© Copyright by CISV Egypt and Fekra Center, 2015

All Rights Reserved.

IPP Aswan 2014/2015
www.cisv.org
ipp.aswan@eg.cisv.org
El Nuba
Exploring identity, belonging and the right to a home.

Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………………………….i
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………..iii
Fekra Center………………………………………………………………………………………….……v
CISV and the International People’s Project…………..…………………………..……vi
Culture: The Struggle in Sustaining Traditions……………………………………………1
Traditions: Surviving through Adaptation……………………………………………………3
Nubia: Memories, Dreams and Future…………………………………………………………6
The Nubians: Cultural Preservation and Identity…………………..………..…………9
Project Team.……………………………………………………………………….….………………….vii
Links and References…………………………………………………………………………………..viii
Voices of Nuba………………………………………………………………………………………………x

There are many people who we have to express our greatest gratitude
towards, for without them, this booklet would not have been possible.
To our Partner Organization (PO) and most hospitable host, Fekra Center
and Abd El Khalek El Betity, Khaled and Hossam Mohamed Sabry,
Abazeid Abd El Malek, Haggag Sakao Hassan and Raafat El Masry, for
connecting us to the Nubian communities residing in Heissa Island, West
Aswan, and Kom Ombo, and to the Besharia tribe and the Nubian Union;
and for providing us with accommodations and hot meals.
To our interviewees from Heissa Island: Mohamed Moawad Basheer,
Sayed Hussein Hassan, and Khadiga Mohamed Moussa; from West
Aswan: Abd El Razek Abd El Mageed, Mohamed Awad Allah, Abd El
Kamel Hassan, Bassam Bastawy, Mohamed Saleh, Ahmed Saleh (El
Shami) and Rawheya Youssef Sayan; from Kom Ombo (Dakka and
Amberkamb Villages): Galila Abd El Razek Saleh, Shaaban Abd El
Rehim Abd Allah, Abd El Rahman Ezz Eldin, Ali Abdu Ghallab, and
Amir Abd El Rahman Osman; the Nubian Union: Ibrahim “Teacher”
and Saber Askar; the "Zaffa" team and the Besharia tribe.
Thank you for opening your homes and hearts to us. This booklet would be
impossible without your generosity and willingness to share your personal
lives, journeys, memories, dreams, and hopes. Although we were unable to
share all of your stories given our time limitations, we have documented
and started an archive, which will be made accessible through Fekra. We
are truly touched by all of you and hope this booklet (and archive) will
serve as a small stepping-stone towards illuminating others of your history,
culture, traditions, and customs.

i

Lastly, we would like to express our deepest thanks and gratitude to
Ahmed Samir, Heba El-Sherif and Nihal Ragab for their continuous
support and guidance to the documentation project, Lobna Abdel Hadi,
Mohamed El Mongy and Sami Soliman for their help and assistance to
the IPP and to Cherine Nader Emile and Lina Mostafa for designing the
project's logo.
IPP Egypt Committee and CISV Egypt: Thank you for making this happen…

Alia, Amanda, Bernardo, Julia, Mikkel, Nairy, Shirley and Veronica

ii

CISV Egypt hosted an International People’s Project (IPP) in Aswan during
the period from 28th of December 2014 until 15th of January 2015 with
Partner Organization Fekra – a cultural center located in El Shallal Area –
Shisha Mountain. The aim of the IPP was to collaborate with the partner
organization in three projects: "Green Track", "Artistic Expression" and
"Documentation of Stories".
In the "Green Track" participants learned and installed a new irrigation
system for the area by using sprinklers in order to diversify crop options
and make the agriculture more sustainable. The area used to be flooded for
agriculture, which was inefficient as it damaged the land. Additionally,
participants have worked with composting and planting new seeds in the
area.
The "Artistic Expression" project renovated a space in Fekra that had fallen
into disuse. The space was made accessible for locals, especially women, to
do workshops such as traditional Nubian arts and crafts. The space was
successfully renovated and showcased for the first time during Open Day on
Friday, January 9, 2015.
For the "Documentation of Stories" participants inspired by the oral history
methodology, engaged with locals by meeting them at their homes or in
public such as a cultural center or NGO in different villages located at
Heissa Island, West Aswan, and Kom Ombo, and at Fekra. All interviewees
were acquired through convenience sampling and asked about Nubia, the
displacement, their cultural expression, and sense of home and identity.
Pictures, videos, interviews and recorded sound were taken in order to
create an archive of the entire documentation process. The archive will
remain at Fekra as a resource. Additionally, a short film is being created to
document our experience and to raise awareness about the Nubians, their

iii

culture and their present situation, as there have been minimal records
within Egypt.
Lastly, this booklet aims to illustrate some aspects of the Nubian people and
their thoughts, history, culture, and customs. Along with the movie and
archive, we wish to share and raise awareness about a people who have
remained hidden from the public.

iv

Fekra Center
Fekra, meaning “idea” or “thought”, is a cultural center that organizes
various local and international activities, training courses and art
performances. It also hosts different workshops such as: yoga, bird
watching, organic farming (permaculture) and environmental and human
development workshops to increase environmental and cultural awareness
alongside workshops to revive the Nubian heritage.
The center hosts different musical events such as “The Nile Project”,
folklore dance events, poetry evenings, lectures and film screenings.
Fekra is uniquely located in the midst of breathtaking nature and is
surrounded by the Nile and opposite the Philae Island, where the famous
Isis Temple resides. This historically rich place, in the middle of
extraordinary cultural sites and antiquities, has for centuries, been a
crossroad for different people who have shaped its character.

v

CISV and the International People’s Project
CISV is a peace education organization that works towards the development
of a more just and peaceful world. We, as an international association,
believe in inspiring and educating actions to create a sense of responsibility
related to the development of our communities as active global citizens.
This concept is supported by our four principles: we appreciate the
similarities between people and value their difference; we support social
justice and equal opportunity for all; we encourage the resolution of conflict
through peaceful means; we support the creation of sustainable solutions to
problems relating to our impact upon each other and the natural
environment.
In every CISV activity we apply the concept of experiential learning. In
other words, we operate with the understanding that learning from direct
experience is more efficient and fun. This methodology is the core of all
CISV programmes and is structured in a four stage circle: DO an
educational activity, REFLECT on the skills and knowledge applied within the
activity, GENERALIZE the concepts and ideas and how they relate to other
contexts (e.g. time and space) and APPLY the knowledge and skills as new
attitudes to be applied on the local community.
The International People’s Project (IPP) is rooted in experiential learning
and in a systematic view of CISV programmes. It focuses on the concept of
active citizenship. This programme is based on a project elaborated by the
IPP committee along with a Partner Organization. In addition to
implementing a sustainable project, the IPP engages participants to develop
local and global understanding of the theme.

vi

THE STRUGGLE IN SUSTAINING TRADITIONS
Many will agree that the construction of the High Dam and Lake Nasser in
Aswan has impacted the Nubian culture as a whole; however, within
cultural studies, Upper Egypt still lacks a long-term diachronic analysis that
outlines the changes and rearrangements of the Islamic and Nubian
cultures. Released in 1975, the Ethnological Survey of Egyptian Nubia has
brought attention to the harmful impact of forced migration and the urgent
need for cultural preservation policies and efforts.
The displacement process of the villages of Old Nuba has caused structural
severing within these communities, especially to their social, cultural and
economical arrangements. Such processes have caused significant
alterations to the sources of income, ceremonial life and, in particular, to
their religion and cosmovision. With that premise in mind, it is important to
point out the factors of cultural severing within the Nubian context.
The meter of globalization, as a time and space compressor, produces a
transnational and international flow of information, people and products to
be appropriated by the local experience. In that sense, the insertion of
these communities in the complex dynamics of a modern-contemporary
society creates dialectic relations between the local and global perspectives.
That said the main challenge for those who want to preserve the traditional
practices is to find the right balance on the tradition/modernity scale.
When one examines the current Nubian situation, it is evident that these
communities are becoming more diverse contact zones; thus, making
transcultural experiences a reality. In the process of collecting the material

1

for this project it was clear that the search for an essential Nubian identity
is needed as resettlements and globalization pulled them away from the
traditional ways of living and built several cultural displacements and inbetweens.
Lastly, it is important to mention the concept of al-satr or blessing (elAswad, 2004) as a major mediator for cultural appropriation. The idea of alsatr reflects the broadness of the concept of blessing related to physical,
spiritual and economical well-being. This idea acts as a guideline that
organizes cultural and social items that are appropriated. For instance, it
explains, the openness towards new sources of income and the willingness
to have big families despite low income generated by the resettlements.

2

SURVIVING THROUGH ADAPTATION
Throughout our interviews, it was common to see traditional Nubian
clothing and homes. In addition to what we could see throughout the
communities and villages we engaged with, Nubians also spoke proudly of
the value and importance of being community-oriented, especially in the
context of weddings.
Nubian men usually wear a gallabya regardless of their age. Lighter clothes
that cover the body, arms and legs are typical among men and women.
Adults wear more traditional clothing as long dresses or gallabya, while
children wear modern clothes, usually colorful pants and t-shirts with
printed images. The typical footwear during summer and winter are sandals
or flip-flops. Nubian women also make and sell vibrant colored traditional
clothes such as scarves and hats. They also sell jewelry made out of plastic
and metal materials like copper. The traditional clothing for women is often
colorful with elaborate embroidery and designs, whereas for men, it is
generally the gallabya in a solid color (e.g. white, blue, tan, etc.)
sometimes with simple designs like stripes.
The architecture of Nubian homes varies between locations. Traditional
Nubian houses are rarely seen, they are no longer made in the same way
as traditions have declined with displacement and time. Traditional houses
usually feature drawings (e.g. scorpion, fish, and other images) on the
exterior walls. Drawings hold symbolic meaning and are used to protect the
home from envy. Additionally, when entering a Nubian home, it is common
to see an open space to accommodate large gatherings of people. Front
doors are usually left unlocked to welcome community members. Buildings
and architecture in New Nubia differ from those in Old Nubia and are less

3

traditional possibly as a result of displacement and relocation to an area
further away from the Nile.

Although the Nubian tribes have been physically divided, the communities
still maintain close relations with each other. As expressed by some of the
interviewees, all community members know each other and during
celebrations and other occasions such as weddings and funerals, all
members gather together to support each other. For instance, during
weddings, it is common for the host family to invite and accommodate
Nubians from other villages, which can lead to an attendee list of 1,0003,000 guests. A traditional wedding usually occurs in the summer given the
weather and can last for an entire week; however, in contemporary society,
weddings can be expected to last for three days. Given the number of
guests and the length of the occasion, wedding expenses can be quite
expensive. Therefore, it is also customary for guests to bring monetary or

4

other types of gifts. Many Nubians seem to like these traditions, however,
some such as Abd El Razek Abd El Mageed from West Aswan wished that
community members would not spend so much on weddings.
Nubians have a very close society with few distinctions; as such it is
common for members from different tribes to marry each other. In recent
years, given their displacement and the effects of globalization, marriage
between Nubians and other nationalities have also become acceptable
within villages. As expressed by Abd El Kamel Hassan from West Aswan,
approximately 95% of Nubians are willing to marry people from other
nationalities such as the Dutch, Australians, and Armenians. Similarly, in
the past, the average marriage age for most Nubians was in the early
twenties. However, in contemporary society given the lack of security and
finances (e.g. to secure an apartment, car, etc.), many Nubians are
marrying at a later age of 32-35.
Prior to their displacements, Nubian wedding celebrations took place by the
Nile. Regardless of who was getting married, the celebration is always
inclusive of all members of the community regardless of their direct
relationship to the couple. For many foreigners, the spectacle of a Nubian
wedding was very curious and they were often surprised to learn that the
married couple was just like any other member within the community. As
expressed by Mohamed Awad Allah from West Aswan, the reasoning
behind the grand celebration is to honor the importance of each individual.
Similarly, as expressed by Rawheya Youssef Sayan from West Aswan, at
weddings, it is customary for people to wish for your child to be married as
weddings symbolize happiness.

5

MEMORIES, DREAMS AND FUTURE
During the course of our project, many people with different points of view
about Nuba shared their memories, dreams, and hopes for the future. On
the topic of displacement, the Nubian people shared their thoughts and
emotions through both verbal expression and silence.
Before the High Dam was built, most Nubians used to work in agriculture,
trades and ships. When the High Dam was built, many left their work in
agriculture, as it was compromised, to work on the dam. Similarly, they
could no longer sail on ships; as a result, they worked on smaller boats for
transportation and work. The displacements also broke apart many tribes
that lived together as many of the men interviewed expressed missing their
original homeland. With the building of the reservoir and the High Dam, the
Nubians were forced to move to New Nubia, places like Kom Ombo.
During our interviews in Heissa Island, many expressed the need to
improve infrastructure. For instance, Heissa Island only has a small medical
clinic and primary school. For medical emergencies, residents either have to
travel to Aswan by a small motorboat or resort to the experience of other
community members. Similarly, children must also travel to Aswan to
continue their studies, as a result, many girls discontinue their studies
around ages 12-13 due to limitations in resources and distance.
On our first day of interviews, one of the women we spoke with shared that
her dream of being a teacher was impossible because of her inability to
read and write. Likewise, Sayed Hussein Hassan, from Heissa Island,
expressed his dream of preserving and sharing the Nubian culture with his
community and others through the Nubian language, theatre and film. He
conveyed sadness in explaining that there are no television broadcasts,

6

shows, or news in the Nubian language or about the Nubian community as
the media focuses on urban cities like Cairo and Alexandria.
Another dream that was constantly addressed was the preservation of the
Nubian language and sense of community, which the people identified as
being a source and essence of Nubia. Children usually learn the Nubian
language at a young age from home through family and community
members before learning Arabic at school.

