones

- Special training for elected public representatives and


politicians
- Synergy between departments and institutions
- Ground water recharge management options
- Soil and water conservation works and rain water management
- Use of micro-irrigation and supplement irrigation using
harvested water
- Revitalizing of existing facilities, desilting of tanks, repairs, etc.
- Remote sensing applications etc.
- Early warning mechanisms and government institutional
mechanism activation during floods
- Social regulations and accountability

Floods

- Financial, social, legal rules and regulations


- Village-level information centre/use of information technology
- Special training for elected public representatives and
politicians

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- Synergy between departments and institutions


- Revitalizing of existing facilities, desilting of tanks, repairs, etc.
- Remote sensing applications etc.
- Local masons and construction workers training on retrofitting
and earthquake proofing technology
- Social regulations and accountability
- Financial, social, legal rules and regulations
Earthquake

- Village-level information centre/use of information technology


- Special training for elected public representatives and
politicians
- Synergy between departments and institutions
- Revitalizing of existing facilities,
- Civic responsibilies and accountability
- Financial, social, legal rules and regulations

Chemical disasters

- Environmental Impact Assessment


- Environmental Protection Act

Drought

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- Soil and water conservation works and rain water management


- Use of micro-irrigation and supplement irrigation using
harvested water
- Re-vitalising of existing facilities, desilting of tanks, repairs,
etc.
- Improved crop management-soil and nutrient for drought
coping
- Post harvest and value addition
- Feed and fodder production
- Livestock development and management-breed improvement
- Agro forestry, farm forestry and dryland horticulture
- Contingency Plan for Agriculture
- Monitoring & EWs in drought management
- Coping drought to enhance agriculture productivity
- Drought assessment, prediction and weather based agromet
| C 8 - 11

8.14. Networking with the Organizations/ Institutions


Following list of institutes based in Hyderabad and other parts of the state have been identified to
possess expertise in disaster management. Networking of these institutions to complement
capacity building is strongly promoted. Dr. MCR HRD IAP will take lead in developing an
action plan on networking and how the following institutions would be able to contribute in the
capacity building exercise related to disaster management.

Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), Hyderabad.

National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Hyderabad

National Informatics Centre (NIC) Hyderabad

Andhra Pradesh State Remote Sensing Application Centre (APSRAC), Hyderabad

Jawahar Lal Nehru Technology University, Hyderabad and branch campuses across the state.

Administrative Staff College of India (ASCI), Hyderabad

University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad.

Jawahar Lal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad

Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad

Andhra Pradesh Horticultural University

Water and Land Management Training and Research Institute, Hyderabad

National Academy for Agriculture Research & Management , Hyderabad

MANAGE, Hyderabad

Hyderabad Centre of the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur.

International Crops Research Institute for Semi Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad.

National Institute of Rural Development (NIRD), Hyderabad.

Centre for Economic & Social Studies (CESS), Hyderabad.

Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), New Delhi

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Open University, Hyderabad

Osmania University, Hyderabad \

National Geological Research Institute (NGRI), Hyderabad

Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad

Sri Venkateshwara Veterinary University, Tirupati

Agriculture Insurance Company of India Ltd.

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8.15. Target groups for capacity building and training


8.15.1. Line Departments of State Government
The government departments at the district level which are involved in the multi-hazard
management are grouped as follows based on the similarity in functions. While designing
training and capacity building, the groupings of departments as listed below will be considered:
1. Revenue (Disaster Management II) Department & Department of Food and Civil Supplies
2. Department of Rural Development and Department of Panchayati Raj and Department of
Urban Administration
3. Department of Education (Primary, Secondary and Technical Education)
4. Department of Health and Family Welfare
5. Department of Agriculture; Department of Horticulture; Department of Fisheries and
Department of Animal Husbandry
6. Police Department and Fire and Emergency Services Department
7. Department of Industries, Commerce, Factories and Boilers
8. Roads & Buildings and Department of Irrigation & Command Area Development
9. Department of Ports and Harbor
10. Department of Women and Child Welfare; Department of Social Welfare; Department of
Backward Classes and Minorities
11. Forest Department
12. Department of Finance (PMU)
13. Department of Finance (Project Wing)
8.15.2. Capacity building and training of other stakeholders
NGOs, including HAM Radio Network, Indian Red Cross Society, CARE, Home Guards, Scouts
and Guides, NCC, Rotary club, Trusts, Private Corporations, CBOs, SHGs, Urban area
Residential Welfare Associations, etc. Research and academic institutions located in districts,
state capital and other central government agencies/research institutions are appended in
Annexure X.
8.16. Specific trainings identified
The Center for Disaster Preparedness, Dr. MCR HRD IAP is mandated to conduct training on
disaster management for the government officials. Annexure VIII and IX present the list of
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training programmes, the schedule and identified target group conducted by Dr. MCR HRD IAP
and APARD. While the list of training programmes organized by the center is exhaustive, other
institutions with training mandate may also prepare a similar schedule of training programmes.
Coordination with MCR HRD will be required to avoid duplicating the topics covered. Emphasis
shall be on technical training in mitigating cyclones, flood (flood forecasting and monitoring)
and earthquake preparedness. For drought mitigation and preparedness, following specific
trainings are identified.
8.16.1. Principles of Soil Management

Adopt soil and water conservation practices.

Prevent run-off and increase infiltration by making more water available for plant growth and
Minimize evaporation from soil surface by direct exposure.

Plant drought resistant/ tolerant crops.

Practice Integrated Nutrient Management (INM)

8.16.2. Principles of Crop Management

Practice crop rotation. Avoid monoculture, practice intercropping.

Focus on multipurpose crops that provide both grain & feed for livestock

Diversify the cropping system to spread risk

Short duration /early maturing crops/varieties.

8.16.3. Principles of Water Management

Repair/renovate all drinking water sources.

Treat each ground water aquifer as a common pool resource and the extraction to be
collectively regulated.

Reduce water demands by selecting crops.

Roof water harvesting.

Increase water use efficiency and Irrigation efficiency.

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Table 35: Department-wide specific areas for capacity building


Departments

Specific areas for capacity building

Monitoring early warning systems

Revenue (Disaster
Management II)
Department

Use of geo-spatial technologies such as GIS, GPS and Remote


Sensing
Drought declaration, criterion for drought declaration, drought
monitoring and evaluation.
Electronic data base creation and management for taking up
drought proofing measures
Agricultural practices, farming methods
Agricultural inputs, extension services

Agriculture
Department

Seeds supply and demand management of seeds for contingent


crop planning and promotion of I.D. crops
Mechanization of Agriculture, promotion of drought resistant
crops
Early warning system for cyclones and floods
Flood proofing measures

Irrigation and CAD

Cyclone and flood mitigation measures


Creation of awareness about availability of water in advance for
crop planning. Improving Irrigation efficiency
Awareness, preparation and implementation of action plan for
disaster proofing following participatory methods

Panchayati Raj and


ULBs

Role of elected leaders and role of government machinery in


disaster management
Supply of drinking water from safe source
Relief and rehabilitation measures

R&D
Animal Husbandry
State of Andhra Pradesh
State Disaster Management Plan

Gruel centers in years of drought.


Awareness creation about drought proofing mechanism, forewarning documentation, training, research, etc.
Animal rearing, Poultry, Fisheries
| C 8 - 15

Department
Improving the area under cultivation in fallow lands (CPRs) for
fodder production. Promotion of chaff cutters to avoid wastage.
Inventory of animal epidemics and control measures
- Mechanisms for early reporting of animal diseases
- Vaccinate animals and identify campsites for emergency
operations during disasters/endemic outbreak etc.
- Training on eradication and control of animal diseases, treatment
of injured animals
Strengthening of SHG-Bank linkages
Loans for farming & allied activities
Banking
Risk coverage
Crop and animal insurance schemes
Value addition of forest products
Alternate livelihoods
Forest Department
Prevention of soil erosion and pollution control
Wind and erosion shelterbelt plantation techniques
Ground water conservation measures
Water supply storage and distribution
Municipal water
works

Awareness creation through participatory ground water


monitoring, recharging dried up ground water systems
Increase water use efficiency
Awareness on sanitation, health and hygiene, nutritional status,
socio-psychological aspects, counseling

Health Department

- Vector control programme as a part of overall community


sanitation activities.
- Distributing stock piled medicines such as life-saving drugs, detoxicants, anesthesia, Halogen tablets in vulnerable areas
- Scenario-based assessment and review the status of response

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mechanisms in potential vulnerable districts, mandals and


villages
- Disinfect water bodies and drinking water sources. Implement
immunization plan against infectious diseases

Horticulture

Popularization of dryland horticulture and micro-irrigation


technique, training of rural youth
Self employment schemes
Coverage of all rain-fed crops,
Risk coverage for less than average low yield/ low productivity/
and farmer-friendly mechanism

Insurance
Promoting community insurance to cover disasters

Agro-Industries
Rural Electrification

Promoting crop, animal (livestock) and property insurance in


vulnerable villages/mandals
Training of rural youth for custom hiring, farm mechanization,
post-harvest, value addition, etc.
Coverage to all areas, correct Voltage regulation, Assured power
supply with proper voltage during day time without any
interruptions

8.17. Documentation and developing best management practices


Systematic documentation of disasters and its impact is gaining impetus only now. Documented
lessons learned from previous disasters and historical account of relief and rehabilitation
measures will play valuable role in tackling future disasters.
While sporadic documentation in the form of academic research papers especially in the case of
flood and cyclones is available in the state; absence of focused R & D is acting as hindrance in
scientific documentation of the disasters. Research and documentation of socio-economic and
environmental impact of disasters in the state has vast potential. Documenting best as well as
worst management practices will act as important tools in mitigating and preparing for effective
disaster management.
A committee of experts representing Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Irrigation, R & B,
Panchayati Raj, Water Supply departments, researchers and trainers from IMD, APSRAC,
NRSA and Dr. MCR HRD IAP will be constituted to revise and update existing manuals on
cyclones, drought, floods and earthquakes. Subject specialists from academic institutions will
also be part of the committee.
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The committee will also be responsible to initiate research and document lessons learned soon
after any hazard/incident takes place in the state. The nature of the research would be academic
to identify the gaps and would commence after relief and rehabilitation measures of the state are
completed on ground. Appropriate financial and institutional arrangements to undertake such
research activities will be made mandatory as part of the state plan.
Recent policy changes in tackling disaster management both at state and national level warrant a
centralized committee or group of experts review and bring the knowledge resource to one
domain. There are number of documents, reports and manuals available in different department
of the government; efforts will be made to collate and catalogue them for ready reference. If
necessary, periodic updates of documents that have state-wide impact will be undertaken. The
Revenue (Disaster Management II) Department will coordinate this exercise.
To facilitate two-way communication, the SDMA and Revenue (Disaster Management II)
Department will be actively engaged with the National Disaster Management Authority and
other central government agencies that deal with disaster management at the GoI level.
Documentation shall capture the process of learning and develop case examples which would
help in wider understanding and dissemination of knowledge on disaster management.

