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THE DESIGN OF A SPIN STABILISED FUZE

by

Abraham Hermanns van den Berg


Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of

Master in Engineering (Mecltanical)


at

Potchefstroomse Universiteit
vir Christelike Hoer Onderwys

Study Leader: Mr A. Wolhuter


January 1996

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank Naschem (Pty.) Ltd. for the opportunity that was granted to me as
employee to develop a low cost fuze and to utilise the project for the purposes of my
studies.

My thanks also to mr A Wolhuter for his enthusiasm and participation in the project and his
contribution to the establishment of this document.

Lastly, I would like to thank my parents for their unfailing support, interest and motivation.

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ABSTRACT

The ammunition manufacturer in South Africa has developed an increasing need for a low
unit cost fuze for use on large caliber spin stabilised ammunition. This was brought about by
the current state of affairs that local ammunition manufacturers have to concentrate more on
exports due to the shrinking defence budget of the S.A.N.D.F. This, in turn, has prompted
the development of a low cost fuze demonstrator.

The objective ofthis project was to develop and demonstrate a prototype low cost fuze. The
fuze has to comply with all the specifications of existing fuzes. After considering different
concepts, the final concept was decided on. A detail design phase followed after which a
small number of fuzes were manufactured. The basic safety and functioning modes of the
fuze were tested and good results were found. The indications are that the fuze will cost
less than a third of the price of the existing fuze and will comply with all the necessary
requirements.

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OPSOMMING

Lae eenheidskoste van buise vir spingestabiliseerde ammunisie het toenemend 'n vereiste
geword by ammunisie vervaardigers in Suid Afrika. Dit word te weeg gebring deur die feit
dat die ammunisie vervaardigers tans meer moet konsentreer op die uitvoermark as gevolg
van die drastiese besnyding van fondse vir die S.A.N.W. wat voorheen die hoof klient van
die ammunisie vervaardigers in Suid Afrika was. Dit het die ontwikkeling van 'n lae koste
buis demonstrator tot gevolg gehad.

Die doel van hierdie projek was om 'n lae-koste prototipe buis te ontwikkel en te
demonstreer. Die buis moet aan aile vereistes voldoen waaraan die bestaande buise voldoen.
Na verskeie konsepte geevalueer is, is daar besluit op 'n konsep wat gebaseer is op 'n
pirotegniese middel wat wegbrand.

'n Detail ontwerpfase het gevolg, waarna 'n klein

hoeveelheid van die buise ver\raardig is. Die basiese veiligheids- en funksioneringsvereistes
is getoets en goeie resultate is verkry. Voorlopige beramings dui daarop dat die buis minder
as 'n derde van die bestaande buis gaan kos en aan aldie nodige vereistes sal voldoen.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Paragraph
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ABSTRACT

OPSOMMING

1. INTRODUCTION

2. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF FUZES

2.1 Definition and Purpose of a Fuze

2.2 Fuze requirements


2.2.1 Basic requirements
2.2.2 Applied forces
2.2.3 Additional requirements

11
11
13
15

2.3 Fuze Mechanisms


2.3 .1 The Striker- or Inertia Pin Spring
2.3.2 The Detent
2.3.3 The Rotor or Shutter
2.3.4 The Clockwork Mechanism
2.3.5 Ball Rotors
2.3.6 Spiral Unwinder
2.3.7 The Piston and Cylinder System

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17
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19

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3. THE EXISTING FUZE


3.1 Background

20

3.2 Major Components


3.2.1 Fuze Body
3.2.2 The Safe and Am1ing Device

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3.2.3 The Super Quick Mechanism


3.2.4 The Delay Mechanism
3.2.5 The Setting Mechanism

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23
24

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4. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST FUZE


4.1 Motivation

25

4.2 Market Analysis


4.2.1 Historical Allocation of United States Army Ammunition Spending
4.2.2 World-wide Fuze Contenders

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26

4.3 Concept Design and Layout


4. 3 .1 Requirements
4.3.2 Concept Generation
4.3.3 Basic Concept and Functioning ofthe Demonstrator Fuze
4.3.4 Design Concept Iterations

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36

4.4 Detail Design


4.4.1 Specific Requirements
4.4.2 Design Calculations
4.4.3 Drawings

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4.5 Funds

40

4.6 Detonic Elements

40

4. 7 Manufacturing

41

4.8 Fuze Test Simulator

41

4.9 Tests and Results


4.9.1 Spin test
4.9.2 Drop test
4.9.3 Partly anned drop test
4. 9.4 Minimum set-back test
4.9.5 Maximum set-back test

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4.10 Design Improvements

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5. CONCLUSION

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6. RECOMMENDATIONS

50

BIBLIOGRAPHY

51

Literature

51

Military Standa1ds and Specifications

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APPENDICES
APPENDIX A: B-SPECIFICATION FOR LOW COST FUZE
APPENDIX B : CALCULATIONS FOR LOW COST FUZE
APPENDIX C: MARKETING PAMPHLET

ILLUSTRATIONS
FIGURE 1 : CONFIGURATION OF FUZE WITH MAJOR COMPONENTS
FIGURE 2 : PYROTECHNIC TUBE CONCEPT
FIGURE 3 : FAN CONCEPT
FIGURE 4 : PISTON AND CYLINDER CONCEPT
FIGURE 5 : CONFIGURATION OF LOW COST FUZE WITH MAJOR COMPONENTS
FIGURE 6: BEFORE SET-BACK
FIGURE 7: DURING SET-BACK
FIGURE 8 :AFTER SET-BACK BUT BEFORE PYROTECHNIC BURNOUT
FIGURE 9 : AFTER SET -BACK AND PYROTECHNIC BURNOUT
FIGURE 10: FUNCTIONING ON DIRECT IMPACT
FIGURE 11 : FUNCTIONING ON GRAZE IMPACT
FIGURE 12: PHOTO SHOWING INTERNAL VIEW OF FUZE AFTER RECOVERY
FIGURE 13: PHOTO SHOWING IMPROVED ROTOR AFTER RECOVERY

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TABLES
TABLE 1 : FORECAST OF FUZE PROCUREMENT FOR 1995
TABLE 2 : FEASIBILITY OF DEVELOPMENT
TABLE 3: CONCEPT CONFIGURATIONS
TABLE 4: DROP TEST ORIENTATIONS

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1. INTRODUCTION
Naschem, a Division of Denel ltd., has been concerned with the manufacturing of fuzes
since its inauguration in 1971 as an affiliate of Armscor for the manufacturing of large
calibre ammunition. Initially, Naschem was only responsible for the provision of ammunition
to the South African Defence Force, but this has been changing in the last few years as result
of the decreasing budget of the S.A.N.D.F. and the uplifting of the arms embargo. This
caused the emphasis within Naschem to shift to the international market.

In order to

become competitive in the international market, however, it is of utmost importance for


Naschem to consider the cost of its products.

In the past, cost was not the major

concideration, but in the rapidly changing business environment that Naschem finds itself in,
it is becoming increasingly important to decrease the cost of its products without sacrificing
reliability and quality.

The mission of this project was to develop a low cost fuze for use on large calibre spin
stabilised projectiles, which can replace the existing fuze at a lower cost and provide
improved functioning reliability while still maintaining adequate safety.

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2. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF FUZES

2.1

Definition and Purpose of a Fuze

In lay terms a fuze is defined by the Shorter Oxford Dictionary (1959:765) as:
"A tube casing filled or saturated with combustible material by means of which a military
shell or the blast of a mine is ignited and exploded".

In military terms, the following definitions are more appropriate:


"A fuze is defined as an endeavour of man to control the bursting of a shell by means of a
priming composition, without understanding the rules of combustion." (Ministry of supply
1978: 18).

"The word 'fuze' is used to describe a wide variety of devices used with munitions to
provide basically the functions of safety, arming and firing." (US Army Materiel Command
1969: 1).

There is a wide variety of munitions in existence and new ones are continuously being
developed. Because of the variety of types and the wide range of sizes, masses, yields and
intended usage, it is natural that the configuration, size and complexity of fuzes also vary
over a wide range. Fuzes extend all the way from relatively simple devices such as hand
grenade fuzes to the highly sophisticated radar fuzes for missile warheads.

In many

instances the fuze is a single physical entity, while in other instances the fuzing system
consists of two or more interconnected components placed in different locations within or
even outside the munition.

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Because of the important and exacting role of fuzes, leading nations, such as the USA,
employ the most advanced technology available in the design and manufacturil}g of fuzes
and are constantly advancing the state-of-the-art. [3, 4]

Fuzes are generally classified as follows:

Artillery fuzes, including mortar fuzes

Aircraft bomb fuzes

Fuzes for under water stores, e.g. for mines, depth charges.

Static fuzes, e.g. fuzes for anti-tank mines

Other fuzes

Probably the greatest variety and the greatest complexity of design is shown amongst the
fuzes for artillery and armour weapons. The greater ingenuity in design is necessary because
these fuzes have to withstand far greater forces being fired from a gun, than any other type
of fuze. Artillery and armour fuzes are also produced in larger quantities than any other type
offuze. [1]

Different types of artillery fuzes are available:

Time fuzes

Proximity fuzes

Percussion fuzes or Point detonating fuzes. This includes direct action impact fuzes and
graze action fuzes.

(When the projectile hits a target at a small impact angle and

ricochets away, it is called graze action.)

Mortar fuzes

Base fuzes

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Small arms fuzes

Compression ignition or adiabatic fuzes. [1,4]

The Direct Action Percussion Fuze (hereafter called the DA fuze) is of particular interest to
this study. This type of fuze functions on direct impact with the target. It is usually very
sensitive and will even operate against frail targets such as the thin skin of an aircraft. [ 1]

The concept of the propagation of the explosive train is inherent to the understanding of
fuze design, starting with the initiation and progressing to the burst of the main charge in the
warhead. Initiation starts with the "signal" such as the target sensing or impact.

This

"signal" must be amplified by such devices as detonators, leads and boosters that have
sufficient explosive output to detonate the main charge.

Since the detonator contains

explosives that are very sensitive, it is the basic role of the fuze not only to signal the
presence of the target, but also, above all, to provide safety during handling. [4]

2.2

Fuze requirements

2.2.1

Basic requirements

2.2.1.1

Handling Safety

As an approach to providing adequate safety, present design philosophy calls


for a fuze to have at least two independent safety features, either of which
must be capable of preventing an unintended detonation. To comply with the
safety requirements, the primary explosive elements are mechanically masked

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from the secondary explosive elements or the main charge. An example of


this is the out-of-line element such as a rotor or slide. The fuze must be
assembled in the safe position to ensure handling safety during assembly. [4]

2.2.1.2

Arming

This is a mechanical event which is designed to take place as the shell is fired,
or after the shell leaves the barreL Before the fuze is armed, it should not be
capable of being armed by any conceivably rough usage or by any drop in any
position which is likely to occur in service. The moving parts of a fuze are
securely locked together and only a particular combination of forces must be
applied on the fuze to unlock them. This combination of forces is provided
by the firing of the projectile which includes the fuze. [1]

The fuze may never remain in the partially armed position. As soon as the
force is removed, the fuze must return to the unarmed position. [4]

2.2.1.3

Muzzle safety

The fuze should be designed in such a way that the detonator cannot be
initiated while the projectile is in the launching tube. This is particularly true
of artillery, mortar and rocket fuzes. This is called muzzle- or bore safety and
is achieved by providing one of the safety features used to ensure handling
safety with a delayed arming.

The muzzle safety distance is a specified

distance after muzzle exit, before which the fuze may not be armed. In most
of the present fuzes this is provided by a clockwork mechanism which delays
the arming. [ 1, 4]

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2.2.1.4

Functioning

The ultimate objective of the fuze is to ensure that the detonator causing
initiation is detonated at the desired instant. After arming the fuze, all that is
needed for the initiation of the explosive filling is sensing the target, after
which functioning takes place. [1,3,4]

2.2.2

Applied forces

In addition to performing the basic functions of safety, arming and firing, however,
the fuze must withstand the following forces in such a way as not to hamper the
functioning ofthe fuze:

2.2.2.1

A cce lerati on forces

This force affects all fuzes fired from a projector of any type and may be of
varying intensity. As a result, the inertia loading of the fuze components is
very high. This force is commonly called "set-back" from the fact that the
fixed portions of the fuze tend to leave the free or movable portions behind.

2.2.2.2

Centrifugal forces

Almost all guns used in the armed forces are rifled, except for mortars and
similar projectors. The rifling or spiral grooves in the gun barrel engrave a

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copper or nylon band fastened securely to the projectile and cause it to rotate.
Consequently, the fuze is subjected to radial acceleration in addition to the
axial acceleration forces during firing.

This is commonly called "spin".

Acceleration continues until the projectile leaves the gun barrel and the
projectile commences to lose its rotation due to friction with the air through
I

which it is passing. This is known as the "decay of spin". Centrifugal forces


are applied to the fuze components for the time span during which spin
prevails. The intensity of the force is proportional to quadratic of the spin
rate.

2.2.2.3

Deceleration forces

As with spin, once the projectile leaves the gun barrel, it ceases to accelerate
and commences to lose its forward momentum due to air friction.

Free

components that experienced set-back on acceleration, now tend to move


slowly forward again.

This action is called "forward creep".

When the

projectile hits the target it decelerates violently. This is called "set forward"
and is commonly used to initiate the explosive components of the fuze.

2.2.2.4

Side-slap

It is impossible to achieve a perfect fit between a projectile and the barrel of

the gun from which it is fired. Lateral movement of the projectile relative to
the barrel is possible and this may become a rapid side to side movement as
the shell accelerates up the barrel. This movement is called "side slap" or
"balotting". This motion can be quite violent in worn guns.

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2.2.2.5

Longitudinal slap

The greater part of the side slap is at the nose, because the driving band of
the shell, usually situated at the rear, holds the rear of the shell fairly
stationary.

This means that the shell momentarily turns sideways in the

barrel. While sideways across the barrel, the projectile momentarily jams and
decelerates and then accelerates again so that its progression up the muzzle is
a series of jerks rather than a smooth acceleration. [1]

2.2.2.6

Yaw forces.

Yaw is a result of excessive longitudinal slap, dynamically unstable projectiles


or some other disturbance of the projectile and is a behaviour during which
the projectile starts oscillating round the axis of flight. The frequency of this
oscillation is lower than the spin rate, but if superimposed on each other, this
causes higher centrifugal forces to be applied to the projectile. During fuze
design, this is taken into account by using a safety factor.

2.2.3

2.2.3.1

Additional requirements

Manujacturh1g

As fuzes are manufacture in large quantities, they should be designed in such


a way as to be adaptable to automated mass production and inspection
methods.

This is necessary in order to minimise human errors m

manufacturing and assembly, which in turn cuts production cost. [4]

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2.2.3.2

External dimensions

All fuzes have certain dimensional limits within which they must be designed.
This differs from fuze to fuze depending on the application.

The space

assigned to the fuze and the important dimensions are shown on a calibre
drawing (e.g. MIL-STD-333A 1979 : 3-8)

2.2.3.3

Other requirements

Other requirements may anse, depending on the application of the fuze.


Aspects such as water tightness, withstanding extreme temperatures and
withstanding vibration, should be considered during the design of the fuze.

2.3

Fuze Mechanisms

All the relevant fuze mechanisms currently being used, or used in the past, were evaluated in .
order to ensure a wide perspective on the problem and the possible solutions.

2.3.1

The Striker- or Inertia Pin Spring

The striker- or inertia pin spring consists of a spiral spring supporting the striker to
keep the striker separated from the detonator until overcome by a superior force.

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This mechanism is used either for arming purposes during firing or for initiation
during impact. [1]

2.3.2

The Detent

This is a form of plunger, consisting of a small metal cylinder or block working in a


hole or recess usually in the fuze body and supported on a spring. The spring is used
to keep the detent in a safe position in or behind a moving component, thus locking
it. During firing the detent is required to release the component which it is holding in
place. This is normally brought about by using centrifugal forces. [1]

2.3.3

The Rotor or Shutter

This consists of a component containing a detonator which is positioned off centre


relative to the centre line of the fuze. The rotor or shutter is normally kept in the
safe position by some safety mechanism like a detent or inertia pin. After arming, the
shutter rotates around a shaft to bring the detonator in line with the rest of the
detonic train. In fuzes for spin stabilised projectiles, this is normally made possible
by ensuring that the centre of mass of the shutter or rotor is positioned in such a way
as to ensure that the shutter rotates around the shaft during spin. [1]

2.3.4

The Clockwork Mechanism

The clockwork mechanism is probably the oldest time delay mechanism which is still
in use in fuzes.

Since the development of the watch in 1674, fuzes have been

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equipped with clockwork mechanisms, but progress m this field only became
apparent in the 18th century. [1]

The clockwork consists of a series of connected gears that are also connected to the
slide or rotor and a. pallet and pinion mechanism. The function of the pallet and
pinion mechanism is to regulate the turning rate of the gears (similar to watch
mechanism) and ultimately the shutter or rotor.

The series of gears is used to

increase the oscillating frequency of the pallet.