The Nubian language is an important component that connects and glues
the community together.
The Nubian identity is also fundamentally linked to the community. It is
common to see large gatherings that celebrate special occasions, such as
weddings, and the everyday life. Gatherings are not exclusive to family and
close friends; instead, the entire community comes together to celebrate
the importance of each human being through food and music. For example,
Mohamed Awad Allah from West Aswan expressed his dream and hope
that his children will obtain work and get married.

7

Amidst each individual’s memories and dreams and hopes for the Nubian
people, many also expressed their love and connection to the source of
Nubia, Egypt, and life, the Nile River.
All of the individuals we spoke with identified themselves as Nubian and
Egyptian and did not want a separation from the country. Many understood
the importance of the Aswan Reservoir and the High Dam and the need to
move for the betterment of Egypt, but had hoped, in return, they would
receive their rights and compensation. However, the Nubian culture and
language are not present in the Egyptian academic context. Instead, the
Nubian people feel that foreigners from abroad know more about Nubia
than Nubians and Egyptians. Thus, the dreams and hopes of the Nubian
people focus on cultural preservation, as they are concerned with their
invisibility in the greater context of the Egyptian society and history.

8

CULTURAL PRESERVATION AND IDENTITY
Throughout the duration of our project, the Nubians we interviewed
adamantly reiterated two main themes: the need for cultural preservation
and the concept of identity with respect to the greater context of Egypt.
Regardless of whether the individual has personally experienced
displacement, it is evident through their words and silence that each of
their lives has been impacted.
Once a collective community of 44 villages, Nubians covered an area of
approximately 78,000 acres on the banks of the Nile in southern Egypt
(Aman, 2014). However, with the construction of the Aswan Reservoir,
which preceded the High Dam, Nubians were forced to relocate multiple
times in 1902, 1912, and 1933 (Noshokaty, 2013a). Although the
government approved the Nubian’s selected destination for relocation along
the Nile’s bank, the erection of the High Dam in 1963 forced the Nubians to
move, yet again, from their homeland in order to make room for Lake
Nasser. Although many Nubians have acknowledged the necessity of the
High Dam for the benefit of Egypt, the main source of discontentment and
pain is rooted in their invisibility within Egyptian history.
The longevity and survival of any society is linked to their understanding of
identity and rooted in cultural preservation, which includes but is not limited
to the people’s history, language, music, art, traditions, and customs. In
thinking through cultural preservation, it is interesting to see how the
interviewees identify themselves as either Egyptian-Nubians or NubianEgyptians. The distinction between listing either their Egyptian or Nubian
identity first is important as it sheds insight into how each individual
understands nationality. Interviewees, who identified themselves as
Egyptian-Nubian, did so under the understanding that they are first part of

9

the greater context of Egypt with strong roots to the regional Nubian
identity, whereas those who identified themselves as Nubian-Egyptians
understood their nationality to be Nubian but their citizenship (official legal
documentation) as Egyptian.
Regardless of age and gender each interviewee understood hers/his role as
being linked to the greater context of Egypt while simultaneously
possessing a strong sense of pride and desire to sustain and teach others of
their Nubian nationality, which has been scarcely documented within
Egyptian history. For instance, there are two dialects of the Nubian
language that have been taught to each generation through oral traditions
as it is neither written nor documented. With Arabic as the official language
of Egypt, the Nubian language is slowly coming to extinction, as it is neither
taught in schools nor used outside of the Nubian context. Furthermore, with
multiple displacements, the Nubian community that was once a collective is
now broken into smaller tribes that reside further from their original source
of livelihood, the Nile. Thus, impeding their ability to preserve their
language due to emigration to more urban cities like Cairo for work.
Similarly, other Nubian traditions linked to arts and crafts, music, customs
and traditions suffer from the same affliction of potential extinction.
The desire and need from the Nubian people to record, preserve and
sustain their nationality and culture should not come as a surprise. Without
records and preservation, sustainability would be impossible and with it,
the Nubians would cease to exist; without it, a significant portion of Egypt’s
rich history would be lost. It is therefore imperative to make visible the
invisible.

10

Project Staff- Egypt
Abeer Mohamed
Islam El Gamal
Nairy Abd El Shafy
Nora El Fangary
Ramy Tadros
"Green Track"
Anna Procházková - Czech Republic
Edilene A Ropoli - Brazil
Julia Restrepo - Colombia
Mikaela Wickman - Finland
Paula Catalina Correa Campos - Colombia
Sofia Mörtlund- Sweden
"Artistic Expression"
Giovanna Pergreffi - Italy
Hana Heida - Egypt
Juli Carmona - Colombia
Marianna Felisatti - Italy
Michael Nowak - USA
Ruby Harrison-Clay - USA
Slavka Procházková - Czech Republic
Stefano Cagnetta - Italy
Theresa Johanna Lund Andersen - Denmark
"Documentation of Stories" and Booklet/ Movie Team
Alia El Masry - Egypt
Amanda Schlamovitz - Denmark
Bernardo Moraes Ferreira Reis - Brazil
Julia Bianchini - Brazil
Mikkel Stokke - Norway
Shirley (Hsueh Li) Wang - Taiwan
Veronica El Radaf - Sweden

vii

Afify, H. (2012). For Nubians displaced by High Dam, Nasser’s legacy is
bittersweet. Egypt Independent.
Retrieved from http://www.egyptindependent.com//news/nubiansdisplaced-high-dam-nasser-s-legacy-bittersweet
al-Katsha, S. (1978). Changes in Nubian wedding ceremonies. In J.G.
Kennedy (Ed.), Nubian ceremonial life:
Studies in Islamic syncretism and cultural change (pp. 171-202).
Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo.
Aman, A. (2014). Egypt’s Nubians demand rights on Aswan High Dam
anniversary. Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the
Middle East. Retrieved from http://www.almonitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/06/egypt-nubians-demand-rightsdisplacement.html#
Bach, K. (2004). Changing family and marriage patterns in an Aswan
village. In N. Hopkins & R. Saad (Ed.),
Upper Egypt identity and change (pp. 169-190). Cairo, Egypt: The
American University in Cairo.
de Wat, C. (2006). Risk, complexity and local initiative in forced
resettlement outcomes. In C. de Wat (Ed.),
Development-induced Displacement: Problems, Policies, and People
(pp. 180-202). United States: Berghahn Books.
el-Aswad, E. (2004). Viewing the world through Upper Egyptian eyes: From
regional crisis to global blessing. In N.
Hopkins & R. Saad (Ed.), Upper Egypt identity and change (pp. 5578). Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo.
Kennedy, J.G. (1978). Introduction. In J.G. Kennedy (Ed.), Nubian
ceremonial life: Studies in Islamic syncretism and cultural change (pp. xivxxix). Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo.

viii

Noshokaty, A. (2013a). Egypt Nubia: 50 years of displacement. Ahram
Online English. Retrieved from
http://english.ahram.org.eg/News/84158.aspx
Noshokaty, A. (2013b). Nubia: A glimpse of folk culture. Ahram Online
English. Retrieved from
http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/32/99/85846/Folk/SpecialFiles/Nubia-A-glimpse-of-folk-culture.aspx
Nuba Museum. (2009). http://www.numibia.net/nubia/index.htm
Nubian author seeks pluralism in Egypt’s new constitution. (2010). AlMonitor: The Pulse of the Middle East.
Retrieved from http://www.almonitor.com/pulse/culture/2013/10/egypt-constitution-nubaiadul.html#
Sakory, F.E. (2013). Being Nubian in Egypt, and in the constitution. Mada
Masr. Retrieved from
http://www.madamasr.com/opinion/being-nubian-egypt-andconstitution
Schwartzstein, P. (2014). Changing Egypt offers hope to long-marginalized
Nubians. National Geographic.
Retrieved from
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/01/140131-egyptnubia-dams-nile-constitution-culture/
Shetawy, A. and El-Shafie, M. (2013). The myth of Nubia, Egypt: A vivid
potential or desert mirage.
http://www.academia.edu/5058920/The_Myth_of_Nubia_Egypt_A_Vivi
d_Potential_or_Desert_Mirage

ix

x

"‫اٌطّا اٌسرلح‬ٚ ًٌٍٕ‫ا‬ٚ ‫ اٌٍّح‬:ً٘ ‫تح‬ٌٕٛ‫"ا‬
)ِٟ‫أؽّذ فبٌؼ (اٌؾب‬
ْ‫ا‬ٛ‫– غشة أع‬

"‫ اإلضتمرار‬ٛ٘ ‫"اٌثٍت‬
ٞ‫ظ عؼذ‬١ّ‫خ‬

"Nuba is: the gathering, the
Nile and the blue sky"
Ahmed Saleh (El Shami)
– West Aswan

"To me, home is
stability"
Khamis Sady

"ً‫ اٌّىاْ إًٌٍ فٍٗ عٍٍت‬ٛ٘ ً‫"تٍت‬
‫لقش‬٤‫ ؽغٓ – ا‬ٚ‫ؽغبط عمب‬
"My home is where my
family is"
Haggag Sakao Hassan
- Luxor

‫تح ً٘ اٌفخر‬ٌٕٛ‫ا عٓ ا‬ٍٙ‫ي حاخح تفىر ف‬ٚ‫"أ‬
"‫اٌىراِح‬ٚ
ٞ‫خبٌذ دمحم فجش‬
‫غخ‬١٘ ‫شح‬٠‫– عض‬
"The first thing I think of
when mentioning Nuba is
pride."
Khaled Mohamed Sabry
– Heissa Island

"‫"اٌحٍاج وٍّح طٍثح ٌٍٕاش‬
ٝ‫ع‬ِٛ ‫غخ دمحم‬٠‫خذ‬
‫غخ‬١٘ ‫شح‬٠‫– عض‬

"ًٌ‫عٍا‬ٚ ً‫ ِرات‬ٛ٘ ً‫"تٍت‬
ْ‫ا‬ٛ‫ك هللا – غشة أع‬ٛ‫دمحم ػ‬

"Life, is all about saying kind
words to people"
Khadiga Mohamed Moussa
– Heissa Island

"My wife and kids are my
home"
Mohamed Awad Allah
– West Aswan

"ْ‫ ٌٍّه اٌّىا‬،‫"اي حذ عٕذٖ فىرج‬
‫ فىشح‬- ٟ‫ز‬١‫ػجذ اٌخبٌك اٌجز‬
"Anyone who has an idea, owns
the place"
Abd El Khalek El Betity - Fekra

‫ي ِا تطّع‬ٚ‫ضٍمً أ‬ٌّٛ‫تح ً٘ ا‬ٌٕٛ‫"ا‬
"ًٔ‫ا تا‬ٙ‫تً ٘تحة تطّع‬ٛٔ ‫ضٍمى‬ِٛ
‫غخ‬١٘ ‫شح‬٠‫ – عض‬ٞ‫ؽغبَ دمحم فجش‬
"Nuba is music, once
you listen to Nubian
music, you'll want to
listen again"
Hossam Mohamed Sabry
– Heissa Island

ً‫ وٕا زِاْ تٕحًّ اٌطف‬.‫ٌح خذا‬ٛ‫"عاللتٕا تإًٌٍ ل‬
"ٍٗ‫ٌح ت‬ٛ‫ع فً إًٌٍ ٌعاللتٕا اٌم‬ٛ‫فً اٌطث‬
‫غخ‬١٘ ‫خ‬٠‫ – عض‬ٞ‫سأفذ اٌّقش‬
"Our relationship with the Nile
is very strong. Whenever there
was a baby celebration we
used to bathe the baby in the
Nile to symbolize this strong
relationship"
Raafat El Masry – Heissa Island

" ‫تٍح‬ٌٕٛ‫ِطرحٍح تاٌٍغح ا‬ٚ ٍٍُ‫ف ف‬ٛ‫"أحالًِ إًٔ أش‬
‫غخ‬١٘ ‫شح‬٠‫ٓ ؽغٓ – عض‬١‫ذ ؽغ‬١‫ع‬

"My dream is to one day see a film and a play in Nubian
language"
Sayed Hussein Hassan – Heissa Island

‫أصوات النوبة‬

‫‪viii‬‬

Noshokaty, A. (2013a). Egypt Nubia: 50 years of displacement. Ahram
Online English. Retrieved from
http://english.ahram.org.eg/News/84158.aspx
Noshokaty, A. (2013b). Nubia: A glimpse of folk culture. Ahram Online
English. Retrieved from
http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/32/99/85846/Folk/SpecialFiles/Nubia-A-glimpse-of-folk-culture.aspx
Nuba Museum. (2009). http://www.numibia.net/nubia/index.htm
Nubian author seeks pluralism in Egypt’s new constitution. (2010). AlMonitor: The Pulse of the Middle East.
Retrieved from http://www.almonitor.com/pulse/culture/2013/10/egypt-constitution-nubaiadul.html#
Sakory, F.E. (2013). Being Nubian in Egypt, and in the constitution. Mada
Masr. Retrieved from
http://www.madamasr.com/opinion/being-nubian-egypt-andconstitution
Schwartzstein, P. (2014). Changing Egypt offers hope to long-marginalized
Nubians. National Geographic.
Retrieved from
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/01/140131-egyptnubia-dams-nile-constitution-culture/
Shetawy, A. and El-Shafie, M. (2013). The myth of Nubia, Egypt: A vivid
potential or desert mirage.
http://www.academia.edu/5058920/The_Myth_of_Nubia_Egypt_A_Vivid_Po
tential_or_Desert_Mirage

vii

‫المراجع‬
Afify, H. (2012). For Nubians displaced by High Dam, Nasser’s legacy is
bittersweet. Egypt Independent.
Retrieved from http://www.egyptindependent.com//news/nubiansdisplaced-high-dam-nasser-s-legacy-bittersweet
al-Katsha, S. (1978). Changes in Nubian wedding ceremonies. In J.G.
Kennedy (Ed.), Nubian ceremonial life:
Studies in Islamic syncretism and cultural change (pp. 171-202).
Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo.
Aman, A. (2014). Egypt’s Nubians demand rights on Aswan High Dam
anniversary. Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the
Middle East. Retrieved from http://www.almonitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/06/egypt-nubians-demand-rightsdisplacement.html#
Bach, K. (2004). Changing family and marriage patterns in an Aswan
village. In N. Hopkins & R. Saad (Ed.),
Upper Egypt identity and change (pp. 169-190). Cairo, Egypt: The
American University in Cairo.
de Wat, C. (2006). Risk, complexity and local initiative in forced
resettlement outcomes. In C. de Wat (Ed.),
Development-induced Displacement: Problems, Policies, and People
(pp. 180-202). United States: Berghahn Books.
el-Aswad, E. (2004). Viewing the world through Upper Egyptian eyes: From
regional crisis to global blessing. In N.
Hopkins & R. Saad (Ed.), Upper Egypt identity and change (pp. 5578). Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo.
Kennedy, J.G. (1978). Introduction. In J.G. Kennedy (Ed.), Nubian
ceremonial life: Studies in Islamic syncretism and cultural change (pp. xivxxix). Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo.