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Chapter 9.0
Role of Key State Government Departments and Framework for SOPs

Chapter 9.0
Role of key state government departments and general framework of Standard Operating
Procedures (SOPs)
9.1. Background
A critical component of preparedness is to ensure that every government department, with direct
or indirect role in disaster management, has standard operating procedures (SOPs). A general
SOP framework for the key government departments on the activities that the departments may
need to undertake pre, during and post disasters is presented below.
The designated Nodal Officer from each department has the responsibility to further develop and
refine the roles identified below into standard operating procedures (SOPs) for their respective
departments. It is also the responsibility of the Nodal Officers to ensure establishment of failsafe, two-way communication with state, district and other emergency control rooms and
communication within the department. When the State Disaster Management Plan is activated
depending on the level of disasters, the designated Nodal Officers will be the key contact for
communication and coordination between the state and district; district and mandal/village level.
9.2. Department of Agriculture
- Awareness generation regarding various plant diseases,
alternate cropping practices in disaster-prone districts,
provision for crop insurance, credit facilities and proper
storage of grains and seed etc.
- Identifying and mapping hazard areas; (identification of
areas endemic to pest infections, drought, flood, and other
hazards)

Prevention activities

- Regular monitoring at mandal level; the distribution and


variation in rainfall. Prepare farmers and department officers
to adopt contingency measures and take up appropriate
course of action corresponding to the different emerging
scenarios
- Develop Information Education and Communication (IEC)
materials to advise farming communities on cropping
practices and precautionary measures to be undertaken post
disasters
- Improving irrigation facilities, watershed management, soil
conservation and other soil, water and fertility management

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measures keeping in mind local agro-climatic conditions and


the proneness of the area to specific hazards
- Promotion of alternative crops and cropping patterns in view
of vulnerability of areas to specific hazards
- Surveillance for pests and crop diseases and encourage early
reporting
- Encourage promotion of agro service outlets/enterprise for
common facilities, seed and agro input store and crop
insurance
- Review and update precautionary measures, procedures and
especially ascertain that adequate stock of seeds and other
agro inputs are available and accessible to farmers in areas
prone to natural calamities

Preparedness
activities

- Undertake rain-checks on proper functioning of rain gauge


stations; have stock for immediate replacement of broken /
non-functioning gadgets/ equipments; record on a daily basis
rainfall data, evaluate the variation from the average rainfall
and match it with the rainfall needs of existing crops to
ensure early prediction of droughts
- Hold village level meeting with the community to educate
and make aware of identified vulnerabilities and risks of
crops, specific species, areas, which are vulnerable to
repetitive floods, droughts, other natural hazards, water
logging, pest attacks etc. Draw up alternative cropping plans
to minimize impacts to various risks
- Prepare efficient and practical debris removal and clearance
strategy and ensure every mandal Agriculture Officer has the
operational ability to implement the plan
- Activate damage-control activities following crop damage,
pest infestation and crop disease to minimize losses by
undertaking harvest of ready but undamaged crops etc.

Response activities

- Pre-positioning of seeds and other agro inputs in strategic


points so that stocks are readily available to replace damage
caused by natural calamities
- Rapid assessment of the extent of damage to soil, crop,
plantation, irrigation systems, drainage, embankment, other
water bodies and storage facilities; management plan to

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salvage, re-plant, or to compensate; prepare inventory of seed


and other agro inputs necessary for re-initiating agricultural
activities where crops have been damaged
- Establish public information centres with modern means of
communication; assist farmers in providing information
regarding insurance, compensation, repair of agro
equipments and restarting of agricultural activities at the
earliest
- Implement debris recovery and clearing plan in place at
mandal Agriculture Office
- Arrange for quick and early payment of compensation and
crop insurance dues; facilitate provision of seeds and other
agro inputs needed to re-initiate farming activities to utilize
remaining farming season
- Promote drought and flood tolerant seed varieties
Recovery activities

- Facilitate sanctioning of soft loans for farm implements


- Establish and facilitate a network of soil and water testing
laboratories and tie up with regional research stations
- Establish pest and disease monitoring system
- Training in alternative cropping techniques, mixed cropping
and other agricultural practices which will minimize crop
losses during future disasters

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9.2. Department of Health


- Identify areas endemic to epidemics and natural disasters;
review preparedness levels at state, distict and mandal levels
- Identify appropriate locations for testing laboratories and
prepare inventory and establish network with private health
facilities
- Strengthen disease surveillance ensuring regular reporting
from field level health workers and its compilation and
analysis at APHC, PHC and district levels on a weekly basis
(daily basis in case of an epidemic or during natural
disasters); forwarding reports based on the assessment to the
State Disease Surveillance Cell; establish reporting channels
on monthly basis between state level monitoring with the
district and between district and local APHC/ PHC

Prevention activities

- Prepare a list of available mobile units at district and mandal


level; ensure mobile units have trained personnel, testing
facilities, communication systems and emergency treatment
facilities
- Identify appropriate locations to set up emergency operation
camps during disaster event
- On continual basis, develop systems of awareness generation
among vulnerable communities especially in urban slums
and urban areas about various infectious diseases and their
prevention
- Training of field personnel, community leaders, volunteers,
NGOs and CBOs in first aid, measures to be taken to control
outbreak of epidemics during and after a disaster
- Arrange or identify available sources for standby generators
for every hospital

Preparedness
activities

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State Disaster Management Plan

- Prepare inventory of vehicles and conditions of operability;


identify a nodal officer responsible to receive and dispatch
these vehicles during emergencies for transport of injured
- For heat waves: prepare and develop distribution
mechanisms of Information Education and Communication
(IEC) material in Telugu and Urdu; distribution of life-saving
drugs, training of field personnel on measures to be taken for
| C9 - 4

management of patients suspected to be suffering from


heatstroke
- For flood: Assess and stock pile essential medicines, anti
snake venom, halogen tablets, bleaching powders, ORS
tablets etc.
- Distributing stock piled medicines such as life-saving drugs,
de-toxicants, anaesthesia, Halogen tablets in vulnerable
areas.

Response and
Recovery activities

- Scenario-based assessment and review the status of response


mechanisms in potential vulnerable districts, mandals and
villages
- Review and update procedures to be followed during
emergencies (preferably print the material in Telugu and
Urdu for local use) and apprise medical health workers and
other personnel on sanitation measures
- Disinfect water bodies and drinking water sources.
Implement immunization plan against infectious diseases
Preventive activities
- Supply of safe drinking water, water quality monitoring and
improved sanitation
- Vector control programme as a part of overall community
sanitation activities
- Promote personal and community latrines

Epidemics/ Pandemics

- Sanitation of sewage and drainage systems


- Development of proper solid waste management systems
both in urban and rural areas
- Promoting and strengthening Primary Health Centers with
network of para-medical personnel to improve the capacity
of surveillance and control of epidemics
- Establish testing laboratories at appropriate locations to
reduce the time taken for early diagnosis and subsequent
warning
- Establish procedures and methods of coordination with the

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Health Department, other local authorities/departments,


NGOs to ensure that adequate prevention and preparedness
measures have been taken to prevent and /or minimize the
probable outbreak of epidemics
- Identify areas prone to certain epidemics and assessment of
requirements to control and ultimately eradicate the
epidemic.
- Identify appropriate locations and setting up of site operation
camps for combating epidemics
- Collect and analyze data at regular intervals to assess
epidemiological monitoring and improvement in the
surveillance and monitoring systems
- Identify and arrange prior provisions for emergency
accommodations for auxiliary professionals and personnel
from outside when disasters occur
- Prepare transportation and transfer plan for early transfer of
patients needing specialized care/treatment during disasters
Response Activities
- Disinfection of water sources
- Setting up site operation camps in the affected areas
- Immunization and Quarantine, if necessary
- Early transfer of patients who need specialized
care/treatment
- Establish public information centers with functioning modern
means of communication in assisting information
dissemination to patients, and their families, other people
living in epidemic affected areas on vaccination.
- Distribute fliers and pamphlets on Dos and Donts related to
health during disasters (in Telugu and Urdu).
- Prepare medical waste disposal plan and institute monitoring
mechanisms in implementing this plan.
- Ensure regular reporting to the control rooms.
- Review and document; share experience and lessons learnt
on public health management during disasters.

