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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN piEGO

3 1822 01898 3668


fHE UNIVEf?5;iTY LlRRARY

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. SAN CIEGO


LA JOLLA. CALIFORNIA

Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive


in

2008

witii

IVIicrosoft

funding from

Corporation

littp://www.arcliive.org/details/egyptianselftaugOOtliim

EGYPTFAN COINAGE.
SILVEE.

10 riASTKt.H, Tariff.

Piastres, T.

Piastre, T.

NICKEL.

[P.O. 619H.]

Rlll.I.U-MK.

II.I.IKMES.

[See p.

80.]

MARLBOROUGH'S

SELF-TAUGHT

SERIES.

Egyptian Self-Taught
(ARABIC).

CONTAINING

Alphabet and Pronunciation


Vocabularies Elementary Grammar Idiomatic
Phrases & Conversations Travel Talk
Money, Weights and Measures.

BY

CAPTAIN

C.

A.

THIMM.

Fourth Edition, Revised and Enlarged by

MAJOR

R.

A.

MARRIOTT,

London
E.

MARLBOROUGH &

CO.,

D.S.O.

51,

1914.
[all rights reserved.]

Old

Bailey,

E.C

NOTE TO THIRD EDITION.


been the fashion since the occupation of Egypt

It has

speak

to

slightingly of the colloquial form of Arabic in use there.

This

is

partly because,

as

is

the case in every country, the

commoner forms of speech seem uncouth and unclassical to


students who have learnt their Arabic either in universities, from
viunshis in India, or from Syrians (who are frequently in Egypt
the professed instructors).

The basis of the common speech is, however, classical, though


not directly recognisable as such. The fact that some of the words
have not been encountered in the comparatively scanty literature
of the Arabs, nor in the Koran, does not preclude them from being
Arabic, though the forms of speech may not rank higher than such
English forms as shan't,

ain't,

and Tve.

Take, for instance, the word so often heard balldsh, gratis (used
This is the
often where "gratis" is scarcely the trahslation).

Egyptian form

of bila shcy,

via shcy, like the ne

negative

is

without anything; and mush (not) is


in French, though the proper

and pas

ind, Id, or leyss.

The Egyptian language has

also the characteristic of using

many

words in their diminutive form. Thus md, water, becomes moyyah


saghir, small, saghayijar, hence also the form sliutudyyah which
again is scarcely recognisable in the expression bi shtveysh meaning
slowly.
Further, letters are sometimes transposed
zog, a pair,
becomes guz yiVan becomes yin'al, the most common expletive in
" May your father be cursed"
use, in the form yin'al abuk !

Some

scholars are of opinion that the Egyptian Arabic, showing

kinship with the Aramaic,

is

entitled to as high a place in the

pedigree of the langua.ge as

is

the language of the Koran.

Everyone of standing or education in Egypt speaks with a


superstructure of good Arabic, so that a student of the language
may rest assured that as he advances in knowledge of the
expressions and words used amongst the educated natives he i?
learning Arabic which will stand

him

in good stead elsewliere.

R.
CUelintiford, Iy07,

A.

MARRIOTT.

PREFACE.
THIS

intended as a practical handbook of


spoken in Egypt, for the Army and
Navy, Travellers, Missionaries and Traders, in the Nile Valley
and Delta, or in the Sudan.
little

manual

is

colloquial Arabic, as

By the use of this book, students, tourists and others will find
they are quite competent to make themselves understood by all
classes of Arabs met with in Egypt, the Sudan, and a considerable
part of North Africa.

Full Vocabularies of words in

common, every-day use

are sup-

comprehensive list of Military


terms and a useful section of Conversational Phrases and Sentences
of a practical character.
In addition an outline of the Grammar
of Arabic is given, and students of the Language will find this of
great assistance in mastering the construction of sentences.
plied,

including

particularly

In the Vocabularies the plural has in most cases been added

to

the nouns, as well as the imperative of the verbs, which also


occasionally presents diificulties.

The system of transliteration adopted is of a simple and phonetic


and is clearly laid down at the commencement of the
book, where the forms of the Arabic. characters are given, together

character,

with a full explanation of the peculiarities of pronunciation, the


Egyptian rendering of the Arabic alphabet, and the equivalent
sound of each letter in English thus supplying the key to the
second column throughout.

Thanks are due to Professor Flinders Petrie for revising the


and to Sir Alfred Milner, K.C.B., Dr. Andrew Watson,
Captain H. C. Prichard, Mr. D. A. Cameron and others for useful
suggestions made.

proofs,

CONTENTS.
PAGE

The Alphabet

The Forms of the Letters


Remarks on the Pronunciation

of Arabic

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Pood and Drink

Human

Body, The

Militan-y Titles

Naval and Military Terms

Numbers:

6
8

Pages 12 to 60.
Animals, Birds and Fishes
Colours
Commercial and Trading Terms
...
...
...
Countries and Nations ...
Eating and Cooking Utensils
Fruits, Trees, Flowers, Herbs and Vegetables
Government Ministries and Administrations
House and Furniture
...
...
...
...
Mankind: Relations
Dress

Vocabularies.

...

Cardinal, Collective...

...

...

14
34
59
31
21
16
45
22
18
19
20
16
46
47
32

Conjunctions,
34 to 45
Interrogatives, Prepositions, Pronour^s, Verbs ...
24
Professions and Trades
60
Religious Words for Missionary \Yorkers
15
...
...
...
...
Reptiles and Insects
25
Ships and Shipping
28
Shooting Implements and Fishing Tackle
29
Time and Seasons
23
...
...
...
...
...
...
Town and Country
26
Travelling
12
World and its Elements, The
13
Land and Water Minerals and Metals
27
Writing

Parts of Speech: Adjectives, Adverbs,

etc..

The Grammar of Arabic Pages

61 to 66.

The Verb Auxiliary Verbs General Formation


Tenses Pronoun Formation of Plurals Definite
Article Negative Adjective Polite Diction.
Conversations. Pages 67 to 79.
Remarks

of

Directions to Workmen
Travel Talk Arrival
:

An Excursion

On

the Nile

The Railway
Simple and Practical Phrases
Useful and Necessary Expressions

Weights and Measures


Egyptian Money

..

72
73
76
77
74
68
67
79
80

EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE

(ARABIC).

PHONETIC TRANSLITERATION.
1.

THE ALPHABET.
The Arabic Alphabet
letters, all of

guages,

is

composed of the 2S following

which are written,

from the right hand

like

to the

most Eastern Lanleft.

assumes a different form according to


the beginning, middle or

its

Each

position

when

at the

at

end of the word.

The following characters are written:1. when totally unconnected with any other
2.

letter

letter.

end of a word, or joined only

to the

letter preceding.
3.

when connected with the preceding and following


letters.

4.

when

at the beginning of a

the letter following.

word, or joined only

to

THE FORMS OF THE LETTERS.


When
Name.

unconnected with
other
characters.

When

Final,
joined to

preceding
only.

Bey

V^

Tey

c^

ViA

They

CJ

t^

Alif

joined to other letters.


Medial,
joined to

preceding

and
following.

A
A
A

Initial,

joiued to
following
only.

Pronunciation
in Egypt.

'J

(Arabic th
or

s)

Gim

rs\

s-

g (Arabic j)

Ha

i^V

s>.

Kha

e
e

^\.

kh

<:>

tX

Dal
Zal

Rey

tX

7 y

> /

Sin

LT

LT*

AA

M/

Shin

LT

lA

AWb

sh

Sad

UO

(j^

J>D.

Dhad

U^

c>A

-^

Zeyn

\Ylien joined to othe

'

letters.

When
unconnected witli
other
characters.

Name.

Final,

joined to

preceding
only.

Medial,
joined to
preceding

and
following.

Initial,

joined to
following
only.

Pronunciation
In Egypt.

h.

J^

\b

'Ain

&

aa

Ghain

gh

Fey

v^

(J-

'i

q {or g)

Tha
Zha

{or

Dha)

Kaf

O
^d

Lam

J^

j\Iim

Nun

'J

Hey

&

Wilu

Yey

(5

Qaf

The forms

j 6

^JL

and

s:

^
JL

Many

h
w, u.

are used as connecting letters.

From J and Lam-Alif are formed^


From j (n) and is, (kh) is formed the
\

or

lil,

in connection

ligature

ii.

other ligatures are formed, especially in writing.

REMARKS ON THE PRO^'UNCIATION OP ARABIC.


Where in English we have more than one pronunciation for
we are content to leave it so, but the Arabic alphabet

a letter

contains

different

two

s,

two

d,

which

sounds

2,

last are

(as far as

English

real difficulties are

until

is

some mastery

The

more

subtle,

as the chief difficulties

but though strange to our

been obtained.

a sound

is

purposes.

practical

and very often not recognized

of the language has

c, transcribed 'din,

concerned) peculiar

they are soon mastered sufficiently for

ears,

two

t,

and two k sounds, besides the c and the

These two are often quoted

to Arabic.

language.

the

in

has two h sounds, two

v, it

in mastering the Arabic pronunciation

The

sound

every

for

letter

Though Arabic has no j? and

which

vowel-sounds of a (long), ee (English), and

is

u,

linked with the

but generally with

the a, and can be distinguished from ^hem, even by a not very


It can be attained

by

produced far back and down

in

precise ear.

the

muscles must be developed to produce

never imitate the sound at the

The
which

c (ghain)

is

much more

in the

the

'

German

gargling

The
loch,

is

a vowel-sound

Special

so that a

it,

easily acquired, as it is a

'

r.

in

the

r 'grasseyS' in French,

position whilst pronouncing

of ch in the

German

<.

(g'tni) is,

The

*-

(hd)

is

and

r.

sound

language.

in Egypt,

of the Scotch

In Egyptian

it is

pronounced as a hard

Arab population keep the correct

is

sound

It requires the muscles of the throat to be in

harder by placing the muscles of the throat as in clearing

The

throat-

European can

attempt.

p- (hlid) represents nearly the

and

throat.

approached very nearly in many European tongues

is

Northumbrian English,

in

first

and

practice,

'

as in

it.

but the

soft y.

quite as difficult as the 'atn to

the sound of h in

g,

c/i,

rendered

master.

hard,' emitted with great force,

and

It
is,

as

the last difficulty to be overcome, because the importance

a rule,

of the distinction

is

not at

first

an extra syllable, and when


'

This ako

recogniz<jd.

In words like suhk,

the back of the throat.

it

made

is

morning/

'

at

gives

it

occurs twice in a word (as sakih,

true,') it presents a great difficulty.

The

('Z''/)

is

peculiar to Arabic, and

a throat h which

is

seems to present some trouble even to Arabic-speaking peojjle,


because it is generally rendered by the sound of a hard g, and in
Cairo

f^

qoom

Get up

')

The

The
ing

it

is

(til)

like

does not

an

is

called

Daqlqali, 'a minute,'

transcribed.

is

would sound
lapse of this

considerably to the difficulty of grasping

adds

Cairo

in

words] therefore special attention


q

('

'oom in Cairo and goom in the provinces.

like

Thus

inaudible.

is

call for

when
is

words

to

and
it

is

to

is

to

Properly speak-

most Arabs, even in


a German or French-

generally given the sound of

Arabic, but in colloquial Egyptian

it

the

which

pronounced da-ee-a*

much comment.

lisped,

Arabia, as difficult to pronounce as

man, and consequently

is

in

in official

has only the sound of

f.

The subtler distinctions made between the


^^ja, u^, h and H
two kinds of s, d, t and z are not very important to a beginner,
but as the student advances he will have to make the distinctions,
especially

when he comes

to writing.

difTcrence consists in pronouncing the


t

and

2 far

It
^j.*,

may

^,

be said that the


Is

and

4>

as

s,

d,

back in the throat, ending the sound by the tongue

approaching the palate instead of the front teeth.

To

recapitulate, the alphabet

is

given as

follows,

in

order,

stating only the equivalent sounds with regard to the Egyptian

language.
Alif,

most frequently as a

in father;

sometimes more like

the u in but.

wJ

Beij, like the

Tei/,

As Cairo

English

like the English

is

b.
t.

the capital and the centre of erlucatiou,

the country pronounce

tlic

Qaf similarly.

all officials Id

10

Tltey, like the

Glm

9-

Hd.