vi

‫فريق العمل‬
‫إضالَ اٌدًّ‬
‫راًِ تادرش‬
‫عثٍر دمحم إتراٍُ٘‬

‫ِٕغم‪ ٛ‬اٌجشٔبِظ‪-‬‬
‫ِقش‬

‫ٔاٌري عثذ اٌشافً‬

‫ٔ‪ٛ‬را اٌفٕدري‬
‫إدٌٍٓ أ ر‪ٚ‬ت‪ - ًٌٛ‬اٌجشاص‪ً٠‬‬
‫أا تر‪ٚ‬ش‪ٛ‬زو‪ٛ‬فا ‪ -‬عّ‪ٛٙ‬س‪٠‬خ اٌزؾ‪١‬ه‬
‫تا‪ٚ‬ال واتإٌٍا و‪ٛ‬رٌا واِث‪ٛ‬ش – و‪ٌِٛٛ‬ج‪١‬ب‬
‫خ‪ٌٍٛ‬ا رضترت‪ - ٛ‬و‪ٌِٛٛ‬ج‪١‬ب‬
‫ص‪ٛ‬فٍا ِ‪ٛ‬رتالٔذ ‪ -‬اٌغ‪٠ٛ‬ذ‬
‫ٍِىاٌال ‪ٌٚ‬ىّاْ – فٍٕٕذا‬

‫"اٌّؾش‪ٚ‬ع ا‪٤‬خنش"‬

‫"اٌزؼج‪١‬ش اٌفٕ‪"ٟ‬‬

‫تٍرٌسا ٌ‪٘ٛ‬أا ٌٕذ أذرضٓ ‪ -‬اٌذّٔبسن‬
‫خ‪ٌٍٛ‬أا وارِ‪ٔٛ‬ا – و‪ٌِٛٛ‬ج‪١‬ب‬
‫خٍ‪ٛ‬فأا تٍرخرٌفً ‪ -‬ئ‪٠‬طبٌ‪١‬ب‬
‫ر‪ٚ‬تً ٘ارٌط‪ -ْٛ‬والي ‪ -‬اٌ‪ٛ‬ال‪٠‬بد اٌّزؾذح ا‪ِ٤‬ش‪٠‬ى‪١‬خ‬
‫ضتٍفأ‪ ٛ‬وأتا ‪ -‬ئ‪٠‬طبٌ‪١‬ب‬
‫ضالفىا تٍ‪ٛ‬تشازو‪ٛ‬فا ‪ -‬عّ‪ٛٙ‬س‪٠‬خ اٌزؾ‪١‬ه‬
‫ِارٌأا فٍٍٍطاتً ‪ -‬ئ‪٠‬طبٌ‪١‬ب‬
‫ِاٌىً ٔ‪ٛ‬ان ‪ -‬اٌ‪ٛ‬ال‪٠‬بد اٌّزؾذح ا‪ِ٤‬ش‪٠‬ى‪١‬خ‬
‫ٕ٘ى حٍذٖ – ِقش‬

‫"ر‪ٛ‬ص‪١‬ك اٌمقـ"‬
‫‪ٚ‬فش‪٠‬ك ػًّ اٌىز‪١‬ت ‪ٚ‬اٌف‪ٍُ١‬‬

‫أِأذا شالِ‪ٛ‬فٍتس ‪ -‬اٌذّٔبسن‬
‫ترٔارد‪ِٛ ٚ‬راٌص ‪ -‬اٌجشاص‪ً٠‬‬
‫خ‪ٌٍٛ‬ا تٍأىًٍٕ ‪ -‬اٌجشاص‪ً٠‬‬
‫شٍرًٌ ‪ٚ‬أح ‪ -‬رب‪ٛ٠‬اْ‬
‫عاٌٍا اٌّصري ‪ِ -‬قش‬
‫فٍر‪ٍٔٚ‬ىا اٌرداف ‪ -‬اٌغ‪٠ٛ‬ذ‬
‫ٍِىً ضت‪ٛ‬ن ‪ -‬إٌش‪٠ٚ‬ظ‬

‫‪v‬‬

‫‪ٚ‬رٌه ‪٠‬ؼ‪ٛ‬ق لذسر‪ ُٙ‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌؾفبظ ػٍ‪ٌ ٝ‬غز‪ ُٙ‬ثغجت اٌ‪ٙ‬غشح ئٌ‪ ٝ‬اٌّذْ ا‪٤‬وضش ؽنش‪٠‬خ ِضً اٌمب٘شح ٌٍؼًّ‪.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ثبٌّضً‪ :‬اٌزمبٌ‪١‬ذ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ ا‪٤‬خش‪ ٜ‬اٌّشرجطخ ثبٌفٕ‪ٚ ْٛ‬اٌؾشف اٌ‪١‬ذ‪٠ٚ‬خ ‪ٚ‬اٌّ‪ٛ‬ع‪١‬م‪ٚ ٝ‬اٌؼبداد ‪ٚ‬اٌزمبٌ‪١‬ذ رؼبٔ‪ِٓ ٟ‬‬
‫ٔفظ اٌخطش ِٓ االٔمشاك‪.‬‬
‫ثذ‪ْٚ‬‬
‫اٌشغجخ ‪ٚ‬اٌؾبعخ ِٓ اٌؾؼت إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ٌ ٟ‬زغغ‪ٚ ً١‬ؽفع ‪ٚ‬اعزذاِخ عٕغ‪١‬ز‪ٚ ُٙ‬صمبفز‪ ُٙ‬ال رأر‪ ٟ‬وّفبعأح ٌٕب‪ .‬ف‬
‫ٌزا ف‬
‫عغالد‪ ،‬اٌؾفبظ ػً‪ ٜ‬رٍه اٌ‪٠ٛٙ‬خ ‪ٚ‬اعزذاِز‪ٙ‬ب ‪٠‬ى‪ِ ْٛ‬غزؾ‪١‬ال ‪ٚ‬عزض‪ٚ‬ي إٌ‪ٛ‬ثخ ِٓ اٌ‪ٛ‬ع‪ٛ‬د‪ٚ .‬ثذ‪ٙٔٚ‬ب عضء وج‪١‬ش‬
‫ِٓ ربس‪٠‬خ ِقش ع‪١‬ن‪١‬غ‪ٌٚ .‬زٌه فّٓ اٌنش‪ٚ‬س‪ ِٓٚ ٞ‬اٌ‪ٛ‬اعت ػٍ‪ٕ١‬ب عؼً اٌّغ‪ٛٙ‬ي ِؼش‪ٚ‬فب ‪ ٚ‬غ‪١‬ش اٌّشئ‪ٟ‬‬
‫ِشئ‪.ٟ‬‬
‫ا‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫شعب النوبة‪ :‬الحف اظ على التراث الثق افي والهوية‬
‫خالي ِؾش‪ٚ‬ػٕب‪ِٚ ،‬مبثالرٕب ِغ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ٓ١١‬رُ اٌزأو‪١‬ذ ثؾذح ػٍ‪ِٛ ٝ‬م‪ٛ‬ػ‪ ٓ١‬سئ‪١‬غ‪ّ٘ ٓ١١‬ب‪ :‬اٌؾبعخ ئٌ‪ ٝ‬اٌؾفبظ ػٍ‪ٝ‬‬
‫اٌزشاس اٌضمبف‪ِٚ ٟ‬ف‪ َٛٙ‬اٌ‪٠ٛٙ‬خ ف‪ّ١‬ب ‪٠‬زؼٍك ثبٌغ‪١‬بق ا‪٤‬وجش ٌّقش‪ .‬ثغل إٌظش ػٓ ِب ئرا وبْ اٌفشد ثٕفغٗ لذ ِش‬
‫ثزغشثخ إٌض‪ٚ‬ػ ‪ٚ‬اٌ‪ٙ‬غشح اٌمغش‪٠‬خ‪ ِٓ ،‬اٌ‪ٛ‬امؼ ِٓ خالي وٍّبر‪ٌٚ ُٙ‬ؾظبد فّز‪ ُٙ‬أْ ؽ‪١‬بح وً فشد ِٕ‪ ُٙ‬لذ‬
‫رأصشد ثزٌه‪.‬‬
‫إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ْٛ١‬وّغزّغ عّبػ‪ِ ٟ‬زى‪ 44 ِٓ ْٛ‬لش‪٠‬خ‪ ،‬وبٔ‪ٛ‬ا ‪٠‬غط‪ِ ْٛ‬غبؽخ ؽ‪ٛ‬اٌ‪ 78,000 ٟ‬فذاْ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬مفبف ٔ‪ٙ‬ش‬
‫إٌ‪ ً١‬ف‪ ٟ‬عٕ‪ٛ‬ة ِقش )‪ِٚ .(Aman, 2014‬غ رٌه‪ِ ،‬غ ثٕبء خضاْ أع‪ٛ‬اْ‪ٚ ،‬اٌز‪ ٞ‬عجك ثٕبء اٌغذ اٌؼبٌ‪،ٟ‬‬
‫امطش إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ٌ ْٛ١‬الٔزمبي ػذح ِشاد ف‪ ٟ‬ػبَ ‪ .(Noshokaty, 2013a) 1933ٚ ،1912ٚ 1902‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌشغُ‬
‫ِٓ ِ‪ٛ‬افمخ اٌؾى‪ِٛ‬خ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ع‪ٙ‬خ االٔزمبي ٌٍٕ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ٓ١١‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬مفبف ٔ‪ٙ‬ش إٌ‪ ،ً١‬ئال أْ ئلبِخ اٌغذ اٌؼبٌ‪ ٟ‬ف‪ ٟ‬ػبَ ‪1963‬‬
‫أسغُ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ٓ١١‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌزؾشن ِشح أخش‪ٚ ِٓ ٜ‬هٕ‪ ِٓ ُٙ‬أعً ئفغبػ اٌّغبي ٌجؾ‪١‬شح ٔبفش‪ .‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌشغُ ِٓ‬
‫اػزشاف اٌؼذ‪٠‬ذ ِٓ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ٓ١١‬ثنش‪ٚ‬سح اٌغذ اٌؼبٌ‪ٌ ٟ‬قبٌؼ ِقش‪ ،‬اٌّقذس اٌشئ‪١‬غ‪٦ ٟ‬ؽغبع‪ ُٙ‬ثؼذَ اٌشمبء‬
‫‪ٚ‬ا‪٠ ٌُ٤‬أر‪ ِٓ ٟ‬رغٕت اٌزبس‪٠‬خ اٌّقش‪. ٌُٙ ٞ‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ع‪ٛ‬د ‪ٚ‬اعزّشاس‪٠‬خ أ‪ِ ٞ‬غزّغ ‪٠‬شرجو ثّف‪٠ٌٍٛٙ ُِٙٛٙ‬خ ‪٠ٚ‬زغزس ف‪ ٟ‬ؽفبظ‪ ُٙ‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬رشاص‪ ُٙ‬اٌضمبف‪ٚ ،ٟ‬اٌز‪٠ ٞ‬ؾًّ‬
‫ػٍ‪ ٝ‬عج‪ ً١‬اٌّضبي ‪١ٌٚ‬ظ اٌؾقش‪ :‬ربس‪٠‬خ ٘زا اٌؾؼت ‪ٚ‬اٌٍغخ ‪ٚ‬اٌّ‪ٛ‬ع‪١‬م‪ٚ ٝ‬اٌفٓ ‪ٚ‬اٌؼبداد ‪ٚ‬اٌزمبٌ‪١‬ذ‪ٚ .‬ػٕذ اٌزفى‪١‬ش‬
‫ِٓ ِٕظ‪ٛ‬س اٌؾفبظ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌزشاس اٌضمبف‪ ،ٟ‬فّٓ اٌّض‪١‬ش ٌال٘زّبَ أْ ٔش‪ ِٓ ٜ‬رُ ِمبثٍز‪٠ ُٙ‬ؼشف‪ ْٛ‬أٔفغ‪ُٙ‬‬
‫وّقش‪ٛٔ -ٓ١٠‬ث‪ ٓ١١‬أ‪ٛٔ ٚ‬ث‪ِ -ٓ١١‬قش‪ .ٓ١٠‬اٌزّ‪١١‬ض ػٕذ ئخز‪١‬بس٘‪٠ٛ‬ز‪ ُٙ‬اٌّقش‪٠‬خ أ‪ ٚ‬إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ أ‪ٚ‬ال ِ‪ٍ٠ ٗٔ٤ ُٙ‬م‪ٟ‬‬
‫اٌن‪ٛ‬ء ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ف‪ ُٙ‬وً فشد ٌٍغٕغ‪١‬خ‪ ِٓ .‬اٌّمبثالد‪ :‬اٌز‪ ٓ٠‬ػشف‪ٛ‬ا أٔفغ‪ ُٙ‬ثأٔ‪ِ ُٙ‬قش‪ٛٔ -ٓ١٠‬ث‪ ٓ١١‬وبٔذ سؤ‪٠‬ز‪ُٙ‬‬
‫أٔ‪ ُٙ‬أ‪ٚ‬ال عضء ِٓ ع‪١‬بق أوجش ٘‪ِ ٛ‬قش ِغ عز‪ٚ‬س ل‪٠ٛ‬خ ٌٍ‪٠ٛٙ‬خ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ ا‪٦‬لٍ‪١ّ١‬خ‪ ،‬ف‪ ٟ‬ؽ‪ ٓ١‬أْ أ‪ٌٚ‬ئه اٌز‪ ٓ٠‬ػشف‪ٛ‬ا‬
‫أٔفغ‪ ُٙ‬ثأٔ‪ٛٔ ُٙ‬ث‪ِ -ْٛ١‬قش‪ ْٛ٠‬ػشف‪ٛ‬ا عٕغ‪١‬ز‪ٌ ُٙ‬زى‪ٛٔ ْٛ‬ث‪١‬خ ‪ٌٚ‬ىٓ أ‪ٚ‬سال‪ ُٙ‬اٌشعّ‪١‬خ (‪ِٚ‬ؾً ا‪٦‬لبِخ) ِقش‪٠‬خ ‪.‬‬
‫ثغل إٌظش ػٓ اٌؼّش ‪ٚ‬اٌغٕظ وبْ ِٓ اٌ‪ٛ‬امؼ ف‪ ٟ‬اٌّمبثالد أْ وً فشد ‪٠‬ف‪ ُٙ‬د‪ٚ‬سٖ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬أٔٗ ِشرجو ثّقش‬
‫ث‪ّٕ١‬ب ‪ّ٠‬زٍه ف‪ ٟ‬اٌ‪ٛ‬لذ ٔفغٗ ؽؼ‪ٛ‬سا ل‪٠ٛ‬ب ثبٌفخش ‪ٚ‬اٌشغجخ ف‪ ٟ‬دػُ ‪ٚ‬رؼٍ‪ ُ١‬ا‪٢‬خش‪ ٓ٠‬ػٓ عٕغ‪١‬ز‪ ُٙ‬إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ‪ ،‬اٌز‪ٌُ ٟ‬‬
‫‪٠‬زُ ر‪ٛ‬ص‪١‬م‪ٙ‬ب ثؾىً ‪ٚ‬امؼ ف‪ ٟ‬اٌزبس‪٠‬خ اٌّقش‪.ٞ‬‬
‫ػٍ‪ ٝ‬عج‪ ً١‬اٌّضبي‪ٕ٘ ،‬بن ٌ‪ٙ‬غزبْ ٌٍغخ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ اٌز‪ ٟ‬رُ رذس‪٠‬غ‪ٙ‬ب ٌىً ع‪ ً١‬ؽف‪١ٙ‬ب ‪ٙٔ٤‬ب ٌ‪١‬غذ ِىز‪ٛ‬ثخ أ‪ِٛ ٚ‬صمخ‪ِٚ .‬غ‬
‫اٌٍغخ اٌؼشث‪١‬خ وٍغخ سعّ‪١‬خ ف‪ِ ٟ‬قش‪ ،‬اٌٍغخ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ رمبسة ثجوء ئٌ‪ ٝ‬االٔمشاك‪ ،‬فال ‪٠‬زُ رذس‪٠‬غ‪ٙ‬ب ف‪ ٟ‬اٌّذاسط‬
‫‪ٚ‬ال رغزخذَ خبسط ايع‪١‬بق إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ٚ .ٟ‬ػال‪ٚ‬ح ػٍ‪ ٝ‬رٌه‪ِ ،‬غ رغبسة إٌض‪ٚ‬ػ اٌّزؼذدح‪ ،‬رُ رمغ‪ ُ١‬اٌّغزّغ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪- ٟ‬‬
‫اٌز‪ ٞ‬وبْ ف‪ ٟ‬اٌّبم‪ ٟ‬عّبػ‪ -ٟ‬ئٌ‪ ٝ‬لجبئً فغ‪١‬شح رم‪ ُ١‬ثؼ‪١‬ذا ػٓ اٌّقذس ا‪٤‬فٍ‪ٌ ٟ‬شصل‪ :ُٙ‬إٌ‪.ً١‬‬