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9.3. Department of Animal Husbandry


- As part of extension activities undertaken by the department,
include awareness measures regarding different animal
disease and their prevention measures from Disaster
Management perspective
- Develop mechanisms for early reporting of animal diseases
- Update and prepare inventory of livestock from village level
to district level
- Stock pile emergency medicines and medical equipments to
meet emergencies during disasters
Prevention activities

- Prepare inventory of vehicles to be requisitioned for transport


of injured animals
- Prepare carcass removal and carcass burial/burning strategy
outlined in Chapter 6.0 (6.12.8); design and conduct training
of community members in carcasses disposal
- Vaccinate animals and identify campsites for emergency
operations during disasters/endemic outbreak etc.
- Promote animal insurance schemes among farmers; promote
tagging of animals
- Ensure availability of standby generators for veterinary
hospitals at the village level
- Stock pile emergency water, fodder and animal feed to meet
disaster emergencies

Preparedness
activities

- Stock-pile surgical packets along with life-saving medicines.


- Construct mounds for safe shelter of animals
- Identify various water sources to be used by animals in case
of prolonged hot and dry spells post disasters

Response activities
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State Disaster Management Plan

- Identify and construct temporary shelters for stray or animals


not claimed by owners post disasters
- Eradication and control of animal diseases, treatment of
injured animals

| C9 - 7

- Protect abandoned and lost cattle


- Supply of medicines and fodder to affected areas
- Ensure adequate availability of personnel and mobile teams
- Disposal of carcasses ensuring proper sanitation to avoid
outbreak of epidemics
- Establish public information centre with appropriate
communication tools for information dissemination
- Mobilize community participation and volunteers for carcass
disposal
- Assess and prepare reports on animal loss in terms of money;
identify farmers or individuals that have lost animals
Recovery activities

- Play facilitating role for early approval of soft loans for


buying animals and ensuring insurance coverage and
disaster-proof housing or alternative shelters/mounds for
animals for future emergencies
- Establish animal disease surveillance system

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9.4. Irrigation and Command Area Development Department (I & CAD)


- Assess preparedness level
- Identify flood prone rivers and areas and activate flood
monitoring mechanisms
- Provide water level gauge at critical points along the rivers,
dams and tanks
- Identify and maintain materials/tool kits required for
emergency response

Prevention activities

- Prepare protection plan of irrigation canals, tanks and other


infrastructure.
- Inspect bunds of dams, irrigation canals/channels, bridges,
culverts, control gates and overflow channels for proper
functioning
- Drainage channel improvement; drainage development;
undertaking flood proofing operations on priority terms
- Taking up measures to arrest erosion especially around
irrigation bunds and other vulnerable areas.
- Stock-pile of sand bags and other necessary items for breach
closure
- Monitoring flood situation
- Early dissemination of information on flood warnings
- Monitoring and implementation of protection plan of
irrigation canals, tanks and other infrastructure

Response activities

- Inspect bunds of dams, irrigation canals/channels, bridges,


culverts, control gates and overflow channels for proper
functioning
- Inspect and repair pumps, generator, motor equipments,
station buildings
- Confinement of flow (embankments, levies); diversion of
flood waters, reduction of peak stage and discharging

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drainage water (pumping)


- Community mobilization and operationalizing evacuation
plan during dam/canal/bund breach
- Strengthening of infrastructure and human resources

Recovery activities

- Review and documentation; sharing experiences and lessons


learnt in the form of publications in industry journals and as
internal communication for the benefit of fellow Engineers
- Modeling and designing training of staff based on lessons
learnt
- Development of checklists and contingency plans

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9.5. Police Department


- Keep the force in general and the NDRF/SDRF in particular
fighting fit for search, rescue, evacuation and other
emergency operations at all times through regular drills
- Procure and make available modern emergency equipments
while modernizing existing infrastructure and equipments for
disaster response along with regular training and drills for
efficient handling of these equipments
Prevention activities

- Ensure all communication equipments including wireless are


functional and deploy extra wireless units in vulnerable
pockets
- Identify Civil Defense response teams especially in known
potential villages/mandals; appoint a nodal officer from the
district police department to coordinate and train the civil
defense team to meet disaster emergencies
- Keep close contact with the District Collectorate and
Administration and develop operational mechanism that can
be activated during disasters
- Security arrangements for relief materials in transit and in
camps etc; ensure law & order is maintained at rehabilitation
sites, and during distribution
- Deploy personnel to guard vulnerable embankments and at
other risk points

Response activities

- Coordinate search, rescue and evacuation operations in


coordination with the district administration and with
revenue department
- Prepare and implement emergency traffic management in
urban areas
- Assist administration in taking necessary action against
hoarders and black marketers etc. during and post disasters

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9.6. Fire and Emergency Services Department


- Enforce relevant legislations and regulations as per AP Fire
Services Act of 1999 to enhance adoption of fire safety
measures
- Modernize fire-fighting equipments and strengthening
infrastructure
- Identify pockets, industries, etc. which are highly susceptible
to fire accidents; areas/events which might lead to fires,
building collapse, etc
- Educate people to adopt safety measures. Conduct training
and mock drills to ensure higher level of prevention and
preparedness

Prevention activities

- Build awareness in use of various fire protection and


preventive systems
- Coordinate with Corporate and private industry to ensure fire
mitigation measures are available in each and every building
- Ensure fire evacuation plans (paper plans) for each building
is prepared and displayed at convenient locations for the
employees benefit
- Design mock fire fighting drills in coordination with private
sector and multi-story buildings
- Ensure new multi-storied buildings to be retrofitted with fire
alarms and sprinklers

Response activities

- Coordinate with private and government schools to ensure


fire fighting education among children; similar coordination
exercise with colleges and other educational institutions in
fire fighting during fire emergencies
- Rescue of persons trapped in burning, collapsed or damaged
buildings, damaged vehicles, including motor vehicles, trains
and aircrafts, industries, boilers and pressure vessels,
trenches and tunnels
- Control of fires and minimising damages due to explosions

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- Control of other dangerous or hazardous situations such as


oil, gas and hazardous materials spill
- Protection of property and the environment from fire damage
- Support to other agencies in the response to emergencies
- Investigation into the causes of fire and assist in damage
assessment

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9.7. Department of Fisheries


- Initiate/carry out registration of boats and fishermen if such
an exercise has already not been done

Prevention activities

- Build community awareness on weather phenomena and


warning system especially on the Dos & Donts on receipt
of weather related warnings. Prepare this information in
Telugu and rope in local CBOs and NGOs in educating and
disseminating information
- Assist in providing life saving items like life jackets, handheld radio sets for communication
- Identify youth under NYK or other programs and train young
fishermen in search & rescue operation; hire their services
during emergency
- Ensure warning dissemination to fishing communities living
in vulnerable pockets

Response activities

- Support in mobilisation and deployment of additional boats


during emergencies
- Assess the losses of fisheries and aquaculture assets and the
needs of persons and communities affected by the emergency
- Provide compensations and advice to affected individuals,
community

Recovery activities

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State Disaster Management Plan

- Plan for rehabilitation in the long run of the fisherfolk


including resettlement, insurance, better boats, nets, etc.,
improved communication system as a part of the
communication hub for warning dissemination, especially for
marine fishermen and fishing communities residing in highrisk areas

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9.8. Civil Supplies Department


- Construction and maintenance of storage godowns at
strategic locations
- Stock pile at least one months food and essential
commodities as disaster preparedness measures especially
between June and December
Prevention activities

- District Manager APSCSCL shall purchase one month stock


in advance from FCI godowns; arrange transportation to
identified fair price shops in inaccessible villages
- Ensure appropriate preservation methods to ensure food and
other relief stock piles are not damaged during storage,
especially precautions against moisture, rodents and fungus
infestation
- Prepare detailed procurement plan of food and other
essentials

Response activities

- Prepare and execute transportation of stock pile material to


disaster prone villages and stock pile in the fair price shops.
- In coordination with Revenue (Disaster Management II)
Department, the mandal and district administration
administers distribution of food and other essential material
to disaster affected people

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9.9. Panchayati Raj Institutions


- Convene special meeting well in advance (preferably 2-3
months in advance of known seasons of disasters such as
cyclone and/or floods) of gram panchayat; invite VOs,
CBOs, youth groups, village elders, NGOs and concerned
government officials
- Constitute gram panchayat Disaster Management Committee
- Identify and prepare list of vulnerable families
- Identify pucca buildings if cyclone shelters are not available
and prepare mobility plan to evacuate the village to reach the
building or shelter; identify access road and/or path to the
shelter
- Seek volunteers from youth or others; make work
assignments to the teams

Prevention activities

- Plan and conduct trainings, mock drills of village leaders


especially members of gram Panchayat, NGO staff and other
government staff working at the village/mandal level
- Mandal/village level government officials to coordinate with
district administration in procuring tarpaulins, essential food
materials, medicines and other life saving materials for use in
the disaster shelters or buildings where evacuated people will
stay.
- Promote and support community-based disaster management
plans.
- Support strengthening response mechanisms at the G.P. level
(e.g., better communication, local storage, search & rescue
equipments, etc.). Clean drainage channels, organise through
community participation
- Trimming of branches before cyclone season
- Ensure alternative routes/means of communication for
movement of relief materials and personnel to marooned
areas or areas likely to be marooned.