2.3.5

Ball Rotors

A ball rotor is a type of shutter which consists of a steel sphere or ball. The ball
often has a groove cut around one end and has a hollow shaft co-axial with the
groove. The ball rotor is arranged to lie in the fuze so that in the unarmed position
its axis is at an angle with the axis of the fuze. In this position it cannot be initiated
or transfer detonation. It is held in this position by a smaller ball or balls which
engage the groove. These balls move outward under centrifugal force, mostly after
the release of a detent or inertia pin. The centrifugal force causes the ball to incline
its axis until it is lined up with the main axis of the fuze after which the fuze is armed.
As the ball rotor is made of highly polished steel it does not at once attain the same
degree of angular velocity as the fuze body, but builds up speed slowly. It therefore
provides a certain degree of delayed arming.

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2.3.6

Spiral Unwinder

The spiral unwinder system provides delayed arming in fuzes due to the effect of
projectile spin. The unwinder consists of a tightly wound spiral coil of soft metal
ribbon, located concentrically with the spin axis around a fixed hub and surrounded
by a circular cavity. After set-back has ceased, projectile spin causes the free end of
the ribbon to move outward across the gap to press against the cavity wall.
Continuing spin transfers successive portions of the coiled ribbon progressively
outward until all ofthe ribbon has unwound from the central hub. The time taken by
the unwinder to unwrap, provides the arming delay. As the last coil of the unwinder
opens, successive members in the arming process are released or unlocked.

The

unwinder is used to block a striker in the safe position, to restrain an explosive train
barrier and to provide electrical switching. This method is dependant on high spin
rates.

2.3. 7

The Piston and Cylinder System

This method is sometimes used in mortar fuzes and is based on the principle of
damping.

It consists of a piston which fits closely in a closed cylinder and is

supported by a spring. When the piston is released, it moves within the cylinder as
result of the spring force. The air in front of the piston is compressed, which inhibits
the movement of the piston. A vent is provided through which the air escapes to
determine the speed at which the piston moves in the cylinder. When the cylinder
reaches a certain point, the shutter is released and the fuze is armed.

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3.

THE EXISTING FUZE

3. 1

Background

The fuze currently in use for armour rounds is used as an example as this is the latest fuze to
be developed by Naschem. It is regarded as the latest technology mechanical fuze available
in Naschem. This fuze, as with all the other fuzes manufactured by Naschem, is based on a
design that originated from the M48A3 fuze which was developed during the second world
war and has not changed since 1968. [1]

3.2

Major Components

A fuze consists of different mechanisms - each of which is designed to serve a certain


purpose. These mechanisms are called the Major Components and are shown in Figure 1 :
Configuration of fuze with major components

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Figure 1 :Configuration of fuze with major components

3.2.1

Fuze Body

The fuze body is the housing which contains all the other components. The fuze
body has to comply with certain dimensional requirements which are described in the
l\1IL-STD-333B document. This is for standardisation purposes.

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3.2.2

The Safe and Arming Device

The Safe and Arming Device (hereafter called the SAD) is situated in the base of the
fuze and is responsible for keeping the fuze safe when required but also to ensure
arming after firing. It contains mechanisms to provide safety during set-back and
spin and to provide muzzle safety. The SAD is an entity on its own and may be sold
as a separate item.

The SAD consists of a body or housing in which all the components are contained, a
rotor (which includes the detonator), a gear chain (which regulates the rotation of
the rotor to provide muzzle safety) and the booster (which contains an explosive
pellet).

The SAD of a fuze has to comply with the following requirements:

No component must arm during a drop test of 1.5m.

With all the safety mechanisms intact, no component must arm during a 2000
r. p.m. spin test.

With the set-back safety mechanism removed, the spin safety mechanisms may
not arm during a spin ~f 1000 r.p.m. and must arm during a spin of2000 r.p.m.

Complete arming may only take place after a certain time, depending on the use.

The set-back mechanisms must arm during the lowest set-back experienced.

All the components must withstand maximum set-back acceleration.

The SAD is the most complicated and most important component of a fuze and is
also the most expensive.

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3.2.3

The Super Quick Mechanism

The Super Quick mechanism is situated in the nose of the fuze and is responsible for
the initiation of the fuze when the fuze is set on Super Quick mode. This mechanism
provides a fast reaction to ensure detonation outside the target and provides
sensitivity of the fuze when used on frail targets like soft skinned vehicles. On the
other hand, however, the mechanism must be insensitive enough to prevent initiation
by rain.

The mechanism consists of a cap, a cross bar assembly which dissipates rain drops, a
Super Quick detonator, a striker and a crushing element which prevents the striker
from touching the detonator during set-back.

3.2.4

The Delay lVIechanism

The Delay mechanism is situated directly above the SAD. The Delay Mechanism has
the three primary functions.

It provides a delayed functioning when the fuze is set on Delay mode

It serves as a backup in case of a Super Quick failure

It provides Graze Action functioning.

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The Delay setting on the fuze is typically used when it is required that the fuze
should detonate a certain time after impact (used for trenches) or when the fuze is
required to be less sensitive (when used on targets behind foliage).

The Delay mechanism consists of a plunger (containing the delay detonator and a
spin safety mechanism), a housing in which the striker is assembled and a closing
screw to keep the housing and plunger in position. The delay detonator is positioned
to the side of the centre line and a flash tube is provided on the centre line to ensure
that the flash from the Super Quick detonator reaches the SAD.

3.2.5

The Setting Mechanism

The Setting Mechanism is situated under the Super Quick mechanism but above the
Delay mechanism. The function of the setting mechanism is to facilitate the selection
between Super Quick and Delay mode.

The setting mechanism consists of a setting sleeve which facilitates the selection, an
interrupter which is supported by a spring and pulls away during spin, and a retaining
screw which keeps the components in place.

When set on Super Quick, the setting sleeve is positioned in such a way as to permit
the flash from the Super Quick detonator to pass through should the fuze experience
spin. In the Delay mode, the setting sleeve prevents the flash from the Super Quick
detonator to pass through and only the delay detonator can initiate the fuze. The
delay mechanism is never disabled and serves as a permanent backup for the Super
Quick detonator.

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4.

DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST FUZE

4. 1

Motivation

Although the armour fuze and other similar fuzes have proved themselves very reliable
during years of service, they have one major handicap and that is high cost. In order to
become competitive in the international market, it is important for Naschem to consider the
cost of its products. To this avail, it was decided to design and development of a new fuze
for the following reasons:

The fuze is the only component of a round of which the cost can be significantly reduced
by improving the design. A few improvements can be made to the other components of
a round, but they will not provide significant cost reducing. The present fuze is based on
old technology which provides adequate functioning reliability and safety, but is not
necessarily the most cost effective way to obtain the required specifications.

This is

especially true of the muzzle safety mechanism used in the fuze (the mechanism
providing delayed arming) which is situated in the SAD. As far as could be determined,
all the armour and artillery fuzes produced in the world use a clockwork mechanism to
provide muzzle safety. If a more cost effective delaying mechanism could be found, it
will reduce the price of a fuze drastically.

Secondly, an improved design will save more money than improving manufacturing
facilities would. Quality and productivity are both important parameters in the process
of manufacturing competitive products.

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design ofthe product and attention to these parameters alone cannot make a competitive
product out of a bad design. [5]

4.2

Market Analysis

A full understanding of the fuze market is essential and must precede the design phase.

No information concerning any other development of a low cost fuze was found. The only
reference given to low cost is for fuze FU I FA 02 which was developed as a training fuze.
However, the fuze is still based on the same technology as the other fuzes and it is doubtful
that the fuze could be significantly cheaper than existing fuzes. In fact, the graze action
mechanism used in the fuze was found to be very difficult to manufacture, making the fuze
expensive. Some cost reducing exercises in the production of fuzes, which included plastic
moulding of the gear trains used in fuzes, were performed in USA. [2]

To evaluate the feasibility of the project, the following figures concerning the fuze market
were collected:

4.2.1

Historical Allocation of United States Army Ammunition Spending

It is indicated that 11% of funds made available annually for ammunition is allocated

to the procurement of fuzes. This amounted to a budget of $2560 million during


1989. [2]

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4.2.2

World-wide Fuze Contenders

The following fuzes are identified as possible contenders of the Low Cost fuze (the
figures are forecast figures for 1995 made available in 1987 by the DMS worldwide
study and forecast of military fuzes):

Table 1 : Forecast of fuze procurement for 1995

DM211

25 000

DM241

10 000

DM51

20 000

FU I FA 0 1 and 02

30 000

L112A1

10 000

L32A2

20 000

L85

15 000

M48A3

35 000

M577

200 000

M572

15 000

M739

400 000

All the fuzes mentioned in the table are of basically the same design as that of fuzes
presently in production at Naschem.

At an estimated unit cost of $50 (cost of fuze PD M739), this amounts to $39
million fuze procurement funds. If the Low Cost fuze could obtain a 5% market

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share at half the unit production cost and 75% of the price, Naschem would have
made an additional profit of almost R2 million for 1995. [2]

A study was done to justify the development of the fuze.

The objective was to

determine what number of fuzes will have to be manufactured to cover the


development costs. Table 2 : Feasibility of developmentcontains the results from the
exercise.
Table 2 : Feasibility of development

This will probably be covered by the production of fuzes during one year.

4.3

Concept Design and Layout

4.3.1

Requirements

To ensure that the design conforms to all the requirements, it is important to


stipulate these requirements. This is done by means of a B-Specification. The BSpecification of this fuze is based on that of existing fuzes and is included in
Appendix A

All the requirements as stated in the B-Specification was considered

during the design, but for the purpose of the demonstration only some of the
requirements were evaluated.

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4.3.2

Concept Generation

Probably the most expensive and critical item in a fuze is the SAD and in particular
the mechanism providing the delayed arming for muzzle safety. The emphasis was
thus initially placed on developing an alternative device providing delayed arming
which is at least as reliable as the clockwork mechanism, but is less expensive.

The following possibilities were identified:

4.3.2.1

The Pyrotechnics Tube

A tube containing pyrotechnic composition can provide a time delay after


which a shutter is released. The ignition of the pyrotechnic composition will
be by means of a striker initiating a detonator during set-back.

After a

predetermined time the pyrotechnic composition must burn through after


which one of two events can take place. The flame from the pyrotechnic
composition can initiate another composition which burns away completely,
leaving a passage for the movement of the shutter or a detent through the
space where the burning composition was. Otherwise, the combustion gasses
of the pyrotechnics can build up pressure to push a pin out of place which can
release the shutter.

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PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION

RELEASE PIN

Figure 2 : Pyrotechnic tube concept

4.3.2.2

The Fan

The movement of the shutter can be inhibited by a fan of which rotation is


regulated by making use of air friction. During set-back and spin, the shutter
will be released and start moving to the armed position. A fan is coupled to
the shutter by a gear mechanism and will start turning as soon as the shutter
starts moving. The rotating fan will cause air friction which will regulate the
movement of the shutter to provide the required delay of arming.

GEAR
FAN

SPRING
DETONATOR

Figure 3 : Fan concept

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4.3.2.3

The Piston and Cylinder

Of the mechanisms mentioned in section 2.3, the only arming time delaying
mechanism which was considered, was the piston and cylinder concept.

DETONATOR

SPRING

PISTON WITH SMALL HOLE

Figure 4 : Piston and cylinder concept

After evaluating the three concepts, it was decided that the only way to cut the cost
of the fuze significantly would be to redesign the whole fuze and not only the SAD
as planned initially.

Of the three concepts mentioned, the pyrotechnic time delay

mechanism was singled out as the most practicible concept.

The next phase was the development of a totally new fuze concept based on the
pyrotechnic arming mechanism.

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4.3.3

Basic Concept and Functioning of the Demonstrator Fuze

NOSE

DELAY STRIKER

DELAY

GRAZE WING

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION
STRIKER CUP
INSERT
M563 DETONATOR

ROTOR
FUZE BODY
V9 /V19 DETONATOR
BOOSTER PELLET
BOOSTER CUP

Figure 5 : Configuration of low cost fuze with major components

The concept of the delayed arming mechanism is based on the burning away of a
pyrotechnic composition in a cup.

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I .

Figure 6 : Before set-back

Figure 7 : During set-back

The fuze must remain in this condition before


being fired.

The delay composition is initiated


during set-back and burns through in
the allotted time span.

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Figure 8 :After set-back but before


pyrotechnic burnout

Figure 9 : After set-back and


pyrotechnic burnout

The Delay Element ignites the pyrotechnic


composition in the Striker Cup which is
supported on a spring . The spring pushes the
Striker Cup upwards onto the delay

When the pyrotechnic composition has


burned away, the Striker Cup moves
up and releases the Rotor. The Rotor
then swings around due to spin and is
locked in the armed position with the
detonator directly below the striker

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Figure 10 : Functioning on direct impact


On direct action impact the Nose colapses
and the striker is pushed into the detonator,
causing initiation.

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Figure 11 : Functioning on graze


impact
During graze action the Graze Wings
cause the striker to be pushed into the
detonator, causing initiation.

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4.3.4

Design Concept Iterations

During the detail design stage of the demonstrator, many iterations of design were
necessary.

The following table gives a summary of the configurations and the

reasons for changes incorporated:


Table 3 : Concept configurations
CEPT
1.

2.

..,
;).

CONFIGURATION
Two detonators in Rotor (Delay
and Super Quick)
Setting mechanism separating
Striker Cup from Delay
One detonator in Rotor
No physical barrier separating
Striker Cup and Delay
Striker Cup assembled from
bottom
Anning Ring separating Striker
Cup and Delay
Setting mechanism and dual
action incorporated in Rotor
Solid nose

4.

Booster Cup changed to support


SAD from the bottom

5.

6.

7.

More space created for


movement of Striker Cup
Rotor made smaller
Only one detonator (Super
Quick) in Rotor
Graze Wings incorporated
Striker Cup assembled from top
Am1ing Ring discarded
Springs supporting Graze
Win_gs

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REASON FOR CHANGE


Initial requirement was for a dual action
fuze

Difficulty was experienced with the


implementation of the setting mechanism
with this design. Dual action can be
implemented when a fom1al development
project is launched.
Physical separation of the Striker Cup and
the Delay Element is necessary to prevent
pyroteclmic composition from cnunbling
during vibration. The setting mechanism
could again be implemented in this design.
The solid nose could be moulded.
Easier assembly of the components is
facilitated and stresses in components are
lower.
Calculations of spring showed that more
space is needed for the Striker Cup Spring.
Rotor had to change due to dimensions of
detonators. Dual action requirement is not
necessary for demonstration
Graze action functioning is an important
requirement. Incorporation of Graze wings
brought about other changes.

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Table 3 : Concept configurations (continued)


.. ::

8.

9.

4.4

Rain dispensing mechanism


incorporated
Graze Wings overlap with Delay

Rain dispensing mechanism discarded


Springs removed from Graze Wings
Detent incorporated in Rotor
Delay composition omitted, stronger
detonator incorporated to ignite
pyrotechnic composition

10.

Graze Wing Springs changed


Other minor changes

11.

12.

13.

14.
15.

Graze Wings improved by moving


centre of
Striker Cup and Delay Striker changed
to enable
of
Delay composition reinstated
Alternative detonator incorporated in
Rotor
Insert
under Graze
Alternative fixing method of Graze

To make the fuze insensitive to rain,


a rain dispensing unit is required.
Graze Wing/Delay Element
overlapping is required to prevent the
Delay Element from hitting the
pyrotechnic composition during a
on nose.
Rain dispensing is not a requirement
for the demonstration. Calculations
will confirm the feasibility of
mechanism. A detent is a cheaper
spin safety mechanism. Pyrotechnic
composition takes long to bum away
and can provide muzzle safety on its
own.
Manufacturer made these suggestions
which were incorporated for easier

Lighter components were needed to


facilitate the
of the
A faster pyrotechnic bum away
composition could be found.

To avoid the insert .

Detail Design
After and during the concept design phase, calculations were done to verify that the
fuze will be able to withstand the forces acting on it. To simplify the method of
detail design, variables were specified on the component drawings for the important

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dimensions which were used during the calculations.

This facilitated the easy

alteration of dimensions during the design phase.

4.4.1

Specific Requirements

For this fuze configuration, specific requirements were identified which had to be
complied with.

To determine whether th~ fuze complies with the requirements,

either calculations, simulations or physical testing was used.

4.4.1.1

Before firing

The external dimensions must be according to Military Standard

The Striker Cup must penetrate the Rotor to prevent it from rotating

The Delay Element may not touch the pyrotechnic composition in the
Striker Cup

The Graze Wing must overlap with the Delay Element to prevent it from
pressing onto the pyrotechnics during a drop on the nose ofthe fuze

The M563 detonator in the Rotor may not initiate the V9/Vl9 booster
relay when detonated in the safe position

The Rotor must be free to rotate under all conditions

If the pyrotechnic composition should ignite spontaneously, the fuze must


remain safe.

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4.4.1.2

During Set-back

All the components must withstand set-back

The Striker Cup Spring and Delay Striker Spring must allow arming to
take place

The Striker Cup must not touch the Rotor on set-back to prevent damage
of the striker tip

4.4.1.3

The movement of the Striker Cup must allow arming of the Graze Wings

During and After Arming

The Striker Cup must not pull out of the Rotor before pyrotechnic
burnout

The Striker Cup must pull out ofthe Rotor after pyrotechnic burnout but
must still penetrate the rotor cavity to act as a stop for the Rotor

The centre of gravity of the Rotor must be such that the Rotor arms
during spin

The Graze Wings must allow enough movement of the Striker Cup for
armmg

4.4.1.4

The Rotor must be locked positively after arming.