Klid.

Dal, like the English

d.

Zdl, like the English

z.

English

(See p. 9.)

t.

(gcem), like the English hard g.


Among the Arabs
is called jeem, and pronounced soft, like g in germ.

it

(See

p. 8.)

(See

like

7?e//,

Zci/n,

p. 8.)

English r (or rather rr)

like the

English

^_f^

Shi (seen), like the English

Shin (sheen), like the English

,jo

Sad, like the English

s.

y
Ji

D/ia, or ^/ia, like the English

"^

-1

/-.,

Ghdm.

sh,

s.

Dhdd, like the Englisli d.


,^,
nuT^
Tha, like .1
the English t.

(See p. 8,

in terror.

z.

and

,r,

(^See p.
'

z.

9.)
'

11 for transcription.)

p.

like the

English /.

y^J

Fcij,

^
J
J

hard ^ in the provinces, in Cairo inaudible.


(See p. 9.)
English h.
the
like
Kdf,
Lam, like the English /.

Qdf,

like a

J\Ihn (meem), like the

(J

iV(7)i

(noon),

7^e(/,

like the

English

like the English

?.
?i.

When it has two dots over it (t)


English h.
In Egyptian, words properly ending in *
as if it were 5.

becomes a t.
are pronounced

it

Wdu

Yei/,

(woic), has the sound of w, or of oo as in soon, according to circumstances.

like the

English

y,

and terminally has

also the

sound

of ee in English.

to

The beginner will do well not to spend too much time in attempting
master the various forms of the letters (pp. G, 7) they will be learnt in

a practical

way by

trying to read words,

names

of stations, streets, &c.

In order to render the pronunciation as given in these pages


and as clear as possible without attempting to distinguish the more delicate inflections of sound, which might serve
as concise

11

only to confuse tlie reader namely, the different kinds of -s d, t,


Mui c, the following transcription is given, and should be
continually referred to by the learner until he is familiar with it.
?t

in but.

o long, for the

,,

,,

in father.

zt

short,

short,

,,

,,

e in

met.

long,

short,

,,

,,

tit-bit.

di (or ay),

long,

,,

,,

ee in meet.

cif^

short,

,,

,,

an

a short,
a long,
e

', 'e,

for the

'/,

sound

of

iu

work.

in

of o hwpole.

,,

,,

00 in soon,

,,

,,

,,

,,

ai in tvain.

.,

,,

oiv in cow.

,,

in put.
in wine,

'aln,
'n, for the different vowel-inflections of the ^
'//
and
seventy
('
saZ^'m
to'),
'),
('belonging
as Ufa

'o,

kh for the sound of ch


not nearly so

sound

,,

hard

soft,

for

gli,

for c (ghdin), as in

comma

is

Meghagha

but

it

is

(station south of Caim).

following a letter, as in rd,{s

represents the hamza


The difference
voice.

ich,

as in subh ('morning'), sahlh ('true').

/(.,

and German
more raucous.

in loch

and

inflection,

which

is

('

head,' or

a sort

'

foreman'),

of catch in the

in the pronunciation is exemplified by the


house and an ice house.
nice
a
between
difference
In
All other letters given will be pronounced as in English.
a few cases the acute accent has been inserted for the accented
syllable, ns Iraldhna, 'we wrote.'

Notes on the Tonic Accent. -The tonic accent or stress falls


naturally on a syllable containing a vow^el marked with along or an
acute accent;

e.g., tdra, f/hordb, inardl;hi,

It is also indicated

occurrence of the hard


eh'iia,

taldmza, mosl;6wi,

by the duplication of
/*.

letters

allcih.

and by the

e.g., iiiakJmd'dah, arhag't/i,

felnk'hah,

istah'kam.

The

{'ain),

f.

quiring more

except in the rare case of

its

being

final, re-

effort to pronounce, also indicates the accent

e.g.,

bit'ai.

many

instances where the stress is not specially indicated,


e.g., heijtah,
quite naturally on the right syllable
tarabei/zah, diinanmalt (hey'tah, tarabey'zah, dunan'mah).
In other cases, where no vowel in a word is accented, the

In

it

falls

have equal stress laid on them e.g., i/Jiada, nafas,


sanawat d (jamal.
The final ah of nouns and adjectives, representing the
must from its nature have less stress than the preaspirate
it has not been thought
ceding syllable in two-syllable words
necessary, therefore, to accent such words as labaaJi, uardah.
syllables

iahrah, maksab,

Annroachinsi the short

?t

in valuo.

12

VOCABULARIES.
ABBREVIATIONS.
Ii. Lower Egypt.

U. Upper Egypt.

Plti. Plural.

Imp. Imperative.

N.B.The

denotes the preseuce of yey (see page 10) in the Arabic, as


does also final i. Thus 'arableh (carriage) when plural becomes 'aralniiut
as the yey in such words has more of the sound value of y. The feminine
ah becomes at before a vowel, e.g., es sikkat el hadid (the railway).
I

1.

The World and

English.

its

ArabicPhonetic

God

Allah

Creator
world
sky

khali q

sun

moon

Elements.
Pronunciation.

dunya
sama, gau
shems, sems

(l.),

shemsh

air

qamar
nigmah
haua

earth

ard

water

moyyah

fire

animal

nar
bahr
hay wan, plu. haywanat

cattle

pill,

nature

tab'iah

light

niir

dark
weather

atmah, zalara
haua

wind

rih, plu. aryfih

storm

nau
ghaim
matar

star

sea

cloud
rain

snow,

ico

hail

tIniDder
lightning

bahayim

telg

bard, galld
ra'ad

barq

(u.)

13
AnABic.

English.

Phonetic

heat

shahurah
hararah

cold

bard, barid

North
South
East

bahri,

fog-

rroiiuiici;i

shemal

qibli

sharq
gharb
zoba'ah

West
whirlwiiiil

North-wind
earthquake

tiyab
zilzilah, phi. zalazil

echpse of the sun


echpse of the moon

inkisaf
|

khusuf

Land and Water.

2.

Lahd

ard

island

gezlrah, plu. gazayir

mountain

gebel,

valley

wadi

2^Ztt.

gibfil

river

bahr, plu. bubiir

lake

birkah

water
rock

moyyah

wave

mogah,

sakhrah, plu. sukhui

2jZ.

dmwag

barr, shati, sahil


gineynah, plu. ganayii

shore

garden
reservoir

mound
the first cataract
the second cataract

khazzan
kom, plu. kiman
shallalah el auwal
shallalah et-tani
tin

clay
clear water
cold water

moyyah rayqah
moyyah baridah
moyyah sukhnah

hot water
3.

Min erals and Metals.

Gold

dahab

silver

faddah

copper

nahhas alimar
nahhas asfar

brass
iron

hadid

u
Arabic Phonetic

English.

Pronunciation.

tanak
bulad

tin

safleh,

steel

solb,

lead
coal (charcoal stone)

rusas
fahra hagar

marble

rokham

stone

hagar

sand
metal
mineral

rami, ramleh
m'adan, jjIu. ma'adin
fahm hatab
m'adani

amber

kahraman

granite
gravel

sa^van

charcoal

local

hasil,

mercury

quicksilver

5.

Animal

haswah

zeybaq

Animals, Birds a^d Fishes.

horse

Ijaywan, plu. haywanat


hosan, plu. kheyl

cow

baqarah

calf

igl, plu.

lion

sab'a, pZ. sub'ua

lioness

labwah, ^du. labwat


khanzlr, plu. khanazir

pig
sheep

lamb
goat

dog
cat

agul

ghanam
kharuf, ^jZ?/. khirfan
m'izah, jdn. ma'iz
kelb, fZM. kelab

hare

qottah, plu. qotat


arnab, plu. aranib

AVOlf

dib, plu. diyab

fox

ta'aleb

mouse, rat

far, plu. firan

cock

dik, plu.

doyuk

hen

farkhah,

^jZu.

fowl

teyr,

chicken
goose

wizzah, plu. wizz

firakh

tiyur
katkut, 2>Zw. katakit
2jZ((.

15

Arabic Phone tic

English.

duck

l^ronunciation.

bird

batta, plu. batt


asfur, }du. asafir

dove

yamnamah,

eagle

nisr, plu.

crow
turkey

ghorab
dik rumi

pelican

rakhamah

^)?.

yamam

nesur

birdlime

dibk

owl
pigeon

burnah

hawk
partridge

saqr
hagal

fish

samak

lobster
cattle

abu-galambo
ma-washi, bahayim

mule
camel

baghlah, plu. bigbfil


gamal, plu. ginial

hump

hamamah,

of the camel

sanamat

el

plu.

hamam

gamal

donkey
dromedary

honiar, plu. hemir


haglu, plu. hegana

elephant
horse shoe
hide (of a beast)

fll, plu. afyal


liidwa, plu. liadawi

horn

monkey

gelud
qurn, plu. qorun
nisnas, plu. nasanis
gild, plu.

quail

simmanah

sandgrouse

qatt'a

gazelle

ghazal
5.

{bovine)

Rep tiles and

Insects.

bee

dddah, 2'^"- <iud


namlah, plu. naml
dibbanah, }dii, dibban
nalilab, phi. nahl

flea

barghut, plu. baraghit

spider
crocodile

'ainkabiit

wasp
mosquito

dabbur, plu. dobablr


namiisah, plu. namus

moth

ittah

White ant
ant
fly

timsali, 2>lu.

tamash

16

Arabic Phonetic

English

baqqah, phi. baqq


hasharah, waghish

DUg
insect

dabib, ha-wam
dofd'ah, plu. dafad'ih

reptiles

6.

Pronunciation.

Fruit, Trees

Flowers, Herbs and Vegetables

Fruits
apple
pear

fawakih

plum
tree

barkukah, plu. barkuk


shagarah, pin. ashgar, or

nut
walnut

gozah
goz

tiflah

kommittrah

grapes

'aneb

lemon

leymun

[shagar

oak

ballut

rose

wardah

flower
grass

zahrah, jdu. zuhur


x
hashish

herbs
barley

sha'ir

negll

koronb
gazar

cabbage
carrots
cauliflower
celery

karnabit
karafs

cinnamon

qirfah

clove

qor6nfil

corn

ghallah or qamlj

garlic

torn

melon

battikh

yellow melon

abdel-lawi,

olives

zeytun

onions

bassal
7.

Body
skin

The

Human

shamam

Body.

gasad, gism
gild, ;;Zit. gelud

heart

qalb, plu. quiub

liead

ras, plu. ru-us

hair

sh'arab, plu. sh'ar

17
English.

Arabic Phonetic

face

wish, wegli

forehead
eye
nose

gibhah

Pronunciation.

'ayn, phi. 'ayun

manakhlr

nostrils

monkh^r

mouth

hanak,

tongue

lissan

ear

widn,

neck
back

'onq or rakabah, pin. rikab

fomm
jjZ.

audan

dahr
batn
m'ida

belly

stomach
eh in

qasabat errigl, saq, p Ji/. slqan

foot

rigl,

arm
hand

dira'a

qadam

yed
soba'a, plu. sawabi'a

finger
finger-nail

dofr, pill, adafir

thumb

bahim

eye-lid

gifn, plu. gifiin

eye-brow

hagib, phi. hawagib


rimsh, phi. rimusli

eye-lash
tooth

sinn, phi. assnan

molar

ders, phi. adras

beard
elbow
blood
lungs

dakn

blindness

'am a
akhras

ku'a, phi. akw'a

dam
fish shah

dumb
deaf

atrash
mayyifc

dead
alive

'ayish, hai

naked

aryan
masarin

bowels
navel
right-hand

sorrah

yemin
shemal

left-hand

hand (palm

of the)

kalf

breath

nafas

drum

somakh

of the ear

Egyptian S.T.

el

widn
Q

18
Ababio. Phonetic Pronunciation.

English.

8.

Mankind; Relations.