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Response activities

- Assist all the government departments to plan and prioritize


prevention and preparedness activities while ensuring active
community participation
- Prepare detailed procurement plan of food and other
essentials.
- Prepare and execute transportation of stock pile material to
disaster prone villages and stock pile in the fair price shops.
- In coordination with mandal and district administration,
relief measures such as food distribution, operating kitchens,
medicine distribution to the needy; transporting injured
people to nearby hospitals etc. to be coordinated by PRI.
- Train gram panchayat members and provide support for
timely and appropriate delivery of warning to the
community.
- Clearance of blocked drains and roads, including tree
removal in the villages.
- Construct alternative temporary roads to restore
communication to the villages
- Operationalise emergency relief centres and public/private
buildings used as emergency shelters.
- Sanitation, drinking water and medical aid arrangements
- Participate in post impact assessment of emergency situation
- Support in search, rescue and first aid
- Provide personal support services e.g. counseling
- Repair/ restore infrastructure e.g. roads, bridges, public
amenities

Recovery activities

- Support the gram panchayats in relief and rehabilitation


measures and disbursement; developing self reliance by
aiding in the development of food storage structures and
shelters for future disasters
- The Panchayat Samiti and gram panchayat members to be
trained to act as an effective interface between the
community, NGOs, and other developmental organizations
- Provide leadership training so that the elected representatives
can act as effectives supportive agencies for reconstruction
and recovery activities

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9.10. Forest Department


- Identify and plant shelter belt plantation in vulnerable
villages
- Identify coastal villages prone to cyclones and floods, plant
wind belt trees along the coast of the villages
- Forest guard or beat officers to lend saws (both power and
manual) to the village panchayats when needed in clearing
fallen trees and debris

Prevention activities

- Provide seedling to the community and encourage plantation


activities, promote nurseries for providing seedlings in case
of destruction of trees during natural disasters
- Information Education and Communication (IEC) activities
for greater awareness regarding the role of trees and forests
for protection during emergencies and also to minimize
environmental impact as a result of deforestation like climate
change, soil erosion, etc.
- Involvement of the community, NGOs and CBOs in
plantation, protection and other forest protection,
rejuvenation and restoration activities especially in disasterprone districts
- Plan for reducing the incidence, and minimise the impact of
forest fire
- Assist in road and debris clearance.

Response activities

Relief activities

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State Disaster Management Plan

- Provide tree cutting equipments if available with the local


forest guards or beat officers
- Provide building materials such as bamboos etc for
construction of temporary shelters
- Provide compensation and advice to affected individuals,
community
- Allow access to forest department vehicles for use during
disasters
- In the annual plans, identify villages that have been severely
affected by cyclones and floods; prioritize these villages as
target areas in implementing forestry projects, plantations to
replace lost or damaged trees.

| C9 - 18

10.0. Illustrative Framework of Disaster Management Plan for the Government


Departments: Department of Agriculture and Department of Horticulture
1. Introduction

Objectives
Goals
Vision and Mission
Role in DM at the state level/district level and mandal level

2. Profile

Organizational structure
Traditional role and infrastructure at state/district/mandal level
Crop-wise data
Extension and Plant Protection role

3. Vulnerability of Agriculture during disasters in the state

Mapping of the vulnerability


Vulnerability of crops to different disasters
Historical data/patterns of crop loss due to cyclones/drought/floods
Risk assessment
Vulnerability of farmers marginal, small farmers
Vulnerability of landless laborers

4. Preparedness, prevention and mitigation measures

Contingency crop plans


Cropping pattern plans for pre, during and post disasters
o Distress harvesting plans if cyclones are imminent
o Distress harvesting plans if floods are forecast
o Storage plans/godowns availability if distress harvesting is imminent
Extension measures specifically focused on disaster management
Promoting R & D with disaster management in focus
Collaboration with Agriculture Research Centers/stations of ANGRAU or ICAR centers in
the state
Formation of village level, mandal level, divisional/district level disaster mitigation teams
Coordination with other departments such as Animal Husbandry, Revenue, R & B etc.
Crop Insurance schemes
Minimum price determination guidelines with emergencies/disasters as focus

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Preparing SOPs
Identifying role of the department in the EOC at district/mandal level
Identifying the role of department during disasters/post disasters

5. Response plan

Role of the department in EOC/ICS


Response plan to save crops/plantation on ground
o Plan for activities such as spraying 5% salt solution on the panicles to prevent sprouting
and discoloration of seeds
o If standing crop is completely damaged, alternate plans such as replanting with short
duration varieties
o Anti-salination plan if storm surge is identified as a risk in vulnerable villages
o Gap filling plantation plan if the crop is partially damaged
o Fertilizer booster dose plan to augment re-growth if crop is partially damaged
o Develop ingression management strategies for the villages with the risk of storm surge
o Appropriate reclaiming plans of salinated lands
Responsibilities of following key officials of the department
o Joint Director of Agriculture
o Deputy Director of Agriculture
o Assistant Director of Agriculture
o Agriculture Officer/Extension Officer

6. Templates to carry out rapid and detailed assessment of the crop damage and losses
7. Role of other stakeholders

NGOs
CBOs
Farmers
Marketing Committees

8. Training and capacity building of Agriculture department staff, farmers and community
9. Streamlining DM concerns into Agriculture development projects

Floods
Drought
Cyclones

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10. Financial arrangements


11. Institutional coordination for implementation

SDRN
Agriculture Information/Knowledge network
Revenue (DM) Department
Irrigation & CAD
Horticulture Department
Rural Development
ANGRAU
APARD

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Chapter 10.0
Financial Arrangements

Chapter 10.0
Financial arrangements
State government departments as part of their regular annual budget preparation exercises
includes budget items that transcend between mandated functions and activities that are now
identified as disaster management activities. It is mandatory and incumbent on departments to
identify specific budget heads to cover activities identified as disaster management specific to
the departments. While this will be on-going and evolving process, the state government with the
help of multi-lateral and bi-lateral donor agencies has implemented or has prepared several
projects specific to disaster management.
10.1. National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP)
Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) initiated the National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project
(NCRMP) to strengthen and build suitable infrastructure in order to mitigate the impact of
cyclones in coastal states of India. Besides, strengthening and improving the infrastructure
requirements in coastal districts of the state, the project also aims to promote sustainability
through conservation of coastal eco-systems.
NCRMP has identified thirteen cyclone-prone States and Union Territories (UTs), with varying
levels of vulnerability, for the improvement of disaster management facilities, based on the
frequency of occurrence of cyclones, size of population, and the existing institutional mechanism
for disaster management. Andhra Pradesh is one of the thirteen states identified for this project.
The key objectives of the project are:

Reduction in vulnerability of coastal states through creation of appropriate infrastructure


which can help mitigate the adverse impacts of cyclones, while preserving the ecological
balance of a coastal region.

Strengthening of cyclone warning systems enabling quick and effective dissemination of


warning and advisories from source/district/sub-district level to the relevant communities.\

Based on the above objectives the project is divided into four components:
10.1.1. Component A: Last Mile Connectivity
The last mile connectivity aims at information dissemination from the district/sub-district level to
communities and vice-versa, ensuring that the last man living nearest to the sea is well informed
of actions to take, in case of an impending cyclone.

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C10 - 1

This component entails two tasks:

Selection, purchase and installation of the communication networks (Very High Frequency
(towers and support equipment) - to strengthen the system of disseminating the warnings
about the impending cyclones

Capacity building of the communities

10.1.2. Component B: Creation of physical infrastructure for mitigating impact of cyclones


Component B aims at creating physical infrastructure for cyclone risk mitigation. Based on the
local needs and priority investment areas that are crucial for effective mitigation, investment
proposals from the state are supported by the project. Investments are proposed for either one or
all of the following categories:

Construction of cyclone shelters

Construction of missing road links and bridges

Construction of saline embankments and costal canals to stop saline ingress to coastal land

Shelter belt plantations and mangrove plantation/regeneration

Towers for communication

10.1.3. Component C: Technical assistance for capacity building on hazard risk


management
The objective of Component C is to help undertake risk and damage assessment studies, and
assess institutional capacities of the various stakeholders involved. The following activities have
been identified as part of this component:

Risk assessment

Technical assistance to States for preparing high priority risk mitigation investments

Preparation of long term training and capacity building strategy (13 States/UTs),

Implementation of high priority training and capacity building programs

Strengthening capacity for damage and loss assessment

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C10 - 2

10.1.4. Component D: Project Management and Monitoring


This Component aims to provide management and institutional support for project management
and monitoring.
As sub-project activities under Component A and B, construction of cyclone shelters,
construction of missing road links and bridges etc. are supported. Government of Andhra
Pradesh submitted investment proposals to the tune of Rs. 633.43 crores to the Government of
India and details of the proposal are furnished below:
Table 36: Financial Investment Proposal under NCRMP
(Source: Revenue (Disaster Management II) Department)

Sl.
No.

Department

Panchayati
Raj
NABARD

Irrigation

Roads &
Buildings

Nature of work

Cyclone Shelters
Roads, missing link
roads, CD works and
bridges
Roads to habitation;
Roads to cyclone
shelters
Restoration of Kona
Tidal bank in Krishna
District
Construction of
bridges and
improvement of roads

Total

Proposed funds
(in Rs. Crores)

State share (in


Rs. Crores)

GoI share
(in Rs.
Crores)