On Target Impact

During graze action, functioning of the projectile must take place.

The components must withstand the forces during target impact.

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4.4.2

Design Calculations

As far as possible all the functioning parameters and important component


dimensions were calculated. The design calculations are included in Appendix B.

4.4.3

Drawings
Drawings were created for manufacturing purposes. Due to the confidentiality of the
project, formal drawings are not included in this document but the important
dimensions on the components are indicated on drawings included in the design
calculations (Appendix B)

4.5

Funds

For the initial development and to prove the feasibility of the fuze design, funds were
required for a small number of fuzes and a concept demonstration proof Further funds may
be made available for the full development by a client. To this avail a marketing pamphlet,
included in Appendix C, was prepared for the Naschem marketing personnel.

4. 6

Detonic Elements

During the fuze design, existing detonic elements were used as far as possible. The only
detonic components that had to be developed were the Delay Element and the Striker Cup.
The following requirements were stated for the above mentioned detonic elements:

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The Striker Cup must contain a pyrotechnic composition that burns away leaving as little
residue as possible in the Striker Cup.

The time delay needed from Delay Element initiation to Striker Cup burnout was 50
msec 20 msec.

The cap used in the Delay Element must be sensitive enough to ensure initiation at
minimum set-back acceleration conditions.

The energy value at which initiation was

required, was fixed at 12 mjoule.

The Delay Element and Striker Cup were developed successfully and complied with all the
requirements.

4. 7

Manufacturing

Five fuzes were manufactured for testing purposes. During the manufacturing of the first
sample of fuzes, some changes were also incorporated to facilitate manufacturing of the
components.

4.8

Fuze Test Simulator

The fuze test simulator is an installation at Naschem which enables the recovery of fuzes
when fired from a 76 mm gun.

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4.9

Tests and Results

4.9.1

Spin test

4.9.1.1

Objective

The objective of this test was to confirm safety of the fuze at a spin rate of
1000 rpm and arming at a spin rate of 2000 rpm

4.9.1.2

Method

The Support Plate with the Rotor and the spin safety mechanism were spun
first at 1000 rpm and then at 2000 rpm. Arming of the Rotor was observed.
This was repeated three times.

4.9.1.3

Result

The fuze remained safe at 1000 rpm and was armed at 2000 rpm.

4.9.2

4.9.2.1

Drop test

Objective

The objective of this test was to confirm safety of the fuze set-back
mechanisms and structural integrity when dropped from a height of 1.5 m.

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4.9.2.2

Method

The complete fuze was dropped onto a concrete surface from a height of 2 m
in the following orientations:

Table 4 : Drop test orientations

4.9.2.3

Nose up

Nose down

Nose horizontal

Nose 45 up

Nose 45 down

Results

None of the set-back safety mechanisms were armed after the drop test. The
fuze remained safe to handle and fire.

During the nose up drop tests one of the three Graze Wings dislocated from
the Striker Cup on each of the drops. This can be attributed to the loose fit
of the Striker Cup in the cavity in the Insert. The safety mechanism is still
acceptable as the fuze remains safe to handle and fire. The drop test was
repeated a few times on one of the fuzes without repairing the dislocated
Graze Wings. After 4 drops all the Graze Wings were armed. The fuze is
not required to be dropped more than once during this test, so this did noi

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amount to a test failure.

With all the Graze Wings armed, the fuze still

remains safe as long as the pyrotechnic composition is not burnt out.

During the drop test with the nose orientated horizontally, the Detent Spring
was found to have dislocated from the Detent.

This can be attributed to

excessive moving space of the Detent. A stop will have to be incorporated to


prevent the Detent from swinging too far and dislocating the Detent Spring.

4.9.3

4.9.3.1

Partly armed drop test .


Objective

The objective of this test was to confirm that the spin safety mechanism can
not be armed by means of a drop.

4.9.3.2

Method

The Graze Wings were armed manually and the fuze was dropped (orientated
horizontally). The radial orientation of the fuze was varied during the test.

4.9.3.3

Result

Again the Detent was allowed to swing too far which caused the Detent
Spring to be dislocated. During the drops where the Detent_ Spring stayed
intact, the Rotor was still safe.

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4.9.4
4.9.4.1

Minimum set-back test

Objective

The objective of this test was to confirm armmg of the fuze set-back
mechanisms during minimum set-back conditions and to ensure that the
residue of the pyrotechnic composition does not inhibit movement of the
components.

4.9.4.2

Method

The fuze was tested in the fuze test simulator at a set-back of 14 000 g's.
After recovery, the fuze was opened and the arming mechanisms were
inspected.

4.9.4.3

Result

The set-back mechanisms were all armed.

The residue formed by the

pyrotechnic composition did not have any negative affect on the arming of
the fuze mechanisms. Figure 12 shows the inside of the fuze after being
recovered from the test.

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Figure 12: Photo showing internal view of fuze after recovery

4.9.5

4.9.5.1

Maximum set-back test

Objective

The objective of this test was to test structural integrity of the components
during maximum set-back and spin conditions and to ensure that the residue
of the pyrotechnic composition does not inhibit movement of the
components.

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4.9.5.2

Method

The fuze was tested in the fuze test simulator using a rifled bore at a set-back
of 25 000 g' s. After recovery, the fuze was opened and the components were
inspected for possible damage.

4.9.5.3

Result
The Rotor Shaft, which was press fitted into a hole in the Support Plate, fell
through the hole and onto the Booster Pellet which caused the Rotor to
dislocate. Again the residue formed by the pyrotechnic composition did not
have any negative effect on the arming of the fuze mechanisms.

4.10 Design Improvements

Due to the problems that were experienced during the tests, improvements were made to the
design of the fuze:

The hole in the Support Plate for the Rotor Shaft was changed to prevent the Rotor
Shaft from being able to fall through on set-back.

A better stop for the Rotor was incorporated.

The locking mechanism for the Rotor was improved.

The Striker Cup was changed to ensure improved safety.

Some of the materials specified for the components were changed to more available
materials.

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A closer fit of the Striker Cup in the Insert was incorporated to prevent warm gases
from the pyrotechnics from leaking through to the detonator in the Rotor. The closer fit
will also help to prevent the problems that were experienced on the drop test.

The position of the Detent was changed to prevent the Detent from swinging too far and
causing dislocation ofthe Detent Spring.

These improvements were incorporated into the fuze and the maximum set-back test (par.
4.9.5) was repeated with the improved fuze. All the problems that were experienced with
the initial design were resolved using the improved components.

Figure 13: Photo showing improved Rotor after recovery

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5.

CONCLUSION

A low cost fuze can cause a revolution in the fuze manufacturing industry. Indications are
that this fuze, if produced in large quantities, will cost less than a third of the existing fuzes.
The results indicate that the fuze does comply with all the specified requirements. It must be
kept in mind, however, that the objective of this project was to demonstrate a concept and it
does not address all the functioning and safety parameters.

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6.

RECOMMENDATIONS

It is recommended that funds be made available for the further development of the fuze.

More extensive testing will have to be done to prove the functioning reliability and safety of
the fuze. This will include a recovery proof and other dynamic proofs to test muzzle safety,
arming, direct action sensitivity, rain insensitivity, indirect firing functioning and graze action
functioning.

Static and environmental tests will also be necessary to prove safety of the

fuze.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Literature

[1] -

Ministry of supply; The Textbook of Filling; Restricted; 1978

[2]-

Webb, Michael, ; DMS Military Fuzes- World-wide Market Study and


Forecast; DMS inc.; 1987

[3] -

Headquarters, US Army Materiel Command; Engineering Design Handbook,


Ammunition Series, Fuzes; AMC Pamphlet; November 1969

[4]-

Wheeler, dr: J.P., van Zyl, dr. F.E.; Fundamentals of Fuzes- a Compiled :Manual;
Naschem document no. LF 146/82; 1982

[5]-

Dr. Hunt, Michael; Design- The Key Technology; The South African Engineer;
Vol. 44; April 1994.

[6] -

Mott, R.L.; Machine elements in Mechanical Design; Columbus; Charles E. Merril


Publishing Company; 1985

[7]-

Standards Research; SAE Standard AEll : Spdng Design Manual; Warrendale;


Society of Automotive Engineers; 1990

[8] -

Pisano, A., McCarthy, M., Derby, S.; Cams, Gears, Robot and Mechanism
Design; New York; American Society ofMechanical Engineers; 1990

[9] -

School of Ammunition; Fuzes- Basic Principles; Precis no. 204; August 1977

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Military Standards and Specifications

{ 1}

MIL-STD-1316C :

Fuze, Design Safety Criteria for.

{2}

MIL-STD-1472D :

Human Engineering design criteria for military systems,


equipment and facilities

{3}

MIL-STD-333B :

Fuze, projectiles and accessory contours for large caliber


armaments

{4}

MIL-STD-81 OE :

Environmental test methods and engineering guidelines

{5}

MIL-STD-331B :

Fuzes and fuze components, environmental tests for

Note:

Sources in the military field are not readily available. These documents were the only
applicable sources available at Naschem.
Although the sources may seem outdated, it must be noted that little development in
this field failed to prompt the updating ofthe documentation.

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APPENDIX A

B-specification for Low Cost Fuze


(40 pages)

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

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This document contains confidential information related to the defence of the Republic of
South Africa. The provisions of Section 118 of the Defence Act, Act No. 44 of 1957, as
well as the provisions of the Protection of Information Act, Act No. 84 of 1982, are
applicable to this document. This document must be sent back to Naschem, a Division of
Denel (Pty) Limited when no longer requirefl

.TITLE PAGE
TITLE

CRITICAL ITEM DEVELOPMENT SPECIFICATION


(TYPE B2) OF THE LOW COST FUZE

DOCUMENT NO.

5270-000000-115001

ISSUE DATE

SEPTEMBER 1995

AUTHOR

A.H. VAN DEN BERG

SUMMARY

The document contains the design


requirements for the Low Cost Fuze

KEY WORDS

B2-Specification, Development, Mechanical fuze, Direct


action, Graze action, Pyrotechnics

DATE OF ORIGINAL ISSUE

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and

testing

SEPTEMBER 1995

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PARAGRAPH

PAGE

TITLE PAGE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. SCOPE

2. DOCUMENTATION

2.1 Applicable Documents


2.1.1 Military Standards and Specifications
2.1.2 Military Documents

5
5
5

3. REQUIREMENTS

3.1 Fuze Definition


3 .1.1 Fuze Diagram
3 .1.2 Interface Definition
3.1.3 Major Component List
3 .1. 4 Coll1111on Items

6
6
6
8
8

3.2 Characteristics
3.2.1 Perfom1ance Characteristics ofthe Fuze
3.2.2 Physical Characteristics ofthe Fuze
3.2.3 Functioning Reliability of the Fuze
3.2.4 Maintainability ofthe Fuze
3 .2. 5 Envirol1ll1ental Requirements
3.2.6 Transportability
3.2.7 Cost

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3.3 Design and Construction


3. 3 .1 Materials, Processes and Parts
3.3 .2 Electromagnetic Radiation
3.3.3 Product Marking
3.3.4 Workmanship
3.3 .5 Interchangeability
3.3.6 Safety
3.3.7 Human Performance/Human Engineering

13
13
14
14
14
14
14
16

3. 4 Documentation

17

3. 5 Logistics
3.5.1 Tools supply
3.5 .2 Personnel and Training

17
17
17

3. 6 Major Component Characteristics

18

3. 7 Precedence
3. 7. 1 Documentation
3. 7. 2 Design requirements value system
3. 7.3 Classification of failures

18
18
19
19

4. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROVISIONS

20

4.1 General
4 .1.1 Standards
4.1.2 Test Design
4.1.3 Test Equipment and Measuring Techniques
4.1.4 Responsibility for inspection and tests
4.1.5 Test Specifications
4.1.6 Test Method Development
4 .1. 7 Design qualification methodology

20
20
20
20
20
21
21
21

4. 2 Quality Conformance Inspection


4.2.1 Quality Conformance Examination and Tests
4.2.2 Examination and Inspection Methods (Test Category A)
4.2.3 Static Functioning Tests
4.2.4 Environmental Resistance Tests
4.2.5 Dynamic Tests

23
23
23
25
26
31

4. 3 Documentation Audit
4.3 .1 Design Review
4.3.2 Documentation Status

34
34
34

4. 4 Design Qualification Testing

34

4.5 Reliability Growth Plan

34

4. 6 Cross Reference Matrix

35

36

5. PREPARATION FOR DELIVERY


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36

6. NOTES
6.1 Reviewing Authority

36

6.2 Standardisation

36

6. 3 Abbreviations

36

APPENDIX Al : FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF FUZE

37

APPENDIX A2 : PRELlMINARY CLASSIFICATION OF FAILURES

39

TABLES
35

TABLE 1: REQUIREMENTS- VERIFICATION CROSS


TABLE 2: CLASSIFICATION OF FAILURES

40

ILLUSTRATIONS
38

FIGURE 1 : FUZE LEVEL SCHEMATIC FUNCTION DIAGRAM

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1.

SCOPE
This specification establishes the design, performance, development and test
requirements for the Low Cost Fuze. The item is hereinafter referred to as the fuze.

2.

DOCUMENTATION
2.1

Applicable Documents

2.1.1

2.1.2

Military Standards and Specifications

2.1.1.1 MIL-STD-1316C :

Fuze, Design Safety, Criteria for.

2.1.1.2 MIL-STD-1472D:

Human Engineering design criteria for


military systems, equipment and facilities

2.1.1.3 MIL-STD-333B :

Fuze, projectiles and accessory contours


for large caliber armaments

2.1.1.4 MIL-STD-810E:

Environmental
test
engineering guidelines

2.1.1.5 MIL-STD-331B :

Fuzes
and
fuze
environmental tests for

2.1.1.6 MIL-STD-490A:

Specification practices

2.1.1.7 MIL-STD-961B :

Military Specifications and associated


documents, preparation of

methods

and

components,

Military Documents

Ammunition and Explosives Regulations (RSA) (SANDF), Volume 1,


Pamphlet 20, Part 2. Ammunition and Ammunition Package Markings.

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3.

REQUIREMENTS
3.1

Fuze Definition
The fuze shall be a point detonating mechanical fuze with the following
functioning options :

Super quick or instantaneous direct action mode.


Super quick or instantaneous graze action mode.

The fuze shall be attached to the nose of a shell and shall :

Render the round safe during handling, storage and launching


Arm the round during deployment
Detonate the projectile on the target

3.1.1

Fuze Diagram

3 .1.1.1 Appendix A1 shows a typical fuze level schematic block


diagram applicable to the fuze, showing all the major features in
the form of a functional description.
3.1.1.2 The fuze has an external interface with the filled shell. All
internal interfaces shall be the responsibility of the subcontractor, and shall be determined by the design concept
chosen to meet safety and performance requirements. They shall
be controlled on design drawings as applicable.

3.1.2

Interface Definition

3 .1.2.1 External Physical Interfaces


MIL-STD-333B shall be applied as a guide in the design of fuze
profile and outerfaces. (Figure 4 in the MIL-STD applies).

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(a)

Fuze/Filled Shell Outerface


(i)

Physical Fit
The fuze shall fit into the filled shell ofthe round.
The following interfaces shall be specified on the
design drawings :
Fuze thread and magazine configuration.

Shell nose end thread and explodering


configuration.

(ii)

Seating Faces
The seating faces of the two items shall ensure
that a watertight seal is obtained.

(iii)

Explosives Contact Face


The fuze configuration shall ensure contact
between it and the explodering system. The
contact between the fuze and the high explosive
filling shall ensure that it does not crack, chip or
crumble during vibration, shock or jolt testing of
the assembled round.

(iv)

Dimensions and Tolerancing


The geometry and symmetiy dimensions and
tolerances shall ensure that the fuze does not
disturb the balance or flight characteristics of the
projectile.

3 .1.2.2 External Functional Interfaces


(a)

Fuze/Filled Shell Outerface


(i)

External Profile
The external contour of the fuze shall ensure that
aerodynamic stability of the projectile 1s
optimised. The contour shall be chosen m
conformance with the guidelines contained m
MIL-STD-333B.

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(ii)

Detonation Transfer
The detonation energy output transferred from
the fuze booster shall be sufficient to ensure that
a TNT filling of T .B.D. kg nominal in the
projectile will produce a full detonation. The
energy level to achieve this, shall be established
by empirical tests on the round.

3 .1.2.3 Internal Interfaces


The internal functional interfaces involve the following forms of
energy transfer :
(a)
mechanical movement due to rotation and acceleration
forces.
(b)
heat transfer due to temperature gradients caused by
friction or temperature fluctuations.
(c)
detonation power transfer during initiation ofthe detonic
elements in the detonation train.
The internal physical interfaces involve dimensional interfacing
of the components of the fuze.

3.1.3

::Major Component List


The major components shall be specified by the designer.

3.1.4

Common Items
Where possible, existing components and detonic elements shall be used
in the design of the fuze.