‫‪8‬‬

‫اٌٍغخ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ ٘‪ ٟ‬ػٕقش ٘بَ يسثو اٌّغزّغ ثؼنٗ اٌجؼل‪.‬‬
‫رشرجو اٌ‪٠ٛٙ‬خ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ ف‪ ٟ‬ا‪٤‬عبط ثبٌّغزّغ‪ ِٓ .‬اٌؾبئغ سؤ‪٠‬خ رغّؼبد وج‪١‬شح ٌالؽزفبي ثبٌّٕبعجبد اٌخبفخ‪ِ ،‬ضً‬
‫ؽفالد اٌضفبف ‪ٚ‬اٌؾ‪١‬بح اٌ‪١ِٛ١‬خ‪ٚ .‬وّب أؽشٔب عبثمب‪ ،‬رٍه اٌزغّؼبد ٌ‪١‬غذ ؽىشا ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ا‪٤‬عشح ‪ٚ‬ا‪٤‬فذلبء‬
‫اٌّمشث‪ ٓ١‬فمو‪ ،‬ثً ‪٠‬ؾنش٘ب اٌّغزّغ ثأوٍّٗ ٌالؽزفبي ثأّ٘‪١‬خ وً ئٔغبْ ةاٌطؼبَ ‪ٚ‬اٌّ‪ٛ‬ع‪١‬م‪ .ٝ‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬عج‪ ً١‬اٌّضبي‬
‫أؽبس اٌغ‪١‬ذ‪ /‬دمحم ع‪ٛ‬ض هللا ِٓ غشة أع‪ٛ‬اْ ٌؾٍّٗ ‪ٚ‬أٍِٗ أْ ‪٠‬غذ أ‪ٚ‬الدٖ فشفخ ٌٍؼًّ ‪ٚ‬اٌض‪ٚ‬اط‪.‬‬
‫أؽبس اٌىض‪١‬ش ِٓ ا‪٤‬فشاد ‪ٚ‬عو روش‪٠‬بدُ٘ ‪ٚ‬أؽالِٗ َ ‪ٚ‬آِبٌَٗ ٌٍؾؼت إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ٟ‬ئٌ‪ ٝ‬ؽج‪ٚ ُٙ‬ارقبٌ‪ ُٙ‬ثّقش وّقذس‬
‫ػشف‪ٛ‬ا أٔفغ‪ ُٙ‬ثبٌٕ‪ٛ‬ث‪ٚ ٓ١١‬اٌّقش‪٠ ٌُٚ ٓ١٠‬شغج‪ٛ‬ا ف‪ ٟ‬االٔفقبي ػٓ اٌذ‪ٌٚ‬خ‪.‬‬
‫ٌٍٕ‪ٛ‬ثخ‪ٙٔٚ ،‬ش إٌ‪ ً١‬وّقذس ٌٍؾ‪١‬بح‪ .‬ف‬
‫رف‪ ُٙ‬اٌؼذ‪٠‬ذ أّ٘‪١‬خ خضاْ أع‪ٛ‬اْ ‪ٚ‬اٌغذ اٌؼبٌ‪ٚ ٟ‬اٌؾبعخ ئٌ‪ ٝ‬اٌزؾشن ِٓ أعً رؾغ‪ ٓ١‬أؽ‪ٛ‬اي ِقش ‪ٌٚ‬ىٓ وبٔ‪ٛ‬ا‬
‫‪٠‬أٍِ‪ ْٛ‬ف‪ ٟ‬اٌّمبثً اٌؾق‪ٛ‬ي ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ؽم‪ٛ‬ل‪ٚ ُٙ‬اٌزؼ‪٠ٛ‬ل‪.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬اٌغ‪١‬بق ا‪٤‬وبد‪ ّٟ٠‬اٌّقش‪ٕ٠ ٞ‬مقٗ اٌضمبفخ ‪ٚ‬اٌٍغخ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ‪٠ٚ .‬ؾؼشاٌؾؼت إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ٟ‬اْ االعبٔت ِٓ اٌخبسط‬
‫‪٠‬ؼشف‪ ْٛ‬اٌّض‪٠‬ذ ػٓ إٌ‪ٛ‬ثخ وبٌٕ‪ٛ‬ث‪ٚ ٓ١١‬اٌّقش‪ٌ ،ٓ١٠‬زا‪ ،‬فاْ أؽالَ ‪ٚ‬آِبي اٌؾؼت إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ٟ‬رشوض ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌؾفبظ ػٍ‪ٝ‬‬
‫اٌزشاس اٌضمبف‪ ْ٤ ٟ‬ؽبغٍ‪ ُٙ‬اٌؾبغً ٘‪ ٛ‬ػذَ ٔغ‪١‬بٔ‪ ُٙ‬ف‪ ٟ‬اٌغ‪١‬بق ا‪٤‬وجش ٌٍّغزّغ ‪ٚ‬اٌزبس‪٠‬خ اٌّقش‪.ٞ‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫النوبة‪ :‬اللذريات وااألحال والممتققل‬
‫ؽبسن اٌىض‪١‬ش ِٓ ا‪٤‬فشاد ‪ٚ‬ع‪ٙ‬بد ٔع سُ٘ ايِخزٍفخ ؽ‪ٛ‬ي إٌ‪ٛ‬ثخ ‪ٚ‬روش‪٠‬بر‪ٚ ُٙ‬أؽالِ‪ٚ ُٙ‬آِبٌ‪ٌٍّ ُٙ‬غزمجً‪ .‬وّب‬
‫ؽبسو‪ٛ‬ا أ‪٠‬نب ةأفىبسُ٘ ‪ِٚ‬ؾبػشُ٘ ؽ‪ٛ‬ي ِ‪ٛ‬م‪ٛ‬ع إٌض‪ٚ‬ػ ِٓ خالي وٍّبر‪ٌٚ ُٙ‬ؾظبد فّز‪.ُٙ‬‬
‫لجً ثٕبء اٌغذ اٌؼبٌ‪ ،ٟ‬ػًّ ِؼظُ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ْٛ١‬ف‪ ٟ‬اٌضساػخ ‪ٚ‬اٌزغبسح ‪ٚ‬اٌغفٓ‪ٚ .‬ػٕذ ثٕبء اٌغذ اٌؼبٌ‪ ،ٟ‬رشن اٌؼذ‪٠‬ذ‬
‫ِٕ‪ ُٙ‬ػٍّ‪ ُٙ‬ف‪ ٟ‬اٌضساػخ‪ٌٍ ،‬ؼًّ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌغذ‪ .‬فٍُ ‪٠‬ؼذ ِٓ اٌّّىٓ ا‪٦‬ثؾبس ػٍ‪ِ ٝ‬زٓ اٌغفٓ ‪ٔٚ‬ز‪١‬غخ ٌزٌه‪ ،‬وبٔ‪ٛ‬ا‬
‫‪٠‬ؼٍّ‪ ْٛ‬ػٍ‪ِ ٝ‬زٓ ل‪ٛ‬اسة فغ‪١‬شح ٌٍٕمً ‪ٚ‬اٌؼًّ‪ .‬فشق ٘زا إٌض‪ٚ‬ػ أ‪٠‬نب اٌؼذ‪٠‬ذ ِٓ اٌمجبئً اٌز‪ ٟ‬وبٔذ رؼ‪١‬ؼ ِؼب‬
‫‪ٚ‬أثذ‪ ٜ‬اٌؼذ‪٠‬ذ ِٓ ا‪٤‬فشاد ف‪ ٟ‬اٌّمبثالد اؽز‪١‬بل‪ٌّٛ ُٙ‬هٕ‪ ُٙ‬ا‪٤‬فٍ‪ِ .ٟ‬غ ثٕبء اٌخضاْ ‪ٚ‬اٌغذ اٌؼبٌ‪ ،ٟ‬امطش‬
‫إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ْٛ١‬االٔزمبي ئٌ‪ ٝ‬إٌ‪ٛ‬ثخ اٌغذ‪٠‬ذح ‪ِٚ‬ذْ ِضً و‪ َٛ‬اِج‪.ٛ‬‬
‫خالي اٌّمبثالد اٌز‪ ٟ‬أعش‪ٕ٠‬ب٘ب ف‪ ٟ‬عض‪٠‬شح ٘‪١‬غخ‪ ،‬أػشة اٌؼذ‪٠‬ذ ِٓ ا‪٤‬فشاد اٌؾبعخ ئٌ‪ ٝ‬رؾغ‪ ٓ١‬اٌجٕ‪١‬خ اٌزؾز‪١‬خ‪.‬‬
‫ػٍ‪ ٝ‬عج‪ ً١‬اٌّضبي‪ ،‬عض‪٠‬شح ٘‪١‬غخ ٌ‪١‬ظ ٌذ‪ٙ٠‬ب ع‪ٚ ٜٛ‬ؽذح فؾ‪١‬خ فغ‪١‬شح ‪ِٚ‬ذسعخ اثزذائ‪١‬خ‪ .‬ف‪ ٟ‬ؽبالد اٌط‪ٛ‬اسب‬
‫اٌطج‪١‬خ‪ ،‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬عىبْ اٌغض‪٠‬شح ئِب اٌز٘بة ئٌ‪ ٝ‬أع‪ٛ‬اْ ثمبسة فغ‪١‬ش أ‪ ٚ‬اٌٍغ‪ٛ‬ء ئٌ‪ِ ٝ‬غبػذح ثبل‪ ٟ‬أفشاد اٌّغزّغ‪.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ثبٌّضً‪٠ ،‬غت ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ا‪٤‬هفبي أ‪٠‬نب اٌز٘بة ئٌ‪ ٝ‬أع‪ٛ‬اْ ٌزىٍّخ دساعز‪ٔٚ ،ُٙ‬ز‪١‬غخ ٌزٌه‪ ،‬دد‪ٚ‬لف ػذح فز‪١‬بد (ف‪ٟ‬‬
‫عٓ ‪ 13 -12‬عٕخ) ػٓ رىٍّخ دساعز‪ٔ ٓٙ‬ظشا ٌمٍخ اٌّ‪ٛ‬اسد ‪ٚ‬اٌّغبفخ اٌط‪ٍ٠ٛ‬خ‪.‬‬
‫ف‪ ٟ‬اٌ‪ َٛ١‬ا‪ٚ٤‬ي ِٓ اٌّمبثالد‪ ،‬رؾذصذ ئؽذ‪ ٜ‬اٌغ‪١‬ذاد ػٓ ؽٍّ‪ٙ‬ب ٌزى‪ِ ْٛ‬ؼٍّخ ‪ٚ‬و‪ِ ٗٔٛ‬غزؾ‪١‬ال ثغجت ػذَ‬
‫لذسر‪ٙ‬ب ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌمشاءح ‪ٚ‬اٌىزبثخ‪ٚ .‬ثبٌّضً‪ ،‬أػشة اٌغ‪١‬ذ‪ /‬ضٍذ حطٍٓ حطٓ ِٓ عض‪٠‬شح ٘‪١‬غخ ػٓ ؽٍّٗ ٌٍؾفبظ ػٍ‪ٝ‬‬
‫‪ِٚ‬ؾبسوخ اٌضمبفخ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ ِغ ِغزّؼٗ ‪ٚ‬ا‪٢‬خش‪ ِٓ ٓ٠‬خالي اٌٍغخ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ ‪ٚ‬اٌّغشػ ‪ٚ‬اٌغ‪ّٕ١‬ب‪ .‬وّب أؽبس ٌؾضٔٗ ٌؼذَ‬
‫‪ٚ‬ع‪ٛ‬د ثش رٍفض‪ ٟٔٛ٠‬أ‪ ٚ‬أخجبس ثبٌٍغخ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ أ‪ ٚ‬ػٓ اٌّغزّغ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ٌ ٟ‬زشو‪١‬ض ا‪٦‬ػالَ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌّذْ اٌؾنش‪٠‬خ ِضً‬
‫اٌمب٘شح ‪ٚ‬ا‪٦‬عىٕذس‪٠‬خ‪.‬‬
‫رُ ا‪٦‬ؽبسح أ‪٠‬نب ئٌ‪ ٝ‬ؽٍُ اٌؾفبظ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌٍغخ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ ‪ٚ‬ا‪٦‬ؽغبط ثبٌغّبػخ‪ٚ ،‬اٌز‪ ٞ‬ػشفٗ اٌىض‪١‬ش وّقذس ‪ٚ‬ع‪٘ٛ‬ش‬
‫إٌ‪ٛ‬ثخ‪.‬‬
‫ػبدح ِب ‪٠‬زؼٍُ ا‪٤‬هفبي اٌٍغخ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ ف‪ ٟ‬عٓ ِجىش ِٓ إٌّضي ِٓ خالي أفشاد ا‪٤‬عشح ‪ٚ‬اٌّغزّغ لجً رؼٍُ اٌٍغخ‬
‫اٌؼشث‪١‬خ ف‪ ٟ‬اٌّذسعخ‪.‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫أِب ا‪ ْ٢‬ف‪ ٟ‬اٌّغزّغ اٌّؼبفش ‪ٔٚ‬ظشا الٔؼذاَ ا‪ٚ ِٓ٤‬لٍخ اٌّ‪ٛ‬اسد اٌّبٌ‪١‬خ (ػٍ‪ ٝ‬عج‪ ً١‬اٌّضبي‪ :‬ؽمخ‪ ،‬ع‪١‬بسح‪ ،‬ئٌخ)‪،‬‬
‫‪٠‬زض‪ٚ‬ط اٌؼذ‪٠‬ذ ِٓ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ٓ١١‬ف‪ ٟ‬عٓ ِزأخشح‪.35-32 :‬‬
‫لجً اٌز‪ٙ‬غ‪١‬ش‪ ،‬وبٔذ رمبَ ؽفالد اٌضفبف إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬مفبف ٔ‪ٙ‬ش إٌ‪ٚ .ً١‬ثغل إٌظش ػٓ ؽخق‪١‬خ اٌؼش‪ٚ‬ع‪،ٓ١‬‬
‫‪٠‬ؾًّ االؽزفبي دائّب عّ‪١‬غ أفشاد اٌّغزّغ د‪ ْٚ‬إٌظش ٌؼاللز‪ ُٙ‬اٌّجبؽشح ثبٌض‪ٚ‬ع‪ .ٓ١‬ثبٌٕغجخ ٌىض‪١‬ش ِٓ ا‪٤‬عبٔت‪،‬‬