131.83

32.95

98.87

293.40

73.35

220.05

85.46

21.36

64.09

122.73

30.68

92.04

633.43

158.35

475.07

NCRMP project will be executed by the Chief Engineer, NABARD, Panchayati Raj Engineering
Department (PRED) through administrative Panchayati Raj (PR) and Rural Development (RD)
departments. The project is designed based on experiences of Government of Andhra Pradesh in
mitigating the disasters and keeping in view existing facilities available in the project area.
PRED conducted survey of existing infrastructure and included buildings such as school, health
care centers and other pucca buildings to sub-serve as cyclone shelters.
10.2. Cyclone Hazard Mitigation Project
Following the destruction caused by two cyclones and repeated floods during June to November
in 1996, the Government of Andhra Pradesh (GoAP), India, started the Cyclone Hazard
Mitigation Project. The overall objective of the project was to provide a system that minimizes
State of Andhra Pradesh
State Disaster Management Plan

| C10 - 3

impacts due to cyclone natural disasters, as well as enhances sustainable development of the
coastal zone. To meet this objective, the project consisted of two major components:
1. Setting up a real time early warning system.
2. Formulation of an Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Programme.
The early warning system focused on the short-term and operational measures to be taken, while
the ICZM programme dealt with the long-term reduction of coastal vulnerability to cyclonic
disasters. The aim of the early warning component was to develop and implement an integrated
set of state-of-the-art models to predict storm surge inundation areas, heavy rainfall areas and
wind hazard areas, based on the latest cyclone track and landfall point information. Extensive
training was given to the local staff responsible for the operational use of the early warning
system in the Andhra Pradesh Disaster Management Society (APSDMS).
10.2.1. Decision support system and data base
Under the aegis of this project, in addition to computer simulated models, real time system
containing a GIS-based Decision Support System (DSS-RTS) to integrate model outputs with
spatial information (for example the location of cyclone shelters) and to enable communication
of relevant system outputs to decision-makers was developed.
A spatial database with data on population, infrastructure, communication lines and socioeconomic status of the coastal population, per mandal (administrative district) was delivered. The
database also includes historical data of all cyclone tracks in the Bay of Bengal. Relevant data
about the cyclones which crossed the Andhra Pradesh coast and the damage caused were also
archived.
10.2.2. Training of local staff
During the project, extensive formal and on-the-job training was provided to Government of
Andhra Pradesh staff responsible for the operational use of the developed early warning system
after the completion of the project. The training aspects included basic meteorological training;
workshops and training courses on storm surge modeling, cyclone track forecasting, rainfall
forecasting models and the Wind Enhancement Scheme and finally, select staff was also trained
overseas on early warning systems.
10.3. Incident Command System (ICS) United States Agency for International
Development (USAID)
The pilot project to set up ICS in Gujarat and Assam was extended to include Andhra Pradesh. It
is a bilateral project with financial assistance from United States Agency for International
Development (USAID) as part of Disaster Management Support. The objective of the project is
State of Andhra Pradesh
State Disaster Management Plan

| C10 - 4

to improve capacity in the field of disaster management. Setting up of ICS is an important


element of the project support. Besides imparting training, experts from USAID will train state
government officials responsible to manage ICS. Appropriate sharing of financial expenditure
between USAID and GoAP has been worked out and the project will be soon implemented in the
state. Dr. Marri Chenna Reddy Human Resource Development Institute of AP has been entrusted
with the task of conducting refresher training on ICS. Similarly, pilot training programmes have
been conducted in Khammam and Nellore districts [Source: Revenue (Disaster Management II)
Department].
10.4. Calamity Relief Fund (CRF)
CRF is set up to meet the expenditure for providing immediate relief to the victims of cyclone,
drought, earthquake, fire, flood, tsunami, hailstorm, landslide, cloudburst and pest attack. The
CRF is set up as a public account and classified under the head "8235-General and Other
Reserve Funds-111 Calamity Relief Fund" in the accounts of the State Government. Government
of India contributes 75% of the yearly allocation in the form of non-plan grant and remaining
25% is covered by the state government. Typically, outlay of funds in consultation with the State
Government is allocated by the Finance Commission. The share of the Government of India to
the CRF shall be paid as Grants-in-aid and accounted for in the Government of India accounts
under the head 3601-Grants-in-aid to State Governments-01. For example for the financial year
of 2006-07, the twelfth Finance Commission had recommended an outlay of Rs 361.28 crores. In
the event of shortfall of funds, on the request of the State Government, additional financial
assistance from National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF) is provided by the Government of
India.
Because of recurring floods and cyclonic activity experienced in Andhra Pradesh year after year,
the allocated budget under CRF and NCCG falls short. In the last decade, Andhra Pradesh has
spent approximately Rs. 1,369.91 crores for flood/cyclone related relief and Rs. 2,299.24 for
drought relief. Table 36 and Figure 25 present year-wise breakdown. Similarly, table 38 presents
the total outlay of funds under CRF and NCCF in the last decade in Andhra Pradesh.
Table 37: Year-wise releases and expenditure under CRF and NCCF (in Rs. Crores)
(Source: Revenue (DM) Department 07.02.2009)
Year
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
State of Andhra Pradesh
State Disaster Management Plan

Flood/Cyclone
37.64
136.76
60.34
36.11
81.50
56.53
278.02
565.09
117.92

Drought
149.94
240.66
143.54
489.67
289.46
438.73
273.62
100.50
173.12
| C10 - 5

Fig 25: Year-wise


Y
reeleases and expenditure
e
u
under
CRF and
a NCCF (in Rs. Crorees)
(Source: Revenue
R
(DM) Department
D
077.02.2009)

800
600
400
200
0

Drought

Flood//Cyclone

Table 38: Year-wise breakdown of funds speend under CR


RF and NCC
CF (in Rs. Crrores)
(Source: Revenue
R
(DM) Department
D
077.02.2009)

Year
19
999-00
20
000-01
20
001-02
20
002-03
20
003-04
20
004-05
20
005-06
20
006-07
20
007-08

CRF
143.59
198.05
207.96
218.36
229.28
240.75
344.08
361.28
314.83

NCCF
75.36
NA
30.44
59.94
64.04
117.88
100.00
203.06
37.51

Total
218.95
198.05
238.40
278.30
293.32
358.63
444.08
564.34
352.34

Spent
182.85
360.22
213.65
525.77
370.97
495.26
551.64
665.39
291.04

10.5. Apthbandhu
PL)
Apathbanndhu schemee to provide financial inssurance to people fallingg below poveerty line (BP
was introoduced in 19
998-99 for thhe age group of 18-69 yeears. Eligibility criteria and
a nature off
death dettermine finan
ncial supporrt provided under
u
this schheme. Famillies belonginng to BPL
families are
a typically
y covered unnder the scheeme for deathhs resulting from accidennts caused by
b
external, violent and visible meanns. Deaths due
d to floodss, cyclones and
a other disasters have also
a
been tradditionally beeen covered under
u
this sccheme. The Government
G
of Andhra Pradesh
P
throough
a MoU with
w General Insurance Company
C
Lim
mited providdes financiall support. Inssurance periood is
nd
typically covered fro
om October 2 of every year
y to Octoober 1st of suubsequent yeear. Target foor the
policy peeriod for the State is deciided dependding on the number
n
of deeaths reported during thee
previous year and district
d
wise target
t
is fixeed on pro ratta basis.
State of And
dhra Pradesh
State Disasteer Management Plan
P

| C100 - 6

10.6. Universal Health Insurance Scheme for Tsunami affected families


As a result of 2004 tsunami, an estimated 2.11 lakh people from nine districts were impacted;
losing livelihood, death of bread-earning family members and assets such as fishing nets etc. In
association with United Insurance Company Limited, Government of India initiated Tsunami Jan
Bhima Yozana Scheme to cover tsunami affected families. Under the scheme unique health cards
were issued to 65,069 people in Andhra Pradesh. The scheme covered families with five people
in a family; comprehensive cover for health and accidents; personal accident death cover for the
head of the family. A maximum ceiling of Rs. 30,000 claim per year was fixed and for illness the
ceiling was at Rs. 15,000 per year. Government of India (GoI) contributed Rs. 3.01 crores to
cover 60,231 people @ Rs 500 per family.
10.7. GoI-UNDP Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Programme in Andhra Pradesh
The disaster risk reduction (DRR) programme in Andhra Pradesh evolved as a result of the
Disaster Risk Management Programme (DRM - 2002-2009) implemented by the Ministry of
Home Affairs, Government of India. UNDP supported this programme in 176 multi-hazard
prone districts in seventeen states including Andhra Pradesh.
Based on the experiences gained during the implementation of the GoI-UNDP DRM programme,
the enactment of Disaster Management Act 2005, and the various efforts undertaken by NDMA
a need was felt to take up more programmes to enhance the capacity of the DM institutions set
up at various levels for disaster risk reduction. With the support of UNDP, Government of India
is now implementing the GoI-UNDP Disaster Risk Reduction Programme from 2009 to 2012
with an outlay of 20.00 million USD.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the states in which the programme is being implemented. The DRR
project is being implemented in Vijaywada, Srikakulam, Khammam and Kurnool. The DRR
programme focuses on strengthening the institutional structures to undertake Disaster Risk
Reduction activities at various levels including risks being enhanced due to climate change and
develop preparedness for recovery. In Andhra Pradesh the focus under this project is on
preparing urban risk reduction strategies of the identified cities/municipalities. Capacity building
to internalize Disaster Risk Management at state level and creating awareness and strengthening
capacities at district, mandal, panchayat and village level is central theme of this project.
Approximately Rs. 50.00 lakhs for each of the four cities is allocated to undertake DRM
activities. Detailed work plans in collaboration with Revenue (DM) Department are underway.
Key activities planned include:

Preparation of multi-hazard preparedness, response and mitigation plans, training of life


saving skills like first aid, search and rescue and fire fighting
Knowledge networking on effective approaches, methods and tools for DRM
Supporting development of policy framework as the state level.