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3.2

Characteristics

The function diagram in Appendix Al is to be used as a guide to the following


description :

3.2.1

Performance Characteristics of the Fuze


The fuze shall withstand the forces exerted on it during firing of round.
The design of the fuze is done using a safety factor of 20% over the
normal maximum operating conditions.
The following are the key functions of the fuze, which apply at any
temperature and muzzle velocity:
3 .2.1.1 Direct Action
The fuze shall function on impact at any range between 60 m
and the range of the system on direct impact. Impact angles
between target and projectile axis may lie between 90 and
20.
3.2.1.2 Graze Action
The fuze shall function on impact at any distance between 60 m
3000m on graze action. Targets may vary between natural soft
sand or ground, armoured vehicles or concrete bunkers.
3.2.1.3 ShelfLife
The fuze shall have a minimum guaranteed shelf life of 10 years
in existing normal magazine and depot facilities.
3 .2.1.4 Bore and Muzzle Safety
(a)
(b)
(c)

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The fuze shall not arm or detonate at any time while in


the gun barrel.
The fuze shall have a muzzle safety distance of 20 m
minimum.
The fuze safety and arming device shall be activated by a
combination of axial and radial acceleration forces.

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3. 2. 1. 5 Arming Distance
The fuze shall be fully armed at a maximum distance of 60 m.
3 .2.1.6 Initiation
All fuzes shall function instantaneously on impact. Function
time shall be not more than 100 micro-seconds to the initiation
of the main charge.
3 .2.1. 7 Sensitivity I Insensitivity
The fuze sensitivity/insensitivity shall be such that it :
(a)
will not function when fired through.
ram
grass growing more than 1 m high
leaves of trees
(b)
will function upon impact with a 25 mm thick plywood
target or a 1,6 mm mild steel sheet target, at a distance
between 60 m and 1 000 m from the barrel muzzle.

3.2.2

Physical Characteristics of the Fuze


3 .2.2.1 External Dimensions
The external fuze dimensions shall not exceed :
- Flange to nose length
96,5 mm max.
- Intrusion depth
58,0 mm max.
3.2.2.2 Mass ofFuze
The filled mass of the fuze must be between 600 g and 800g.
The filled mass for the fuze shall be specified on the design
drawings after the completion of the design.

3.2.3

Functioning Reliability of the Fuze


A failure is defined as the situation where the fuze does not function as
required or as intended. The fuze shall have a minimum functional
reliability of 90% at 90% confidence level

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3.2.4

Maintainability of the Fuze

The fuze shall not require specific maintenance during the first ten years
of its shelf life.

3.2.5

Environmental Requirements

Unless otherwise specified herein, the fuzes shall not suffer damage,
deterioration or degeneration of performance beyond the limits of this
specification when subjected to any environmental condition or any
combination of environmental conditions specified herein.
Environmental tests and test conditions are based on an analysis of user
requirements and the expected life cycle profile ofthe ammunition.
3.2.5.1 Natural (Storage) Environment
The fuze shall, in its unpacked and packaged states, be
unaffected by continuous and prolonged exposure to any
combination or sequence of the following conditions; whether
fitted to the round or as a separate item.
Extreme temperature
Relative humidity
Temperature and
Humidity

Salt fog
Immersion in water

Up to a maximum of 90%
Cycling for 28 days under extreme
temperatures of -50C to +70C, and
. with the maximum relative humidity
level of95%
Moist, salt laden atmosphere (to a 5%
concentration)
Up to a depth of 1 m maximum (in
inner container)

The performance of the fuze shall conform to specification after


having been subjected to these conditions.

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3.2.5.2 Environment for transportation and handling


The fuze shall, in its unpacked state, be unaffected by
continuous exposure to any combination or sequence of the
following
conditions :
(a)

Vibration
The fuze shall withstand and perform within
specification after being subjected to transport induced
vibration at high and low temperature extremes required
by this specification. Vibration shall be applied in three
orientations of the item. Transport simulation must
apply to armoured vehicles (AFV) and air cargo.

(b)

Rain
The fuze performance shall not be adversely affected by
exposure to simulated rainfall, for a period of at least
forty minutes, in both packaged and unpacked
conditions.

(c)

Thermal Shock
The fuze (unpacked) shall function within specification
after being subjected .to at least three cycles of
temperature shock at temperature extremes of +52C
2C and -20C 2C. The cycle time shall be at least 1
hour at each extreme temperature.

(d)

Immersion in water/Water tightness


The fuze shall withstand immersion in water at a depth
of 1 m for at least 15 minutes. The item shall be at 20C
above the ambient temperature. The round shall be
packed in the inner container.

(e)

Altitude
The fuze shall perform within specification when fired
dynamically at any altitude between zero and 2 000 m
above sea-level.

3.2.5.3 Induced (Mission) Environment- (Round/Ballistic environment)


The fuze structure and mechanisms shall remain safe and
operable under the ballistic environmental conditions created
during dynamic firing (See par. 3.3.6.6).
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3.2.6

Transportability

The fuze shall be safe to transport and shall not require any special
packaging/equipment or vehicle other than that normally required for
the transportation of the round. The item, assembled to the round, shall
withstand air transport and supply by parachute to operational areas.
(See also par. 3.2.5.4).

3.2.7

Cost

The design of the fuze shall be such that the cost of manufacturing is
kept as low as possible.

3.3

Design and Construction

Materials, processes and parts used shall be of high quality, suitable for the
purpose and shall conform to applicable military and/or other reliable and
traceable specifications. Criticality of materials used shall be traceable via a
logical and acceptable process, (e.g. FMEA, FTA) to performance, safety
and/or reliability criteria. The fuze shall be designed and constructed in
accordance with MIL-STD-1316C (paragraphs 4.3.4, 5.2.3, 6.4 and 7 are
excluded) and MIL-STD-333B.

3.3.1

l\'Iaterials, Processes and Parts

3.3.1.1 Where possible, locally manufactured materials and parts shall


be used.
3.3.1.2 The materials from which the fuze is to be made must be either
compatible with explosives of all classes or be in such a state
that it will provide no safety hazard should it come in contact
with explosives.
3.3.1.3 No material, used in the fuze, shall be deemed a hazard to
human life under normal handling conditions and environments.

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3.3 .1.4 All critical items/components are to be traceable to specific


starting material batches, dates of manufacture and lot/batch test
and process results.
3.3.2

Electromagnetic Radiation

The fuze and/or its detonic elements shall not be susceptible to


electromagnetic radiation. MIL-STD-1385B shall be used as a guide
for design purposes.

3.3.3

Product Marking

The fuze is to be clearly marked indicating lot number, manufacturer


and fuze type (in accordance with the Armscor marking drawing).

3.3.4

Workmanship

Workmanship shall be of such a nature as to ensure the safety, reliability


and functionality of the product without hindrance to the assembler or
operator.

3.3.5

Interchangeability

Where possible, components which are interchangeable between


different fuze types, are to be used.

3.3.6

Safety

3.3.6.1 The fuze shall be designed and constructed with MIL-STD1316C as guideline.
3.3.6.2 Safety procedures are to be drafted for assembly, handling,
testing and for rendering the fuze harmless.
3.3.6.3 The fuze is to be constructed that, in the event of the detonator
igniting, when the fuze is in the unarmed condition, it will not
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transfer, ignite or burn the remaining detonic train elements, nor


seriously injure the person handling the fuze/round.
3.3.6.4 The fuze shall remain safe for handling and shall be safe for
firing when subjected to:
(a)

Unprotected 1,5 m Drop during handling


The impact resulting from an unprotected 1,5 m drop on
a hard surface in any orientation (item shall not be fired)

(b)

Mechanical Shocks or Jolts


A series of mechanical shocks or jolts as it would endure
during transportation, for a crash hazard

(c)

Thermal Shock
Thermal Shock between -50C and +70C (at least 3
cycles)

(d)

Aircraft (Parachute) Drop (Refer also to par 3.2.6)


An aircraft (parachute) drop test when assembled into

the round and fully protected in its packaging as


prepared for air-supply
(e)

Static Electricity Build Up/Discharge


An instantaneous static electricity build up/discharge of
at least 30 kV.

3.3.6.5 Spontaneous Initiation (Rapid Fire Conditions)


When assembled to the round, the fuze shall not be susceptible
to spontaneous ignition or detonation (cook-oft) when it is kept
in a hot barrel or gun chamber for a prolonged period, during
rapid-fire conditions.

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3.3.6.6 Integrity under dynamic firing conditions


The fuze shall withstand the following combination of
conditions without any adverse effects. During the internal and
external ballistic phases ofthe projectile launch cycle, the fuze is
subjected to rotational and axial acceleration forces. The
maximum conditions are as follows :
25 000 g's
Axial acceleration
0,08 m/s/m
Deceleration in flight (horizontal)
23 000 rpm
Rotation at barrel exit (at 950 m/s)
-20C, +52C
Thermal shock : for the extremes
Altitude variations : from sea level to 2 000 m above sea level
The interior mechanisms of the fuze shall not be affected by
these conditions. It shall be protected from heat generated from
air friction, rain and from low temperatures.
The fuze structure and mechanisms shall remain safe and
operable under the ballistic environmental conditions created
during dynamic firing. These conditions are as follows :

3.3. 7

(a)

Integrity under dynamic acceleration forces


The fuze shall withstand a maximum axial acceleration
of 25 000 g' s, but must arm within the limits given.

(b)

Integrity under dynamic rotational forces


The fuze shall not arm at 1 000 rpm. The fuze shall
withstand an angular velocity of at least 23 000 rpm.

Human Performance/Human Engineering

3.3.7.1 When necessary, the depot personnel must be able to remove


the fuze from the projectile, using the appropriate spanner.
3.3.7.2 MIL-STD-1472D shall be used as a guideline in fuze design to
ensure that human engineering aspects are adequately
considered.

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3.4

Do-cumentation

The following documentation must be available for the design qualification of


the fuze to be finalised. This documentation shall be according to MIL-STD490A or MIL-STD-961B, and the Supplier's Configuration Documentation
system.
3.4.1

Development Specifications for the round and fuze.

3.4.2

Product and Acceptance Specification for the fuze.

3.4.3

Product and Acceptance Specification for the round incorporating the


fuze.

3.4.4

Test and Design Qualification Specifications for the fuze.

3.4.5

Design Qualification Report for the fuze.

3.4.6 MRI for the fuze.


3.4. 7 Drawings with classification or characteristics.
3.5

Logistics

3.5.1

Tools supply

Fuze spanners shall be provided to enable removal of the fuze in the


event of rework or inspection having to be done. No other particular
logistics requirements shall apply, other than those applicable on the 76
mm and 105 mm rounds.

3.5.2

Personnel and Training

3.5.2.1 Personnel
Not applicable.

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3.5.5.2 Training
(a)

(b)

3.6

No special training shall be required to use the fuze,


other than that currently being used for the 76 mm and
105 mm rounds.
Training aids shall be supplied, and shall include, but not
be limited to :
Sectioned fuzes
Schematic diagrams
Slides and transparencies
Updates oftraining manuals

Major Component Characteristics

The major components of the fuze shall be designed to meet all the physical
and performance requirements. Physical and functional requirements of each
major component or sub-assembly, shall be described in the product
specification.

3. 7

Precedence

3. 7.1

Documentation

The User Requirement Specification and Development Specification for


the round shall take precedence over the requirements of this
specification in case of conflict. In the event of conflict between this
B2-specification and other sub-system B2-specifications the conflict
shall be resolved by reference to the higher level specification and the
Technical Committee.
When requirements of this or related specifications cannot be met, the
matter shall be referred to the Technical Committee and the User for a
decision about the acceptance of proposed performance, or a
modification to stated requirements.

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3.7.2

Design requirements value system


The following requirements categories are important in this product :
3.7.2.1 Safety mechanism reliability (bore, muzzle)
3. 7 .2.2 Arming mechanism reliability - functioning
3.7.2.3 Terminal functioning
3.7.2.4 Cost ofitem
3.7.2.5 Non-strategic materials and processes
3. 7 .2. 6 Physical characteristics (size, mass, outer profile)
3. 7 .2. 7 Standardisation
For further details, reference shall be made to the Round Specification.

3.7.3

Classification of failures
A preliminary classification of failures is included in the Appendix. It
may be used as a guide to the importance of characteristics in the
development of the fuze.

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4.

QUALITY ASSURANCE PROVISIONS


4.1

General

4.1.1

Standards

The purpose of testing shall be to demonstrate design conformance to


requirements. As such, all components to be subjected to formal
demonstration testing, shall be free of material defects and shall conform
to dimensional (interface) requirements.
The Supplier shall be
responsible for the demonstration of Quality ofDesign.

4.1.2

Test Design

All tests where functional or physical characteristics are being evaluated


or demonstrated shall be based on rational experimental design
supported by statistical techniques. Test designs shall further be
supported by defect analysis, classification of defects and tolerance
analysis where applicable.

4.1.3

Test Equipment and Measuring Techniques

Measuring techniques shall be developed and qualified within agreed


accuracy and reproducibility requirements. Test equipment shall be
qualified and calibrated and calibration certificates shall be available at
all times.

4.1.4

Responsibility for inspection and tests

Unless otherwise specified the Contractor shall be responsible for the


execution of all static tests. Unless otherwise agreed upon the
Contractor shall use his own or any other acceptable test facility.

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4.1.5

Test Specifications
Test specifications shall be compiled to describe the test methodology
in detail. For example purpose of tests, test dates, sample quantities,
test lay-out, test equipment and conditions, sentencing conditions,
responsibilities of persons attending the test and data recordings shall be
described.

4.1.6

Test Method Development


For design qualification purposes, it is necessary to develop and specify
suitable tests and test methods (when they do not exist) to :
evaluate and verify safety (statically, dynamically)
evaluate and verify functioning (statically, dynamically)
evaluate and verify resistance to environmental conditions.

4.1.7

Design qualification methodology


4 .1. 7. 1 General
Detailed descriptions of the various applicable test methods and
techniques, the data recording requirements and special
conditions are presented in the sections following the test layout.
The qualification tests are divided into four categories, viz .. :
Mathematical analysis and simulation
Visual and dimensional inspection
Static (and environmental) testing
Dynamic testing

4.1. 7.2 Design Calculations- Modelling and Simulation


(a)

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Mathematical Analysis
Use may be made of mathematical methods to verify that
the fuze design has been optimised, and that it has the
necessary structural strength to withstand all imposed
forces.

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(b)

Statistical Techniques
Requirements which are difficult to verifY by testing,
such as shelf life, may be verified by techniques like
extrapolation of data and comparative statistical tests
with similar components and systems.

(c)

Finite Element Analysis


Critical components in the design may be analyzed to
determine stress effects of the imposed rotational and
axial accelerations.

(d)

Computer modelling and simulation


Ballistic modelling software may be (developed and)
used to evaluate and/or predict behaviour of
performance of components or products during design
and development.

4.1.7.3 Hardware Conformance Testing


(a)

Category A: Quality Inspections


*
Visual and dimensional inspection
*
Disassembly (or breakdown) inspection

(b)

Category B : Static Tests for Safety and functioning


(i)

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Environmental Testing
*
Extreme temperatures (high and low
temperatures, and long and short
exposure).
Humidity (corrosion)
*
Salt fog endurance
*
Temperature- Humidity cycling (ageing)
*
Water
tightness (immersion, rain)
*
Temperature shock (extreme high, low)
*
Mechanical
shock Golt)
*
Vibration (transport : road, rail, air, sea)
*
Drop
(packed and unpacked)
*
Drop parachute (air supply- packaged)
*
Electrostatic discharge
*
Electromagnetic radiation
*

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(ii)

(c)

4.2

Fuze functioning tests


*
Arming
*
Detonation sealing
*
Detonation transfer/propagation
*
Functioning

Category C: Dynamic Tests


*
Fuze arming distance
*
Fuze muzzle safety distance
*
Fuze sensitivity
*
Fuze insensitivity
*
Fuze functioning on direct action impact
*
Fuze graze action on ground impact
*
Cook-off test for rapid fire safety

Quality Conformance Inspection

4.2.1

Quality Conformance Examination and Tests

The fuze (and round where applicable) shall be subjected to the


examination and tests listed in section 4.I. 7 to ensure that all the
requirements of this section have been met.
In the following sections the hardware tests are described.

4.2.2

Examination and Inspection Methods (Test Category A)

4.2.2.1 Visual and Physical Inspection


(a)

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Each fuze or sample of fuzes, as agreed upon, shall be


visually and physically inspected including gauging for
conformance to drawing as agreed upon by approval of
the :MRI. This inspection shall include the condition of
the components and products and certification given by
manufacturers.

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(b)

Dimensional Inspection
Fuzes and components shall be measured for
conformance to the design drawing.
Measuring
equipment shall be qualified and calibrated and have a
valid calibration certificate. The Technical Committee
shall have the authority to decide on the validity of all
measuring procedures. This technique/process applies
when gauges are not available or if certain
measurements are required specifically. Recorded data
shall be used to evaluate or verify design limits or
tolerances.
The following characteristics shall be checked during
visual and dimensional inspections :
(i)
Mass of fuze
(ii)
External dimensions and profile
(iii)
External screw thread
(iv)
Magazine dimensions
(v)
Markings
Criteria for passing the test
All dimensions and other visual characteristics shall
comply with the requirements in this specification and
the design drawings.

4.2.2.2

Demonstration and Certification


(a)

(b)

(c)

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The Contractor shall have available written


certification accompanied by objective evidence
that materials and processes meet the applicable
requirements.
Demonstration will entail showing to witnesses
by means of hardware parts or models, or by
sketches or drawings of such items, that a
requirement has been met.
Demonstration may also include proving by
static or dynamic testing that a certain
performance is reached or function fulfilled.

