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JOINTS OF SLEWING BEARINGS

Gncz, P. & Glode, S.

Abstract: The presented paper describes a calculation model for pre-stressed bolted joints used

to connect slewing bearings to the adjacent structures. A classical pre-stressed bolted joint

calculation model is described and its insufficiencies for direct application on slewing bearings

are pointed out. Finally, the suggested stress analysis is done by modelling the most loaded

single bolt segment of the slewing bearing assembly, applying the preload and the working load

on it. The stress determination in the bolt is done by finite element analysis.

1 INTRODUCTION

Slewing bearings are bearings of large dimensions and they are used in different

engineering applications (e. g. wind turbines, mobile cranes, communication systems,

turning tables etc.). Their function is to connect two adjacent structures, allowing

rotation and transmission of load between them. In contrast to the majority of other

bearings, slewing bearings are mainly used for slow rotational speeds, often for

intermittent and oscillatory movement. They consist from an inner and outer ring and

at least one raceway with belonging rolling elements (Fig. 1.). With regard to

application different construction variants are known and used. Thus the slewing

bearings can be provided with or without inner or outer gearing and with rolling

elements of different shape (ball, roller).

The connection between the individual ring of the slewing bearing and the rest of

the structure is established by pre-stressed bolted joints (Fig. 1.). The presented paper

presents and describes a calculation model for these pre-stressed bolted joints by

combining conventional calculation methods and FEM analysis.

The installed and operating slewing bearings can be exposed to different external

loads. For some applications it is a quite difficult task to exactly determine the loads

over the entire lifetime. The loadings on slewing bearings installed in wind turbines are

one of those examples. As a result of numerous studies it is possible to determine the

load spectra which simulate the loading of the bearing over its entire lifetime [1].

However, the working load on the slewing bearing (and also on the bolted joints) is for

the needs of calculation usually given in a simpler manner by defining the axial force

Fax, the radial force Fr and the overturning moment MT (Fig. 1.). The aim of this paper

is to determine the axial stress distribution in the bolt during operation on the basis of

an actual slewing bearing geometry and working load.

175

MT

4

5

Fax

3

Fr

Ri

Ro

1

1 lower flange

2 outer ring

3 inner ring

4 upper flange

5 bolt

6 rolling element

parts, an element with external thread (bolt) and an element with internal thread

(washer) (Fig. 2.a). When there is an axial tension force (FM) in the bolt stud before the

operation of the working load (FA) the bolted joint is called pre-stressed. Pre-stressed

and dynamically loaded bolted connections are frequently used in different

constructions and they are often representing the most critical part. Despite of the fact

that there is no universally accepted calculation model for bolted joints the most often

used recommendation in industrial calculations is the VDI 2230 [2, 3, 4].

When the working load (FA) acts on the pre-stressed bolted joint in traction manner

the tension force in the bolt (FS) increases in comparison to assembly preload (FM), on

the other hand when the working load acts in compression direction the tension force in

the pre-stressed bolt decreases (Fig. 2.b). The dependence between the working load

(FA) and the bolt force (FS) is usually presumed to be linear [3].

FA

a)

traction load

FSA

b)

FA

FM

compressionload

workingload (FA)

Fig. 2. Concentric loading of a single bolted joint (a) and FA FS diagram (b)

176

In this cases the additional axial bolt load (FSA) can be calculated as:

FSA = FA = n

P

FA

S + P

(1)

where stands for the relative resilience factor and n for the load introduction factor.

The whole bolt load (FS) consists of the assembly preload (FM) and the additional axial

bolt load (FSA):

FS = FM + FSA

(2)

It is evident from Eq. (1) that for a quantitative analysis of pre-stressed bolted joint

it is necessary to manage both the bolt (S) and member resilience (P). The bolt

resilience can be easily determined with analytical methods [3]. On the basis of recent

researches, which used numerical analyses for verification, an even more detailed bolt

resilience calculation was presented. This approach takes into account various

geometrical parameters of the bolt (head, thread, nut etc.), its material and friction

properties [5]. On the other hand the determination of member resilience is a more

complex task. There are different models for describing the effective volume of the

member that is subjected to compressive stress and as a consequence the member

resilience. Those models were mainly confirmed with finite element analyses and

experiments [6].