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C10 - 7

10.8. Budget allocation on five-year plan basis


Budget allocation exercise will be undertaken by each department in the State Government
identifying short-term, medium-term and long-term measures as part of disaster management
process. Short-term budget and planning will include awareness raising, community
preparedness measures for current financial year and short-term training of community based
leaders, volunteers. Medium-term budget and planning will include all activities identified in
short-term budget and planning and additionally, developing training manuals, action-based
research and pilot project implementation in disaster preparedness and mitigation. Long-term
budget and planning will include undertaking physical development activities like building small
check dams, developing GIS enterprise for monitoring and early warning systems, strengthening
early warning for cyclones, floods, constructing cyclone shelters, retrofitting public structures
with earthquake proofing and cyclone/flood proofing. An indicative five-year budget planning
template is furnished below, which can be adopted, modified based on the needs.
10.9. Budget provisions of Revenue (Disaster Management) Department
Revenue (Disaster Management) Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh has been in the
forefront in spearheading disaster preparedness, mitigation and relief measures at the state level.
Table 39-40 present detailed breakdown of budgetary allocation for disaster management related
activities for the current fiscal year (2010-11) as well as for the last two fiscal years.
Table 39: Budget provisions of Revenue (DM) Department, GoI for various preparatory,
mitigation and relief measures in Thousand Rupees (Source: Budget Manual, GoAP)
Budget items
Assistance to farmers to clear sand/silt/salinity from
lands
Assistance to farmers for repairs of damaged tubewells pump sets etc.
Assistance to farmers for purchase of livestock
Assistance for repairs/replacement of damaged boats
and equipment for fishing
Assistance to artisans for repairs, replacement of
damaged tools and equipment
Assistance to artisans for repairs/replacement of
damaged tools and equipment
Assistance to owners of salt works
Medium and major
irrigation works
Repairs and restoration
of damaged irrigation
Maintenance
and flood control works Drainage and flood
control works
State of Andhra Pradesh
State Disaster Management Plan

2008-09
2,58,39

2009-10
1

2010-11
1

2,43,00
2,83,50

5,96,00

2,83,50

5,96,00

1,80,00
71,89,00
1,49,99,00
33,62,00
149,99,02

| C10 - 8

Repairs and restoration


of Panchayati Raj (PR)
damaged road works
Repairs and restoration
of PR works such as
water supply scheme,
Assistance to local
drainage works
bodies and other NonRepairs and restoration
government
of damaged works of
bodies/institutions
municipal corporations
Assistance to damaged
school buildings under
the control of Education
and Municipal
Administration
Assistance to A.P. Fisheries Corporation Ltd.,
Public Health Supplies and materials for
prevention and control of diseases
Assistance to artisans for damages caused to
sericulture
Assistance to Anganwadi Centers, Balwadi Children
houses
Assistance to Handlooms artisans for
repairs/replacement of damaged tools
Assistance to Hyderabad Metro Water Supply and
Sewerage Board
Assistance to Artisans of Village industries and
handcrafts Sector for repairs/replacement of
damaged tools and equipment other expenditure
Irrecoverable loan written off for Machinery and
equipment
Transfer to reserve funds
- CRF
Transfer to Reserve
Transfer to reserve funds
funds and deposit
accounts Calamity
and deposit accounts Relief Fund (CRF)
NCCF
Assistance to below poverty line families under
accident insurance scheme (Apathbandhu)

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

35,00

124,00,00

36,00,00

130,00,00

7,55,38

297,55,54
4,34,00

20

63
1,40,43
21,59

1,37,08
30,00

10,43,18

100,00,00

10,65,40

103,07,63

15

-7,80,45

418,22,07

418,23,00

8,25,00

11,00,00

29,82,00

11,00,00

| C10 - 9

Table 40: Budget allocation for relief on account of Natural Calamities (in Thousand Rupees.)
(Source: Budget Manual, GoAP)

Budget item

Drought

Relief on account of
Natural calamities

Floods,
Cyclones
etc

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

Gratuitous relief
Food & Clothing
Housing
Educational concessions
Supply of medicines
Supply of seeds,
fertilizers and agricultural
implements
Drinking water supply
Deepening of open wells
Assistance to
Municipalities
Assistance to PR bodies
Assistance to HMWS &
SB
Supply of fodder
Assistance to PR for
const of wells and tanks
Social forestry schemes
CI wells digging and
bores in housing colonies
for civic amenities
Cash dones
Food and clothing
Housing
Educational concessions
Supply of medicines
Supply of seeds,
fertilizers and agricultural
Implements
Supply of fodder
Veterinary care
Repairs and restoration of
damaged roads and
bridges
Repairs and restoration of
damaged government
office buildings
Repairs and restoration of
damaged government
residential buildings
Repairs and restoration of
damaged water supply,
drainage and sewerage
works

2008-09
2,01,05
16,43
4,04,95

2009-10

2010-11

18,92
511,46,59
2,26
8,58
18,43,08

10,00,00

26,70,62
64,98

7,00,00
35,00,04

91
4

3,50,00

18,00,00

2,51,64
19,39,82
9,84,19
1,89,66
11,34,22
1,54
2,30
156,30,18

5,00

17,00,00

10,78,00
-1,50
30,00

150,45,75

63,00

| C10 - 10

Exgratia payments to
bereaved families

Evacuation of
Population

94,35

Evacuation of population
40,00
Assistance for
2,10,44
repairs/reconstruction of houses
Hut insurance
1,77
Assistance to farmers for purchase 156,26,48
of agricultural inputs

1,64,56
12,98,96

10.10. Budget for line departments


Budget requirements for each line department for cyclones, floods, epidemics, drought, fire,
chemical and other disasters district-wise need to be worked out by the respective departments
under the guidance of State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA). The State Government
will instruct concerned departments to prepare the budget requirement for managing disasters at
different states such as preparedness, prevention, mitigation and response rescue, relief and
rehabilitation.
Tasks/Years
20010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
2014-15
Cyclone preparedness
- Construction of cyclone shelters
- Awareness programmes
- Cyclone warning technologies
- Road maintenance & construction
Flood preparedness
- De-silting; maintenance of
irrigation canals
- Repairs and restoration of
Panchayati Raj (PR) damaged
road works
- Assistance to Farmers and
community
-Awareness programmes
- Training and capacity building
Earthquake retrofitting measures
Training and Capacity building*
GIS enterprise & Remote sensing
Risk and Vulnerability analysis at
field level
Action research and pilot projects
* Further detailed break-down of training and capacity building budget will be prepared by Dr.
MCR HRD IAP, Hyderabad as indicated below

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C10 - 11

Table 41: Template for district-wise training and capacity building plans
Name of the
District

Total number of
Mandals
Gram
Panchayats

Hazards
impacting
district

No. of persons to be trained


District
Mandal Village
level
level
level

Adilabad
Anantapur
Chittoor
Cuddapah
East Godavari
Gantur
Karimnagar
Khamman
Krishna
Kurnool
Medak
Mehboobnagar
Nalgonda
Nellore
Nizamabad
Prakasam
Rangareddy
Srikakulam
Vishakhapatnam
Viziyanagaram
Warangal
West Godavari
Table 42: Template to identify requirements of district specific DM trainings
Type of training
ToT on DM and DM
Plan foundation
Urban flood
management
Industrial Disaster
management

Target group
District level officers

Duration
-- days

ULBs/Municipal
Corporations/GHMC
Officers of concerned
line departments

-- days
-- days

No. of trainings
-- number of
training
-- number of
trainings
-- number of
trainings

10.11. State Disaster Response and Mitigation Funds (SDRMF)


The Disaster Management Act, 2005 mandates the constitution of State Disaster Response Fund
and Disaster Mitigation Fund at the state level. Andhra Pradesh is at the forefront of utilizing
CRF and NCCF funds efficiently in mitigation and relief/rehabilitation works. Funds from the
State of Andhra Pradesh
State Disaster Management Plan

| C10 - 12

Chief Ministers Fund are also accessed when natural disasters strike the state. Private actors
such as corporate and other small business contribute either directly to the CM fund or constitute
their own funds to spearhead relief and rehabilitation measures. The state has strong traditions in
raising relief funds and setting up relief measures in quick succession when disasters strike.
Thirteenth Finance Commission (FC-XIII) has recommended merging calamity relief funds
(CRFs) with the State Disaster Relief Fund (SDRF) constituted under the DM 2005 Act and that
the balances in the CRF, as at the end of 2009-10, be transferred to the SDRF. The transfer of
balance from CRF to SDRF will serve the purpose of providing cushion to the state in terms of
financing relief expenditure without affecting the continuity of relief financing. The FC-XIII also
suggested following similar pattern of CRF fund allocation and both central government and
state government share financing the fund.
Keeping the recommendations of the Thirteenth Finance Commission, the Government of
Andhra Pradesh has constituted State Disaster Response Fund (SDRF). In order to operationalize
the SDRF, additional step of two-tier organizational structure viz., a TRUST that will hold the fund
and an appropriate asset management company will be identified to manage the funds and acts as Fund
Manager with following covenants:

1. The Trust shall be settled in terms of the provisions of the Indian Trusts Act 1882 under the
name and style of Andhra Pradesh Disaster Response and Mitigation Fund (APDRMF) and
the Trust shall be registered and function as a registered Trust.
2. The Project Development Facility, under the Andhra Pradesh Disaster Response and
Mitigation Fund (APDRMF) shall provide grants for various components viz., Institutional
development, Disaster Response related project development and capacity building services..
3. APDMRF shall facilitate the sustained development of capacities, response and mitigation
mechanisms to meet disasters/emergencies in the State by enabling government departments,
urban local bodies and other local entities to have access to capital
The Board of Trustees for the APDMRF will consist of following members under the
chairmanship of Chief Secretary, GoAP, Principal Secretary, Finance - Member, Principal
Secretary/Secretary, Revenue Department - Member, Principal Secretary, Planning Member,
Principal Secretary, Irrigation & CAD - Member, Principal Secretary, Agriculture - Member,
Principal Secretary/Secretary, MA & UD - Member, and Commissioner & Spl. Principal
Secretary, Disaster Management, Member-Convener.
The main objectives of the Trust are as follows:

Fund disaster response, mitigation and relief projects to prepare the community and
government machinery to meet disasters/emergencies.

State of Andhra Pradesh


State Disaster Management Plan

| C10 - 13

Assist government departments, research and training institutions, urban local bodies and
other agencies providing disaster management support in accessing the capital market,
individually or jointly through pooled finance arrangements.

Operate a complementary window to assist government departments, research and training


institutions, urban local bodies and other agencies by way of grants, on issues relating to
disaster management.