People

nas

man
woman

ragil, 2)Zm. rigal

husband

parents

zog
zogah, marah
walad, plu. aulad
bint, plu. benat
walideyn

father

abu

mother

omm,

son

ibn,

wife

boy
girl

marah,

2'^"-

plu.

walad

nisswan

ommaliat
flu. abna

or beni,

aulad

daughter

bint

brother
sister

akhii, plu. akhwan


okbt, plu. akhawat

female

nitayah

male

dakar,

zakar

plu.

dokiir,

zokur

maid (virgin)
widow
widower
bride

bridegroom
fatherless

relation
relative

Christian

grand -child
grand -fat her
grand -mother
negro
negress

nephew
niece

bint bikr, plu. benat bukkar

azbah, armalah
azib
arusah, plu. arayis
arls, 2^lu. irsan

yatim
qarabah
qarib
maslhi, nusrani
ibn el ibn, ibn el bint, hafid
gidd

giddah
'abd, plu. 'abid
garyah, plu. guwar

ibn el akb, ibn el okht


bint el akh, bint el okbt

19

Arabic Phonetic

English.

9.

Pronunciation.

Dress.

Coat

sitrah

cloak

barnus
qamis, pi. qumsan
sadeyrah
geyb, plu. go-yub

shirt

waistcoat
pocket
button
stockings
boots

gazmah

shoe

markiib,

zirr, plu. ezrar


shorabat, gorabat

kib,

gazmah

plu.

gloves

borneytah, plu. barauTt


mandll, plu. manadll
sa'ah
kiss, jilu. akyass
furshah, jylu. forash
misht, plu. amshat
guanti, kufuf

soap

sabiin

ring

khatim, plu. khawatim

hat
handkerchief

watch
purse

brush

comb

shawl

shal, plu. shilan

a pair of trousers
spectacles
necktie

bantal6n

nadarah

scissors

maqas

kirawatah

slippers

babiish

cloth

gukh

collar

cotton

y-aqah, plu. y-aqat


qotn

lace

tonteylali

needle

ibrah, plu. obar

drawers

libas

pin
thread

umbrella

mara-

gizam

dabbus
kheyt
shemsleh
0

20
Arabic Plionclic

English.

10.

Food and Drink.

Meat

lahm

breakfast

futur

lunch

ghada

supper, dinner

'asha

soup

shorbah

boiled

meat

fish

beef

mutton
pork
beans

lahm masluq
samak
lahm baqari
lahm dani
lahm khanzTr
fui

boiled eggs
fried eggs

rromiuciatioa.

(baked)

egg
omelet
cheese

beyd masluq
beyd maqli
beydah, ])lu. beyd
iggat beyd
gibnah

bread

'eysli

salt

melh

pepper

filfil

mustard

khardal

vinegar
salad
milk

khall
salata
leben

cream
sugar

qishtah
sukkar

tea

shai

cotfee

qahwah
moyyah

water
wine
bottle

nebid
qizazah, pin. qazayiz

glass

kubbayah

fresh bread

'eysh tazah

sauce
sausage
food

salsa

sogokk

driulc (to)

akl
shereb, vuperative ishrab

vegetables

khodar

21

Ababic Phonetic

JEngiisa.

dates

belah

olives

zeytuii

cake

fetir,

celery

karafs

cauliflower
parsley

karnabit

kahk

cabbage

baqdonos
koronb

ii'ice

ruz

ibran

nokhalah

:a

Pronunciation.

loqmah
marakah

nioutliful

ibrotli

scliicken

<cream

katkut,
qishtah

flour

deqiq

a glass of wine
a glass of water

kubbayah nebid
kubbayah nioyyah
limonada

lemouade

11.

Table cloth
table napkin

plate

dish
knife

fork

spoon
cup

jjZ.

kataklt

Eating and Cooking Utensils.


ghata es soffrah
futah es soffrah
sahn, tabaq
sahn
sikkln, plu. sakakin

shokah
ma'alaqah
fingan, plu. fanagin

salt-cellar

mallahah

tea-pot

ibrik shai

frying-pan

miqlayah

kettle

ghallayah, ghallayat, ibrik

corkscrew

barimah

hoe

fas (l.), turiyeh (u.)

shovel
stove
tray

kureyk

oven

forn

kanun
tisht

filter

misfayah

hatchet

baltah

22
English.

12.

Akadic Phonetic

Pronunciation.

House and Furniture.

The house
room
bed
bedstead
pillow
blanket

beyt
odah, pht. owad
farshah

el

seru'

makhaddab,
batanleh
milayah,

sheet

pin.

jjIu.

makhaddat

milayat

bab, pin. abwab


shibbak, plu. shebablk
gar as
heytah, plu. heytan
sath
ardieh
kursi, phi. karasi

door

window
bell

wall
roof
floor

chair

dlwan

sofa
carpet

looking-glass

saggadah, pin. saggadat


soffrah, tarabeyzah
furshah
mirayah, pin. niirayat

mattress

mertdbah

table

broom

quilt
fireplace,

lihaf

chimney

jug or pot

madkhanah
kuz

pail

sutl

towel

futah or bashkir; pZ. fuwat,


bashaklr

basin

tisht

bath (warm)
basket

hammam

candlestick
candle
lock

shamadan

mishannah, maqtaf, alaq

key

sham'a, plu. shumu'a


quflah, keylun
muftah, jilu. mafatlh

furniture

mobiliat

stable

isstabl

matches

kabrit
hasirah, plu. hosr

mat

23
Arabic Phonetic

English.

bottle

qizazah,

landlord
tenant (or merchant)

muaggir,

rental

lease,

J^la.

Pronunciation.

qazayiz

saljib el- bey

tagir

(or

ugra

let

tub
beyt

wages)
bricks

house (a) to be
water closet

beyt

13.

town

Town and

(large)

medlnah,

madfiyin

2'^"-

street

village

'adcb,

Country.

beled
beled
sikkah, plu. sikak

country (native)

el

['adebkhanah

matbakh

kitchen

City, or

igar

111

mustarah,

square

maiddn

market

siik, }dii.

palace

church
tower

sarayah or qasr; 2^Zu. sarayat


qusur
kenlsah, kanayis
burg, 2'^!'. abrag

post

bosta

post-office

bosta, maliall el bosta

aswak

police-office

zabtleh

hospital

isbitaliah

exchange
bridge

borsa
qantarah,

custom-house

gumruk

prison

habs
dokkan,
lokanda

shop
hotel
castle, fortress

corner
foot

pavement

railway
field

])lu.

jjIu.

qanatir

dakakln

qal'aah
rukn, plu, arkan
balat
sikkat el hadid
gheyt, plu. ghitan

forest

ghabah, plu. ghabat

cross-road

arb'a mafariq

24
AnABicPhonetic

English.

farm

Pronunciallon.

fence wall
gate

'abadieh
sur
bab, 2'^"-

path

tarlq

grass

hashish

mound
pyramid

kom, pin. kiman


haram, jdx. ahram

desert

gebel

road

tarlq, darb,

where does
lead to

abwab

this

road

es sikkah

sikkah

deh tawadlna feyn?

ii.

Professions and Trades.

Profession

kar, sena'ah

ambassador

elchi (Turkish)

professor, teacher
scholar (pupil)
doctor

mu'allim

medicine
chemist
policeman

dauvva

police

talmiz, plu. talauiza

hakim,
'alem, pin. 'ulama
(pin. hukama) doktor
;

kimawi
'askari

postman

zabtieh
wakil el bosta
bostagy

guard, station agent

wakil, or ra^is mahattah

or master
store-keeper

makhzangi

postmaster

bulls,

merchant
merchandise

tagir, pin. togar

clerk

katib
kutbi, plu. kutbiya

bookseller

buda'ah

bookbinder

mogallid kutub

shoemaker

gizamati, saramati
khayyat, pin. khayyatin

tailor

blacksmith
barber

haddad
mozayyin, hallaq

watchmaker

sa'ati

jeweller

gawahirgi
hakim 'oyun

oculist

25
Arabic Phonetic

English.

laundress
farmer
porter (carrier)

lawyer
midwife

Pronunciation

ghassalah
muzari'a
shayyal, hannnal

avokato

dayah
khaddam, plu. khaddamin

servant
grocer

baqqal

groom

sayis,

sailor

bahri,

j^^^'-

siyas

marakbi

gentleman

khawagali (Persian)

lady
guide

sitt,

interpreter

motargim,
terguman

plu. sittat

dalll

dragoman
coachman

plu.

motargimin

arbiigi

carpenter

naggar,

watchman

ghafir,

fish-monger

sammak,

cutler

sakaklni
'abd

slave

naggarin
ghufara

jilu.
jilu.

plu.

sammakin

plaintiff

mudd'ai

defendant
appellant
auctioneer
baker
engineer
engraver
gardener

mudda'a

khabbaz, farran
mohdndis, jdu. mohandisin
naqqash
ganayni

gilder

talla

goldsmith
missionary
nurse
surgeon

sayigh
mursal, plu. mursalln
rahbah, j)lu. rahbat
dadah, ^^Zx. dadat
gavrah

Beduin chief

sheykh el-'orban

dallal

nun

15.

Steamer

'aleyh

mustanif

Sh ips and Shipping.


babiir, wabur

ship
boat, barge

merkeb,

mast

sari, plu.

^jZw.

marakib

sandal, plu. sanadil

sawari

26
Arabic. Phonetic Pronunciation

EiiKlish.

markab

rudder

daffat el

sail

qil'a, pin.

oar

muqdaf, pin. maqadif


bandeyrah

flag

qulu'a

mersah
marakbi

anchor
sailor

drowned

boatman

gharaq
khartah
marakbi

fisherman

silyyad, plu.

afloat

'ayim

map

sayyadin

swimnwng

'om

cargo
steersman

wasqat, hamulah

fleet (of ships)

domangi
ghomanah, habl
dunanmah, plu. dunanmat

compass

ibrat

engineer (of the


steamer)
yacht
float of paddle-wheel
dockj/ard
Nile-barge
Nile house-boat
broker
brokerage

usta el

cable

wabur

yaht

muqdaf

tara

tarsanah
(dahabieb

qanga
samsar,

])ln.

pilot

samsarah
kalawuz

small boat

felukkah

16.

Voyage

samasrah

Travelling.
safar

journey
railway-station

mahattah

steamboat

wabiir
kabtan, ra^is
marakbi, bahri

captain
sailor

custom-house
key

gumruk

arrival

wusul

muftah, plu. mafatlt

27
Arabic Phonetic

EnKlish.

Pronunciation.

train

sikkat el hadld
qattr

luggage

'afsh

bag

kis, i^lu. akyas


terguman, motargim,
pin. motargimln
tazkarah raih wa gai
hesab
pin. wosulat^
wasl, sanad
sanadat
diwau

railway

interpreter

return ticket
bill

receipt

office

guard's vaa
pillow

dispensa
arbaggi
rnakhaddah, pla. makhuddat

whip

tilah,

caravan

kaflah
barda'ah, plu. barad'ih

coachman

saddle (for a donkey)


saddle (for a horse)
strap
passenger-train
goods-train

kurbag

sarg, plu. suriig

traveller

seyr
qatr rukkab
qatr el buda'ab
musafir, pin. musafrin

travel (to)
carriage

'arableh, plu. 'arablyat

medicine

dauwa,

money
Pound

fulus

safar
jtlu.

adwiya

Pound (Egyptian)
Pound (Turkish)

giney [guinea) iuglizi


bintu
giney masri
giney magldi

When

el

(1.)

Napoleon (20fr. piece)

does the train

qatr yisafir imta

leave ?

17.

Paper

Writing.

pen

waraq
waraq nashshaf
farkh waraq
faridat waraq
qalam, plu. aqlam

ink

hibr

blotting paper
sheet (of paper)
quire
(ditto)

^28

AuABic I'bonetic

Knslish.

Prouunciatioii>

dawayah
matwah, plu. matawi
qalam rusas
sham'a ahmar
gawab or maktiib ^'Z. gawa-

inkstand
penknife
pencil

sealing-wax (red)
letter

makatib

bat,

date
signature

tarikh

imda
waraq danighah

post-stamp
manuscript

nuskhah, kitab khatt

write (to) (copy)


writing (s)
written

book
index

katab, imp. iktib

kitabah
maktiib
kitab, plu.

(of a book)

khatam, imp. ikhtim


imdi el gawab

seal (to)

sign the letter


post

bosta

post-ofiice

bosta,

postmaster

wakil

he

registered

kutub

fahrasah

diwan
el

el

bosta

el

gawab

bosta

the

letter (at the post-

huwa

saggar

office)

envelope

zarf

dictionary

qamiis

when does
leave
18.

the post

imta

tisafir el

bosta

Shooting Imfdements and Fishing Tackle.