‫وبْ ٕ٘بن رغبؤي دائُ ‪ِٚ‬فبعأح ػٕذ اٌؼٍُ أْ ا‪٤‬فشاػ وٍ‪ٙ‬ب وج‪١‬شح اٌؼذد ٌىً فشد ٔ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ٟ‬ثغل إٌظش ػٓ ‪ٚ‬ظ‪١‬فزٗ أ‪ٚ‬‬
‫د‪ٚ‬سٖ ف‪ ٟ‬اٌّغزّغ‪ .‬وّب ػجش ػٓ رٌه اٌغ‪١‬ذ‪ /‬دمحم ع‪ٛ‬ض هللا ِٓ غشة أع‪ٛ‬اْ‪ ،‬اٌ‪ٙ‬ذف ِٓ ا‪٦‬ؽزفبي اٌىج‪١‬ش ٘‪ٛ‬‬
‫رىش‪ ُ٠‬أّ٘‪١‬خ وً فشد‪ٚ .‬ثبٌّضً‪ٚ ،‬وّب ػجشد اٌغ‪١‬ذح‪ /‬ر‪ٚ‬حٍح ٌ‪ٛ‬ضف صٍاْ ِٓ غشة أع‪ٛ‬اْ‪ ،‬ف‪ ٟ‬ؽفالد‬
‫اٌضفبف‪ ِٓ ،‬اٌّؼزبد ٌٍٕبط رّٕ‪ ٝ‬اٌض‪ٚ‬اط ٌ‪٣‬خش‪ ْ٤ ٓ٠‬اٌؼشط سِض اٌغؼبدح‪.‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌشغُ ِٓ رمغ‪ ُ١‬اٌمجبئً إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ‪ ،‬ئال أٔ‪ِ ُٙ‬بصاٌ‪ٛ‬ا ‪٠‬ؾبفظ‪ ْٛ‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ػاللبد ‪ٚ‬ص‪١‬مخ ث‪ ٓ١‬ثؼن‪ ُٙ‬اٌجؼل‪ .‬فغّ‪١‬غ‬
‫أػنبء اٌّغزّغ ‪٠‬ؼشف‪ ْٛ‬ثؼن‪ ُٙ‬اٌجؼل‪ٚ ،‬خالي االؽزفبالد ‪ٚ‬إٌّبعجبد ا‪٤‬خش‪ِ ٜ‬ضً ا‪٤‬فشاػ ‪ٚ‬اٌغٕبصاد‪،‬‬
‫‪٠‬غزّغ اٌغّ‪١‬غ ِؼب ٌذػُ ثؼل وّب أ‪ٚ‬مؾذ اٌّمبثالد اٌخبفخ ثٕب‪ .‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬عج‪ ً١‬اٌّضبي‪ ،‬خالي ؽفالد اٌضفبف‪،‬‬
‫فأٗ ِٓ اٌؾبئغ ٌٍؼبئٍخ اٌّن‪١‬فخ دػ‪ٛ‬ح ‪ٚ‬اعزنبفخ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ِٓ ٓ١١‬اٌمش‪ ٜ‬ا‪٤‬خش‪ ،ٜ‬فمذ رقً لبئّخ اٌؾن‪ٛ‬س ئٌ‪ٝ‬‬
‫‪ 3,000 -1،000‬م‪١‬ف‪ .‬اٌؼشط اٌزمٍ‪١‬ذ‪ ٞ‬ػبدح ‪٠‬ى‪ ْٛ‬ف‪ ٟ‬فقً اٌق‪١‬ف ٔظشا ٌٍطمظ ‪ّ٠ٚ‬ىٓ أْ ‪٠‬غزّش ٌّذح‬
‫أعج‪ٛ‬ع وبًِ ‪ٌٚ‬ىٓ ف‪ ٟ‬اٌّغزّغ اٌّؼبفش‪ ِٓ ،‬اٌّز‪ٛ‬لغ أْ ‪٠‬غزّش اٌضفبف ٌّذح صالصخ أ‪٠‬بَ‪ٔٚ .‬ظشا ٌؼذد اٌن‪ٛ١‬ف‬
‫‪ٚ‬ه‪ٛ‬ي اٌّذح‪٠ ،‬ى‪ ْٛ‬اٌؼشط ثب٘ع اٌزىبٌ‪١‬ف‪ٌ .‬زٌه‪ ِٓ ،‬اٌؼشف أ‪٠‬نب عٍت اٌن‪ٛ١‬ف ٌٍ‪ٙ‬ذا‪٠‬ب إٌمذ‪٠‬خ ‪ٚ‬غ‪١‬ش٘ب‪.‬‬
‫‪٠‬ؾت اٌؼذ‪٠‬ذ ِٓ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪٘ ٓ١١‬زٖ اٌزمبٌ‪١‬ذ‪ِٚ ،‬غ رٌه‪ ،‬أؽبس اٌغ‪١‬ذ‪ /‬عثذ اٌرازق عثذ اٌّدٍذ ِٓ غشة أع‪ٛ‬اْ رّٕ‪ٗ١‬‬
‫ػذَ ئٔفبق أفشاد اٌّغزّغ وض‪١‬شا ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ؽفالد اٌضفبف‪.‬‬
‫‪٠‬زّزغ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ْٛ١‬ثّغزّغ ِٕغٍك رزخٍٍٗ ثؼل ا‪٦‬خزالفبد؛ فّٓ اٌؾبئغ ِضال اٌض‪ٚ‬اط ث‪ ٓ١‬اٌمجبئً اٌّخزٍفخ‪ٚ .‬ف‪ٟ‬‬
‫اٌغٕ‪ٛ‬اد ا‪٤‬خ‪١‬شح‪ٔ ،‬ظشا ٌزغبسة ر‪ٙ‬غ‪١‬شُ٘ ‪ٚ‬آصبس اٌؼ‪ٌّٛ‬خ‪ ،‬أفجؼ أ‪٠‬نب ِٓ اٌّمج‪ٛ‬ي ف‪ ٟ‬ثؼل اٌمش‪ ٜ‬اٌض‪ٚ‬اط ث‪ٓ١‬‬
‫إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ٚ ٓ١١‬اٌغٕغ‪١‬بد ا‪٤‬خش‪ .ٜ‬وّب ؽبسن اٌغ‪١‬ذ‪ /‬عثذ اٌىاًِ حطٓ ِٓ غشة أع‪ٛ‬اْ‪ِ :‬ب ‪٠‬مشة ِٓ ‪ِٓ ٪95‬‬
‫إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ٓ١١‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اعزؼذاد اٌض‪ٚ‬اط ِٓ عٕغ‪١‬بد أخش‪ِ ٜ‬ضً اٌ‪ٌٕٛٙ‬ذ‪ٚ ٓ١٠‬االعزشاٌ‪ٚ ٓ١١‬ا‪٤‬سِٓ‪ٚ .‬ثبٌّضً‪ ،‬ف‪ ٟ‬اٌّبم‪،ٟ‬‬
‫وبْ ِز‪ٛ‬عو عٓ اٌض‪ٚ‬اط ثبٌٕغجخ ٌّؼظُ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ٛ٘ ٓ١١‬أ‪ٚ‬ائً اٌؼؾش‪ٕ٠‬بد‪.‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫العادات والتق اليد‪ :‬القق اء من خحل التكيف‬
‫ِٓ خالي ِمبثالرٕب‪ ،‬وبْ ِٓ اٌؾبئغ سؤ‪٠‬خ اٌّالثظ ‪ٚ‬اٌج‪ٛ١‬د إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ اٌزمٍ‪١‬ذ‪٠‬خ‪ٚ .‬ئٌ‪ ٝ‬عبٔت ِب رُ ِالؽظزٗ خالي‬
‫ص‪٠‬بسارٕب ٌٍّٕبهك ‪ٚ‬اٌمش‪ ٜ‬اٌّخزٍفخ‪ ،‬رؾذس إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ْٛ١‬ثفخش ػٓ ل‪ّ١‬خ ‪ٚ‬أّ٘‪١‬خ اٌز‪ٛ‬عٗ اٌغّبػ‪ٚ ٟ‬فىشح اٌغّبػخ‪ ،‬ال‬
‫ع‪ّ١‬ب ف‪ ٟ‬ع‪١‬بق ؽفالد اٌضفبف‪.‬‬
‫‪٠‬شرذ‪ ٞ‬اٌشعً إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ٟ‬اٌغالث‪١‬خ ثغل إٌظش ػٓ عٕٗ‪ .‬اٌّالثظ اٌزمٍ‪١‬ذ‪٠‬خ ث‪ ٓ١‬اٌشعبي ‪ٚ‬إٌغبء ٘‪ ٟ‬اٌّالثظ‬
‫اٌخف‪١‬فخ اٌز‪ ٟ‬رغط‪ ٟ‬اٌغغُ ‪ٚ‬اٌزساػ‪ٚ ٓ١‬اٌغبل‪٠ٚ .ٓ١‬شرذ‪ ٞ‬اٌىجبس اٌّالثظ اٌزمٍ‪١‬ذ‪٠‬خ وبٌفغبر‪ ٓ١‬اٌط‪ٍ٠ٛ‬خ أ‪ ٚ‬اٌغالث‪١‬خ‪،‬‬
‫ف‪ ٟ‬ؽ‪٠ ٓ١‬شرذ‪ ٞ‬ا‪٤‬هفبي اٌّالثظ اٌؾذ‪٠‬ضخ‪ ،‬ػبدح اٌغشا‪ ً٠ٚ‬اٌٍّ‪ٔٛ‬خ ‪ٚ‬اٌمّقبْ راد اٌق‪ٛ‬س اٌّطج‪ٛ‬ػخ‪ .‬ا‪٤‬ؽز‪٠‬خ‬
‫إٌّ‪ٛ‬رع‪١‬خ خالي فقٍ‪ ٟ‬اٌق‪١‬ف ‪ٚ‬اٌؾزبء ٘‪ ٟ‬اٌقٕبدي أ‪ ٚ‬اٌؾجبؽت‪ .‬رم‪ َٛ‬أ‪٠‬نب اٌّشأح إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ ثزطش‪٠‬ض ‪ٚ‬ث‪١‬غ‬
‫اٌّالثظ اٌزمٍ‪١‬ذ‪٠‬خ اٌّزؼذدح ا‪ٌٛ٤‬اْ ِضً اٌزشػ ‪ٚ‬اٌط‪ٛ‬ال‪ .ٟ‬وّب أٔ‪ٙ‬ب د ل‪ َٛ‬ثج‪١‬غ ا‪٦‬وغغ‪ٛ‬اساد اٌّقٕ‪ٛ‬ػخ ِٓ‬
‫اٌجالعز‪١‬ه ‪ٚ‬اٌُ ػذْ وبٌٕؾبط‪ .‬اٌّالثظ اٌزمٍ‪١‬ذ‪٠‬خ ٌٍٕغبء ف‪ ٟ‬وض‪١‬ش ِٓ ا‪٤‬ؽ‪١‬بْ رى‪ٍِٔٛ ْٛ‬خ راد رطش‪٠‬ض ٌزـِ‪ّ١‬بد‬
‫ِخزٍفخ‪ ،‬ث‪ّٕ١‬ب ثبٌٕغجخ ٌٍشعً‪ ،‬اٌض‪ ٞ‬اٌزمٍ‪١‬ذ‪ ٛ٘ ٞ‬اٌغالث‪١‬خ ثٍ‪ٚ ْٛ‬اؽذ (ِضً ا‪٤‬ث‪١‬ل أ‪ٚ‬ا‪٤‬صسق‪ ،‬ئٌخ) ف‪ ٟ‬ثؼل‬
‫ا‪٤‬ؽ‪١‬بْ ِغ رقبِ‪ ُ١‬ثغ‪١‬طخ ‪ ،‬فزى‪ِ ْٛ‬مٍّخ أ‪ِ ٚ‬خططخ ِضال‪.‬‬
‫رخزٍف اٌ‪ٕٙ‬ذعخ اٌّؼّبس‪٠‬خ ٌٍّٕبصي إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ ؽغت اٌّ‪ٛ‬لغ‪٠ .‬قؼت سؤ‪٠‬خ إٌّبصي إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ اٌزمٍ‪١‬ذ‪٠‬خ ‪ ٗٔ٤‬ال ‪٠‬زُ ثٕبئ‪ٙ‬ب‬
‫ثٕفظ اٌطش‪٠‬مخ ا‪ٔ ْ٢‬ز‪١‬غخ ٌٍٕض‪ٚ‬ػ ‪ٚ‬اٌزؾشن اٌّغزّش‪ .‬ػبدح‪ ،‬رزّ‪١‬ض اٌج‪ٛ١‬د اٌزمٍ‪١‬ذ‪٠‬خ ثبٌشع‪ِٛ‬بد (ِضً اٌؼمبسة‪،‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ا‪٤‬عّبن‪ٚ ،‬غ‪١‬ش٘ب ِٓ اٌق‪ٛ‬س) ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌغذساْ اٌخبسع‪١‬خ‪ .‬رؾًّ رٍه اٌشع‪ِٛ‬بد ِؼبٔ‪ ٟ‬سِض‪٠‬خ ‪ٚ‬رغزخذَ ٌؾّب‪٠‬خ‬
‫إٌّضي ِٓ اٌؾغذ‪ .‬ثب‪٦‬مبفخ ٌزٌه‪ ،‬ػٕذ دخ‪ٛ‬ي ِٕضي ٔ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ِٓ ،ٟ‬اٌّؼزبد سؤ‪٠‬خ ِغبؽخ ِفز‪ٛ‬ؽخ ‪٦‬عزمجبي رغّؼبد‬
‫وج‪١‬شح ِٓ ا‪٤‬فشاد‪ .‬ا‪٤‬ث‪ٛ‬اة ػبدح ِب رى‪ِ ْٛ‬فز‪ٛ‬ؽخ ٌٍزشؽ‪١‬ت ثأفشاد اٌّغزّغ‪ .‬اٌّجبٔ‪ٚ ٟ‬اٌ‪ٕٙ‬ذعخ اٌّؼّبس‪٠‬خ ف‪ٟ‬‬
‫إٌ‪ٛ‬ثخ اٌغذ‪٠‬ذح رخزٍف ػٓ ِب وبْ ِ‪ٛ‬ع‪ٛ‬د ف‪ ٟ‬إٌ‪ٛ‬ثخ اٌمذ‪ّ٠‬خ ‪ٚ‬ألً رمٍ‪١‬ذ‪٠‬خ سثّب ٔز‪١‬غخ اٌز‪ٙ‬غ‪١‬ش ‪ٚ‬ئػبدح اٌز‪ٛ‬ه‪ٓ١‬‬
‫ئٌ‪ِٕ ٝ‬طمخ ثؼ‪١‬ذح ػٓ إٌ‪. ً١‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