Facilitate private sector participation in disaster preparedness, mitigation and infrastructure


through joint ventures and through formats such as public-private-community partnerships.

Capacity building, including financial management of government departments, community,


urban local bodies to enable them to access debt finance from the market for disaster
management.

10.11.1. Financial arrangements to SDRFs: The Thirteenth Finance Commission


recommendations
The Thirteenth Finance Commission has recommended merging Calamity Relief Fund (CRF)
with State Disaster Relief Fund (SDRF). The recommendations have also identified the sharing
mechanism of 90:10 by the central and state governments. The FC-XIII recommendations also
advise the state to transfer unspent balance of CRF at the end of 2009-10 to SDRF.
While deliberating on the source and methodology of SDRF funding, the FC-XIII opined that the
ideal methodology would be to base it upon the Hazard-Vulnerability-Risk profile of the state. In
absence of such reliable indicator at present, the TC-XIII recommends continuation of
expenditure-based approach to finance relief. To arrive at the allocations to the SDRF, the
expenditure on calamity relief in the period between 2001 and 08 will be considered and
appropriate fund allocation will be made.
The expenditure on relief will be booked under the major head of account 2245. Within this
account, three sub-major heads, viz. 01, 02 and 80, pertain to actual expenditure, while 05
pertaining to book adjustments between Consolidated Fund and Calamity Relief Fund are
suggested in the recommendations.
The Thirteenth Finance Commission in their recommendations have suggested following
breakdown of funds for the next five years for the state. As stated above 90% of the SDRF funds
will be contributed by the Central government as grants-in-aid. Along the lines of present CRF,
these funds will be released by the Ministry of Finance. The central and state share for each year
is shown in the table below.
State of Andhra Pradesh
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Table: Share of central government and state to SDRF as recommended by the FC-XIII (Rs. In
Crores) (Source: Annexure 11.1 of FC-XIII Report)
Year
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
2014-15
2010-2015 (Total)

GoI Share
381.63
400.71
420.74
441.78
463.87
2,108.73

AP Share
127.21
133.57
140.25
147.26
154.62
702.91

Total
508.84
534.28
560.49
589.04
618.49
2,811.64

Keeping these recommendations in view, after setting up of the SDRF by the state, the budget
items will be appropriately transferred. Copies of the summary of 13th Finance Commission
recommendations along with Chapter 11 (Disaster Relief) of 13th Finance Commission Report
are appended as Annexure XVII.

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Chapter 11.0
Review and Updation of SDMP

Chapter 11.0
11.1. Review and updation of SDMP and other plans
The state disaster management plan (SDMP) brings together risk assessment,
preparedness/mitigation measures and disaster response plan for the state on one platform.
Mainstreaming disaster management concerns in development process,
coordination/implementation mechanisms of the plan and identifying financial arrangements
have been included as part of the plan to facilitate smooth implementation. While the state plan
has been prepared keeping in view the framework suggested by NDMA, reviewing and
monitoring of the progress of plan implementation is internalized in the plan. Reviewing and
monitoring will be on-going exercise to be undertaken annually by the State Executive
Committee and the updated state plan will be approved by the State Authority as prescribed in
section 23 of the Disaster Management Act 2005.
11.2. Action Taken Reports (ATRs)
Implementing of the SDMP at the district, mandal and village level is achieved by translating the
mechanisms identified in the plan on the ground. State government departments have the role of
realizing the goals and objectives set out in the plan by taking actions and preparing standard
operating procedures to meet the challenges posed by disaster management on the ground. The
nodal officers nominated by each department are responsible for preparing the action taken
reports (ATRs) specific to their departments. Not all regions of the state and districts face similar
threats and emergencies. Similarly, every department has specific role in the management of
disasters. The ATRs prepared shall reflect this fact and be as specific as possible.
The extent of manpower used to mitigate disasters in all phases (pre, during and post),
budgets/monies spent on these activities, trainings undertaken for capacity building and
resources (technology or material resources) acquired as preparedness and mitigation measures
shall be clearly noted in the ATRs. The ATRs prepared by the nodal officer shall have the
approval of the head of the department and be forwarded to the SDMA and Chief Secretary.
Generally cyclones and floods are known to impact the state between April and November.
Preparedness and mitigation measures for the forthcoming season would be complete well before
April every year. While the action taken reports of preparedness and mitigation measures for
these two disasters shall be submitted by April every year, relief and rehabilitation based ATRs
shall be prepared at appropriate time between April and November and submitted to the SDMA
and Chief Secretary. The ATRs for other disasters such as earthquake and human-caused
disasters will be specific to the premise of occurring/impacting the state.
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Table 43: Scheduling of Action Taken Reports (ATRs)


Type

Activity

Jan-Mar

Apr-Jun

Jul-Sept

Oct-Dec

Annual
(March)

Preparedness ATRs Due


ATRs Due
ATRs Due
ATRs Due
Mitigation
Cyclone
ATRs
Due
Relief/Rehab
Preparedness ATRs Due
ATRs Due
ATRs Due
ATRs Due
Floods
Mitigation
ATRs Due
Relief/Rehab
SDMP
Preparedness ATRs Due
and
ATRs Due
ATRs Due
ATRs Due
ATRs Due
Drought
Mitigation
DDMPs
ATRs Due
ATRs Due
Relief/Rehab
ATRs
Due
ATRs Due
Preparedness
ATRs Due
ATRs Due
ATRs Due
Earthquakes* Mitigation
Relief/Rehab
ATRs Due
Others
ATRs Due
ATRs Due
ATRs Due
SDMP
* Subject to actual occurrence of the incident; retrofitting buildings and taking up measures
to make structures earthquake proof are the preparedness and mitigation activities and
will occur throughout the year.
11.3. Periodic update of the plans
Disaster management is dynamic. Ground realities, changing population characteristics, evolving
government mechanisms in handling disasters/emergencies determine the effectiveness of the
State Disaster Management Plan. The plan will be reviewed and updated periodically. The
Disaster Management Act, 2005 section 23(5) requires the state plan be reviewed and updated
annually, accordingly the review and update of the plan will be taken up annually.
To achieve a level of state-wide absolute preparedness and to meet disasters of any magnitude,
scientific and technology-driven hazard, risk and vulnerability (HRV) assessment of the state
will be taken up during the current fiscal year. Based on the outcome of HRV assessment the
SDMP shall be reviewed and comprehensive revisions will be incorporated to suit HRV
assessments.
Generally coastal districts of the state are vulnerable to cyclones and floods, while the degree and
intensity varies from season to season. In recent past non-coastal districts have also been
impacted by the cyclonic activity and flooding. Keeping this in view, the state plan provides for
updating preparedness and response plans and accommodating the triggers of emergency from
un-anticipated areas.

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While the review and update of relevant sections of the plan will be carried out annually,
comprehensive revisions to the plan will be done in every five-year period. The annual reviews
and update of sections such as risk and vulnerability assessment will feed into the five-year
revisions of the plan. Given frequent shifting of key personnel, both at the state and district level,
monthly updates on contact information of key department personnel will be integral to the plan
updates. Similarly, updates of the inventory of equipments identified in section 5.22 of Chapter
5.0., need to be part of quarterly updates of the state plan.
Consultative mechanisms among the key departments concerned with disaster management at
the state level; consultation mechanisms among civil society, NGOs and training institutes in the
state will form the basis of updates and revisions to the plan. State Disaster Management
Authority (SDMA) and the State Executive Committee have the legal authority to update the
plan as the need and demand presents. The district disaster management plans (DDMPs) will
also be revised and updated following the process and procedure set for the state plan.
Table 44: Time-frame for reviews and update of SDMP and DDMPs
Activity

Yr 1

Yr 2

Yr 3

Yr 4

Yr 5

Adopt SDMP by GoAP


Undertake state-wide HRV assessment
Prepare DDMPs
Prepare Action Taken Reports (ATRs)
Review and monitor progress
Revise Chapters 3, 4, 5 and 7based on lessons from field
Consultation process (depts., civil society) for revisions to
SDMP
Consultation process (depts.,civil society) for revisions to
DDMP
Comprehensive revisions and update of SDMP

Annual Updates are due

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Chapter 12.0
Coordination and Implementation

Chapter 12.0
12.1. Coordination and Implementation
Revenue (Disaster Management) Department at the state level is the state nodal agency for
disaster management. Setting up of State Disaster Management Authority in the state, the overall
coordination of disaster management will be streamlined. The SDMA acts as central
coordinating agency at the state level. After the plan is adopted by the State government, it is
mandatory and incumbent on departments to identify specific roles and prepare action plans to
cover activities identified as disaster management specific to the departments.
Networking among the departments and coordination among departments will lay a strong
foundation in achieving the goal of mitigating disasters and managing them efficiently in Andhra
Pradesh. While networking specific to state will incrementally evolve with active participation of
government departments and other stakeholders, there are certain tools already available for
ready use. India Disaster Resource Network is hosted by the Ministry of Home Affairs,
Government of India to facilitate better coordination and networking among different
stakeholders, between states and departments.
12.2. India Disaster Resource Network (IDRN) and State Disaster Resource Network
(SDRN)
IDRN is a web based information system to manage the inventory of equipments, skilled human
resources and critical supplies for emergency response during emergencies. The primary focus is
to enable the decision makers to find answers on availability of equipments and human resource
required to combat any emergency situation. This database also enables the decision makers to
assess the level of preparedness for specific vulnerabilities.
IDRN is a prototype based on management information system (MIS) principles to facilitate data
entry, retrieval, query building and report generating. The information system is accessible
through the URL http://www.idrn.gov.in to all government disaster response officers at the
district, state and national level. Data collection, compilation, date entry and updating at regular
intervals need to be carried out at the district level under the supervision of District Collector.
Overall supervision and coordination will be the responsibility of the state level nodal officer for
disaster management in the state. Since it is web based network, officials are required to register
to access the system. Nodal officers at the village, mandal, district and state level are required to
register and update the information pertaining to their jurisdiction periodically. The tool cuts
across not only state departments, but also helps in inter-state coordination and cooperation.