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4.2.2.3 Performance tests and certification of performance


Performance tests shall be performed only after all the
conditions of 4.2.2.1 and 4.2.2.2 have been met. A statistically
valid sample of fuzes shall be utilised for the functioning tests.
Test results shall be certified as conforming to specification.

4.2.3

Static Functioning Tests


4.2.3.1 Spin (Arming and Non-Arming) Test

For practical purposes, these tests shall be conducted during


assembly of the items. The location may therefore be at the fuze
manufacturer.
Method ofTesting
The spin safety mechanism must be rotated up to 2 000 rpm.
Observations/Criteria for passing test
The rotor must not arm at 1 000 rpm, but it must be armed at
2000 rpm. Once armed, the rotor must be disarmed and the
assembly returned to the assembly line.

4.2.3.2 Detonation Train Tests


(a)

Detonic Transfer Safety Test (Detonation Sealing)


This test shall verify the effectiveness of the fuze in
interrupting the detonic train and preventing the
detonation of the relay or booster charge. MIL-STD331B Test D1 will be used as a guideline. For this test
the fuze shall have all its explosive elements except for
the booster pellet. The detonator shall be detonated
manually during the test.
Criteria for passing test
The fuzes shall be examined to verify that no detonation,
burning, charring, scorching or melting of the relay or
booster occurred (refer to par 3.1 of Test D1). It must
also be verified that the fuzes are safe to handle or store.

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There shall be no fragments which could cause serious


personnel injury or initiation of adjacent fuzes.
(b)

Detonic Propagation Test


The minimum energy specified for warhead detonation
shall be simulated by burning a hole in a lead disc.
Method
(i)
The booster pellet and magazine shall be
removed from the sample fuzes.
(ii)
A lead disc 3,17 mm (1/8 in) thick shall be
mounted beneath the booster relay charge.
(iv)
Fuzes must be armed, disengaging the safety
mechanisms.
(v)
Detonate the fuze by dropping it nose down
from a height of at least 2 m, onto a concrete or
steel block.
Criteria for passing test
The detonation shall create a hole of at least 12,7 mm
diameter through the lead disc.
Alternative Test
Dynamic tests, involving HE filled projectiles fitted with
live fuzes, may be used to verify this requirement.

4.2.4

Environmental Resistance Tests


4.2.4.1 Environmental Tests- Natural/Storage
(a)

High temperature storage test


The test shall be performed according to MIL-STD810E Method 501.3, Section 1. The fuze shall be
subjected to a condition of +50 2C over a period of
21 days.
Criteria for passing test
The fuzes shall be safe and function within specification.
Dynamic performance parameters are to be met.

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Criteria shall be according to MIL-STD-810E,


Paragraph 5.2.7, or as specified in the Test Procedure.
(b)

Low temperature storage test


The test shall be performed according to MIL-STD81 OE, Method 502.3. The fuze shall be subjected to 20 2C over a period of 72 hours.
Criteria for passing test
The fuzes shall be safe and function within specification.
Dynamic performance parameters are to be met.
Criteria shall be according to MIL-STD-81 OE,
paragraph 5.2. 7, or as specified in the test procedure.

(c)

Humidity test
No separate test is required for high humidity according
to MIL-STD-331B, provided the temperature humidity
cycling test is done. As an alternative the test may be
done in accordance with MIL-STD-81 OE, Test Method
507.3, Procedure I or II.
Criteria for passing test
The fuzes shall be safe and function within specification.
The criteria shall be based on visual inspection and
dynamic performance parameters.

(d)

Salt fog test


The test shall be performed according to MIL-STD81 OE, Method 509.3. The test duration shall be 96
hours, with a salt concentration of 5 1%. Each cycle
shall consist of a spray period lasting 24 hours followed
by a drying period of 24 hours.
Criteria for passing test
The fuzes shall be safe and function within specification.
The criteria shall be based on visual inspection and
dynamic performance parameters.

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(e)

Temperature-and-Humidity Cycling (Ageing) Test


This test shall be done in accordance with Test Cl of
MIL-STD-331B.
This test consists of exposing
unpacked fuzes to the schedule of temperatures and
humidities for 28 days.
The extreme temperature storage tests and the humidity
test may be waived if this test is done.
Criteria for passing test
The fuzes shall be safe and function within specification.
Dynamic performance parameters are to be met.

4.2.4.2 Environmental Tests- Induced (Transportation)


(a)

Transport vibration test


The transport vibration test shall be done in accordance
with MIL-STD-331B Test B 1. The test consists of
vibrating unpacked fuzes in accordance with a specified
schedule of frequencies and amplitudes as described in
Table Bl-1 of Test Bl while being maintained at
prescribed temperatures. The fuzes shall be completely
assembled including all explosive elements which are
part of the fuze design.
Criteria for passing test
The fuzes shall be safe and function within specification.
Dynamic performance parameters are to be met.

(b)

Rain Test
The fuze shall be subjected to a rain test, when
assembled to the round. (MIL-STD-331B, test may be
used as a guide). A water spray shall be directed at the
rounds for 1, 5 h at a water flow rate of at least 1 200 1/h.
The fuzed round shall be conditioned to at least 45C
2C for 4 hours, before being placed under the spray.
Criteria for passing test
The fuze shall be safe and function within specification.
The fuze shall not function during the test. The fuze

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shall be removed from the round to examine for


moisture inside the cavity of the filled shell (when tested
in the round assembly).
(c)

Thermal Shock Test


The test shall be performed according to MIL-STD331B, Test C7.
The fuze shall be subjected to
temperatures between -50C and +70C ( 2C) over a
period of 24 hours. Each cycle duration shall be at least
4 hours.
Criteria for passing test
The fuzes shall be safe and function within specification.
Dynamic performance parameters are to be met.
Criteria shall be according to MIL-STD-81 OE,
paragraph 5.2.7, or as specified in the test procedure.

(d)

Water Immersion!Watertightness test


The test shall be done in accordance with MIL-STD331B, Test C4. Fuzes shall be fully assembled and
contain the whole detonic train and be fitted to the
round. Immersion depth 1 m ofwater.
Criteria for passing the test
(i)
There shall be no evidence that any water has
entered the fuze. At the completion of this test,
the fuze shall be safe for handling, storage,
transportation and use. It shall function within
specification.
(ii)
When the fuze is assembled to a round, there
shall be no water present inside the explodering
cavity of the filled shell.

4.2.4.3 Environmental Tests- Safety Conditions


(a)

Jolt Test (Mechanical Shock) (Unpacked)


The jolt test shall be done in accordance with Test AI of
MIL-STD-331B.
The fuzes shall be completely
assembled and contain all its explosive elements. The
test shall be done on unpacked fuzes.

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Criteria for passing test


The fuzes are not required to be operable during or after
the test, but must remain safe to store, transport and
handle. If the fuze can still be fitted onto the projectile,
it shall be safe to fire. No explosive elements shall be
initiated.
(b)

Drop Test (1,5 meter) (Unpacked)


This test shall verify that the fuze remains safe to handle
and fire (not necessarily to function) after mishandling.
The drop test, based on Test A4 of MIL-STD-331B,
shall be performed with all safety mechanisms intact.
A minimum of 10 fuzes shall be fitted to HES filled
rounds and dropped; 2 in each of the five orientations.
The test item shall be orientated to impact :
(1)
nose down
(2)
nose up
(3)
major axis horizontal
(4)
major axis 45 from vertical, nose down and
(5)
major axis 45 from vertical, nose up
Criteria for passing test
The fuze must be safe to handle and to fire (not
necessarily to function), and no hazardous external
fragments shall have been caused by detonations during
the test.

(c)

Parachute Drop (Packaged Round)


This test shall be done on the unit load. Rounds shall be
safe and must function to specification.

(d)

Electrostatic Discharge (Packaged and Unpacked)


This test shall be done on the round. It is not applicable
to the fuze when it does not contain electro-explosive
devices.

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(e)

Electromagnetic Radiation Hazard Test


For electro-explosive devices with a maximum no-fire
stimulus (MNFS) rating other than 1 ampere/1 watt, the
verification shall be done in accordance with test method
203 of MIL-STD-1512. As a minimum, the item shall
be considered an acceptable design in accordance with
MIL-STD-1385, if stimuli for hazards and performance
degradation do not exceed the given levels, for the
expected
environment.
(For
instance,
the
electromagnetic environment levels given for various
types of radars, electronic and communications
equipment).

4.2.5

Dynamic Tests

4.2.5.1 Muzzle Safety Test


(a)

The fuzes shall be fitted to HES rounds or to shells filled


with flash or TNT pellets conditioned at a temperature
between +52 2C and -20 2C for not less than 12
hours and not more than 24 hours prior to firing.

(b)

25 mm Pine or plywood target boards (size 1 m x 1 m)


shall be used, positioned 20 m from the muzzle of the
gun.

Criteria for passing test


The fuzes must not function before or on impact with the target.

4.2.5.2 Arming Distance and Direct Action Functioning Test


(a)

The fuzes shall be fitted to HES filled, conditioned at


temperature between -20C and +52 2C for not less
than 12 hours and not more than 24 hours prior to firing.

(b)

25 mm Pine or plywood target board (size 1 m x 1 m)


shall be used, positioned at 60 m from the muzzle of the
operational gun barrel.

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Criteria for passing test


The fuzes must function on impact with the targets. The fuzes
may not function before the target. Blinds and prematures shall
count as failures.
Alternative method for fuze arming and non-arming distances
Fuzes shall be tested in accordance with Test D2 of MIL-STD333B, one of the procedures described.
This test is
recommended for design evaluation and confirmation purposes
during the development phase. For design qualification, the
tests above shall apply. (See paragraphs 4.2.4.1 and 4.2.4.2).
4.2.5.4 Insensitivity Test
(a)

The fuzes shall be fitted to HES filled shells, conditioned


at a temperature between -20C 2C and +52C 2C
for not less than 12 hours and not more than 24 hours
prior to firing.

(b)

A hessian (or 2 mm card board) target shall be placed at


60 m to 100 m from the muzzle of the gun.
Recommended size of target : At least 1 m x 1 m per
shot, or successive shots spaced by at least 500 mm.

Criteria for passing test


The fuze may not function before or on impact with the target,
or prior to the subsequent impact. Prematures shall count as
failures.
4.2.5.5 Sensitivity Test
A sample of HES rounds fitted with live fuzes shall be
conditioned at a temperature between -20C 2C and +52C
2C for not less than 12 hours and not more than 24 hours prior
to firing. The projectiles shall fired at a target set up at 100 m.
The target shall be at least 1 m x 1 m and made of 1, 6 mm thick
flat iron sheeting, or 25 mm of plywood target board.
Criteria for passing test
The fuzes shall function on impact with the target.

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4.2.5.6 Direct action long range field tests


(a)

The fuzes shall be fitted to HE filled shells, conditioned


at a temperature between -20C 2C and +52C 2C
for not less than 12 hours and not more than 24 hours
prior to firing.

(b)

The projectiles shall be fired at a level natural ground


surface between 5 000 m and 9 000 m (reference) from
the muzzle of the gun.

Criteria for passing test


The fuzes must function on first ground impact.
prematures shall count as failures.

Blinds and

4.2.5.6 Graze action test- Ground impact


(a)

The fuzes shall be fitted to HE filled shells, conditioned


at a temperature between -20C 2C and +52C 2C
for not less than 12 hours and not more than 24 hours
prior to firing.

(b)

The projectiles shall be fired at a level graded natural


ground surface between 1 000 m and 3 000 m from the
muzzle of the gun.

Criteria for passing test


The fuzes must function on first ground impact.
prematures shall count as failures.

Blinds and

4.2.5.7 Rapid Fire (Cook-Oft) Test


This test shall be done on the round.

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4.3

Documentation Audit

4.3.1

Design Review
A design review shall be held to evaluate the design and/or test results
to determine whether the desired performance characteristics have been
met.

4.3.2

Documentation Status
Applicable documentation for the product baseline shall be reviewed for
content, correctness and for conformance to the applicable
specifications or requirements listed in the contract or order.

4.4

Design Qualification Testing

Waiving of tests are decided by the technical committee.

4.5

Reliability Growth Plan

The qualification test specification shall be structured in such manner that the
stated values for reliability are achieved. Quantities tested during design
qualification shall take cognisance of applicable test results obtained during
development, to avoid unnecessary duplication of tests. Reliability figures
obtained at the end of the design qualification, shall be incorporated into the
product specification (Type C2) for the fuze.
The functioning tests shall also be performed to improve reliability through the
identification, analysis and correction of failures and the verification of the
corrective action. Where possible the functioning tests shall be structured in
such a way that the following four elements are addressed :
(a)
Safety requirements
(b)
Performance requirements
(c)
Environmental conditions during use
(d)
Time requirements

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4.6

Cross Reference Matrix

A.

B.
C.

D.
E.
N/A

Verification Method
Inspection/Measure
Demonstrate
Test (Static/Dynamic)
Design Review
Calculation/modelling
Not applicable

DOCUMENT: 5270-000000-115001

Test Category
Development phase
2.
Pre-qualification testing
3.
Design qualification testing
Reliability tests
5.
System testing
1.

4.

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APPENDIX A 1 : FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF FUZE

( 1 page)

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5.

PREPARATION FOR DELIVERY


The fuze may be delivered as a separate item or assembled on a round.

6.

NOTES
6.1

Reviewing Authority
Designs which meet the requirements of this specification, or which operate on
new principles for each new application, shall be presented to the Naschem
Program Manager, Armour Systems and to the Technical Committee for a
safety evaluation and certification of compliance.

6.2

Standardisation
Existing items and components must be used as far as possible to increase the
level of standardisation between products.

6.3

Abbreviations
MRI
TBD
DA
HE/T
HES
SANDF
URS
EIF or OIF

IIF

Master Record Index


To be determined
Direct Action offuze
High Explosive/Tracer
High Explosive Substitute (PRAC/T round)
South Mrican National Defence Force
User Requirement Specification
External Interface or Outer Interface
Internal Interface

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Fuze level schematic function diagram

Figure 1

I
FEATURE

FUNCTION

* FUZE SAFE UNTIL DEPLOYMENT

ROUND SAFE TO HANDLE

I
4

L-----------------------~~------------~~-*-F_U_Z_E_T_O_R_a_U_E_D_IN_T_O_S_H_E_L_L____~

1
*BORE SAFE
* RESISTANT TO SHOCK, VIBRATION
*ACCELERATION ACTIVATES ARMING
* ROTATION ACTIVATES ARMING

LAUNCH OF PROJECTILE

I
* MUZZLE SAFE
* INSENSITIVE TO RAIN
* AIR BURST SAFE
* DETONICS TRAIN IN LINE
* FULLY ARMED

PROJECTILE IN FLIGHT

1
PROJECTILE REACHES TARGET

.I

I
PROJECTILE MISSES TARGET AND
FUZE IMPACTS ON GROUND OR SOME
OBSTRUCTION

FUZE IMPACTS ON TARGET

I
DIRECT
IMPACT

I
GRAZE
IMPACT

DIRECT
IMPACT

GRAZE
IMPACT

I
PRIMARY LETHAL EFFECT OF
WARHEAD ON TARGET

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EFFECTS OF WARHEAD ON TARGET

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APPENDIX A2: PRELIMINARY CLASSIFICATION OF FAILURES

( 1 page)

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The following table lists a classification of failures as a guide to the value system and
sentencing conditions :

CHARACTERISTICS I FAILURES

:No.
1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6

SAFETY
Fuze detonates in the barrel or before 20 m outside
Marking missing or illegible
Marking misleading
Fuze breaks up on firing
Fuze functions on hessian or cardboard target
Rapid fire cook-off (pre-ignition)

2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

FUNCTIONING
Fuze does not arm between 20m and 60 m outside the barrel
Fuze does not function on impact at the target
Partial detonation of the fuze/warhead
Delay action time is too short or too long
Detonic train malfunction
Fuze functions in flight (trajectory burst beyond 60 m)

Table 2

CLASSIFICATION
CRITICAL MAJOR MINOR
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X

Classification of failures

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APPENDIX 8
Calculations for Low Cost Fuze
(41 pages)

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CALCULATIONS FOR LOW COST GRAZE ACTION FUZE


1. UNITS
A,JPa :=PaUf

GPa :=PaUf

msec :=sec] o

rpm:

27rrad
60sec

2. GENERAL VARIABLES
a all:= 235MPa

-yield strength of aluminium 2030

-r all := 115i\dPa

- shear strength of aluminium 2030

Pall :=2820kgm

- density of aluminium 2030


- yield strength of aluminium 626 I

a al2 := 240i\;fPa

- shear strength of aluminium 6261

al2 = 120lv1Pa
Pal2 =27IOkgm

- density of aluminium 6261

a gfn : = 200MPa

- yield strength of 30% glass filled nylon

gfn = 751v1Pa

- shear strength of 30% glass filled nylon

a nylon = 67-lvfPa

- yield strength of nylon 66

nylon = J01UPa

- shear strength of nylon 66

p nylon = 1180 kg m

-density of nylon 66
- yield strength of brass CZ I 2 I

a br := JJOA!Pa
-r br . = 55A1Pa

- shear strength of brass CZ 121

Pbr :=8200kgm
p st := 7800kgm

- density of brass CZ 121

- density of steel
-yield strength of steel 070M20

a st := 359lv1Pa

- shear strength of steel 070M20

st = JSOMPa
Pch6 =1530kgm

p pyro = 1600 kg m

- density of CH6 explosive composition in pellet


3

- density of pyroteclmic composition in Striker Cup

-r ss : =242N1Pa

- shear strength of stainless steel

E ss := 193GPa

- modulus of elasticity of stainless steel

dss := 965lvJPa

-initial design stress for music wire (used in spring calculations)

G ss := 70.3GPa

-shear modules of elasticity of music wire

a min:= JOOOg

- minimum acceleration at which ru.ming must take place

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a max :=25000g

- maximum acceleration during setback

a air:= lOg

- deceleration due to air friction when in flight

;..t:=0.35

- general fiiction coefficient

tal := O.lnnn

- general tolerance on component dimensions

tal small:= 0.05mm

- small tolerance on components

to/large.;= 0.2111111

- large tolerance on components

tal angle := 2deg

- general tolerance for angular dimensions

w :=23000rpm

- maximum angular velocity

w min

- minimum angular velocity at which arming must take place

:= 3000rpm

a gl := 2000g

- drag in longitudinal direction due to graze action

a gr := JOOOOg

- drag in the radial direction due to graze action

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3. COMPONENT DIMENSIONS
The important dimensions on every component are identified and declared as variables

3.1 Body

=~

~
~

(~

l~
N

'\
1\
I'I'-

:;;

'-=
jJ

bl := 18.4mm

b2 := 37.4mm

b3 := 15.3mm

b4 := 42. 0111m

b5 := 49.5mm

b6 := 47.4mm

b7 := 20.5mm

b8 := 39. 7mm

3.2 Delay Element


dl := 18.6111111

d2 := 5.61/1111

d5 := 2.551/11/1

d6 := 2.0111/Jl

d9 := 1.21111/1

dl 0 := 2.351/1111

d3 := JO.Om111

d4 := 3.85mm

d7 := 5.0mm

d8 := 2.0mm

3.3 Delay Washer

~ m9
~ _ _ ~t

~YJ

I.