The direct use of those calculation models is however rather difficult for prestressed bolted joints of slewing bearings. The reasons for that are the following:

Analytical models [3, 4 ,5] are mainly valid for single bolted joints (cylindrical

or prismatic bodies) with concentric clamping and loading. Due to calculation

restrictions only small eccentricity is allowed. This means that the vertical axis

of the working load (FA) must be relatively close to the axis of the bolt. On the

contrary, the cross section or the slewing bearing ring has a complex geometry

where the eccentricity of the clamping and loading is quite considerable.

The load introduction factor n (Eq. (1)) is decisive for the additional bolt load

determination. For some basic geometrical configurations and loading conditions

load introduction factors are available as the results of extensive parametrical

studies [3]. Yet for many cases, also for the bolted joints of the slewing bearings,

there are no reliable load introduction factors available. As a consequence this

can also be a significant source of uncertainty in bolt load determination.

- Some authors already pointed out that as a result of eccentricity partial opening

of the bolted joint is often present during the operation and loading of the

slewing bearings [1, 7, 8]. For dealing with partial opening of the pre-stressed

bolted joints only some approximate solutions exist [3]. Partial opening of the

joint is also one of the reasons for non-linear dependence between the working

load and the bolt loading (Fig. 3.b).

- The existing calculation models are mainly developed for single bolted joints.

Generally they do not give assistance for working load (FA) determination. In

the case of slewing bearings, especially when there is an overturning moment,

every bolt can be differently loaded. Therefore the working load determination

requires additional attention.

177

FA

b)

a)

FA

FSA

FM

FS

Fig. 3. Eccentric loading of eccentrically clamped bolted joint (a) and the belonging

non-linear FA FS diagram (b)

As a possible method for dealing with the pre-stressed bolted joint of the slewing

bearings some authors presented a numerical solution in which a particular finite element was developed. This complex element is built in a way that it behaves like a ring

except in the axial direction. This was achieved with careful combination of several

simple finite elements which allows simulating contact, bending etc. By fine tuning of

this element it is possible to take into account partial opening, slight eccentricity of

loading and more realistic load factor. Numerous finite element simulations were

performed for results confirmation [8].

3 CALCULATION MODEL

The logical consequence of inability of direct use of classical pre-stressed bolted joint

calculation methods is the application of finite element method. In general, there are

two basic ways for analyzing ring flange connections with multiple bolts (e. g. slewing

bearing). One method requires the modeling of the whole ring (Fig. 4.a), the second

takes into consideration an equivalent sector of the most loaded bolt (Fig. 4.b). Both

methods have their pros and contras.

a)

b)

Fig. 4. Model of the whole slewing bearing and flange assembly (a) and

the equivalent segment of one bolt (b)

178

Modeling and analyzing the whole bearing ring with the belonging substructure

enables a more accurate determination of bolt operating forces at critical joints by

taking into account the joined structure elasticity in the direction of the bolt axis [9,10].

This is particularly important when the substructure is complex and it cannot be

considered as ideally rigid or its rigidity is variable around the circumference of the

ring. Analyses where the stochastic ring geometry imperfections are taken into

consideration also demand the modeling of the whole ring [11].

On the other hand, when the bolts are equally arranged around the ring, the support

is rigid or tubular and no stiff points are present or they are eliminated with the help of

so called mounting tubes [2, 12], the modeling of the most loaded sector can be used.

This method usually overestimates the loading in the maximum loaded segment since it

cannot cover any stress redistributions when the partial opening occurs [1, 2, 7, 12, 13].

In these cases the following equation can be used for determination of the working load

FA on the analyzed (most loaded) segment [1, 2]:

2M T

F

(3)

sin + ax

z

z

R

where is the angle between the working load (FA) and the axis of the bearing (Fig. 6),

z denotes the number of equally distributed bolts around the circumference and R is the

radius of the analysed bolt (Fig. 1.).