2

‫الثق افة‪ :‬صراا الحف اظ على التق اليد‬
‫‪٠‬زفك اٌىض‪١‬ش ِٕٕب ػٍ‪ ٝ‬أْ اٌضمبفخ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ لذ رأصشد ثجٕبء اٌغذ اٌؼبٌ‪ٚ ٟ‬ثؾ‪١‬شح ٔبفش ف‪ ٟ‬أع‪ٛ‬اْ؛ ‪ِٚ‬غ رٌه‪ ،‬ف‪ٟ‬‬
‫ئهبس اٌذساعبد اٌضمبف‪١‬خ‪ ،‬ال ‪٠‬ضاي فؼ‪١‬ذ ِقش ‪٠‬فزمش ئٌ‪ ٝ‬رؾٍ‪ ً١‬أػّك ٌز‪ٛ‬م‪١‬ؼ اٌزغ‪١‬شاد ‪ٚ‬اٌزأصشاد ٌٍضمبفخ‬
‫ا‪٦‬عالِ‪١‬خ ‪ٚ‬إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ‪ .‬لبَ ِغؼ اٌؾؼ‪ٛ‬ة ا‪٤‬فٍ‪١‬خ ٌٍٕ‪ٛ‬ثخ اٌّقش‪٠‬خ ‪ٚ‬اٌز‪ ٞ‬فذس ف‪ ٟ‬ػبَ ‪ ،1975‬ثاصبسح االٔزجبٖ ئٌ‪ٝ‬‬
‫ا‪٢‬صبس اٌنبسح ٌٍ‪ٙ‬غشح اٌمغش‪٠‬خ ‪ٚ‬اٌؾبعخ اٌٍّؾخ ٌغ‪١‬بعبد ‪ٚ‬ع‪ٛٙ‬د يٌؾفبظ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌزشاس اٌضمبف‪.ٟ‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬لذ رغججذ ػٍّ‪١‬خ إٌض‪ٚ‬ػ ِٓ اٌمش‪ ٜ‬اٌمذ‪ّ٠‬خ ٌٍٕ‪ٛ‬ثخ ثمطغ ٘‪١‬ىٍ‪ ٟ‬داخً ٘زٖ اٌّغزّؼبد‪ٚ ،‬خبفخ ف‪ ٟ‬ؽ‪١‬بر‪ُٙ‬‬
‫االعزّبػ‪١‬خ ‪ٚ‬اٌضمبف‪١‬خ ‪ٚ‬االلزقبد‪٠‬خ‪ .‬رغجت ٘زا إٌض‪ٚ‬ػ ف‪ ٟ‬رغ‪١‬شاد وج‪١‬شح ف‪ِ ٟ‬قبدس اٌذخً‪ ،‬اٌؾ‪١‬بح االؽزفبٌ‪١‬خ‪،‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ػٍ‪ٚ ٝ‬عٗ اٌخق‪ٛ‬ؿ‪ :‬اٌذ‪ٚ ٓ٠‬اٌشؤ‪٠‬خ اٌى‪١ٔٛ‬خ‪ .‬ثٕبءا ػٍ‪٘ ٝ‬زا ا‪٦‬فزشاك‪ ِٓ ،‬اٌّ‪ ُٙ‬ا‪٦‬ؽبسح ئٌ‪ ٝ‬ػ‪ٛ‬اًِ‬
‫ا‪ٔ٦‬مطبع اٌضمبف‪ ٟ‬ف‪ ٟ‬اٌغ‪١‬بق إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪.ٟ‬‬
‫ِغ ظ‪ٛٙ‬س اٌؼ‪ٌّٛ‬خ ‪ٚ‬د‪ٚ‬س٘ب ونبغو ٌٍ‪ٛ‬لذ ‪ٚ‬اٌّىبْ‪ ،‬خٍمذ رذفك ػجش‪ٚ-‬هٕ‪ٚ ٟ‬د‪ٌٍّ ٌٟٚ‬ؼٍ‪ِٛ‬بد ‪ٚ‬ا‪٤‬فشاد‬
‫‪ٚ‬إٌّزغبد اٌز‪ ٟ‬عززطجغ صمبف‪١‬ب ِغ اٌخجشح اٌّؾٍ‪١‬خ‪ .‬ث‪ٙ‬زا اٌّؼٕ‪ ،ٝ‬فاْ ئدخبي ٘زٖ اٌّغزّؼبد ف‪ ٟ‬اٌذ‪ٕ٠‬بِ‪١‬ى‪١‬بد‬
‫اٌّؼمذح ٌٍّغزّغ اٌؾذ‪٠‬ش‪/‬اٌّؼبفش ‪٠‬خٍك ػاللبد عذٌ‪١‬خ ث‪ ٓ١‬إٌّظ‪ٛ‬ساد اٌّؾٍ‪١‬خ ‪ٚ‬اٌؼبٌّ‪١‬خ‪٠ٚ .‬ظ‪ٙ‬ش ٕ٘ب اٌزؾذ‪ٞ‬‬
‫اٌشئ‪١‬غ‪ ٟ‬ثبٌٕغجخ ‪ٌٚ٤‬ئه اٌز‪٠ ٓ٠‬ش‪٠‬ذ‪ ْٚ‬اٌؾفبظ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌّّبسعبد اٌزمٍ‪١‬ذ‪٠‬خ ‪ ٛ٘ٚ‬ئ‪٠‬غبد اٌز‪ٛ‬اصْ اٌقؾ‪١‬ؼ ث‪ ٓ١‬اٌزمٍ‪١‬ذ‬
‫‪ٚ‬اٌؾذاصخ‪.‬‬
‫ػٕذِب ‪٠‬زفؾـ اٌّشء اٌ‪ٛ‬مغ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ٟ‬اٌؾبٌ‪ ٟ‬فّٓ اٌ‪ٛ‬امؼ أْ ٘زٖ اٌّغزّؼبد أفجؾذ ِٕبهك ارقبي أوضش‬
‫رٕ‪ٛ‬ػب‪ِّ .‬ب ‪٠‬غؼً اٌزغبسة ػجش اٌضمبف‪١‬خ ؽم‪١‬مخ‪ .‬ػٕذ عّغ اٌّؼٍ‪ِٛ‬بد اٌالصِخ ٌ‪ٙ‬زا اٌّؾش‪ٚ‬ع وبْ ِٓ اٌ‪ٛ‬امؼ أْ‬
‫ٕ٘بن ؽبعخ ئٌ‪ ٝ‬اٌجؾش ػٓ اٌ‪٠ٛٙ‬خ إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ ا‪٤‬فٍ‪١‬خ ‪ ْ٤‬ئػبدح اٌز‪ٛ‬ه‪ٚ ٓ١‬اٌؼ‪ٌّٛ‬خ لبِذ ثغزث‪ ُٙ‬ثؼ‪١‬ذا ػٓ هشق‬
‫اٌّؼ‪١‬ؾخ اٌزمٍ‪١‬ذ‪٠‬خ ‪ٚ‬خٍمذ ػذح رغ‪١‬شاد صمبف‪١‬خ ‪ٚ‬ؽبالد ‪ٚ‬عط‪١‬خ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬أخ‪١‬شا‪ ِٓ ،‬اٌّ‪ ُٙ‬أْ ٔزوش ِف‪" َٛٙ‬اٌغزش أ‪ ٚ‬إٌؼّخ" )‪ (el-Aswad, 2004‬و‪ٛ‬ع‪١‬و سئ‪١‬غ‪ٌ ٟ‬الػزّبد اٌضمبف‪.ٟ‬‬
‫فىشح اٌغزش رؼىظ ارغبع ِف‪ َٛٙ‬إٌؼّخ اٌّزؼٍمخ ثبٌشفب٘‪١‬خ اٌّبد‪٠‬خ ‪ٚ‬اٌش‪ٚ‬ؽ‪١‬خ ‪ٚ‬ا‪٦‬لزقبد‪٠‬خ‪ .‬رؼًّ ٘زٖ اٌفىشح‬
‫وّجذأ ر‪ٛ‬ع‪ٌ ٟٙ١‬زٕظ‪ ُ١‬اٌؼٕبفش اٌضمبف‪١‬خ ‪ٚ‬االعزّبػ‪١‬خ اٌز‪٠ ٟ‬زُ اػزّبد٘ب‪ .‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬عج‪ ً١‬اٌّضبي‪ ،‬رم‪ َٛ‬ثزفغ‪١‬ش االٔفزبػ‬
‫ػٍ‪ِ ٝ‬قبدس عذ‪٠‬ذح ٌٍذخً ‪ٚ‬االعزؼذاد ٌزى‪ ٓ٠ٛ‬ػبئالد وج‪١‬شح ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌشغُ ِٓ اٌذخً اٌّؾذ‪ٚ‬د إٌبرظ ػٓ ئػبدح‬
‫اٌز‪ٛ‬ه‪.ٓ١‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫اٌغّؼ‪١‬خ اٌّقش‪٠‬خ ٌزّٕ‪١‬خ صمبفخ اٌطفً‪ِٕ/‬ظّخ ‪ CISV‬اٌؼبٌّ‪١‬خ ‪ٚ‬اٌّؾش‪ٚ‬ع اٌذ‪٥ٌ ٌٟٚ‬فشاد)‪(IPP‬‬
‫‪ِ ٟ٘ CISV‬إعغخ ٌٍزشث‪١‬خ ِٓ أعً اٌغالَ ‪ٚ‬رؼًّ ِٓ أعً رط‪٠ٛ‬ش ‪ٚ‬رّٕ‪١‬خ ػبٌُ أوضش ػذال ‪ٚ‬عالِب‪ٔٚ .‬ؾٓ‪،‬‬
‫وّإعغخ د‪١ٌٚ‬خ‪ٔ ،‬إِٓ ثزؼٍ‪ٚ ُ١‬ئٌ‪ٙ‬بَ ا‪٦‬ؽغبط ثبٌّغإ‪١ٌٚ‬خ يرط‪٠ٛ‬ش ِغزّؼبرٕب وّ‪ٛ‬اهٕ‪ ٓ١‬فبػٍ‪ ٓ١‬ػبٌّ‪.ٓ١١‬‬
‫٘زا اٌّف‪ِ َٛٙ‬ذػُ ِٓ خالي ِجبدئٕب ا‪٤‬سثؼخ‪ٔ :‬ؾٓ ٔمذس أ‪ٚ‬عٗ اٌزؾبثٗ ث‪ ٓ١‬ا‪٤‬فشاد ‪ٚ‬وزٌه ل‪ّ١‬خ ا‪٦‬خزالف ث‪ُٕٙ١‬؛‬
‫ٔذػُ اٌؼذاٌخ االعزّبػ‪١‬خ ‪ٚ‬رىبفإ اٌفشؿ ٌٍغّ‪١‬غ؛ ٔؾغغ ؽً إٌضاع ثبٌ‪ٛ‬عبئً اٌغٍّ‪١‬خ؛ ‪ٔٚ‬ذػُ خٍك ؽٍ‪ٛ‬ي‬
‫ِغزذاِخ ٌّؾبوً رزؼٍك ثزأص‪١‬شٔب ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ثؼنٕب اٌجؼل ‪ٚ‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌج‪١‬ئخ اٌطج‪١‬ؼ‪١‬خ ِٓ ؽ‪ٌٕٛ‬ب‪.‬‬
‫ٔطجك ف‪ِ CISV ٟ‬ف‪ َٛٙ‬اٌزؼٍُ ِٓ خالي اٌزغشثخ‪ .‬أ‪ٔ ،ٞ‬ؼًّ ثٕبءا ػٍ‪ِ ٝ‬ف‪ َٛٙ‬أْ اٌزؼٍُ ِٓ اٌزغشثخ اٌّجبؽشح‬
‫أوضش وفبءح ‪ِٚ‬زؼخ‪٘ .‬زٖ إٌّ‪ٙ‬غ‪١‬خ ٘‪ ٟ‬ع‪٘ٛ‬ش عّ‪١‬غ ثشاِظ ‪ّ٠ٚ CISV‬ىٓ إٌظش ئٌ‪ٙ١‬ب ف‪ ٟ‬أسثغ ِشاؽً‪ :‬اٌم‪١‬بَ‬
‫ثؼًّ إٌؾبه اٌزؼٍ‪ّٟ١‬؛ اٌزفى‪١‬ش ف‪ ٟ‬اٌّ‪ٙ‬بساد ‪ٚ‬اٌّؼشفخ اٌز‪ ٟ‬رُ رطج‪١‬م‪ٙ‬ب مّٓ إٌؾبه؛ رؼّ‪ ُ١‬اٌّفب٘‪ٚ ُ١‬ا‪٤‬فىبس‬
‫‪ٚ‬و‪١‬ف‪١‬خ سثط‪ٙ‬ب ثغ‪١‬بلبد أخش‪ِ( ٜ‬ضً اٌضِبْ ‪ٚ‬اٌّىبْ)؛ ‪ٚ‬رطج‪١‬ك رٍه اٌّؼشفخ ‪ٚ‬اٌّ‪ٙ‬بساد وّ‪ٛ‬الف عذ‪٠‬ذح ػٍ‪ٝ‬‬
‫اٌّغزّغ اٌّؾٍ‪.ٟ‬‬
‫اٌّؾش‪ٚ‬ع اٌذ‪٥ٌ ٌٟٚ‬فشاد )‪ِ (IPP‬زغزس ف‪ِٕٙ ٟ‬غ‪١‬خ اٌزؼٍُ ِٓ اٌزغشثخ ‪ٚ ِٓٚ‬ع‪ٙ‬خ إٌظش إٌّ‪ٙ‬غ‪١‬خ‬
‫ٌجشاِظ‪٠ : CISV‬شوضػٍ‪ِ ٝ‬ف‪ َٛٙ‬اٌّ‪ٛ‬اهٕخ اٌفعاٌخ‪ .‬ثب‪٦‬مبفخ ئٌ‪ ٝ‬رٕف‪١‬ز ِؾش‪ٚ‬ع ِغزذاَ‪٠ ،‬ؾغغ اي ‪IPP‬‬
‫ِؾبسوخ ا‪٤‬فشاد ػٍ‪ ٝ‬رط‪٠ٛ‬ش ف‪ِ ُٙ‬ؾٍ‪ٚ ٟ‬ػبٌّ‪ٌّٛ ٟ‬م‪ٛ‬ع اٌّؾش‪ٚ‬ع‪.‬‬