Knife
pocket-knife

sikkin, plu. sakakin

nail (to)

matwah, jdu. matawi


qadum, shakush
mabrad, jjZw. mabarid
mismar, jdu. masamir
sammar, imp. sammar

axe

fas

saw

minshar,

grindstone

misann
bunduqieh

hammer
file

nail

gun
gunpowder

barud

2^^"'

manashir

29
English.

Ababic.

shot (a shot fired)


net

Phonetic

Pronunciation.

darbali

sbabakah,
shabakat
sinnarah

fish-hook
basket

jila.

shibak,

or

mishannah

box

sanduk, jilu. sanadik


darb al barud
seyd

shooting
sport
at one shot

tobacco-pipe

bi-darbah, or bi-nishan wahid


qafl, plu. aqfal
shibuk, pht. shubukat

pistol

tabangah,

padlock

19.

/>Z.

tabangat

Time and Seasons.

Year

scnah, jdu. senin

month

shahr,

week
two weeks
day
hour

]ilu. ushhur
gum'aah, plu. gum'ailt
gum'ateyn
yom, ijIu. eyyam

sa'ah,

i)la.

sa'at

half-an-hour

nuss sa'ah

minute

deqiqah, idu. daqayiq


fasl or a wan, ylu. fosiil

season
Spring

rabl'a

Summer
Autumn

seyf
kharif

Winter

shita
shuliur es senah
shuhiir 'arabiya
shuhiir qibtlya

the months of the year

Lunar months
Coptic months
time

to-morrow morning
how many weeks ^
day-time

mid-day
every day
after to-morrow

waqt
bukra fi subh
kam guma'ah
nahar
ed duhr

kuU yom

to-day

b'ad bukra
en-nab ar-dch

to-morrow

bukra

80
Arabic Phonetic

English,

January*
February

febrair

March

marss

yenair

April

abrll

May

mayeh

June

yunia

July

yulia

August
September

sebtember

aghostos

October

oktober

November
December
Sunday
Monday

nofember
dezember
yom el had

Tuesday

Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday, or Sabbath
birthday
holiday

Christmas
Easter

dawn
morning
early

[ing

in

Pronunciation

the

morn-

evening
this evening
in the evening

yom
yom
yom
yom
yom
yom

el

etnin

et telat

el

arb'a
lihamis

el

gum'a

el

es sabt

maulid
batalah, 'eyd, fantasleh
'eyd el mllad
'eyd el qiyamah
fagr
subh or sabah
badri fi subh

maghrib
el

leylah deh or eleylahdeh

forenoon

maghrib
duhr
qabl ed duhr

aftei'noou

el 'asr,

night

leyl, jAu. layal

fil

noon

b'ad ed duhr

midnight

uuss el-leyl

yesterday
yesterday morning
yesterday evening
the day before yester-

embareht
embareh fi subh
embareh el maghrib
tluwel embfireh

day
j

Tlie Eg}-ptiaus formerly


of the solar months. The

employed the Coptic (ancient Egyptian) names


European names, as Riven above, are in Reneral
use now, concurrently with the Coptic, which are retained for agricultural
purposes.

^The h

ia

ft

ha, bat

pronounced

Jilip

hy

31

ArabicPhonetic

English.

last

yomi

year

year before last


twenty years old (son
of twenty years)
day time
full

Pronunciation

auwel auwel embareh

three days ago


daily

moon

es-senah illi fatet


qabl senateyn
ibn 'ashrin senah
naliar

badr
senah kabis

Leap-year
20.

Countries and Nations.

Country
nation
native country
state

Europe
European
England

beled, phi. bilad

ommah
watan
mamlakah,
aurobba

ingilizi

American

amerikani
hegaz
'arabi

'arab

Beduin

bedawi,
'orban

Syria

esh-sham

F ranee

fransa
fransawi

French
Russia
Russian
China
Greek
Greek
Greece
Turkey
Turkirih
[Khedive
His Highness the
His Highness (OulEgypt_
[Lord)
Egyptian

mamalik

aurobbi, ferangi
bilad el-ingillz

English
Arabia
Arabian
Arabs (nomads)

]jIu.

j^lu.

bedwan,

moskof
mosk6wi

bilad el

bilad es sin

rumi
yunani
bilad er rum,
bilad et turk
turki
el

khed^ywi

effendlna
berr masr

masri

yimdn

'arab,

32
AnkBic.

English.

Lower Egypt
Upper Egypt

beheyrah

agam

bilad el

of Cairo

agami
masr mahrtisah
masr 'atiqah
atman masr

Constantinople
Alexandria
Suez Canal

el

Suez

es sues

Ismailieh
Arishe
Kosseir

el

Damietta

dumyat

Rosetta

rashid

Suakin

sawakin
en nil
egnebi, gharib

The

istambiil

iskendirieh

kanal

isma

'illeh

el 'arlsh
el

Nile (River)

Foreigner

quseyr

khawagah
21.

Numbers
one
two
three
four

Pronunciation.

es-sa'id

Persia
Persian
Cairo
Old Cairo

The districts

Phonetic

Numbers.
a 'dad

wahed
etnin
talatah
arba'ah

five

khamsah

six

sittah

seven

sab'ah

eight

temaniah

nine

tis'ah

ten
eleven

'ashrah
liadasher

twelve

etnasher

thirteen
fourteen

arb'atfisher

talattasher

iifteen

kharaastashcr

sixteen

sittashcr

seventeen

sab'atasher

plu ghuraba,

33
English.

Ababic.

Phonetic

Pronunciation.

temantasher

eighteen
nineteen

tis'atasher

'ashrln

twenty
twenty-one
twenty-two

itnln

thirty

telatln

forty

arba'In

fifty

khamsin

wahed wa

wa

'ashrln

'ashrin

sixty

sittin

seventy
eighty
ninety

sab'in

a hundred

miyah (sometimes before a voicel.


[mit)
miyah wa wahed
miyah wa 'ashrah

temanln
tis'In

101

110
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
937
a thousand
1,015
2,000
10,000
30,000
100,000
a miUion

miteyn
tultemlyah

rub'amiyah

khumsemlyah
sittemlyah

sub'amiyah

tumnemlyab
tis'amiyah
tis'amiyah sab'a
elf

tehitin

wa khamastasher

elfeyn
'ashrat elaf
telatin elf

mit elf
milyun
22.

Collec tive

Numbers,

Pair
dozen, packet
once
twice

goz, plu.

single

fard,

dastah

etc.

agwaz

marrah wahidah,

nobah

marrateyn

[waJ^idah

double

wahed
migwiz

first

auwal
tani

second
Egyptian

wa

elf

S.-T.

34
ARABIC Phonetic

English.

marrat

thrice

telat

four times

arba' marrat

five

khams (khamas) marrat

times

nuss, nusf

a half
a third
a fourth
three-fourths
a fifth

tult

rub'a

wa
khums
tumn
nuss

an eighth
23.

White

rub'a

Colours.
m. abiad,
w. iswad,
m. asmar,

black

brown
blue
sky colour
red

VI.

azraq,

/.

beyda

/.

soda

samara

/.
/.

zerqa

samawi
m. ahmar, /. hamara
m. akhdar, /. khadara
khadrawi, yiddi al khadar
m. asfar, /. safara
azraq {also blue)

green
greenish
yellow
grey
yellowish
to make yellow

missfirr
saffar

m. banafsig
m. nilah

violet

indigo
25.

Adverbs, &c.

after

foq
ba'd

afterwards, then

badeyn

Above, upstairs

Pronunciation.

always

dai^man, tamalli

at first

auwalan
shan, li-an

because

'ala

before

qodam

behind
by force

wara

down

taht
bi-rahah, bi-sohulah
kifayah, bass, bi-ziadah
bilkulllyah
bi-zur

easily

enough
entirely
falsely

bil

ghassb, bil gabr

35
English.

Arabic.

far olf

Phonetic Pronunciation.

ba'id

gratis, for

nothing

ballash

auwel
hena

lirst

iiere

liome, liouse
in, there is
inside
instead of
justly

beyt

last

fi

guwa
badal, gheyr
bil

haqq

late

akhir
akhiran
wakhri, mot^akhar

long

tawll

near, close, side

ganb
abadan

lastly, at last

never

no

la

not yet,

lissa

still

not-at-all

now
often,

many

only,

enough

out
outside
particularly

times

ketir

bass

barra
1

khosusan

yumkin

perhaps
quickly,

mottldqan
delwaqt
miraran, murrat

soon,

im-

halan

mediately
quickly

bil 'agal,

seldom

fil

slowly
so

keda

qawam

nadir
bi-shweysh, 'ala mahl,

sometimes

ba'd al aliyan

soon

bad shwai

still

bavdu, lissa {not yet)

there

henak

this

deh, da, di

to-day

en-nahar-deh
bukra

to-morrow
to

whom ?

li-min

too, also, again

kaman

under

tal?t

shu-

[wayyah

86
AbabicPhonetic

English.

ahlan wa sahlan or marhabba


lamraa
imta ?

welcome

when
when?
whence
where ?
where from
where to ?

mineyn
feyn?
min eyn

'ala

whom
whose

Pronunciation.

illi

? min feyn ?
feyn ? lifeyn ?
{=ir]tom or which)

min

bit'a

why?

leyh

yes
yesterday
yet

embareh

shan eyh
aywa, na'am
'ala

lissa

25.

Adjectives.

Angry

za'alan

awkward, stupid
bad

ghashim

beautiful, elegant

gamil,

better

ahsau

bitter

murr

blind

a'ama

battal
latif

broad

arid

civil

m'aruf or sahib adab

clean
clever
cold
cool

nadlf
shatir

bard
barid

atmah

dark
dear

aziz,

dear (expensive)

ghali

deceitful

ghashash

deep

ghawit, wati

delightful

yifrih,

difficult

sa'ab

dirty

wisekh

dry
eldest (oldest)

nashif
bakri

empty

farigh, kh&li

false

keddab

habib

mufrih

(kidb, a

lie)

87
Arabic.Phonetic Ptonimciatlon.

English.

samin
wehesh
gamll

fat

filthy

fine
flat

mastu, mebattat

full

malyan

glad

good

farhan
tayyib

great

azim

happy
hard (not

sa'ld
soft),

dry

nashif

hard (severe or cruel)

qasi
sallm, sagh sallm, bis-saha

healthy

heavy
high
ill

(sick)

teqll
'all

ayyan

[less)

impertinent (shame-

qalll el

large
lazy

keblr, 'azIm

keslan
nahif

lean
least

less

light (bright)
light (not heavy)
little

(small)

long
loud (high)

aqall
aqall
niir

khaftf

soghayyax
tawll
'ali

low
mad, foolish
narrow
near

wati

new

gedid
kwayls,

nice
old man
old (ancient)

opened
poHte
poor

proud
rich
ripe

ha-ya

magnun
dayyiq
qarib
latlf

aguz
qadim, antiqa
maftuii
zarif, latlf

meskin, faqlr
foqara
motakabbir
ghani
misttiwi

plu. masakin,

88
ArabicPhonetic

English.

Pronunciation.

right (true)

sahlh

round

medauwar

satisfied

mabsiit, sheb'an [satiated)


muzallil or daffeh

[edge)
shady
sharp (having a keen
sharp words
sharp (severe)

had
kalam qasi
qasi

qussayyar

short
soft (moist)
sour (acid)
square
still, quiet
strong
stupid (ass)

moruba'a

sweet

helu

thick
thin

rofayy'a, raqlq

tari

hamed
sakit

gam id
balid (homar), balawi
tekliln

tipsy

sakran

tired

ta'aban
yabis
haqlq, sahlh, sadlq

tough (dry)
true
unintelligible

mush mafhum

unlucky

ma

useful

nafi'a

lush bakht

warm

hami

weak

dalf

well

tayyib

wet
wicked
wide

tari,

wild
wise (clever)

wehesh,

worse
worse and worse

al'an
al'an wa al'an
ghalat, ghaltan

soghayyar
assghar

younger (smaller)
26.

after

it

birri

'aqil (shatir)

wrong (mistaken)
young

Afterwards

mablul

sharlr
wasi'a, or was'a

Conjunctions
ba'deyn
b'adu

Iu

89
Arabic Phonetic

English.

and

wa

because
but
even

li-an,

Pronunciation.