FA =

1

cos

Due to geometrical symmetry only the half segment of the most loaded bolted joint

was modelled. For this purpose the ABAQUS/CAE finite element software [14] was

used. The model of the analyzed segment consists of the slewing bearing ring (inner or

outer), the belonging support (flange) and the bolt (Fig. 5.).

There are different approaches for modeling the bolt and pre-stressed bolted joint

connections in FE analyzes. In dependence of the desired results and their accuracy the

bolt can be modeled as one dimensional beam element, a solid body or the combination

of both [15]. When the bolt is modeled as a solid body different studies showed that

acceptable results can be attained even without detailed modeling of the bolt thread

[13, 16]. Because of that and according to the other similar analyses [2, 12, 13] in

presented model the bolt was modeled as a solid body consisting of three cylinders

(head, bolt stud and nut).

The used FE software already has a built-in tool for simulating the bolt preload

(Bolt load). Therefore the preloading and the subsequent external loading of the joint

can be easily and realistically simulated. Working load was introduced as a uniform

pressure on the raceway of the ring under = 45 [7]. For more precise simulation,

contacts with normal and tangential (coefficient of traction 0.3) behavior were defined

between (Fig. 5.a):

- bolt head and the ring

- ring and the flange (to allow separation under loading)

- nut and the flange

In the realized FE analyses a linear-elastic material model was applied (E = 210

GPa and = 0.3). For the model meshing 8-node linear brick elements with reduced

integration were used (Fig. 5.c). The approximate size of the used elements was 1 mm.

179

contact

loading

rotational

symmetry

a)

encastre

b)

c)

Fig. 5. Defined contacts in the assembly (b), boundary conditions (b) and the meshed model (c)

of the analyzed segment

4 PRACTICAL EXAMPLE

The proposed computational model has been used to determine the load capacity of a

real bolted joint. In this case both the outer and inner ring of an existent single-row

four point contact bearing was analyzed. The geometrical properties of the slewing

bearing used for the FE model were taken from a slewing bearing manufacturers

catalogue [17] and they are shown in Tab. 1. Because of 24 bolts a 7.5 half segment of

the assembly was modeled. The defined bolt size was M16, the required strength grade

10.9 (yield strength of the bolts material is 900 MPa).

During analysis the studied slewing bearing was subjected to overturning moment

MT = 250 kNm and to compressive axial force Fax = 300 kN. Those values were chosen

on the basis of the critical loading curve for the bolts shown for this particular bearing

in the manufacturers catalogue [17]. With regard to the Eq. (3) this external loading

translates to a working load of approx. FA = 58 kN at the most loaded segment of one

bolt. The analyzed slewing bearing has a geared outer ring but as a simplification this

was not considered in the FE simulation.

Ring height [mm]

Ring width [mm]

Ball track diameter [mm]

Bolt circle diameter [mm]

Number of bolts

Bolt holes diameter [mm]

Overall height of the bearing [mm]

54 mm

45 mm / 46.5 mm

764 mm

823 mm / 706 mm

24

17.5 mm

63 mm

Tab. 1. Main geometrical parameters of the slewing bearing used in the FE model

180

During analysis axial stresses in bolts were observed. This was done in three steps:

- pretension of the bolt (Fig. 6.a)

- tensile loading of the bolted joint (Fig. 6.b)

- compressive loading of the bolted joint (Fig. 6.c)

FA

FA

a)

b)

c)

Fig. 6. Three steps of the finite element analysis of the ring segment: bolt preload (a), tensile

loading of the bolted joint (b) and compressive loading of the bolted joint (c)

Other authors [2] already pointed out in their works that higher preloading has a

positive effect on bolted joints because it reduces alternate stresses in the bolt, reduces

the risk of loosening of the joint and lag the beginning of slipping at transverse loading.

To confirm that two different magnitudes of pretension (M) were simulated in this

practical example: preloading to M = 0.7Rp0,2 (yield strength) of the bolts material

(630 MPa) and preloading to M = 0.9Rp0,2 of the bolts material (810 MPa).

5 COMPUTATIONAL RESULTS

The numerical results of the bolted joint (outer and inner ring) are presented as axial

stress distributions along the bolt (Figs. 8-16.) The stress distribution was monitored on

both sides of the bolt along the whole height of the bolted joint with exception of the

beginning and end of the bolt stud, where the rapid changes of bolt geometry take place

(Fig. 7).