__L

dw3

dwl := 1.5mm

dw2 :=2.5111111

dw3 := 8. 7-nun

.I

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK
\

- - - - - - - - - -

PAGE3 OF41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

3.4 Striker Cup


co

c1 := 7.4mm

c2 :=5.5mm

c3 := 18.8mm

c4 :=5.3mm

c5 := 9.8mm

c6:=3.0mm

c7 := 1.5mm

c8 := 14.8mm

c9 := 10.3mm

clO := 6.8-mm

ell:= 2.0mm

3.5 Nose
n1 := 12.9 mm

n2 := 74.5mm

n3 := 15.0mm

n4 =10. 0111111

n5 := 35.0111m

n6 := 6.85111111

n7 := 54.1mm

n8:=50nun

n9=6.3mm

3.6 Support Plate


sp2

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

sp1 := 10.0mm

sp2 := 39.45mm

sp3 := 3.95mm

sp4 := 6.8mm

sp5 := 11.6-mm

- x coordinate ofholeforRotor Stop Pin

sp6 := 11. 9mm

- y coordinate of hole for Rotor Stop Pin

sp 7 :=5.8-mm

- x coordinate of hole for Rotor Locking Pin

sp8 := 6.9mm

- y coordinate of hole for Rotor Locking Pin

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

- ----------------

---------------------------------------

PAGE40F41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

3. 7 Bqoster Cup
bel

bel := 34.5 mm

bc2 := 42.lmm

bc3 :=31.6-mm

bc4 := 2.0mm

..,.
u

.0

1j

//

bc2

~.-------=~----~

3.8 Rotor
ro1
ro7
ro4

ro3

rol := 14.7-mm

ro2 := 11. 0 nun

ro3 := 8.0mm

ro4 := 4. 8-mm

ro5 := 4.lmm

ro6 := 7.4mm

ro 7 : =1 0.2mm
ro cogx := -1.536mm

ro cogy := 1.538-mm

3.9 Delay Striker


ds1

ds 1 := 6. 7mm

ds2 := 6.3mm

ds3 := 10.2mm

ds4 := 2. Omm

ds5 := 0.18-mm

ds6 := 4.6mm

ds 7 := 4. 6mm

DOCUMENTNO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE50F41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

3.10 Graze Wing

wl := 4.3111111

w2 :=4.2-mm

-]5?
wcogx. -mm

._

w cagy:= 5. 73-mm

(w

cog angle . -atan -cagy)


wcogx

w dist = 6.0Jmm

w cog:= '\}w cogx- + w cogy-

w2J
(w cagy)
( 1' + atan[-__i:>_
\w cogx

wangle :=-a tan w

w3 :=9.5-mm
-from solids modeling

cog angle= 75.14deg

-distance fiom seating tip to rotation centre

w cog= 5.93mm

-distance from COG to rotational centre

wangle = 30.82 deg

- angle between cog and tip

3.11 Wing Shaft


wsl := 2.0-mm

- diameter of shaft

3.12 Rotor Shaft

rsl :=21.6-mm

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

rs2 := 4. 0111111

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE6 OF41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

3.13 Rotor Lock Pin

rll := 2.0mm

r/2 :=3.0mm

r/3 :=3.9mm

r/4 :=3.8mm

rl5:=2.4mm

rl6:=1.8mm

3.14/nsert

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

i1 := 47.0mm

i2 := 9.4 mm

i3 :=9.8mm

i4 := 14. 6111111

i5 :=2.4mm

i6 := 15.0mm

i7:=12.0mm

i8 := 16.8-111111

i9 :=5.6mm

il 0 := 8. 2m111

i 11 := 4. Omm

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE7 OF41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

4. MASS CALCULATIONS

4.1 Detonators
M 603 := 0.3gm

-mass of the M603 detonator used to ignite the pyrotechnic composition

Ai 563 = 0.5gm

-mass of the M563 detonator used in the Rotor.

4.2 Booster Cup


Ai

.=
. [ bc3 7l' be:I _ (bc3 - be4)- 7l' bcl
be Pall
4
4

M be =46.02gm

4.3 Support Plate


2

_
(spl;rsp2
spl;rsp3 \
A,J sp -pall
4
4
}

1H sp =34.12gm

4.4 Rotor
?

j\;f ro

p alrro77l'roT

- - - - - - -

M ro

= 5.-17 gm

(estimated)

From solids modeling:

M r = 6. 72gm

Rotor including detonator:

Mro =Afr+lv! 563

(excluding detonator)

i\fr0 =7.22gm

4.5 Striker Cup


7r
2
2
lYJ emin = P a/24 ( c3- to!- ( el- to!)) (e4- to! small) + [ cl- to!- ( e6- to! small)]" ( e5- to/)

...

+ [ e6- to! small- (e7 + to! small)} (e8- to! small)2 ...
2

+ (c7 + tol.mw!t) (c9- to/ .ww1!) - ( c2 +to/)- (cl 0 +to! small)

7r
2
2
AJ, cmax = P a/24 ( c3 + tal- ( cl + to!))- (c-1 + to! small) + [ cJ + to!- ( c6 + to! small)} ( c5 + to/) ...

+ [ c6 +to! small- (c7- to! small)} ( c8 +to! small/ ...


2

+ (c 7- to! small) ( c9 + to! small) - ( c2- to!)- (cJ 0- to! small)


j\;J cmin =

1.98gm

A/ em ax

DOCUMENTNO.: 5270-000000-715001

= 2.18 gm

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGES OF41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

ivf em ax+ ivf em in

AI cmean :=

A! cmean =2.08gm

4.6 Delay Element


M delay:= p br5[ (dl- d2)di + d2d3

2
dlOdfl- d8-d7-d6]- (P br- p pyro)5[ (d1- dlO- d6)d5 ] ..

+.Al603
jl.,f delay = 5.17 gm

4.7 Delay Striker


j'vf dsmin

?
to /) (dsl- to!/
:=P br Tr (ds_4

t-

[c as:>- to
J

/)

+(ds:.l- to!_ ds5)sin(l 3 -1)-(ds.f- tol) t-(ds4- tol)-ds5t-ds5


2
2
12

I)] (ds4- to/)

. (l,.,J - (ds4- to/ -ds5)


- sm
.
2
2

...

2
2

ds7 + t2o_l small)3


. (ds7 +to! small)2

+ -'-------'--- ( ds6 + to!) - - - - 3

._
?
(dslt-to/) + [ (ds3t-tol)- (ds4t-tol - ds5) sm(ht-1)
.
,.,
] (ds4t-tol) ...
Mdsmax-PbrTr
(ds-t-tol)
4
2
2

ds4 +to! ds5). . ( ,


) (ds.:/ +to!/+ (ds4 + tol)-ds5 + ds5
+ (- - - - 'S/11 1Jt- 1
.

'

12

+ '

ds 7- to! small)
- ( ds6- to!)- - - - - 2

j'vf dsmin =

...

\ i

!ds 7- to! small)\

i.43 gm

A! dsmax = 1.68gm

. . ivf ds max + i'vf ds min


Al ds : = - - - - - - 2

M ds =J.56gm

4.8 Booster Pellet


?

.
bel- 0.2mm j'vf pellet . =p ch6 ( bc3- bc4)- Tr
2
J\
(

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

M pellet= 41.85 gm

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE9 OF41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

4.9 Rotor Shaft


rsr
M s hat
rfi :=p st rslw4

M shaft = 2.12 gm

4.10 Graze Wing


(from solids modeling)

lvf w :=5.15gm

4.11 Fuze Body

b := p s{!!.. [ cb5- b 7)b6 + bl-( 58-nun ) - b3- br ... ]


4
?
?
+-blir- (b5- b3- bl)-bfJ

Mb

= 289 gm

4. 12 Fuze Nose
(estimated)

lvf nose := 150 gm

4.12 Delay Washer


Al dw

dw3)
=p br:r-dwl [ (2

- (dw2)
2

2
]

Al dw

0.67gm

4.13 Springs
lvf dspring := 2gm

\d cspring = ]gm

(estimated)

4.14/nsert

M i = 41.81gm

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE 10 OF 41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

4.15 Rotor Locking Pin

?]

7r [
jyf rl := P a/2-
r/)- r/T + (r/4- r/) )rlr- r/6-r/7
4

M rl

= 0. 055 gm

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

---------

------------

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

-------------------------------

PAGE 11 OF41

---------------

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

5. BEFORE FIRING
5.1 The Delay Element is not allowed to touch the pyrotechnics in the Striker
Cup
This may cause the pyrotechnics to cmmble during vibration due to the physical contact with the
Delay Element.
y
- distance of the seating surface of the Graze Wing below the centre of the Wing Shaft
yy
- approximated dimension of y used to calculate y
pyro
- minimum distance between the pyrotechnics and the top of the St:J.iker Cup

Mean value ofy:

yy := 1mm
Given
7

wr + wr=_w- +

i2-

2c9)

The radii of the Graze Wing tip and the cup seating position is equal

y mean = 4.25 mm

y mean := Find(w)
Maximum and minimum values ofy:

Given
9
c - to! small)
(w1- to! small) + (w2- to! small) =yy + I2 + to! small2
2

y min : = Find(yy)

y min= 4.07mm

Y max:= 2 Y mean- Y min

y max= 4.43mm

(i 4 + to! small)
x:~: min :=- Y max+ (i 4 - to! small)

xx: max :=- Y min+

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

xx max

= 10.58 mm

xx min

= 10.12 nm1

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE 12 OF 41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

Minimum distance between the pyrotechnics and the top of the Striker Cup:

pyro := (dl +to/)+ (dwl +to/ small)- (nl- to/)- (bl- to/)+ xx max+ ( c7 +to! small)
pyro = 1.28mm
Choose pyro :=J.4mm

(toleranceO.lmm)

2 0)

lvf c :=}vf cmean + Ppyro:r(c2- pyro)- ( cl

M c =2.32gm

5.2 The Striker Cup must penetrate the Rotor to prevent the Rotor from
arming
pen

- distance of Striker Cup penetration in the rotor

pen min:= (c3- to/)- (c7 +to! small)- xx max- (b3 +to!)+ (ro7- to/)
pen min= 1.27mm
pen max : =(c3 + to!)- ( c7- to! small) + y max- (b3- to!)+ (ro7 + to!)-

(i4- to! small)

pen max = 2. 43 mm

5.3 Detonation sealing


The distance between the M563 detonator in the Rotor and the Booster Relay must be the same as , or more
than that of SAD M588A I to ensure detonation sealing.
Low Cost Fuze: 12.57mm mean
SAD M588Al : 10.53mm mean.

5.4 The total length of the fuze must not exceed 151.6mm
l

- maximum total length of the fuze

I:= (n2+ to/large)+ (b3 +to!)+ (spl + tol) + (bc3 +to!)+ (bl + tol)

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

l = 150.4 mm

PAGE 13 OF41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

5.5 The nose length of the fuze must not exceed 95.5mm
I

- maximum total length of the fuze nose


I =95.4mm

I : = (n2 + to/large) + ( b 7 + to/large)

5.6 The Rotor must always be free to rotate


xx
x

-minimum clearance on radius of Rotor


- minimum clearance at the top of the Rotor when seated on the Suppo1t Plate
.= b2- to! _ b8 + to!

xx .
.x-x

sp2- to!_
,
)_ (. ,
)
2
(sp4 + to! small
I o~ + to! small

= 0.52mm

x := (b3- to!)- (rol +to!)


x

= 0. .f nun

5. 7 The total mass of the fuze must be between 600 grams and BOO grams
This restriction is due to the mass of the present fuzes used. If the fuze mass is out of this range, problems
could be encountered with projectile stability.

Af fuze := M b +Afro + Af ds + i\1 cmean + M pellet+ 1\1nose +AI delay+ M be+ iH sp ...
+ 3 (.A'f shajt+Af w) + M i
1\.l fuze= 640.6 gm

5.8 The Graze Wing must overlap with the nose to prevent the Delay Element
from touching the pyrotechnics during a drop on the nose.
x

- minimum distance of overlapping

. n3- to! large

x .=
x

[ .

(12 +to/ small)- 9.:Jmm

70deg_- acos y-min))]


-.
(
w d1st

= 1. 7 mm

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE 14 OF41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

5.9 The Graze Wing must fit in under the protruding part of the Nose.
x

- minimum distance between Graze Wing and Nose

x := ( bl- to!)-

(i4 +to! small) + (n9- to/large) -

x = 0.15mm

( w3 +to!)

5.10 The Rotor Stop Pin diameter must be small enough to allow assembly.
drsp

maximum diameter of Rotor Stop Pin

d rsp := b2- to!-

(sp5 +to! small) + (sp6 +to! sma!!) 2

d rsp =3.92mm

d rsp -3?
.- -mm

Choose

5.11 The Rotor Locking Pin must always Jock the Rotor in the armed
position.
x

- maximum diameter of Rotor Locking Pin protmsion

e := atan (

sp8 - to! small

- atan

sp7- sr! + tol small

+ 180deg-

sp6 + to/ small

- 1:>deg ...

sp5- sp-1- tol small


d rsp

e = 7deg

--;=.==========================
2" (sp5- sp-1- to! small/+ (sp6 + to/ small)

x = 2.3-lmm must be larger than

rll + tol small= 2.05mm

5.12 The Rotor Stop Pin must allow rotation of the Rotor
x

- minimum gap between Rotor and Rotor Stop Pin


._

x .-

(sp6- to! small) + [ (sp:> - to! small) - (sp4 +to! small) J

x = 0.02mm

d rsp + to/ small


2

- (ro2 + to!)

must be positive

DOCillviENTNO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE 15 OF41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

6. DURING SET -BACK


6.1 Strength Calculations
6.1.1 The Booster Cup must support the mass of the Booster Pellet on set-back
I - minimum Booster Cup bottom thickness
4

F = 11 0 newton

F :=AI pellda max

I= 1.27mm

/:=----- gfn' 7C (bel - to/)

must be smaller than

bc4- to!= 1.9 mm

6.1.2 The thread on the Booster Cup must be strong enough to support the Booster Pellet and the Rotor
1
during set-back
- minimum length of catching tluead

1H = 87.86 gm

AI:= 1\J be+ Af pellet


F :=AJ.a max
2F

A safety factor of 2 is incorporated to compensate for the thread

.---------------r gfn 7C ( bc2- 2mm)

The minimum length that the thread is catching CUITently is:

(b5- to/large)- (spl +to/)- (b3 +to/)- (bl +to/) =5.3 mm


This should be larger than

4.56 '111111

6.1.3 The wall thickness of the Body must be able to withstand set-back
d
- maximum diameter of the thread in the Body

(b - t~ large)'
6

=,,,I

'

F_
nast

_ _

d :=r2

= 46.38 mm

should be larger than

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

b4 = 42 mm

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE 16 OF41

~----

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

6.1.4 The pressure surface of the Support Plate on the Booster Cup must be able to withstand set-back
a
1\tf

-tensile stress caused during set-back due to the mass supported by the Booster Cup
- effective mass which the Booster Cup must support

j\tf :=M sp + M ro + M shaft


F :=1\tia max
F

a:=--------------------~--

a=39A!Pa

must be smaller than

a all = 235 MPa

(sp2- to!/_ (bel+ to!/]. TC


[

6.1.5 The Delay Element must not pull out of the Nose during set-back
r - shear stress experienced due to set-back

._(A1 delay i- M ds i- M dw + Af dspring) a max 2

r.-

d2rcd3
r nylon= 30A1Pa

must be smaller than

r=26MPa

r gfn = 75 1\dPa

6.1.6 The Nose wall thickness above the Delay Element must be able to support the mass of the Delay
Element during set-back
a -tensile stress due to set-back
a:= (Ai delay i- A/ ds + JJ dw + Al dspring) a max
7l'

.
' (n4 +to I r'
(n3toft4

a nylon = 67 A!Pa
a=24MPa

must be smaller than

a gfn = 200 MPa

6.1.7 The disc under the Striker Cup must be thick enough to support the Striker Cup on set-back
A safety factor of 2 is incorporated to compensate for the spring and the pyrotechnics.
Shearing on outer diameter:
r := 2 (1\t/ cmax + 1\tl cspring) a max
1r (

r=18MPa

i6- to!) (i5 + to/)


must be smaller than

DOCUMENTNO.: 5270-000000-715001

r st = 180 1\tJPa

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE170F41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

Shearing on diameter of Striker Cup:


1.5},;f cmaxa max
~:=----------------

Tf (

~=

c5- to/) (i5 + to!)