‫‪iv‬‬

‫ِشوض "فىشح"‬
‫٘‪ِ ٛ‬شوض صمبف‪ٔٞ ٟ‬ظُ أٔؾطخ ِخزٍفخ ِؾٍ‪١‬خ ‪ٚ‬ػبٌّ‪١‬خ ‪ٚ‬د‪ٚ‬ساد رذس‪٠‬ج‪١‬خ ‪ٚ‬ػش‪ٚ‬ك فٕ‪١‬خ‪٠ٚ .‬غزن‪١‬ف أ‪٠‬نب ‪ٚ‬سػ‬
‫ػًّ ِزٕ‪ٛ‬ػخ وبٌ‪ٛ١‬عب ‪ِٚ‬ؾب٘ذح اٌط‪ٛ١‬س ‪ٚ‬ايصساػخ اٌؼن‪٠ٛ‬خ ‪ٚ‬اٌزّٕ‪١‬خ اٌج‪١‬ئ‪١‬خ ‪ٚ‬اٌجؾش‪٠‬خ ٌزّٕ‪١‬خ اٌ‪ٛ‬ػ‪ ٟ‬اٌج‪١‬ئ‪ٟ‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬اٌضمبف‪ٚٚ ٟ‬سػ ٌزّٕ‪١‬خ اٌزشاس إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪. ٟ‬‬
‫‪٠‬غزن‪١‬ف اٌّشوض فؼبٌ‪١‬بد ِ‪ٛ‬ع‪١‬م‪١‬خ ِخزٍفخ وّؾش‪ٚ‬ع إٌ‪ٚ ً١‬ؽفالد سلـ فٍىٍ‪ٛ‬س‪ٚ ٞ‬أِغ‪١‬بد ؽؼش‪٠‬خ‬
‫‪ِٚ‬ؾبمشاد ‪ٚ‬ػش‪ٚ‬ك أفالَ‪.‬‬
‫‪٠‬زّ‪١‬ض اٌّشوض ثّ‪ٛ‬لغ ِزّ‪١‬ض ف‪ٚ ٟ‬عو هج‪١‬ؼخ خالثخ رؾ‪١‬و ث‪ٙ‬ب ِ‪١‬بٖ إٌ‪ِ ٟ٘ٚ ً١‬مبثٍخ ٌغض‪٠‬شح ف‪ٍ١‬خ‪ ،‬ؽ‪١‬ش ‪٠‬مغ ِؼجذ‬
‫ئ‪٠‬ض‪٠‬ظ اٌؾ‪١ٙ‬ش‪٘ .‬زا اٌّىبْ اٌغٕ‪ ٟ‬ربس‪٠‬خ‪١‬ب‪ ،‬اٌّز‪ٛ‬عو ٌّ‪ٛ‬الغ ‪ٚ‬آصبس صمبف‪١‬خ غ‪١‬ش ػبد‪٠‬خ‪٠ ،‬ؼذ ِفزشق هشق‬
‫‪٤‬ؽخبؿ ِخزٍفخ ػٍ‪ِ ٝ‬ش اٌمش‪ ْٚ‬لبِ‪ٛ‬ا ثامبفخ خقبئـ ِّ‪١‬ضح ٌطج‪١‬ؼخ اٌّىبْ‪.‬‬

‫‪iii‬‬

‫مقدمة‬
‫اعزنبفذ اٌغّؼ‪١‬خ اٌّقش‪٠‬خ ٌزّٕ‪١‬خ صمبفخ اٌطفً‪ِٕ /‬ظّخ ‪CISV‬اٌؼبٌّ‪١‬خ ‪:‬اٌّؾش‪ٚ‬ع اٌذ‪٥ٌ ٌٟٚ‬فشاد ثأع‪ٛ‬اْ ف‪ٟ‬‬
‫اٌفزشح ِٓ ‪ 28‬د‪٠‬غّجش‪ٚ 2014‬ؽز‪ٕ٠ 15 ٝ‬ب‪٠‬ش ‪ِ2015‬غ اٌّشوض اٌؾش‪٠‬ه "فىشح"‪ِ ٛ٘ٚ -‬شوض صمبف‪ ٟ‬ف‪ِٕ ٟ‬طمخ‬
‫اٌؾالي ثغجً ؽ‪١‬ؾخ‪ٚ .‬وبْ اٌ‪ٙ‬ذف ِٓ اٌّؾش‪ٚ‬ع اٌزؼب‪ِ ْٚ‬غ إٌّظّخ اٌؾش‪٠‬ىخ ف‪ ٟ‬صالصخ ِؾبس‪٠‬غ‪" :‬اٌّؾش‪ٚ‬ع‬
‫ا‪٤‬خنش"‪" ،‬اٌزؼج‪١‬ش اٌفٕ‪"ٚ "ٟ‬ر‪ٛ‬ص‪١‬ك اٌمقـ "‪.‬‬
‫"اٌّؾش‪ٚ‬ع ا‪٤‬خنش"‪ :‬لبَ اٌّؾبسو‪ ْٛ‬ثزؼٍُ ‪ٚ‬رشو‪١‬ت ٔظبَ عذ‪٠‬ذ ٌٍش‪ ٞ‬ثبعزخذاَ اٌشؽبؽبد ِٓ أعً رٕ‪٠ٛ‬غ‬
‫اٌّؾبف‪ ً١‬اٌضساػ‪١‬خ ‪ٚ‬عؼً اٌضساػخ أوضش اعزذاِخ‪ .‬وبْ عبثمب ‪٠‬زُ غّش ا‪٤‬سك ثبٌّ‪١‬بٖ ٌٍضساػخ ‪ٚ‬وبْ ٘زا‬
‫ا‪٤‬عٍ‪ٛ‬ة غ‪١‬ش فؼبي ‪٠ ٗٔ٤‬زٍف ا‪٤‬سك‪ .‬ثب‪٦‬مبفخ ئٌ‪ ٝ‬رٌه ػًّ اٌّؾبسن‪ ْٚ‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌزغّ‪١‬ذ ‪ٚ‬صساػخ ثز‪ٚ‬س عذ‪٠‬ذح‬
‫ف‪ ٟ‬إٌّطمخ‪.‬‬
‫"اٌزؼج‪١‬ش اٌفٕ‪ :"ٟ‬لبَ ٘زا اٌّؾش‪ٚ‬ع ثزشِ‪ِ ُ١‬غبؽخ وبْ ال ‪٠‬زُ اعزخذاِ‪ٙ‬ب ثذاخً "فىشح"‪ .‬أفجؾذ ٘زٖ اٌّغبؽخ‬
‫ِزبؽخ ٌٍغىبْ اٌّؾٍ‪ٚ ،ٓ١١‬خبفخ اٌغ‪١‬ذاد‪ٌٍ ،‬م‪١‬بَ ث‪ٛ‬سػ ػًّ ِخزٍفخ ِضً اٌفٕ‪ٚ ْٛ‬اٌؾشف إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ اٌزمٍ‪١‬ذ‪٠‬خ‪ .‬رُ‬
‫رشِ‪ ُ١‬اٌّغبؽخ ثٕغبػ ‪ٚ‬ئفززبؽ‪ٙ‬ب ‪ٚ٤‬ي ف‪ ٟ‬اٌ‪ َٛ١‬اٌّفز‪ٛ‬ػ‪ :‬اٌغّؼخ ‪ٕ٠ 9‬ب‪٠‬ش‪.2015 ،‬‬
‫"ر‪ٛ‬ص‪١‬ك اٌمقـ"‪ ِٓ :‬خالي ٘زا اٌّؾش‪ٚ‬ع ‪ٚ‬ئٔطاللب ِٓ ِٕ‪ٙ‬غ‪١‬خ "اٌزأس‪٠‬خ اٌؾف‪ "ٟٙ‬لبَ اٌّؾبسو‪ ْٛ‬ثّمبثٍخ‬
‫اٌغىبْ اٌّؾٍ‪ ِٓ ٓ١١‬خالي اٌٍمبء ث‪ ُٙ‬ف‪ِٕ ٟ‬بصٌ‪ ُٙ‬أ‪ ٚ‬ف‪ ٟ‬أِبوٓ ػبِخ ِضً ِشاوض صمبف‪١‬خ أ‪ِٕ ٚ‬ظّبد غ‪١‬ش ؽى‪١ِٛ‬خ‬
‫ف‪ ٟ‬لش‪ِ ٜ‬خزٍفخ ف‪ ٟ‬عض‪٠‬شح ٘‪١‬غخ ‪ٚ‬غشة أع‪ٛ‬اْ ‪ٚ‬و‪ َٛ‬أِج‪"ٚ ،ٛ‬فىشح"‪ .‬رُ اٌز‪ٛ‬افً ِغ ا‪٤‬فشاد اٌّشؽؾ‪ٌٕ ٓ١‬ب‬
‫ِٓ لجً ِؼبسفٕب ‪ٚ‬رُ عإاٌ‪ ُٙ‬ػٓ إٌ‪ٛ‬ثخ ‪ٚ‬رغبسة اٌ‪ٙ‬غشح اٌمغش‪٠‬خ ‪ٚ‬إٌض‪ٚ‬ػ ‪ٚ‬اٌزؼج‪١‬ش اٌضمبف‪ٚ ٟ‬ئؽغبع‪ ُٙ‬ثبٌ‪ٛ‬هٓ‬
‫‪ٚ‬اٌ‪٠ٛٙ‬خ‪ .‬رُ اٌزمبه ف‪ٛ‬س ‪ِٚ‬مبهغ ف‪١‬ذ‪ٚ ٛ٠‬ػًّ ِمبثالد ‪ٚ‬رغغ‪ٌٍ ً١‬ق‪ٛ‬د ٌخٍك أسؽ‪١‬ف ٌؼٍّ‪١‬خ اٌز‪ٛ‬ص‪١‬ك ثأوٍّ‪ٙ‬ب‪.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ع‪١‬جم‪٘ ٝ‬زا ا‪٤‬سؽ‪١‬ف ِزبػ ف‪" ٟ‬فىشح"‪ .‬ثب‪٦‬مبفخ ئٌ‪ ٝ‬رٌه‪ٞ ،‬رُ ئخشاط ف‪ ٍُ١‬لق‪١‬ش ٌز‪ٛ‬ص‪١‬ك رغشثزٕب ‪ٌٚ‬ض‪٠‬بدح‬
‫اٌ‪ٛ‬ػ‪ ٟ‬ؽ‪ٛ‬ي إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ٚ ٓ١١‬صمبفز‪ٚٚ ُٙ‬مؼ‪ ُٙ‬اٌؾبٌ‪ٌٕ ،ٟ‬مـ اٌّؼٍ‪ِٛ‬بد اٌّغغٍخ داخً ِقش‪.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬أخ‪١‬شا‪ٙ٠ ،‬ذف ٘زا اٌىز‪١‬ت ئٌ‪ ٝ‬ر‪ٛ‬م‪١‬ؼ ثؼل ع‪ٛ‬أت ؽ‪١‬بح اٌؾؼت إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ٚ ٟ‬أفىبسُ٘ ‪ٚ‬ربس‪٠‬خ‪ٚ ُٙ‬صمبفز‪ُٙ‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ػبدار‪ٚ ُٙ‬رمبٌ‪١‬ذُ٘‪ٙ٠ٚ .‬ذف اٌىز‪١‬ت ئٌ‪ ٝ‬عبٔت اٌف‪ٚ ٍُ١‬ا‪٤‬سؽ‪١‬ف ئٌ‪ِ ٝ‬ؾبسوخ ‪ٚ‬ص‪٠‬بدح اٌ‪ٛ‬ػ‪ ٟ‬ؽ‪ٛ‬ي ؽؼت ظً ف‪ٟ‬‬
‫خف‪١‬خ ػٕب ٌّذح ه‪ٍ٠ٛ‬خ‪.‬‬