From the gained stress distributions both the highest axial working stress S as also

the highest alternating stress a can be determined. The highest working stress S on

both sides of the bolt can be obtained directly from the presented results (Figs. 8-16.)

by locating the maximum value of axial stress, taking into account both sides of the

bolt (A-side & B-side, Fig. 7.). The highest working stress S in the bolt should be

lower than the yield strength of the given bolt material. In this case, the bolt strength

grade is 10.9, that means Rp0,2 = 900 MPa.

The magnitude of the alternating stress a influences the fatigue life of the bolt and

it must be lower than the fatigue limit of the bolt AS to reach whole fatigue life

181

(number of alternating cycles greater than 2106). The alternating stress (a) can be

determined as [3]:

S min

(4)

a = S max

2

In this equation S max stands for the highest axial working stress while S min

represents the lowest axial working stress in the bolt. Both the S max and the S min are

observed in each node of the bolt model separately. As a result, local alternating

stresses are obtained in every node along the bolt axis (ob both sides). The highest

value of the alternating stress on whichever side of the given bolt is considered

deciding.

According to VDI 2230 [3] the fatigue limit of the high-strength bolts rolled before

heat treatment (ASV) can be calculated as:

150

(5)

+ 45

ASV = 0.85

d

This means that the fatigue limit (AS) of the used bolt size (M16) is 46,2 MPa. The

alternating stresses in the bolt should be under this limit.

y

compression

loading

70

B-side

tensile

loading

y

70

A-side

B-side

10

0

tensile

loading

A-side

10

0

a)

compression

loading

b)

Fig. 7. Definition of the bolt sides for stress distribution monitoring: inner (a) and outer ring (b)

The highest axial working stresses (S) in the bolt of the outer ring are 732 MPa

(M = 0.7Rp0,2) and 854 MPa (M = 0.9Rp0,2). For the inner ring the highest axial

working stresses in the bolt are 694 MPa (M = 0.7Rp0,2) and 852 MPa (M = 0.9Rp0,2).

According to these results, the axial working stresses (S) are in all cases under the

admissible value of 900 MPa on the monitored path along the bolt.

Meantime, the maximum alternating stress (a) during loading (pretensioning to

0.7Rp0,2) is 56.3 MPa in the bolts of the outer ring and 30.4 MPa in the bolts of the

inner ring. By pretensioning to 0.9Rp0,2 alternating stress (a) in the bolts of both rings

falls, in outer ring to 23.8 MPa, in inner ring to 17.4 MPa. The alternating stress

control confirmed the assumption that higher pretension positively affects on the

magnitude of the alternating stress. With regard to the results of this analysis, when the

182

bolts are pretensioned to 0.7Rp0,2, the alternating stress (a) in the bolt of the outer ring

is higher that the fatigue limit of the M16 bolt ASV (46.2 MPa).

5.1 Outer ring

Fig. 8. Stress distribution along the A-side of the bolt (M = 0.7Rp0,2); max. a = 56.3 MPa

Fig. 9. Stress distribution along the B-side of the bolt (M = 0.7Rp0,2); max. a = 19.6 MPa

Fig. 10. Stress distribution along the A-side of the bolt (M = 0.9Rp0,2); max. a = 23.8 MPa

183

Fig. 11. Stress distribution along the B-side of the bolt (M = 0.9Rp0,2); max. a = 14.3 MPa

Fig. 12. Stress distribution along the A-side of the bolt (M = 0.7Rp0,2); max. a = 7.6 MPa

Fig. 13. Stress distribution along the B-side of the bolt (M = 0.7Rp0,2); max. a = 30.4 MPa

184

Fig. 14. Stress distribution along the A-side of the bolt (M = 0.9Rp0,2); max. a = 6.2 MPa

Fig. 15. Stress distribution along the B-side of the bolt (M = 0.9Rp0,2); max. a = 17.4 MPa

6 CONCLUSION

A calculation model for pre-stressed bolted joints of slewing bearings is presented.