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There are several forms where data related to current availability of equipment, personnel
resources etc needs to be registered and periodically updated. Copies of these forms as adopted
from www.idrn.gov.in are appended as Annexure XI. Fig 24 schematically presents the
framework of IDRN. A state disaster resource network (SDRN) similar to IDRN will be
developed and exhaustive inventory of resources, both personnel and other resources will be
identified. This network will be so developed to have clear links with the management
information system (MIS) discussed in chapter 12.
Fig 26: Framework of IDRN data storage and retrieval
(Source: http://www.idrn.gov.in/manual/user%20manual2.0.pdf)

12.3. Andhra Pradesh State Disaster Management Authority (AP SDMA)


Under the provisions of Disaster Management Act 2005, The Andhra Pradesh Disaster
Management Rules 2007 were issued. As part of the rules, the Government of Andhra Pradesh
has constituted Andhra Pradesh State Disaster Management Authority (AP SDMA). AP SDMA
will be the chief nodal agency for disaster management at the state level. The APSDMA will
have two distinct objectives

Development and updating of plans and strategies to handle any type of Disaster at various
levels as Pre-Disaster efforts

Undertake projects for restoration and strengthening of infrastructure damaged by Disasters


during Post-Disaster scenario.

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12.3.1. Composition of the State Authority


The State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) consist of the following members namely
1. The Chief Minister of the State, who shall be Chairperson, ex officio;
2. Other members shall be as follows:
(i)

Minister for Revenue, Relief, Rehabilitation & Youth Affairs;

(ii)

Minister for Home.

(iii) Minister for Finance


(iv) Minister for Health
(v)

Minister for Major Irrigation

(vi) Minister for R & B


(vii) Minister for Panchayat Raj
(viii) Chief Secretary Member Convener
As part of the pre-Disaster efforts of the APSDMA, the authority is mandated to develop
Disaster Preparedness Plans for the state to meet any eventuality arising Management of all kinds
of Disasters. In addition, the APSDM Authority is also responsible for

Develop multi-hazard disaster response plans

Develop district disaster management plans (DDMPs)

Establish and maintain a fail-safe communication network connecting the state EOC with the
district, mandal and gram Panchayat EOCs and administration.

Establish mechanisms and systems to collect, analyze data and disseminate


information/resources related to disaster management to all key government departments,
district/mandal/village/ULB administration.

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Undertake institutional capacity enhancement

Promote capacity building of communities and CBOs to handle emergencies

Create techno-legal regime; pro-actively prepare GIS enterprise for disaster management and
development planning

Identify and authorize the state Administrative Training Institute (Dr. MCR HRD IAP),
Andhra Pradesh Academy for Rural Development (APARD) and other similar institutes to
design and develop training programmes for decision makers, elected representatives and
civil society groups.

Coordinate with NGOs, Corporate/Private sector in the state, academic institutes, schools and
other stakeholders in achieving better prepared state of Andhra Pradesh in mitigating
disasters.

The State Disaster Management Authority is also mandated to undertake comprehensive


restoration and reconstruction of public infrastructure damaged due to natural and man-made
calamities. The Primary role of the authority would be to coordinate between the executing
agencies i.e. various line departments and bilateral aid agencies. The State Disaster Management
Authority will review and approve technical proposals received from the executing agencies,
process and procure packages, manage relief fund disbursement and monitor execution and
implementation of State Disaster Management Plan.
12.3.2. Annual report
Along with the setting up of SDMA, the AP DM 2007 Rules also require the SDMA to prepare
annual report and forward it to the state government within nine months of the end of the
financial year for the consideration of legislature. The annual report will cover full account of the
activities of the SDMA during the previous year and will include:

A Statement of Aims and Objectives and vision of the State Authority;

The role and functions of the State Authority;

Annual targets and achievements, in physical and financial terms, during the year to which
the annual report pertains;

The activities of the State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) during the previous year;

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Any other information as the State Authority deems fit.

12.4. Setting up of District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA)


Under the provisions of the Andhra Pradesh Disaster Management Rules 2007, besides setting up
State Disaster Management Authority (SMDA), district level District Disaster Management
Authority (DDMA) under the chairmanship of the District Collector is mandated. The
composition of the DDMA consists of
1. The Collector and Magistrate of the district, who is the Chairperson, ex officio;
2. Chairperson of the Zilla Parishad of the district, as Co-Chairperson
3. Superintendent of Police of the district, ex officio;
4. Chief Executive Officer of the District Authority is the Joint Collector of the District, ex
officio; who is also be Member and Convener
5. Project Director, District Rural Development Agency (DRDA) of the district, ex officio
6. Chief Executive Officer of the Zilla Parishad of the district, ex officio; and
7. District Medical and Health Officer of the district, ex officio;
12.5. Cross-cutting government department and other stakeholder activities
Disasters considerably impact all the sectors of development resulting in a serious social and
economic setback to the overall physical and social development of the community. The process
of development and the models of development choices made sometimes lead to disaster risks.
There is a paradigm shift in the approach to disaster management in the country. The new
approach proceeds from conventional approach that development cannot be sustainable unless
disaster mitigation is built into the development process. The new policy also emanates from the
belief that investment in mitigation is much more cost effective than expenditure on relief and
rehabilitation.
Government line departments and service providing departments undertake several development
programmes and execute projects in the mandals and districts on regular basis. For instance
Agriculture Department regularly conducts outreach programmes in educating the farmers on
best agricultural practices. The State Authority and the Revenue (Disaster Management)
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Department at the state level will coordinate and develop mechanisms where the information
transferred to the farmers is disaster preparedness centric. Agriculture Extension workers could
effectively function as field ambassadors of Disaster Management. Irrigation and PWD
departments regularly execute infrastructure improvement and development projects.
Streamlining disaster management principles into the regular programmes of these departments
will help in better preparing to meet emergency challenges.
Several corporate houses in the state have exclusive social development groups and take up
social development activities in the state. The State Disaster Management Authority will reach
out to private and/or corporate sector within the state to impress on them in integrating disaster
management efforts as core objectives of their social development efforts at the state/district
level.
12.6. Institutionalizing Disaster Management Plan
On the request of Revenue (Disaster Management II) Department to nominate nodal officers who
will be responsible for disaster management efforts from respective departments, all key
departments have (list of departments is appended as Annexure XII) nominated the Nodal
Officers. The nominated officers will proactively prepare standard operating procedures for their
departments. The nodal officers also will function as the first point of contact when the SDMP is
activated and the EOC is operationalized.
12.6.1. Constituting District Disaster Management Committees and preparation of District
Disaster Management Plans (DDMPs)
District disaster management committees similar to state level executive committee needs to be
constituted under the chairmanship of the District Collector. Divisional heads, heads of key
departments such as revenue, agriculture, animal husbandry, rural development, R&B, Home,
irrigation at the district level will be the members of the district level committee. NGOs working
in the districts will also be invited to be part of the committee. Risk and vulnerability assessment
of the district from techno-legal regime perspective will be included as key section of the district
level plan. Based on the risk assessment, areas (mandal/villages) identified as vulnerable, village
and gram panchayat disaster management plans will be prepared. The district plans shall be the
conglomeration of village/gram panchayat and mandal level disaster management plans. Formats
to collect information and data for vulnerability analysis for cyclones, floods and earthquakes are
appended as annexure IVa, IVb and IVc.
Community participation in risk assessment and preparedness measures plan at village or gram
panchayat level shall be mandatory. Statistical details on vulnerable villages, community groups
(fishing community, farming community etc.) will be identified. The district plans prepared
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based on these analyses will have provisions on the outline of financial arrangements, sources of
funding, capacity building measures for the government officials as well as civil society.
12.7. Management Information System (MIS) for Disaster Management
Implementation and execution of the SDMP will occur on the ground. The veracity and
effectiveness of the plan is tested when emergencies/disasters hit the state. By nature
management of disasters are technology centric. While the impact of the disasters is on everyday
lives of the communities living in vulnerable areas/villages, technology and institutional
frameworks have much to offer in preparedness, mitigation and monitoring the impact on the
ground. Monitoring and evaluation of the impact of disasters and the effectiveness of SDMP in
mitigating the impact can be ideally done by developing DM specific Management Information
Systems (MIS).
Irrigation and Command Area Development (CAD) Department of GoAP has developed
Reservoir Storage Monitoring System. Daily reservoir storage data from across the state is
received at a central location and gets updated; the updated information is automatically relayed
to field-based irrigation engineers for appropriate action. This is achieved through
Comprehensive Communication Management System (CCMS) developed for the purpose.
CCMS software is developed to send and receive SMS messages either using internet based SMS
gateway channel or using SIM based GSM channel. The custom-made MIS and state of the art
communication system is used as useful tool in monitoring the storage level of the reservoirs;
information of this nature plays critical role in decision making process when floods and
cyclones are forecasted to hit the state.
Similar monitoring and management of information systems custom designed, transcending
various aspects of disaster management will be developed with the help of technical experts in
the Information Technology and Communication sectors in the state. Through installation of
customized management of information system, responsibilities of each department will be
identified in feeding data and information and generating reports to be submitted to SDMA and
the Chief Secretarys office. The time lines of report and frequency of report submission will
coincide with the Action Taken Reports (ATRs) identified in Chapter 11 of the State Disaster
Management Plan.

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Revenue (Disaster Management II) Department


Government of Andhra Pradesh
L-Block, 7th Floor, A. P. Secretariat,
Hyderabad500 022