'alashan

lakin, walakin

hatta

for

'ala

neither

la

shan

nor

wa-la

or
that

wa-illa, walla

in

Prepositions.

27.

foq
b'ad

Above
after

hauwaleyn

round
by

b,

wa

be,

from

shan
min, 'an

in

b, be, li

of

'an

'ala

for

on (upon)

'ala

near

ganb
le

to

1,

under
with

taht
b, bi

28.

Pronouns.
Singular.

he,

ana
inta {mas.), inti [fem.)

thou

huwa

it

hiyah

she

Plural.

We

ehna

you, ye

intuui

hum, huma

they
Siugnlar.

My
thy
his

her

(Suffixes.)

ak

ha

{mas.), ik {fcm.)


40
AbabicPhonetic

English.

Plural.

(Suffixes.)

tlieir

na
kum
hum

Myself

nafs-i, or zat-i

thyself

nafs-ak, zat-ak
nafs-u, zat-u
nafsi-ha, zatiha
nafsi-na, zatina
nafs-ak, zat-ak

Our

your

himself
herself
ourselves
yourself
yourselves

nafsi-kum, zat-kum
nafsi-hum, zat-hum

themselves
Sing

Mine,

oi-

Prontmclatlon.

my own

liar.

bit'a-i

own
his, or his own
hers, or her own
thine, or thy

bit'a-ak (m.),

bita-ik

(/.)

bit'a-u

bit'a-ha

Flu ral.
Ours, or our own
yours, or your own
theirs, or their own

bit'a-na

bit'a-kum
bit'a-hum

Rela live.

Who, whom,

that,

illi.

which, what
Note.

Illi is

the only R('lative Pronoun used in conversatio


Arabic.

29.

Who?
to whom ?
which ?
what ?
whose ?

why
how

(are yon) ?

from me
from him
from you

Inl:errogatives.

min?
le-mln ?
'anhu ?

eyh?
bit'a-mm
leyh?

izzay (ak)?

min-ni

min-nu
min-nak


41
Ababic Phonetic

English.

30.

Yerbs.
tarak

To abandon*
,,

accept

,,

admire

,,

agree to
allow

,,

alter

,,

,,

answer
appear

,,

arrive

,,

ask

,,

assist

,,

avoid

,,

awake

,,

Pronunciation.

qebel, imp. iqbal


ta'aggab

ittafaq 'ala

azan, samah
ghayyar, i7np. ghayyar

gawab
zahar
wasal
imp. is^al
sa'ad
igtanab, imp. igtanib
sehi, imp. is-ha
darab, imp. idrab
sa^al,

beat
begin

,,

ibtada, imp. ibtidi

,,

believe

sadaq

,,

bind

,,

bite

rabat, imp. orbot


'add, imp. 'odd

(to tie)

,,

break
bring

burn

,,

kassar
gab, imp. gib
haraq, imp. ihraq
dafan, iinp. idfin
ishtara, imp. ishtiri
nada, imp. inda

bury
buy
,,

call

,,

catch

,,

cliange

,,

change money

mesek, i?np. imsik


ghayyar

,,

come

saraf, imp. isrif


ikhtalas
naddaf imp. naddaf
geh, ga ; imp. ta'ala

,,

consult

shawar,

cheat, defraud
clean
,,

ivip.

shawir

Literally " He abandoned," third person singular, past


All the verbs in this list are expressed
tense, indicative mood.
in same manner, that being regarded in Arabic as the root of the
verb. But the imperatives are mostly added here, as being the
most requisite form. The i^st particiiile is formed by prefixing

N0TE.

ma

matruk, abandoned.

42
English.

to
,,

,,

convey
cook
count

,,

cut
deceive

,,

deliver

,,

deny
,,

dream

dress
drink
,,
drive out

Ababic.

Phonetic

Pronunciation.

naqal
tabakh, imp. itbokh
'add, hasab
qat'a, imp. iqt'a

ghashsh
sal lam
ankar, gahad
helem
lebes, imp. ilbis

,,

eat

shereb, imp. ishrab


tarad
akal, imp. kol

,,

examine

fahas

excavate
excuse
explain

fahat, imp. ifhat

,,

feed

,,

fetch

wakkal, imp. wakkil


gab, imp. gib

,,
,,
,,

find

samah
waddah, imp. waddah

iltaqa,

wagad

forget
get up
give

nessi

go
,, go on foot
,, go on horseback
go out
govern
,,

rah, imp. ruh

grease
hang (suspend)

dahan

,,

,,

happen
have

he has
she has
we have
you have
they have
to hear
help
hide

qam, imp. qum


'ata,

idda

imp. iddi

rah mashi
rah rakib

kharag

hakam
allaq, imp. allaq

hasal, ittafaq
ana 'andi

huwa 'andu
hiyah 'andiha
elina 'andena
intum 'andikum

humma

,,

hire

'andihura
sama'a, imp. istna'a
sa'ad, imp. sa'id
khabba, imp. khabbi
aggar

,,

hurry

ist 'agel

43
English.

Pronunciation.

ArabicPhonetic

to

jump

natt, imp. nott

kill

katal, imp. iktil

,,

kiss

bas, imp. buss

,,

knock

khabat, imp. ikbbat

,,

know

a'araf

,,

laugh

dchek, imp. idhak


natt, imp. nott
ta'allam, imp. ita'allim

,,

,,

leap
learn

,,

lend
let alone

,,

lie

,,

down

sallaf

khalla, imp. khalli


imp. orqod,
raqad, itsattah
;

itsattah

{deep)

look

,,

make

'anial, imp. 'amil

,,

meet

sadaf

,,

mend

sallali,

,,

mention

zakar, imp. ozkur


tawa'a, imp. taw'i
'iatarad

,,
,,
,,

,,

obey
object
oblige (favour)
obtain
otlend (anger)

nam, num

shaf, imp. sliuf

,,

imp. sallah

amal ma'aruf
ta-hassal 'ala

,,

offer

aghdab
qaddam, imp. qaddim

,,

open

fatah, imp. iftah

,,

oppose

qawam

,,

order

amar

,,

pay
,, proceed
,,
,,

[word)
promise (gave
pi*Dnounce

pull
put
,,
read
,,
,,

receive

,,

remember

,,

remind

,,

repair
repeat
[go back)
return (come or
return (give back)

,,

ride

,,
,,

,,

dafa, imp. idf

taqaddam
wa'ad (idda qol)
lafaz, imp. olfoz

shadd, garr imp. shidd, gurr


hatt, imp. hott
qara, imp. iqra
istalam, imp. istilim
tazakkar, imp. itzakkar
zakkar, fakkar
;

sallah,

'ammar

kerrar
rag'a, imp. irg'a

ragg'a, imp.^ ragg'a


rekeb, imp. irkab

44
English.

to rise
,,

rub
run
run away

Ababic.

Phonetic

qam, imp.

Pronunciation.

qum

da'ak, imjj. ida'ak

,.

set

geri, imp. igri


harab, imp. ihrab
qal, imp. qui
shaf, imp. shuf
mesek, imp. imsek
ba'a
imp. inintakhab, akbtar
takhib, ikhtar
ba,at, imp. ib,at
ragg'a, imp. ragg'a
imp. liott, uda
halt, wada

,,

shoot

asstad,

show

darab bundoqieh,
darab rusasah (bullet)
warra

,,

smell

shamm,

,,

smoke (tobacco)

sharab dokhan, imp. ishrab

,,
,,

say

see
,,

seize

,,

sell

,,

select

,,
,,

send
send back

imp.

shimm

dokhan
speak
spoil
stand
starve
stay
,,

steal

study
,,

suffer

suggest

takallam,
imp. itkallim
khassar, talaf, atlaf
weqef, imp. uqaf

mat min

el gu'a,

mat

bil

fedel, isstanna

saraq, imp. issraq

ta'allam

tahammal
ashar
bala, imp. ibla

,,

swallow
swear

,,

swim

'am, imp. 'um


akhad, imp. khud
zaq, imp. zuq
'allam, imp. 'allim
sharmat, imp. sharmai
qal, imp. qui
shakar, imp. oshkor
zann, iftakar
raraa, imp. ermi
targam, imp. targim

,,

,,

take

,,

taste

,,

teach

,,

tear

tell

,,

thank

,,

think

,,

throw away

,,

translate

helef, imp.

il;lif

gu'a

45
Ababio.

English.

Phonetic

Pronunciation.

safar

to travel

imp. doss

tread

dilss,

,,

turn (round)

dauwar, imp. dauwar

,,

understand

fehem

upset
use
,,
wait

qalab, imp. iqlib


ist'amal, imp. ist'amil
istanna, imp. istanna
mcshi, imp. imshi
ah tag

,,

walk

want

warm

sakhkhan, daffa; imp. sakhkhan, daffi

,,

warn
wash

,,

watch

nassah, imp. insah


ghasal, imp. ighsil
ghaffar, harass ; imp, oghfor,
ohross

water (horses)
wet
whip
whisper
win
wipe

,,

saqa
imp. bill
darab, imp. iddrab
washw^ash, imp. washwish
ball,

ghalab
nasshef,

masah; imp.

nasshif,

imsah

wish

arad

,,

work

ishtaghal, imp. ishtaghal

wound

garah

,,

worship

'abad, imp. 'ibid

wrap
write
,,

laff,

yield one's-self

31.

up

imp.

liff

katab, imp. iktib


salara

The Government Ministries and


Administrations.

Department

of the

Household

off

ed da.irah

H.H.the Khedive)
Finance

el

Foreign Office

el

Interior

Justice

Pubhc Works

el

khassa

malleh
khargieh
ed dakhlieh
el haqqanleh
el ashgal el 'umumleh

46
Arabic Phonetic

English.

War

el

Office

De-

Health
partment

Tublic

mieh

Department
Prison Department
Department of the]

maslahat el bolls
maslahat es sugun

Police

Suppression
Slavery

tigaret

raqlq or qalam

el

er

raqlq

General

maslahat man'a

of>

Office of the Inspec-

tor

Pronunciation.

ma'arif el \unumleli
el harbieh, diwan el gehadieh
maslahat es siha el 'umu-

Public Instruction

of

Irrigation

'umiim er

taftlsh

>

ra^i

Railway Administra-

maslahat es sikkat

el

hadid

tion

Nile Steamers Service


Public Debt Office

Customs Department
Coast Guard Service
Post Administration

idarat
barid

Postal Service
Native Courts

Court

of

In-

stance

32.

drummer

farrier

trumpeter
lance-corporal
corporal
sergeant

sergeant-major
quarter-master
geant
adjutant-major
chief clerk

el

bosta

mahakim el ahlieh
mahkamat el ibtidaleh
(mahkamat auwel daragah)
mahkamat el ist'Inaf

ser-

el

maslahat es siha el bahrleh


wal karantlnat
el komisyon el baladi

Municipal Council

'umum

el

First

Court of Appeal
Quarantine Board

Private
bugler

maslahat waburat en nil


sandiiq ed deyn el 'umiimi
idarat 'umum el gamarik
maslahat ghafar es sawahil

'

Military Titles.
nafar
burugi tabbal, trombetgi
beytar
trombetgi, burugi
wakil onbashi
onbashi
;

shaweysh
bash shaweysh
buluk amln
saghkolaghasi
bash katib
Mostly Turkish.

47
Ababio. Phonetic Pronunciation.

English.

warrant ofBcer

sol

sub-lieutenant
lieutenant
captain

mulazim tani
mulazim auwel
yuzbashi
binbashi

major

qaimaqam

lieutenant-colonel
colonel
brigadier-general
lieutenant-general
field-marshal
doctor 1

miralai

lewa
farik

mushlr
hakim,

hukama

;jiu.

surgeon j
paymaster (treasurer]

khiznidar, sarraf

adjutant

mo'awin,

commanding officer
commandant

jj^u.

mo'awnin

hukumdar, komandan

chief-of-the-staff

ra^is

field-officer

arkan

el

harb

staff-officer

zabit 'azlm
zabit karim
zabit arkan el harb

brigade-major

arkan harb

commander-in -chief

sirdar

His Excellency (ad-

dauUtlu

general officer

dress

of

el

lewa

field-

marshal)

Your Excellency
33.