Because of the specific clamping and loading conditions of the slewing bearing rings it

is difficult to accurately verify the stress conditions in the connecting bolts with the

help of the usual pre-stressed bolted joints calculation methods. The presented

calculation model uses a finite element analysis to obtain the axial stress distribution

along the bolt axis during loading. From these results the axial working stress S and

the alternating stress a can be determined. Both stresses serve as a basis for strength

verification of the used pre-stressed bolted joints.

In the further researches more attention should be paid to the to the working load

(FA) determination as the main goal is to determine the dependence between working

load (FA) and the belonging bolt load (FS). As many authors already pointed out, in

some cases it is a oversimplification to consider the supporting structure as ideally

rigid. Beside that an influence of more realistic material, contact and geometrical

185

improve the applicability of results.

References:

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

186

Frese, T. & Dalhoff, P.: Fatigue Analysis of Bolted and Welded Joints, in: NAFEMS Seminar: Fatigue Analysis, Wiesbaden, 2000.

Chaib, Z.; Daidie, A. & Leray, D.: Screw behavior in large diameter slewing bearing

assemblies: numerical and experimental analyses, International Journal On Interactive

Design And Manufacturing. 1 (2007) 21 - 31.

VDI 2230 Blatt 1, Systematische Berechnung Hochbeanspruchter Schraubenverbindungen

Zylindrische Einschraubenverbindungen, Dusseldorf, Verein Deutscher Ingenieure / Verlag, 2003.

vokelj, M.; Zupan, S. & Prebil, I.: Prestressed bolt connection calculation program

according to VDI 2230, in: IAT '05, Bled, 2005.

Alkatan, F.; Stephan, P.; Daidie, A. & Guillot, J.: Equivalent axial stiffness of various

components in bolted joints subjected to axial loading, Finite Elements In Analysis And

Design. 43 (2007) 9.

Rasti, N.: Comparison Study of Member Stiffness Using Theoretical and Finite Element

Method, in: 2006 Annual General Conference Of The Canadian Society For Civil

Engineering, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, 2006.

Pollicino, F. & Schleeelmann, R.: Berechnung der hochbelasteten Schraubenverbindung

des Rotorblattes einer Windenergieanlage mittels FEM und VDI 2230 unter

Bercksichtigung der Montage, Hamburg, Germanischer Lloyd WindEnergie GmbH,

2005.

Vadean, A.; Leray, D. & Guillot, J.: Bolted joints for very large bearingsnumerical

model development, Finite Elements In Analysis And Design. 42 (2006) 15.

Zupan, S.; Prebil, I. & Lukani, B.: An improved method for operating bold load

calculation of bolted joints, in: Schraubenverbindungen / 2. Fachtagung, Dsseldorf, VDIVerlag, 2001pp. 61-75.

Smolnicki, T.; Derlukiewicz, D. & Stanco, M.: Evaluation of load distribution in the

superstructure rotation joint of single-bucket caterpillar excavators , Automation In

Construction. 17 (2008) 218-223.

Bucher, C. & Ebert, M.: Load carrying behaviour of prestressed bolted steel flanges

considering random geometrical imperfections, in: 8th ASCE Specialty Conference On

Probabilistic Mechanics And Structural Reliability, n.d.

Chaib, Z.; Daidie, A.; Guillot, J. & Vadean, A.: Study of a bolted and screwed joint of a

slewing bearing, in: Integrated Design And Production, Casablanca, 2005.

Schaumann, P.: Global Structural Behaviour of Ring Flange Joints, in: NAFEMS

Seminar: Modelling Of Assemblies And Joints For FE Analyses, Wiesbaden, 2002pp. 1-9.

Abaqus Online Documentation: Version 6.8, Dassault Systmes, 2008.

Montgomery, J.: Methods for Modeling Bolts in the Bolted Joint, in: 2002 International

ANSYS Conference Proceedings, 2002.

Williams, J.; Anley, R.; Nash, D. & Gray, T.: Analysis of externally loaded bolted joints:

Analytical, computational and experimental study, International Journal Of Pressure

Vessels And Piping. 86 (2009) 7.

Rothe Erde Slewing Bearings., Rothe Erde, n.d.

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