JJAlPa

must be smaller than

~ st =

180AlPa

6.1.8 The Wing Shaft must be able to withstand set-back


For the worst case, consider that the whole mass Graze Wing is supported only on the shaft
lvf wa max

~=

~:=----

2n(w;lr

20JAlPa

must be smaller than

~ ss =

242 A!Pa

6.1.9 The support disc of the Rotor must contain the M563 detonator on set-back
The suppmt disc can shear on the diameter of the detonator
-outer diameter ofM563 detonator
d det .= 3.6mm
The force due to set-back is:

F s = 122.58 newton

The minimum bottom thickness under the detonator is


th := ro3- ro6- 2tol
The stress is:
2
A det := Tfd de(th
A det = 4.52 mm

Fs
~:=--

~=27-1\JPa

A det

must be smaller than

~ br=55MPa

6.1.10 Seating surface of Nose on Body


a- maximum compressive stress on smface
1'Yf top := 80gm

a:= 1\;f top a max

- approximated

a nylon = 67 lv!Pa
a=59A!Pa

should be less than

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

a gfn = 200 j\tfPa

PAGE 18 OF 41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

6.1.11 Thinnest part of Nose


a- maximum compressive stress on surface
2

A := n' [ (24nun ) - (19.lmm /]


a:

1\;f

a nylon= 67lv1Pa

topa max

should be less than

a= 30AfPa

CF gfn

= 200lv1Pa

6.1.12 Insert pressure surface


a- maximum compressive stress on smface
Jr [ (il- tolf7
A:=-
(b2+ tol)-' ]

4
CF

:= (1\d i + AJ c 'AJ cspring + },,f w 3 ) a max

A
should be less than

a= 24'1\4Pa

a a/]= 240AiPa

6.1.13 Striker Cup flange strength


't - maximum shear stress in flange
A := ;r ( c9- to! small). [ ( c6- to! small) - (c 7 + to! small) J

A..J em ax a max

-r= 12MPa

-r:=-----

should be less than

-r a/]= J:!OMPa

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

- - -

-------

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE 19 OF 41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

6.2 Calculations for Dynamics

6.2.1 Spring calculations for Striker Cup Spring


Set Variables:
d
- minimum assembled spring height
b
-maximum assembled spring height
I
- minimum Striker Cup movement for mming definitely to take place
r
- maximum Striker Cup movement for mming definitely not to take place
h
-minimum drop height for mming definitely not to take place
u
-ratio of Fmi/Fmax (needed for tolerances)
Ne
- compensation factor for inactive end coils of spring
Dm
- mean diameter of spring
Variables to be Calculated:
Fmin
- minimum spring force at mming spring height (d-1)
Fmax

-maximum spring force at arming spring height (d-1)

osc

- minimum free length of spring

p sc

kdsc
Dm
Dw
Na
r0

maximum flee length of spring

- required design spring stiffi1ess


- mean diameter of spring
- wire diameter of spring
-number of etfective coils
-maximum stress in spring wire
- solid height of spring

Ls

Set Vmiables:

d :=xx min + (c 7- to! small) - (i5- to!, - (c6 + to! small)

d. 6.22mm

(c7+ to! small)-, i5 +to!,- (c6- to! small)

b - 6.68mm

b :=xx: max+

I:= c7 + 0.2111111

I - 1. 7 mm

r.=c7- 0.3111111

r- 1.2 "111111

h:=3111
Ne :=2

Ne is the compensation for the inactive end coils of the spring


\

D 1/l

._ c8+ c5

.----

Dm - 12.3 mm

D111 is the mean spting diameter

2
u :=0.8

asc :=1400g

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE20 OF

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

Calculations for effective mass of filled Striker Cup supported by the spring:
Dw :=1mm

Iterate with wire thickness and number of coils to include spring mass:
Al scspring := ,/. (

Na :=1.8

~v) 2. Dm (Na + Ne )- p st

lvl scm in := Ppvro ( c2 + to!- (pyro + to!))'

(c1 o+ tot smauY


4
(cl 0- to! small)

lv1 scmax :=ppyro(c2- to!- (pyro- to!))


lv1 scmin = 25 gm

lvl scspring
2

+ 1Vl em in

lvl scspring
2
+lvl cmax

lvl scmax = 2. 71gm

lvl scm ax+ i\ll scm in


}vf scmean

i\J scmean = 26 gm

Spring Calculations:
Forces:
The friction force of the Wing pressing onto the StJ.iker Cup due to set-back is:

plvl wa scw cogx


w2

(using torque about Wing shaft)

=----____;~

The maximum and minimum forces exerted due to set-back are:

F max :=a scAl scm in- Ff

F max= 25. .:/ newton

F min := uF max

F min = 20.32 newton

Minimum free height of spring:

F min (/- 2 r b) + 2lvf scm ax g h ( d- I)


0

min:

2lvl scmaxgh- 2rF min

o min = 3.83 mm

The spring must be long enough to enable the Striker Cup to pull out of the cavity in the rotor.

o test := ( b 1 + to!) - ( i5- to!) - (c6- to/ small) + ( n1 + to/) - (dw 1 - to! small) - ( d1 - to!) ...
+(c2- to!)
o test= 11. Jnm1

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE21 OF

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

If o test is larger than o min' use o test for value of o sc


o sc :=o test+ 1.5mm

o sc = 13.2mm

p sc :=o sc+ 0.5mm

p sc = 13. 7 mm

Spring stiffness:
F~n+Fm~

kd sc :=
0

kd sc = 2560newtonm

sc + p sc + 21- 2d

K := 1.1

Approximation of Wahl Factor:


Wire diameter:

8 .K

. +F
mzn
max. Dm
2

Dw:=

Dw = 0.93 1m11

:rr dss

Choose:

Dw := 1mm

. C:=Dm
Dw

Actual Wahl factor:

K .= 4 C - 1 + 0. 615
4C- 4
C

K = J.J]

Shear stress at condition where arming definitely takes place:


8KDmF max
3

:rrDw

-r 0 = 888 },;fPa
Shear stress at seated Striker Cup condition:
0

- 8KDmkd sc [
Os .-

-r dss = 965 MPa

should be smaller than

sc + p sc
- [ (cl- to/)- (c6+ to/ small) J
2

-r Os =824.MPa

should be smaller than

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

-r dss = 965 MPa

PAGE220F41

- - - - - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____j

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

Note that if these stresses mentioned above are too high, the stress at n
(energy taken up by the spting >= .Nfscmiwg.h) could also be considered:

t)

2.Al scma.-cgh (o sc- d +

n .- o sc"

d) 2

F min

._(a sc- n)F min


F mim1 .-

+ (o sc-

sc-

(a sc- n)F max

F maxn -~----~---.d
0 sc+1

8K-F maxnDm

!'On= 1105MPa

!'On:=

Number of coils:
Na = 1.84

Na.8kd sc C

Solid height:
Ls =4.07mm

Ls :=Dw(Na+Ne+ 0.23)

mustbesmallerthan

d-l=4.52mm

Outer and inner diameter of spring:


ID :=Dm- Dw

ID = 11.3 mm

OD :=Dm+Dw

OD = 13.3 mm

must be larger than

c5 = 9.8 mm

Test for spting stiffness:


L test:= 6.5mm
F test:= (

a sc + P sc
2

)
- L test kd sc

F test= 17. 79 newton

Sununaty of results:
Na =1.84
0

sc+ P sc

------- = 13.45 mm

Dw

= 1 1mn

Dm = 12.3 mm

is the free length of the spring

2
o sc = 13.2 mm
!'

o = 888 1\JPa

L s = 4. 07 nun

= 9.117mn

must be larger than

b + pen 1110x

must be smaller than

!' dss

must be smaller than

d- l = 4.52mm

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

= 965 MPa

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE23 OF41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

L test = 6.5 mm

is the test height

F test= I 7. 79 newton

is the force at the test height

6.2.2 The Stril{er Cup must have enough moving space to allow arming

.u: min - (c6 + to! small) + (c 7- to! small) - L s- ( i5- to/)

and

2. I 5 mm

( b3- to!)+ x.x min- ( c3 + to!)- (ro4 + to!)+ ( c7- to! small) = 2.97 mm

and

(ro7- to!)- (ro4 +to!)- pen min =3.93mm

and

x.x min- (cl +to! small)+ (c7- to/ small)- (i5- to!) = I.82mm

must be larger than

l + to! = I.8 mm

to ensure enough movement for arming to take place

6.2.3 The Striker Cup mll)' not pull out of the cavity in the Rotor after set-back and before pyrotechnic
burnout
x
- distance of Striker Cup penetration in the Rotor

'

x min := ( c3- to!)- (pyro + to!)+ ( di- to/)+ ( dw I - to! small) - (n1 + to!)- ( b3 +to!) ...
~- "111111
x min = 0..:>)

+(ro7- to!)- (bi+tol)

x max:= (c3 +to!)- (pyro- to!)+ (di +to!)+ (dwi +to! small)- (ni- to!)- (b3- to!) ...

+ ( ro 7 + to!) - ( b I - to!)
x max = 1.85 mm

6.2.4 The Striker Cup may not touch the Rotor on set-back
x
- minimum distance between the striker tip and the Rotor
x := (- ro4 - to!) + ( b3- to!) + (i5 + to!) + ( c 1 + to!) - ( c3- to!) ...

c4- to! small

2
x =I. 02 mm

(
tan 30deg-2-

1f' rad

-(ell+ to/)

360-deg

DOCUMENTNO.: 5270-000000-715001

PAGE24 OF41

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

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VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

6.2.5 Dynamic calculations of Setback forces on Wing and Striker Cup

Variable declaration:

kd sc = 2560 newtonm
}vi scmean =

- spring constant for Striker Cup Spring


- effective mass of Striker Cup with pyrotechnics and spring

26 gm

- distance of Graze Wing pivot centre from centre of fuze

i 2 = 9.4 '111111

. (i4- i3")

~
e2min .-3:Jdegasm --~W:J I

e2min = 2.65deg

- minimum angle of cog with regard to horizontal axis (must be


positive to ensure graze action functioning)

x.x 111 i11 + .\:X 111 ax


.
2
e2max := atan - - - - - - - - +wangle
i2- c9
2

i4-

e2m ax = 75.82 deg

- maximum angle of cog with regard to horizontal axis

e2 := e 2max' e2max- ldeg .. e2mindeg


Yo

:= (0 sc + p sc) - ( b + d)

y 0 = 7 'IIIII/

- angle of cog with regard to horizontal axis

- mean installed compression of Striker Cup Spring

DOCUMENTNO.: 5270-000000-715001

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PAGE25 OF 41

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CONFIDENTIAL

y sc :=y o,y 0 + 0.1 mm .. y 0 + I

- vertical displacement of Striker Cup during period touching wing

Graze wing (one only)


The Graze Wing will tend to tum clockwise due to the acceleration force, Fwsb

F wsb = 1262.61newton

F wsb :=AI wa max

The torque experienced by one Graze Wing due to set-back is calculated from the torque developed by
the mass of the Graze Wing minus that due to the opposing spring force and friction on the shaft.

/O~---~~----~~----~

T wsb(e 2)

5 f-

oL---~IL-__--~1----~

0.5

82

T wsb (()2m ax)

1.39 111 newton

T wsb (()]min) = 7. 04 m newton

Striker cup
The Striker Cup with the pyrotechnics will experience a set-back force, F scsb

F scsb := AJ scmean a max

F scsb = 638.35 newton

Due to set-back of the Graze Wings, they will tend to hold back the Striker Cup. The hold force will
apply only until the Suiker Cup has moved down, thus the hold force applies only for an angle of
82rnax From the developed torque and friction coefficient, the hold force is

- Twsb(e2)
F j1 sc ( () 2 ) - fJ
Y mean

sc( ()]max)

F 11

= 114.58 newton

The Suiker Cup Spring will also oppose the movement of the Striker Cup.

F ssc(y

sc) := kd sc'Y sc

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

F ssc(9.2mm) = 23.55 newton

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE26 OF41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

24~--------,r---------,

F,chc)::~

~ ~

18/

16L-------~'--------~
0.007

0.009

0.008

sc

The resultant force on the Striker Cup varies with the ve1tical displacement of the Striker Cup and only
applies for:

y sc :=y o,y o+ O.J.mm ..y o+ c7


F scCv sc) = F scsb - (F fl sc( ()]max) + F ssc~v sc))

506

~' ."'-..

F sc(v sc) 504-

I"~I
"""

502 '----'-----'------"---'
0.007 0.007

0.008

0.009 0.009

y sc

At

Y sc .=y 0 + c 7

y sc =8.5 mm

the Striker Cup had moved away from the Graze Wing tip,

and the hold force does not apply any more.

Y sc :=y 0 + c 7 ,y 0 + c 7 + O.lmm .. y 0 + I
F sc(y sc) :=F scsb- F ssc~v sc)
617r---~---.-,--.

sc(v sc) 616.5~.

616'----..l.------'------'
0.009

0.009

0.009

0.009

y sc

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

PAGE27 OF41

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

- -

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __j

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

F sc(6.2mm) =622.48newton

F s/9.2mm) =6I4.8newton

The mass of the Striker Cup is enough to move it through the necessary 4 mm to allow the Graze
Wings to open and position themselves on top of the Striker Cup. From the opposing forces it is
possible to detennine the amount of set-back necessary for this action to take place. The maximum
total opposing force for the two conditions must be evaluated. For the first condition consider the
first 1 mm displacement of the Striker Cup.

F scapi :=F fisc(() 2max) + F sse{( 0)

F scapi = 132.5 newton

Now consider the displacement from y 0 to y 0 +1

F scop2 :=F ssc~v o+

t)

F scop 2

= 22.27newton

For the worst case, the acceleration needed is,

F scop2
a ._
____
...:___
1\I

a =872.28g

scmean

6.2.6 Spring calculation for Delay Striker


Set Variables:
d
- minimum assembled spring height .
b
- maximum assembled spring height
- minimum Striker Cup movement for mming detinitely to take place
r
- maximum Striker Cup movement for am1ing definitely not to take place
h
- minimum drop height for mming deiinitely not to take place
u
-ratio of Fmi/Fmax (needed for tolerances)

Ne
Dm

- compensation factor for inactive end coils of spring


- mean diameter of spring

Variables to be Calculated:
Fmin
- minimum spring force at arming spring height (d-l)
Fmax
-maximum spring force at mming spring height (d-1)
o cis
- minimum free length of spring
- maximum free length of spring
p cis
kdcis
- required design spring stiffness
Dm
- mean diameter of spring
Dw
- wire dimneter of spring
Na
-number of effective coils
- maximum stress in spring wire
r0
Ls
- solid height of spring

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
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PAGE28 OF41

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CONFIDENTIAL

Energy required bv M603 cap:


The energy required by M603 cap is calculated from the acceptance test of the detonator.

AI ball := 14 g111

-mass of ball used to ignite detonator

h ball := 90nml

- height from which the ball is dropped

E 603 = 0. 012 'joule

E 603 :=Af bal!gh ball

Variables:
depth - dimension used as compensation for the energy required for igniting the P 1OS
detonator which is calculated later.

depth:= 1.0111111
d := (n5- to/)- (nl +to/)- (ds2 +to/)

d = 15.5 '1111/l

b := (n5 +to!)- (n1- to/)- (ds2- to!)

b = 16.1 '1111/l

r := (n5- to!)- (n1 +to/)- (ds2 +to!)- (ds3 +to/)- 0.5111111

r = 4. 7 mm

l := (n5 +to/)- (n1- to!)- (ds2- to!)- (ds3- to!)- (dw1- to/ small)+ depth

5.55 mm

h :=3.0111
ll

:= 0.8

Ne is the compensation for the inactive end coils of the spring

Ne :=2

Dm := n6- 1.5111111

Dm = 5.35 '111111

Dm is the mean spring diameter

Calculations for etiective mass ofDelav Striker supported by spring:


Iterate with wire diameter and number of coils

2 (Dw) Dm(Na+Ne)-pst
AI dspring :=~r.