"^Naval

sa 'adetkum

and Military Terms.

Together with useful Words for all Banks.

Absence (leave
accoutrements

of)

agazah

meheymat

acquittal

tabriah

admiral
advance
advance (to)
advanced guard
party

amir

el

bahr

ilarey

taqaddam
bashdar
gema'ah muteqaddamah

alarm post

nuqtah muteqaddamah
nuqtat el kabsah

alert

hazir ol

,,

post

Including some Turkish words of command, &c.

48
Aeabic Phonetic

English.

Pronunciation.

ambulance
ammunition
ammunition poucli
ammunition wagon
anchor

shefakhanah
gabakhanah, zakhlrah

anchorage

marsa

armistice

matarakah, hudnah

armourer
arms

tufekgi [pronounce tufenkshi)

army

geysh, 'askar

kaffah
'arablet el

gabakhanah

mirsah

aslilia

army-corps

firkah

army order

'amr 'askari

arrow

nibl,

arsenal

tubkhanah

artillery

as

you were

sahm

tubgleh
yarina

hugum, mukagamah

attack

huguma

,,

form

,,

false

huglim kazib

,,

,,

hugum
hugum

,,

flank
front
1st line of

,,

2nd

for

line of

(teshkil ol)

gamb
muwagahah
auwel khatt el hugum
tani khatt el hugum
'ala el

'ala el

attention
axle

zinhar
qotb

backsight
badges

nishangah

baud

muslkah

barrack
base

qishlaq
asas

battalion

battery

(field)

'alamat er rutab

orta, pin. orat

batarieh (maidan)

battle

waq'ah

bayonet

singa {Turldsh sungi)


siingey dik

bayonets, fix
unfix
,,
belt

Sim gey inder


qayish, hizam

binoculars
bit (for horse)
bivouac (to)
blacking

nadarah
fekk, ligam
bayit bidun khiyam
boyah

bomb

bombah

49
Ababio.Phonetic Pronunciation.

English.

bombard

darab

(to)

bil

bomb

booty
boot
breadth
breastband

ghanimah
gezmah

bribe

bartll,

rashwah

bridle

ligam,

j^iu.

brigade

lewa

broad
bugle

arid
burl

'ard

sinaband

sound

nobah

bullet

by the right, left, cen[tre


camel
camel's riding-saddle
camel for riding

camp
camp

kettle

cannon, gun
capture (to)
carriage wheel

blank

cavalry
cavalry walk
,

,,

cease

sir el

certificate

of

certificate

ashkin
gar
sawari karshu dauwaran
nobet ateshi kas
shehadah, plu. shehadat, or
[tazkarah
raftieh
sir el

prepare for

/".

suwari, khiyalah

trot

fire

rusasah
saghda, soldd, wasatda
gamal, plu. gimal
naqa
makhlufah, gabifc
begin
mu'askar^ urdi
qazan
madf'a
asar
'agalah
kartush, fishenk
fishenk (farigh)

cartridge

,,

algima

dis-

charge
chain

silsilah, plu. salasil, zingir

change of front
charge, prepare to

taghyir el ittigah, tabdll baiya


taghyir el wad'a, tabdil yeri
hugiima hazir ol

charge

hugiim

,,

,j

position

cholera

kolera

close

yaklasheyn
bashlana atesh
buluk
yarim buluk
buluk muzdawicr

commence
company
,,

Egyptian

firing

half

double

S.-T.

ss

50
Arabic.

Enclish.

Phonetic

'abayah, kabud
beyraq

cloak
colours of a regiment

column

orda, kol

'amud, plu. 'imdan


kol mutaqarib

of building

,,

column, close
double
,,

shift kol

half

yarim kol

,,

line of

tabur kolali

,,

mass

magmu'a

of

kolat

of divisions

sinfja kol

,,

of route

,,

of sub-divi-

kol es seyr
tobja kol

,,

,,

Pronuuciation.

visions
quarter

dar-kol

combatant
non

muharib
gheyr muharib
hukumdarleh

command
words of
,,
commissariat
compasses
cook

nida

kism

tabbakh

court-martial
,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

et t'ayinat

bargal, ibrat

meglis 'askari

district

markdzi

,,

general
proceed-

ings
,

,,

court of inquiry
confined to barracks

conduct
connecting

file

crew
crupper
cut (wound)
dagger
decision

waqti

meglis et tahqiq

mahguz

bil

qishlaq

soluk, maslii

countersign
courage

defaulter

meglis 'askari alayi


I

summary'

13/11
M
igra^at el meglis el 'askari

of|

regimental

,,

khabardar
parolah
garaah
nautleh
kafal

goruh
khangar, j)lu. khanagir
qarar
muznib mahfjuz
garli, 2^lu.

51
Ababio.

English.

defaulter's

Phonetic

daftar ez zunub
ta'alim el muznibin

book

defaulter's drill
defile

mudaf'a
darband

deployment

fath

defence

depot

asas

deserter

harib, harban

detached

qatar munfasil
sariyah

file

detachment
diarrhoea
diary, journal

is-hal, lln

daftar yomleh
zabt wa rabt

discipline

nuzul min

disembarkation
dismiss

Pronunciation.

from

(to,

el

markab

raft

service)
j

(off parade)

dismount

'amal dastur
yerra in

division

firqah

,,

dockyard

move
double march
don't

dress

ta'alim

drill
,,

aiming

order

,,
,,

position

preliminary
setting-up
driver
[mals
,,

,,

driver of

pack ani-

drum

(big)

drunk
duty (on)
dysentery

march

ease,
,

sibiyeh
,,
haiat et ta'alim
ta'alim el qiyam
ta'alim ibtida-i
ta'alim talyin el 'ada
'arb^gi

tarras
trombeytah tablah
;

sakran
wagibat

duties

,,

tersanah
ma taharraksh
ziada sora'atteh marsh
hizaya
I

nobetji {pronounce nobatshi)


at

stand at

dusuntarleh
yolga
yarinda safa

eclielon

tadrig

embarkation

nuzul fil bahr


mu'askar

encampment
enemy

dushman, 'adu

52
English.

Ababio.Phonetic Pronunciation.

engagement

qital

engineer
enlistment

muhandis

entrenchment
equipment

dirwah

escort

haras

examination
exercise, bayonet

imtihan

,,

,,

iktitab

firing

sungi ta'allm
atesh ta'allm

manual

silah isti'amali

review

maharan sungi ta'alim

,,

,,

rifle

,,

shelter-

trench
expedition (military)

khandaq
safarieh
I

farrier

fatigue

party

ta'allm el bunduqieh
ta'allm *amal ed dir^Yah wal

nobet achileyn
sagha bak {Turkish, look to

extend
fall in

meheymat

field-day
-exercises
,,

beytar
tulbah
tulbah

[your right

yom maidan
ta'alimat 'askarieh

field-gun

naddarah maidan
madf a urdi, maidan

field-hospital

taljanaqqali,isbitalia

field officer

zabit 'azim

file

qatar
qatar farigh

-glass

,,

,,

,,

,,

blank
connecting
even

,,

leading

,,

odd

in single

maidan

khabardar
qatar shift
qatar am ami
qatar fardi
farddn fardto, bir-eyr bir-eyr

fire

nar

firel

atesh
sanjak, beyraq, 'alam
1

flag

flank
flaak, directing

!)

gamb, ganib
gamb samt et tawaggah

,,

inner

el

left

el

.,

outer

el

ed dakhil
gauib esh shemal
gamb el kharig

gamb

58
Aeabio.

English.

flank, reverse
,,

right

el
el

Phonetic Prontmciatioli.

gamb
gamb

el

el

flanker

ganbdar

fleet

dunanmah

foot-soldier

'askari

forage
foresight (gun)

'allq

(rifle)

formation

dibbanah

mun 'akis
mun 'akis

zlh

fort, fortress

tashkil
tabiya, qal'ah, husii

fortify (to)

istahkam

fortress wall

siir el

forward
form fours

li

from the

right, left,

centre
front
front form

qal'ah

qodam

durdeyr
saghdan, soldan, wasatdan

qodam
I

tabra

front rank

es saff el

funeral

ginnazah

furlough

rukhset ghiyab, agazah


tuzluq

gaiters

auwel

gallop
garrison
general (.?.)

ramah, durtna'l
hamiyeh

girdle

hizam

girth
glove

hizam, sherlhah
aldiwan

government

hukumah

governor
grave (s.)

hakim, mihafi

basha

kabr, torbah

great- coat

kabbud

groom (brush a horse)

,,

(advanced)

timar
gem'atcha
haras
ghafar
bashdar

(rear)

dimdar

groups, form
guard, escort
,,

(of soldiers)

guard turn in
turn out
gun (musket)

(ol)

karakol dastiir
karakol sitah

bunduqieh

54
English.

gun-carnage
gunner
gun -powder
half- column

company

,,

ArabicPhonetic

gundaq, 'arablyet

sinf

yarim

sinf

halter

rashm

hay (chopped straw)


head -quarters
helmet

diris (tibn)

brown)

(a

,,

dark grey)
horse-brush
(a

,,

cloth
horse's hoof
,,

el

markaz,

forshah timar
futah timar
hafir

ma'arafa

,,

shoe

,,

tail

na'al
deyl

hospital

isbitalia

hut
imprisonment

habs

zimlik

ma,ilan
nobet atesh
biyadah
biyadah rakibah
tabur teftlsh
1

independent firing
infantry
,

komandanleh

hosan asmar
hosan singabi

mane

,,

el

tasah
hosan, pZu. kheyl

,,

incline

madf'a

barud
yarim kol

oqaf! durl
gayyel (Ar.)
bayyet (Ar.)

horse

el

tubgi

section (cavalry)
halt!
halt at noon (to)
halt for the night (to)
,,

Pronunciation,

mounted

inspection parade
instructor
insubordination
Intelligence Depart-

ta'allmgi

'adam
qalam

el

inqiyad

el

mukhabarat

ment
interval

fasil

intoxicated
intrench (to)
in which direction ?
in what strength ?
ironclad

sakran
istahkam
ila eyn ?

merkab hadid

judge

qadi

bi

kam min

'asakir ?

56
Arabic Phonetic

English.

killed

makttil

knapsack

garabandleh

Pronunciation.

ladder

sillim

lance, spear

mizraq, harbah

lantern

fanus, pin. faw;1nis

lanyard
lashing

habl

latrine

adabkhanah

kabsul

el

filasah

down your arms

leave of absence

irmi silahak
agazah, izn

left

sola

lay

lie

nam

down

lino

yat {Tiir.)
hiza
alaya kola
khatt el muwasilah
{Ar.),

tabtir,

,,

of

,,

,,

columns

com mun

cations

rami

,,

fire

ittigah er

,,

,,

operations

,,

,,

retreat

,,

,,

sight

khatt el harak
khatt er rugu'a
khatt en nazer
asas

main-body
mancEuvre

'

mun aura

map

khartah

march
marksman
marquee tent

marsh

military police

bolls 'askari

,,

markuwis

service

'askarleh

mine

lughum

mortar

[rear

move a little
move forward

to the

musketry
,,

muster
mutiny
muzzle

instruction

hawun
ta^akhar

shuwayah

li

wara

imshi yallah
darb en nar
ta'allm darb en nar
1

ta'adad
'asayan
(of

a gun)

nose-bag
occupy (to)
officer
officer's

nashcingi

fumm
mikhlat

'allq,

zabit, plu.

undress

mikhlah

ihtall

libs

yomi

zubat

56
Arabic Phonetic

English.

ram ad

ophthalmia
order (command)
order arms
orderly (on duty)
outpost

outworks
pace
[tion
packet of ammuniparade
to
parapet
;

pass

'amr,

jila.

tof

pay, salary
peace
picket

mahiyah
sulh
karakol
tabangah, ferd

pistol

masqat
ma' bar
nuqtah

plan

pontoon

mount

to dismount

present arms
(in firing)

,,

prison
prisoner

(in

sign, liabs

malibus

punishment
quarters

quick march

double
,,

quickly! (with wheels)


)

quinine
range
(in

army)
men)

rank and file


rank front, rear

rations

ready

bil'agal

masafah,

(line of

,,

asir

tarqieh
giza
qishlaq
sora'atleh marsh
ziada sora'atleh marsh

kinin

finder

rank

nishan

guard

promotion

bin meya hazir ol


yerra in hazir ol
sahim dor

[room)

war

of

,,

'awamir

rah at dor
nobetji {pronounce nobatshi)
karakol-kharigi
istahkamat amamleh
khatAvah, jdu. khatawi
dasta, pin. asdas
tabur istaff tabtir
khatt en-nar
tazkarat moriir

patrol

post
prepare to

Prouuuciation.

si'at er

rami

tillmetr

rutbah
saff

an far es

saff

es saff el auwel, tani

girayah, t'ayin, t'aylnat


doldor

57
Endish.

ready

(in firing)

rear

Aeabic.