‫‪ii‬‬

‫شكر وتقدير‬
‫ٔ‪ٛ‬د رمذ‪ ُ٠‬خبٌـ اِزٕبٕٔب ‪ٚ‬ؽىشٔب ٌٍؼذ‪٠‬ذ ِٓ ا‪٤‬فشاد اٌز‪ ٓ٠‬ثذ‪٠ ٌُ ُٙٔٚ‬ىٓ ع‪١‬زؾمك ٘زا اٌّؾش‪ٚ‬ع‪...‬‬
‫اٌغّؼ‪١‬خ اٌؾش‪٠‬ىخ ‪ِٚ‬ن‪١‬فٕب اٌّشؽت ِشوض "فىشح" ‪ٚ‬اٌغبدح‪ /‬عثذاٌخاٌك اٌثتٍتً ‪ٚ‬خاٌذ ‪ٚ‬حطاَ دمحم صثري‬
‫‪ٚ‬أتازٌذ عثذاٌّاٌه ‪ٚ‬حداج ضما‪ ٚ‬حطٓ ‪ٚ‬رأفت اٌّصري ٌّغبػذر‪ٚ ُٙ‬دػّ‪ ُٙ‬ف‪ ٟ‬اٌز‪ٛ‬افً ِغ اٌّغزّؼبد‬
‫إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ ثغض‪٠‬شح ٘‪١‬غخ ‪ٚ‬غشة أع‪ٛ‬اْ ‪ٚ‬و‪ َٛ‬اِج‪ٚ ٛ‬لج‪ٍ١‬خ اٌجؾبس‪٠‬خ ‪ٚ‬ا‪٦‬رؾبد إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ٟ‬اٌؼبَ ‪٦ٚ‬عزمجبٌٕب ‪ٚ‬ئعزنبفزٕب‬
‫ثّشوض "فىشح"‪.‬‬
‫‪ ِٓٚ‬عض‪٠‬شح ٘‪١‬غخ‪ :‬اٌغ‪١‬ذح‪ /‬خذٌدح دمحم ِ‪ٛ‬ضى ‪ٚ‬اٌغبدح‪ /‬دمحم ِع‪ٛ‬ض تشٍر ‪ٚ‬ضٍذ حطٍٓ حطٓ ؛ ‪ ِٓٚ‬غشة‬
‫أع‪ٛ‬اْ‪ :‬اٌغ‪١‬ذح‪ /‬ر‪ٚ‬حٍح ٌ‪ٛ‬ضف صٍاْ ‪ٚ‬اٌغبدح‪ /‬ػجذ اٌرازق عثذ اٌّدٍذ ‪ٚ‬دمحم ع‪ٛ‬ض هللا ‪ٚ‬عثذ اٌىاًِ حطٓ‬
‫‪ٚ‬تطاَ تططا‪ٚ‬ي ‪ٚ‬دمحم صاٌح ‪ٚ‬أحّذ صاٌح (اٌشاًِ) ‪ ِٓٚ‬و‪ َٛ‬اِج‪( ٛ‬لش‪ ٜ‬اٌذوخ ‪ٚ‬اِجشوبِت)‪ :‬اٌغ‪١‬ذح‪ /‬خٍٍٍح‬
‫عثذ اٌرازق صاٌح ‪ٚ‬اٌغبدح‪ /‬شعثاْ عثذ اٌرحٍُ عثذ هللا ‪ٚ‬عثذ اٌرحّٓ عس اٌذٌٓ ‪ٚ‬عًٍ عثذٖ غالب ‪ٚ‬أٍِر عثذ‬
‫اٌرحّٓ عثّاْ؛ ‪ ِٓٚ‬ا‪٦‬رؾبد إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪ ٟ‬اٌؼبَ‪ :‬اٌغبدح‪ /‬إتراٍُ٘ "اٌُ عٍُ" ‪ٚ‬صاتر عطىر؛ ‪ ٚ‬فش‪٠‬ك "اٌضفخ" إٌ‪ٛ‬ث‪١‬خ‬
‫‪ٚ‬لج‪ٍ١‬خ اٌجؾبس‪٠‬خ‪.‬‬
‫ؽىشا ٌىُ ‪٦‬عزنبفزٕب ‪ٚ‬فزؼ ِٕبصٌىُ ‪ٚ‬لٍ‪ٛ‬ثىُ ٌٕب‪ٌ .‬ىبْ ِٓ اٌّغزؾ‪ ً١‬ػًّ ٘زا اٌىز‪١‬ت ثذ‪ ْٚ‬وشِىُ ‪ٚ‬ئعزؼذادوُ‬
‫ٌّؾبهشرٕب ؽ‪١‬برىُ اٌؾخق‪١‬خ ‪ٚ‬سؽالرىُ ‪ٚ‬رغبسثىُ ‪ٚ‬روش‪٠‬برىُ ‪ٚ‬أؽالِىُ ‪ٚ‬آِبٌىُ‪ .‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌشغُ ِٓ ػذَ رّىٕٕب ِٓ‬
‫ِؾبسوخ وً رغبسثىُ ٕ٘ب ٔظشا ٌن‪١‬ك اٌ‪ٛ‬لذ‪ ،‬لّٕب ثز‪ٛ‬ص‪١‬م‪ٙ‬ب ‪ٚ‬ثذأٔب ف‪ ٟ‬ثٕبء أسؽ‪١‬ف‪ ،‬ع‪١‬ى‪ِ ْٛ‬زبؽب ٌٍغّ‪١‬غ ف‪ٟ‬‬
‫ِشوض "فىشح"‪.‬‬
‫ٌمذ رأصشٔب عذا ثىُ ‪ٔٚ‬أًِ أْ ‪٠‬خذَ ٘زا اٌىز‪١‬ت (‪ٚ‬ا‪٤‬سؽ‪١‬ف) وٕمطخ أطالق ٌزغٍ‪١‬و ا‪٤‬م‪ٛ‬اء ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ربس‪٠‬خىُ‬
‫‪ٚ‬صمبفزىُ ‪ٚ‬ػبدارىُ ‪ٚ‬رمبٌ‪١‬ذوُ ٌ‪٣‬خش‪.ٓ٠‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬أخ‪١‬شا ٔ‪ٛ‬د أْ ٔزمذَ ثبٌؾىش ئٌ‪٘ ٟ‬ثح اٌشرٌف ‪ٙٔٚ‬اي رخة ‪ٚ‬أحّذ ضٍّر يِغبٔذر‪ٚ ُٙ‬دػّ‪ ُٙ‬اٌّغزّش ٌّؾش‪ٚ‬ع‬
‫ر‪ٛ‬ص‪١‬ك اٌمقـ ‪ٌٚ‬ثٕى عثذ اٌ‪ٙ‬ادي ‪ٚ‬دمحم إٌّدً ‪ٚ‬ضاًِ ضٍٍّاْ ٌّغبػذر‪ٌ ُٙ‬جشٔبِظ اي‪ٚ IPP‬ئٌ‪ ٝ‬شٍرٌٓ‬
‫ٔادر إًٍِ ‪ٌٍٕٚ‬ا ِصطفى ٌزقّ‪ ُ١‬ؽؼبس اٌّؾش‪ٚ‬ع‪.‬‬
‫فش‪٠‬ك ٌغٕخ ‪ِ IPP‬قش ‪ِ CISV ٚ‬قش‪ :‬ؽىشا ٌغؼً ٘زا اٌّؾش‪ٚ‬ع ؽم‪١‬مخ‪...‬‬

‫أِبٔذا ‪ٚ‬ثشٔبسد‪ٚ ٚ‬ع‪١ٌٛ‬ب ‪ٚ‬ؽ‪١‬شٌ‪ٚ ٟ‬ػبٌ‪١‬ب ‪ٚ‬ف‪١‬ش‪١ٔٚ‬ىب ‪١ِٚ‬ىً ‪ٔٚ‬ب‪٠‬ش‪ٞ‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫الفهرر‬
‫ؽىش ‪ٚ‬رمذ‪٠‬ش‪i............. ................ ....................................................................................‬‬
‫ِمذِخ‪ii ............................ ............................................................................................‬‬
‫ِشوض "فىشح"‪iii ........................................................................................‬‬
‫اٌغّؼ‪١‬خ اٌّقش‪٠‬خ ٌزّٕ‪١‬خ صمبفخ اٌطفً‪ِٕ/‬ظّخ ‪ CISV‬اٌؼبٌّ‪١‬خ‬
‫‪ٚ‬اٌّؾش‪ٚ‬ع اٌذ‪٥ٌ ٌٟٚ‬فشاد )‪iv...... ..........................................................(IPP‬‬
‫اٌضمبفخ‪ :‬فشاع اٌؾفبظ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌزمبٌ‪١‬ذ‪1 ............................. ........................................................‬‬
‫اٌؼبداد ‪ٚ‬اٌزمبٌ‪١‬ذ‪ :‬اٌجمبء ِٓ خالي اٌزى‪١‬ف‪3....... ...................... ................................ ................‬‬
‫إٌ‪ٛ‬ثخ‪ :‬اٌزوش‪٠‬بد ‪ٚ‬ا‪٤‬ؽالَ ‪ٚ‬اٌّغزمجً‪6........................... .......................................................‬‬
‫ؽؼت إٌ‪ٛ‬ثخ‪ :‬اٌؾفبظ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌزشاس اٌضمبف‪ٚ ٟ‬اٌ‪٠ٛٙ‬خ‪8........................... ........................................‬‬
‫فش‪ٞ‬ق اٌؼًّ‪v.............................. .................................................. .................................‬‬
‫اٌّشاعغ‪vi............................... ........................................ .............................................‬‬
‫أف‪ٛ‬اد إٌ‪ٛ‬ثخ‪viii........ .................................. ............................. ...................................‬‬

2015/2014 ْ‫ا‬ٛ‫ أض‬IPP
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‫© ؽم‪ٛ‬ق اٌطجغ ‪ٚ‬إٌؾش ِؾف‪ٛ‬ظخ‬
‫‪ِ CISV‬قش ‪ِٚ‬شوض فىشح‪2015 ،‬‬