._

Dw:=0.7J.mm

Na:=7.3

M dspring

M dspring = 0.48 gm

H min .-Jvf dsmin + -----'---"-

A1 111 in

1. 68 gm

._
Af dspring
Af max -J\.! dsmax +
2

1\f 111 ax =

J.92gm

Spring Calculations:
Forces due to set-back:

F max:= a min 1\J min


F min := uF max

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

F max = 16.43 newton


F min = 13.15 newton

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE29 OF41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

Free height of spring:


F min(/- 2r-b)
0

ds:

+ 2M 1110x-g-h(d-l)

2.Nf maxgh- 2rF min

The spring must be long enough to support the striker before firing:

o ds =55.17mm

b = 16.1mm

mustbelargerthan

o ds :=b+ 1mm

o ds = 17.1 mm

p ds := o ds + 0.5mm

p ds

= 17.6mm

Approximation of Wahl Factor:


K := 1.18

Wire diameter:

8 K

. +F
nun
max. Dm

Dw:=

Dw =0.63mm

7Z' '"dss

Dw .= 0. 71mm

Choose:

Dm
Dw

Actual Wahl Factor:


K := 4 C - 1 + 0. 615

4C- 4

K=I.2

Shear stress at condition where mming definitely takes place:

8KF maxDm

'"o:=-----

-r O = 7-18MPa

nDw3

Note that if this stress is too high, the stress at n (energy taken up by the spring>= 1\fscmin.g.h) could
also be considered:

2.Nf maxg h- ( 0 ds- d + 1)


n := o ds'II

+ (o ds-

d)

F min

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE 30 OF 41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

- (o

( 0 ds- n)F min


. - -'---'----'--mimz .d I
0 ds+ .

ds- n)F max


F maxn - --'-----'--ods-d+l

8-K-F maxnDm
"On:=-----;r/fi/

must be smaller than

.-On = 838 MPa

.- dss

965 MPa

Spring stiffness:

F min+ F max

kdds :=

kd ds = 1999 newton m

ods+Pds+2l-2-d

-1

Number of coils:
G ssDw
Na.----3
8kddsC

Na = 7.3

Solid height:
must be smaller than

L s = 6.6 mm

L s :=Dw(Na+ Ne)

d- 1- depth= 8.95 nnn

Outer and inner diameter of spring:

ID :=Dm- Dw

ID =4.64mm

OD :=Dm + Dw

OD = 6. 06 .IIIII/

must be smaller than

n6 = 6.85 mm

Summm-v ofResults:

Na

7.3

Dw = 0. 71mm
L s = 6. 6 1m11

d- 1- depth= 8.95 nun

must be smaller than

= 4. 64 mm

OD=6.06mm

ID

.- o = 748MPa

.-On = 838 j\tJPa

o ds
p ds

=
=

17.1 mm
17.6 mm

Dm

ds+Pds

- - - - = 17.3J nnn

= 5.35 mm

is the mean free length of the spring

Minimum energy transferred to the detonator:


?

deptlr-kd ds
E :=F mindepth+ - - - 2

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

'-------

------

------------------------------

0. 0 14-joule

must be more than

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

E 603

0.012joule

PAGE31 OF41

-------------------------------------------"

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

7. AFTER COMPLETE ARMING


7.1 The rotor locking mechanism must Jock the Rotor in the armed position
The Rotor Locking Pin must overcome friction due to centrifugal forces before it will move into position.
The Rotor Locking Spring must be strong enough to overcome the friction force.

Li rl := 7mm- (r/4- r/6)

- installed height of spring

Li rl = 5 mm

- compression of spring when installed

x := 1.6mm
Lfrl := 7mm- (r/5- r/6) + x

- free height of spring

Lfr1 = 8 mm

- wire diameter of spring

Dw rl := 0.35-mm
Dm rl = 2.48 mm

Dm rl := r/2- 1.5Dw rl

- mean diameter of spring


- number of active coils

N a :=8.3

Dm rl

c = 7.07

c --Dwrl
Ls rl :=

(N a+ 2.5)Dw rl

Ls rl = 3. 78 mm

- solid height of spting

Li ,.1- 0.5-mm = 4.5 mm

should be smaller than

k d = 1048 newtonm 1
- 4. c - 1 0. 615
K .
+-4C- 4
C

K = 1.21

s
r s = 86Jlv1Pa

spring rate

-Wahl factor

:- 8Kkd"(Lf,.f+0.4mm-Lsrt)Dm,.1

- shear stress in wire

rcDw rl

should be smaller than I 050 lviPa


(from design stress curves, Carlson, Harold. Spring Designer's Handbook, p. 143)

ID :=Dm rl- Dw rl

ID = 2.13 1mn

- inside diameter of spring

OD := Dm rl + Dw rl

OD = 2.83 mm

- outside diameter of spring

should be larger than

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

pAirr9mmoF =J.Olnewton

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE32 OF 41

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

At a height of Li rl = 5 mm the force must be between


and

k a (Lj rl- Li ,.z- 0. 4mm)

= 2. 72 newton

k a (Lf ,.z- Li rl + 0.4mm) = 3.56newton

Summarv of results:

N a =8.3

- number of active coils

Dw rl = 0.35mm

- wire diameter

= 2.48mm
Ls rl = 3. 78 '111111

- mean diameter

Dm rl

- solid height

should be smaller than

OD

ID

Li rl-

= 2.83 mm

0.5111111

= 4.5 '111111

- outside diameter of spring

= 2. I 3 '111111

- inside diameter of spring

r s = 86! lv!Pa

- maximum shear stress in spring

Lfrl

- free length of spring

8 '111111

Li rl = 5 mm

- installed height and testing height of spring

k a (Lf,.z- Li rl)

=3.14 newton

- force at testing height

7.2 The centre of gravity of the Rotor must enable the turning of the Rotor
during spin in such a way as to align the detonator.
The following variables are used in the Rotor dvnamics calculations:
A -sectioned area of Rotor Shaft
-radius fiom fuze centre line to cog of Rotor

rcog
ay

Fe

!,.

yield strength
-force tluough cog of Rotor
- friction coefficient between Rotor and Rotor Shaft

Ffr

Tfr

friction force between Rotor and Rotor Shaft


loss of torque due to friction

ro cog - moment mm fiom centre of Rotor


T
- available torque
a
- acceleration
Ft
-force due to set-back

at - diameter of effective area on which F t is applied


p
Tt

- fiiction coefficient between Rotor and Fuze Body


- loss of torque due to :fiiction

Ttot -

total loss of torque

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
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CONFIDENTIAL

Variables:

r cog:= 5.6mm

-j

ro cog.- ro cogx2 + ro cogy2

rocog=2.17mm

Calculations:
The centrifugal force through the centre of gravity of the Rotor is:

F c = 3.99 newton
Losses due to friction:
The friction force between the Rotor and the Rotor Shaft is calculated from the centrifugal force. Although
this force is not applied through the centre of the Rotor Shaft, the enor is expected to be very small.
The fhction force is:

F fr

1.4 newton

T fr

0. 0028 m newton

The torque due to this force is:

The Rotor Locking Pin pushes onto the Rotor causing a thction force.
The ti"iction force is:

F rl = 1.1 newton
The torque due to this force is:

T rl

0.0075m newton

In flight the Rotor is pressed onto the top of the cavity due to deceleration caused by air friction.
The force due to this deceleration is

F t :=Al roa air

F t = 0. 71newton

Take the radius at which this force is applied as:

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

d 1 := 7-mm

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
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PAGE34 OF 41

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CONFIDENTIAL

The torque caused by this is:

T t =
.

F pd
t
t

T t = 0. 0009m newton

The total torque caused by the friction is:


T friction := T fr + T t + T rl

T friction = O.Olllm newton

Required Torque:
The centrifugal force is applied at a distance of ro cog = 2.17 nun fi:om the centre of the Rotor.
The torque due to spin is:
T :=F cro cog

T = 0.0087m newton

VF:= __T__

VF=0.78

must be larger than 1

T friction

7.3 After pyrotechnic burnout, the Striker Cup must not pull out of the Rotor
cavity in the Fuze Body
The Striker Cup provides the stop for the Rotor in case the set-back mechanisms are prematurely armed.
This prevents the Rotor i):om swinging the wrong way round out of position.
x

-minimum distance of penetration of the Striker Cup base into the Rotor

x = ( c3- to/)- ( c2 + to!)+ ( d1- to!) + (dw 1 - to! small) - ( nl +to!)- (bl + to!) ...
+ ( ro 1 - to!) - ( b3 + to!)
x = 0. 75 nnn

-minimum distance of penetration of the Striker Cup Spring seating surface into the Fuze Body

x := (c6- tol)- (c2 +to!)+ (d1- to/)+ (dw1- tol small) - (nl +to/)- (bl +to!)+ (i8- to!)
x = 2.45mm

7.4 The Striker Cup must enable arming on pulling out of the cavity in
the Rotor
x

- minimum distance of the Striker Cup above the cavity in the Rotor after arming
x := (rol- to!)- (ro7 +to!)+ (nl- tol)- (d1 +to!)- (dwl + tol small)- (c3 +to!) ...
+(c2- to!)+ (bl- to!)
x = 1.65 mm
DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
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PAGE 35 OF 41

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CONFIDENTIAL

7.5 The Rotor Shaft must not shear as result of the spin
The shear smface of the Rotor Shaft is:

Fe
A--

A= 0.02mn/

r ss
The minimum required diameter of the Rotor Shaft during flight is:

rs2 = 4 mm

must be smaller than

d = 0.14mm

7. 6 The Graze Wing must allow arming of the Rotor


x - minimum standoff distance of Graze Wing above Striker Cup when atmed
a a - distance of seating point of Graze Wing on Striker Cup above Shaft centre

' i.:f-

i3\

If/.= asin I- - ) + 2-de!!:


\\ w3 '1
~

If/= 32.35 deg

aa := w dist'sin( If/)- [ w dis( cos( If/)- (i2-

~)}tan( If/)

aa = 2.69mm

x :=aa+ (d1- tol) t- ( dw 1 - to/ small) - ( c2 t- tol)- ( n1 + to/)- (b1 + tol) +- (i4- to! small)
must be positive

x = 0.09mm

7. 7 Rain insensitivity calculations


The fuze is required not to function on impact with a 6mm diameter rain drop. As an approximation, the
assumption is made that the rain drop is accelerated to the velocity of the projectile during 6mm.
F
- force applied by rain drop

r drop:= 6111111

-radius of rain drop

Pwater := 1000kgm
v := 900msec

?
?
1
--vF =-p
'" roiJ
3 water=1d
l'

-density of water
-velocity of projectile
4

F=3.0J-J'610 'tle"totl
"

The deflection of the Nose where the Delay Element is attached should not be more than

x =ro1-ro3+b1+nl-dwl-dl-c3+c2-cl1-9tol

X=

1. 7 'IIIII/

This data is utilized in a finite element analysis.

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE36 OF 41

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CONFIDENTIAL

8. ON HITTING THE TARGET


8.1 Graze action calculations

Variable declaration:
a gl := 2000g

- drag in longitudinal direction due to graze action

a gr := 10000g

- drag in the radial direction due to graze action

kd sc = 2560 newtonm

- spring constant for Striker Cup Spring

l'vf scmean = 26 gm

- etiective mass of Striker Cup with pyrotechnics

Aiw=5.15gm

- mass of one graze wing

i2 =9.4mm

- radius of graze wing pivot point

y sc :=5.2mm,5.3mm .. 9.2mm

- vertical displacement of striker cup

e2m in = 2. 65 deg
e2max = 75.82 deg
e2 := e2min e2min + 1deg .. e2max

- minimum angle of cog with regard to horizontal

OJ safe

- maximum angle of cog with regard to horizontal


- angle of cog with regard to horizontal
- spin rate at which the fuze must be safe

:= 1 OOOrpm

OJ

ann :=25001p111

OJ

mean.-

._OJ arm+ OJ

- spin rate at which the fuze must ann


safe
OJ

mean = 1750 "lpm

DOCillv1ENTNO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

---------~

PAGE37 OF 41

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ j

VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

Graze action calculations


The worst condition for graze action is when two of the Graze Wings are orientated 30 degrees
above the horizontal axis.
During graze action the fuze experiences an acceleration in both the radial and longitudinal
directions. This results in a counterclockwise moment on the Graze Wing centre and a forward
movement by the Striker Cup which will cause an opposing moment. The longitudinal and radial
forces on the Graze Wing are,

F gl :=M wa gl

F gl = JOJ.OJnewton

F gr :=M wa grsin(30deg)

F gr = 252.52 newton

The Graze Wing will tend to rotate clockwise due to the rotational force caused by the spin of the
fuze. The radius at which the cog is situated, increases as the angle B2 decreases fi:om B2max to .

B2min deg during spin.

r( () 2 ) :=i2 + w cog' cos ( () 2 )


The centrifugal force increases in relation to the increase in radius r(B} as the angle B2 decreases
from ()2max to ()2min deg.

3.------~------~------~

1.5 ....____

I ________...__
I ______,

--~.

0.5

The maximum friction on the shaft is dete1mined from the resultant graze action force, F g' and the
centrifugal force on the Graze Wing, Fwc:

F g =269.5Jnewton
This results in a loss in torque due to the friction:

F we(() 2max) = 1.877newton

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

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F we(() 2m in) = 2.65 newton

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

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VERTROULIK
CONFIDENTIAL

Friction is also caused by the orientation of the Graze Wings. This friction is between the Graze
Wing and the Body.

T bf= 0.459newtonm
The available torque on one Graze Wing is the torque from the graze action minus the fiiction torque
minus the spring force minus the inertia force on the Striker Cup minus the centrifugal force on the
Graze Wing.
The inertia forces of the Striker Cup are,

F scgf=i'vf scmeana gl

F scgl = 51.07newton

F scgr =lvf scmean a gr

F scgr = 255.34 newton

The Graze Wing will tend to rotate clockwise due to the rotational force caused by the spin of the
fuze. The radius at which the cog is situated, decreases as the angle 82 increases from min to

e2

e2max

deg during spin.

r(e 2 ) :=i2+wcog"cos(e 2 )
The centrifugal force decreases in relation to the decrease in radius r(8) as the angle

e2

decreases from e2max to e2min deg.

The deflection of the Slliker Cup Spting is cone!ated to the Graze Wing angle in the following way:

l .=
Ycomp(82
1

sc + P sc.- (i2- c9) ,tan(wang/e-8


(
))
2 +c6-i4+i5
2
2

y camp( e 2min)

1.974mm

y camp ( e 2max)

8.50Jmm

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE 39 OF 41

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CONFIDENTIAL

The force applied by the Striker Cup Spring is:

scs( 8 2) :=kd sc'Y comp( 8 2)

The inertia force in the longitudinal direction together with the spring force and friction will generate a
moment on the graze wing.
The total moment on the Graze Wing is

g( 8 2) := [ (F grw cog'cos( 8 2) + F gfw cogsin( 8 2))- Tf- F we( 8 2)w cogsin( 8 2)- T bJ}2 ...
+ (F scgt+ F scs( 8 2) + F scgrP)- (c;- i2)
2

"

""" ' '\


0
0.5

The available resultant force on the Striker Cup is

(e?)
gsc
~

(e ?)

T
= g .
c9
z2-2
400
k

:--~.,

'~""'

F gsc(B 2) 200

0.5

The maximum torque occurs at:

e2 := 7deg
Given
q__T
dB

(e -?)=Omnewton

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

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PAGE40 OF 41

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CONFIDENTIAL

emaxtorque = 20.4 7 deg

emaxtorque :=Find ( e 2)
Zero torque occurs at:

e2

:=40deg

Given
T

g( e2 )=0mnewton

ezerotorque :=Find( e2)

ezerotorque = 77.43 deg

At this stage the distance between the Striker Cup and the Detonator is:

x := ((ro1 +to!)- (ro3- to!))+ (i4 +to/) ...

+ (i2 + ~)sin( wangle- ezerotorque) - (c3- to!)- (ell- to!)


x = -9.57 mm

must be less than zero

8.2 Strength of Rotor Shaft during graze


The minimum required diameter of the Rotor Shaft during graze is:

F g :=AI ,.0 -ja g[ +a

g/

:=---..K

A =2.98mnl

" ss
d

1.95 mm

must be smaller than

rs2 = 4 mm

8.3 Strength of Rotor Locking Pin during graze


r

- shear stress in Rotor Locking Pin during graze action

F :=a grJ~J ro ro cogx + ro cagy

F = 226 newton

6.8mm

F4

r:=--

r= 72.04}v1Pa

should be smaller than

r a/] = 120 JvJPa

tr-rll

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

APPENDIXB
CONFIDENTIAL
VERTROULIK

PAGE41 OF 41

APPENDIX C
Marketing pamphlet
(1 page)

DOCUMENT NO.: 5270-000000-715001

A concept Low Cost Fuze is presently in development at Naschem. The fuze design is a
totally new concept in fuzes which ensures extremely low cost while still maintaining the
same performance characteristics, if not improving it.
The objective was to develop a fuze with as few components as possible to ensure low
item cost and to decrease the possible causes of failure. The conceptual design is
completed and based on preliminary quotations the following figures can be presented:

COMPARISON OF FUZES

Number of components
Indicative selling price

73
575

15
192

(R)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
PD M9119Al

Low Cost Fuze

EISELLING PRICE coMPONENTS

A concept demonstration will be held early in 1996. If you are interested in attending,
please contact Herman van den Berg at Naschem (Tel.: 0148-2977151).