Phonetic

Pronunciation.

hader (Ar.)
giria

rear form

reconnaissance

tabra

istikshaf

mustegidd

recruit

'askari

redoubt
regiment

hisn, tabiyah

regulations

qawanin

alai

reinforcement

taqwia (Ar.)

reins

surii'a, i)Ih. asr'a

relief

(change)

ghiyar

report
reserves

taqrir

retire (to)

ta^akhar

retire

ihliyatia
giria

retreat (to)
rifle

rifleman
rifling
rise

sheshkhiineli
sheshkha)iali

qum

rush

takahkar
bunduqieh

(Ar.)

kalk {Tar.)

igri (Ar.)

sack
saddle (camel)
(for a horse)

saddler

kis

ghabit, makhlufah, iddali

snvug

serg, plu.
seriigi

salute

salam

sapper
scouts

baltaggi

section

sinf, plu.

semaphore

samafor

sentry

dideban, ghafir, plu. ghufanx

shell

danah
markab harb

kashafa

ship-of-war
shot (cannon ball)
sight of a gun
signal

signaller

party
skirmish (to)
skirmisher
slowly
small shot

asnaf

gullah

kumhah
isharah
gema'at

isharagi

isharah
tasharkhag
sharkbaggi
'ala

rush

el

mahlak

58
Arabic.

English.

Phonetic

Pronunciation.

kantarmah

snaffle

soldier

gindi, ^jZh. ganadi, 'askari

spur
spy
squadron
square

mahmuz,

stable
staff (military)

isstabl, pla. isstablat

phi.

mahmiz

gasus, basas
orta sawari
qal 'ah

stall

arkan
akhur

stirrup

rikab, pin. rikabat

support
surrender
,,

liarb

imdad
sallam, imp. sallim
sallam bi-shurut

(to)

upon terms (to)

sword

seyf

target

tdkhtah
nobet tamam
durbin, nadarah

tattoo
telescope

kheymah,

tent
tent-peg

watad,
i

ila el

to the right
j

to the left
to the rear

transfer

transport
trenches,
troops

,,

khiyam

autad

serlqah

theft

pla.

pill,

ila

Ila

'

[redoubt
rampart,

yamln

esh shimal
el khalf

intiqal

liamlah
mitras
'asakir

(regular)

nizam

(reserve)

redif

gar

trot

el

trumpet
tunic

buri
sitrah

undress (daily dress)

el libs el

uniform

kiswah
garabandleh sawari
dideban sawari

valise

vedette
veterinary surgeon
victory
volley firing
walk (at a horse's)

hakim

yomi

beytari

zafar, intisar

tabur atesh
ashkin


5g
ArabicPhonetic

English.

Pronunciation.

harb

war
water-bottle
wheel, right

wheeling
wing, left

zamzamleh
left

right

wounded
wound in the head

saghyana solyana
dauaran
sol-kol sagh-kol

katar

magruh, mabtuh
bath

(contusion)

Commercial and Trading Terms.

35.

Bale

balah

bank

bank

basalt

hagar iswad

buy

capital

ishtara
baftah, shash
ras el-mal

chips (rough stone)

dabsh

counting-house

maktab
shukuk

(to)

calico

credit (on)

deyn
sowan
hagar sowan

debt
flint

granite
gravel
leather

haswah
gild

exchange

linen

hawalah, kambialah
hagar abiad, or hagar gir
quttan

loan

sulfah

loss

khasarah

merchant

tagir

mud

tin

letter of

limestone

package
pay to

fardah

per cent.

miyah
fayidah, maksab
rami

profit

sand
sandstone
sell (to)

silk

weight
wool

daf'a

wafa

bil

hagar ramleh
ba'a
harir

wazn, tuql
suf

60
35.

Religious

Words

English.

Jesus Christ

for Missionary Worker^.


Arabic.

Phonetic

yasu'a cl masih

life

Lay at

death

mot

right (justice)
wrong (mistake)
praise

ghalat

hamd

spirit

ruh

haqq

heaven

sama

peace
heart

salam

mind

'aql

love

mall abb ah

qalb

faith

emam

believe

aman

prayer (pray)
iiope

sala (salla)
raja

whosoever

min

give
receive
everlasting

iddl

lost (lose)

mafqud
mat

died
substitute
instead of

qabal
abadi

nayib
bedel 'an

blood

dam

forgiveness
forgive
sins
trust
enter in
salvation

simati

samah
khataya
tiqa

holiness

dakhal
khalas
er ruh el quds
qadasah

obey

t'au

clean

nadlf
afkar

holy spirit

thoughts
words
seek (ask for)
gladness

kalimat
otlob
inbisat

Pronunciation.

61

THE GRAMMAR OF ARABIC,


Remarks.
Arabic

is

a very rich language with numerous synonyms,

so much so that it has been described by a wag as a


language in which every word has its own meaning and
exactly the opposite, and a third meaning of some kind
Fortunately for the common needs of life,
of camel.

people

Arabic-speaking

are

content with

vocabulary, and even the educated reserve

an ordinary
the

richness

mother-tongue for special occasions. The appalling thirteen forms of the verb of grammarians dwindle
in practice to the intransitive, transitive, and an impersonal
of their

form, with occasionally a passive form, and prepositions


are

considered

various cases.

sufficient

without the inflection of the

Again, the student has the building-up of

a vocabulary made more easy for him, by fairly consistent


changes which are made in the roots to express various
ideas.

THE VERB.
The

root form is that of the 3rd person singular of the


past tense of the verb.

From

is formed most regularly a word which


place or time of performing the action indicated

this

means the

by the root form.


Thus, katab (he wrote) makes malctab (the place of
writing,

i.e.,

the

office).

Khazan (he treasured up) makes

(the place of storing, hence our "magazine").


Sam (he fasted) makes mdusim (the time of fasting, hence
our word "monsoon"). Rakab (he rode) makes merkeb

makhzan

Sharab (he drank) makes mashrab (the drinkingused in the form of mashrablch, the lattice-work

(a ship).

place),


62

round native windows. Shorhah (properly s7joriat), a drink


(Eng. "sherbet"), is another derivative from this root.*

The past

participle of a verb

and can be used

an

like

is

also regularly formed,

adjective.

maktuh, written.
Thus, from hatab, he wrote,
s/ia//rtZ, he worked,
masJu/Jnll, hu.sy.
,,
maftuh, opened.
fatah, he opened,

/(?//cm, he understood, ?(if/7(;()n, understood.


,,

The
medial

is made transitive by doubling the


shaglujlial, he
thus, shaglial, he worked

intransitive verb
letter

made to work.
The impersonal form
French, and
Yitfdteh,
yitijlusil,

is

constantly used as

it

is

in

formed by prefixing the sound of yit.


it is opened (compare 11 s'oiivre in French);
it is washed.
is

Auxiliary Verbs.
not troubled in Egyptian with many moods and
the present
serves also for the future;
tenses. One tense
the past tense is uniformly constructed from the root, and
the auxiliary verbs to have and to he are represented by one
form of auxiliary, which is here given and is typical of the
inflections of all verbs

One

is

ana

PRESENT OR FUTURE.
ehna nekfm,
I will be or become

aJa'in,

(German

we, &c.

werde)

thou, &c.
huiva yekun, he, &c.

inta tekun,

intuvi tekilnu,

humma yeki'mu,

you, &c.
they, &c

PAST.

ana kunt,
inta kunt,
huiva kdn,

was or became.

ehna kunna, we, &c.


intum kuntu,

humma

kdnu.

* It is interesting to note the number of Arabic words that have been


Imported into the Enf,'lish lansuaKe, besides the above and tlie well-linown
forms generally besiiiniiig witli al or el, alchemy, almanac, alembic, elixir,
algebra the last from an Arab mathematician with tlie appellation of Al
Gebbar, the giant. Thus, many less distinctive words are found, such as
admiral, arsenal, to drub, to booze, glioul, zany, 'popivjay, bug (not inThe introduction of these into our language is
digenous to England).
probably due to the Crusaders. The soldiers of later days are responsible
for a great many Hindustani words in current use in our colloquial language, such as to crab (military term from Arabic root kharab), club,
punch, bobbery. So long I and numerous others.

68

There is no verb corresponding to / am. It is omitted.


Thus, ana mabsilt, I am contented; hnica faqlr, he is poor.
I have, etc., is formed with the preposition 'and (near)
and the personal pronouns, as
'andi,

we have.
'andekam, you have.
'andeJnun, they have.

have.

'andena,

'andak, thou hast.


'andii,
he has.

I had is kdn 'audi, (there was near me)


other persons.

and similarly

for the

General Formation of Tenses.

An
all

ordinary verb katab, he wrote


the verbs are formed similarly
katab, he wrote,

ana

here given, and

is

kdtib, writing,

maktub, written.

PRESENT OR FUTURE.
I write 07' will write,
ehna

aktib,

niktib,

inta tiktib,

intiim tiktibu,

hinva yiktib,

hiunma

yiktibu.

PAST.

ana

ehna katdbna,
intum katdbtu,

I wrote.

katdbt,

inta katdbt,

hnwa

humma

katab,

katabu.

IMPERFECT.

ana hint

aktib,

was writing.

inta kunt tiktib,

niktib,

PLUPERFECT.
ehna kunna katdbna,
intum kuntu katdbtu,

had written.

inta kunt katdbt,

huwa kdn

kunna

intum kuntu tiktihu,


humma kdnu yiktibu.

Iiuwa kdn yiktib,

ana kunt katdbt,

elina

humma kdnu

katab,

katabu.

Nearly all imperatives are formed uniformly, as Iktib


Write! Imsik Take hold ofl 7ms/ Walk! or Go
I/tali Open
From masak, mdshi, fatah.

A form to express present action, to distinguish the


present from the future, is often used, the present being
given the prefix bi.
Thus,
ana

baktib,

inta bitiktib,

am

writing (now),

huwa

biyikt'tb,

&c.


64

The verbs call for no further remark beyond the fact


that there is a feminine form of the 3rd person sing.,
Thus, "she writes," Idya tiktib
present and past tense.
instead of yiktib; "she wrote," hlya katabet instead of
Colkatab; similarly, "she was," kdn e t mstesid oi kan.
lective nouns also take this feminine singular form; as
El gemdl tdkal, the camels eat.

THE PRONOUN.
Except when governing the verb or as the subject of a
sentence, the forms of personal pronouns a7ia, inta, huwa,
&c., are not used, but another form as in 'andi, I have,
quoted above; similarly, tahti, under me, ganbi, by my
side.

express possession the word

To

Thus,
bit'ai, mine,

bit'a,

belonging

to, is

used.

bit'ana, ours,

biVaak, thine,
bWakum, yours,

bit'a-ii,

his,

bWahum,

theirs.

it is intended to lay stress on the possessive,


Thus,
generally replaced by the suffix.
milki, my property wishak, your face; riglu, his leg, &c.

But, unless
this

word

is

The dative form of the personal pronoun


the prefix
li,

is

made with

to

lena,

me,
to us,

lak,

to thee,

lakum, to you,

lu,

to

him,

lalium, to them.

FORMATION OF PLURALS.
The regular form of plural is made by the addition of
In to masculine words and -at to feminine. The feminine
word generally ends in

(see p. 10)

and

is

transcribed

a simple noun and leh when a derivative


It therefore causes little difficulty, and being
noun.
feminine in accordance with previously conceived ideas
on the subject, one is not troubled with unreasonable
as ah

when

it is

As a set-off to this, the plurals of nouns disport


themselves under so many guises that the above rule of
adding -In and -at is chiefly of use in the formation of
the plurals of adjectives and of feminine derivative nouns.
The plurals of nouns* ring the following kinds of changes^
genders.

And

of

some

adjectives.


65

and each must be learnt as an exception.


Sing.

Plur.

shibdk, a

window,

The dual form


a

man

obtained by adding

is

rdgileyri tdyyibeyn,

Plur.

futah, a towel,
heytah, a wall,
walad, a boy,
hakim, & doctor,

sliebablk.

a mountain, gebdl.
merkeb, a ship,
merdkib.
beyt, a house,
beyilt.

gebel,

For instance

Sing.

-eijn

foivdt.

heytdn.
duldd.

hukam a.

thus, rdgil,

two good men.

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE.


The

with a qualifying
the large army. It has no
feminine or plural form. Before certain letters el suffers
elision and duplicates the initial letter of the following
esh shems, the sun.
word. Thus, en ndr, the fire
definite article

Thus

adjective.

el

the, is repeated

el,

geysh

el keblr,

THE NEQATIVE.
The negative

is

peculiar.

*'

Not "

is viush,

compounded

ma, not, and shey, a thing, and can be separated like


ne pas in French.
of

Thus,

"I know"

ma'arefsh or manish

is

""aref,

ana'arej; "I don't know," ana


or simply mush 'aref.*

THE ADJECTIVE.
Comparative and Superlative.

The forms
Jiasan,

are regular, and as follows:

good (beautiful)

ahsan, better

el

ahsan, the best.

shdter, clever; ashter, cleverer; el ashter, the cleverest.

many (much)

ketlr,

aktir,

(classical, el aksir,
keblr,

great
e.g.,

akbar, greater

Alldhu

akbar

'I

more

el aktir,

most

hence " elixir").


;

el

akbar, greatest.

God

is

the greatest

Genders.

The feminine

of

adjectives

is

formed by adding the

letter hey.

Thus, the feminine form of the above words becomes


hasanah, shdtirah, ketlrah, &c.
*

In the Sudan the form

Egyptian

S.-T.

is

ma b'aref,

and

is

more correct Arabic.

"

66

The

adjectives of colour are peculiar

e.g.,

ahiad, white; (fern.) bey da.

dhmar, red

list

of these

is

liamara (hence Alhambra).

(fern.)

given on page 34.

POLITE DICTION.
not impolite, as in most European languages, to
use the 2nd person singular but it is usual in speaking
Thus, instead
to equals to use the word hdderet, presence.
of inta, thou, and Imwa, he, one says politely hddretak,
hddretu.
It is not necessary when the expression used is
in itself polite
Kattar khei/rak,
as, Min fadlak, Please
Thank you
Alldh yehfdzak, God keep you
Nehdrak
ia,%d, Good morning
Leyltak sa'ldah, Good evening
It

is

much

If the person addressed is of

higher rank, the

word sa'adetak or sa'adetkum should be used, and pronounced sa'ddtak, sa'ddtkum.


be familiar with the expressions by which
invoked.
Thus, Allah! is often "used during a
pause in conversation Bkviillah ! In the name of God
(on starting work or a journey) Insha, Allah I Please God
Masha, Allah! an expression
(used constantly for per/m^js)
of surprise or admiration (in the latter case with the
Yallah ! By God
intention of avoiding the evil eye).
(used always for " Go on " " Let us proceed " &c.).*
It is well to

God

is

On

entering a

room

or house, one

words Marhabba! (Welcome

wa sdhlan! (Make

!)

yourself at

or

is

more

home

addressed with the


cordially with

Ahlan

!).

As a rule, the expression Saldm 'aleykum ! (Peace be


upon you !) is reserved by Mohammedans for Mohammedans,

but

if

used to a Christian or other should be


es saldm ! (On you be peace 1).

answered by 'Aleykum

occasions of making an
word Itfdddal (Be
be used as a preliminary.

Politeness requires that on

all

offer of a seat, cigarette, coffee, &c., the

gracious)

must

WalUih

is

a form of oath for "

By Godl

67

CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES AND


SENTENCES.
Useful and Necessary Expressions.
Aeabic Phonetic Pronunciation.

English.

At

akhlran

last

allow me
are you hungry?
be careful, open your
eyes

begone
out with you
by all means
certamly
come back

barra

m'alum, na'am

irg'a

hena
hush
inta sam'a?
ta'ala

idkhol,

me

inta arif, or ta'araf

samili ni, or

ma

imshi
iddl-ni, a'atl-ni

times ?

holloa there

immediately

kam marrah

oh you

ya inta

(in this

fil

in front of

in future (afterwards)

waqt, halan

ma yumkinsh
qodam
fil

qabil (ba'adeyn)

means {i.e.)
make haste

qawam,

many thanks

barakat warsin

it

ya'ani
bil 'agal

ta'akhiznish

min hena
m'a es-salamah
ruh min hena

me

time)
impossible

itl'a

la budd,

from here
good-bye
go away
go on

how many

ifta^ 'eynak

'ala kulli lial

do you hear ?
do you know ?
excuse me

give

li

inta ga'an

imshi
1

come here
come in

forgive

ismah

68
Arabic Phonetic

English.

never mind
no
take care

ma'aleysh
la

'oal

me

qul-li

thanks

shokr

tell

you

tliank

that's another thing

the sooner the better


(to-day, before to-morto the rear
[row)
very bad
very much
very nice
very often (much)
very well
1

what
what
what

is

allah yahfdrZ-ak
deh shey tani

en nahar deh qabl bukra


li

wara

radi, bil

this for ?
this ?

liamm

qawi
kwayls khalis
ketir

ketir

'azim

tfiyyib,

huwa

ey deh
deh ey deh

eysh

?
is

Pronunciation.

'ala

who is there?
who is this ?
why ?

or eysh

deh

min henak ?
da min deh ?
ley?
na'am, aywa

yes

Simple and Practical Phrases.


akhkh
any news ?
fi khabar ?
Alas

are you in a hurry ?


as you like (to your
pleasure)

inta mista'agil ?

bring a liglat here


bring me
bring me a chair
call the servant

hat nur hena?

come back
do not annoy me
tell

him

do you think ?
do you understand?
do as you please, )
please yourself

gib

keyfak

li,

hat-li

hat kiirsi
inda el khaddam
erg'a
tiza'alnlsh
tinsHsh
taqul-lush
inta teftekr? or inta tezunn?
inta fahim ? or fahemt ?

ma
ma
ma

do not forget
don't

'ala

bi khatirak

69
Arabic Phonetic

English.

get up
give him
give him a second one,
give me
[one'
give me a different
give me a little of

qum

[this
go back
go more slowly
go more quickly
good evening
good morning to you
he appealed (against

erg 'a

Pronunciation.

iddih; iddl-lu
iddlh (or iddl-lu) tani
iddl-ni

a'atini

iddl-ni wa^iid gheyr-u


iddl-ni shuwayah min

deh

imshi bishweysh
imshi bil 'agal
leylt-ak sa'idah

sabah el-kheyr
istanaf

07'

neharak
[sa'ld

the judgment of a

Court of Justice)

he
he
he

a liar

is
is

drunk
is
under

my

huwa kaddab
huwa sakran
huwa ta^it 'eydi

orders (hand)

he is very angry
[himself
he is ill
he learned Arabic by
he told me
hold your tongue,
(shut up) (end)

how do you do ?
how many ?
how many piastres ?
how much ?
how much do you
sell this (it)

how

must

to
I

huwa

oskut (ikhlas)

salamat

or

ez-zeykum

kam ? or qad eyh


kam qirsh ?
kam?
tibi'a

we

go

'anhu

am
am
am

deh bikam

et tarlq ila

possible for

me

aqdersh

yumkinnlsh

to)

you

have not
am angry with you

am

cold

ana m.ota'aggib
ana raih

ma
ma

ana a'akid lak

ma

bi-

[nafs-u

qal-ni

I assure
I

zaalan ketir
'ayyan
t'allam el 'arabi wahid-u

for?

astonished
going
I
not able
I cannot (it is not
I

huwa
huwa

'andlsh

ana za'alan wayyak


ana bardan

70
ArabicPhonetic

Eugllsh.

I
I
I
I

am hungry
am not hungry
[to it
am tired
am not accustomed
am wrong

ana ga'an
ana mush ga'an
ana t'aaban
ana ma llsh 'adah
el haqq 'aleya

ma

ana

cannot
do not care
I do not know
I do not speak the
Arabic language
I cannot learn Arabic
if you speak English
I have no appetite
I have no passport
I

live at

want
want

I will
if
is
it

ma
ma

ma

'ala ball

'arafsh

atkallimsh

el

loghah

ma

aqdarsh at'alim 'arabi iza

kan inta tetkallim bilingellz

ma
ma

llsh nafs

'andlsh tazkarah
ti

buy
not (am not

ana 'awiz (or 'auz, or


ana 'awiz ishtiri
ana mush radi

to

everything ready
is not necessary

your fault

it is

not

my

fault

mistaken

it is

raining hard

it is

too late

very hot
keep to the right
knock at the door
lend me
let me help you
light the candle

it is

shuftush abadan

mush lazim
el-haqq 'aleyk

ana ma 'andish 'eyb


[("shame ")
ana ghaltan
yetmattar qawi
wakhri ketir
harr ketir
khallik 'ala yiminak
iklibat el

bab

salllf-ni

khalll-ni 'annak

lock the door

make

bil-'agal

haste

my words have made


no impression on

him
oh

(he did not

kalami

ma

sama'usb

my

word)
how dirty yon are

hear

'ayiz)

min fadlak
kuU shey hader ?

walla esh shama'a


walla en-nar
iqfil al bab bilkeylun

light the tire

el

'arabieh

ma

you please [willing)

am

aqdarsh

ana sakin

it is

flh

saw him

I never
I

Pronunciation.

ya

ma-inta wisekh

71
Ababic Phonetic Pronunciation.

English.

open the door


permit

iftah el

me

rinn

ring the bell

radd

speak plainly
speak the truth

tell
tell

no

garas
bab,

el bilb

itfaddal oq'od

lies

itkallam bil'ali
qui bil liaqq
ihtazar ma takdibsh
!

the

[straight)

qul-lu

truth

qui doghri
kattar kheyrak
bass 01- bi-ziadah
ma fish darar
kullohum zey ba'ad

thank you
that's enough

(it

there is no harm
they are all alike
this annoys me very
[much
wait here
wait until he comes
walk slowly

we will eat
what are you doing ?
what did he say ?
what does it con-

deh yiza'alni ketir


istanna hena
istanna lihdd

imshi

'ala

ma

yeygi

mahlak

'auzin nakul
bit'amil eyh ?
qal eyh ?
fib

eyh

what do you say ?


what do you want ?
what have you got ?
what is that ? [ence ?
what is the differwhat is the matter ?
what is the news ?
what is this ?
what is to be done ?
what is your name ?
what is your opinion?
you
what makes
angry

khud-u

him

tain

el

iqfil el

down, please

take care
take it

gavas,

el

doqq

shut the door


sit

bab

ismali-li, or Izin-li

bitqul eyh ?
'auz eyh ?

eyh 'andak?
eyh deh ?
el fark eyh ?
el khabar eyh ?
el khabar eyh ?
eysh huwa ?
el 'amal eyh?
ismak eyh ?
takhminak eyh

inta za'alan leyh ?

what o'clock is it ?
what pay does he get?

es sa'ah

kam ?
kam?

mahlyat-u

72
Akabic.

English.

what shall I do ?
where are you ?
where are you going?
where do you live ?
where is he now ?
which house is yours?
which horse will you

Phonetic

Pronunciation.

ana a'mil izzay ?


inta feyn ?
inta raih feyn ?
inta sakin feyn ?
huwa feyn dilwaqti
anhi beyt bit'aak ?
anhu hosan tirkab ?

ride?

you allow me ?
you oblige me ?
will you take this ?
who told you ?
you must go now
you are late
you are right (the

will

tismah

will

'amil ma'artif

truth

is

your

in

li ?

takhod deh

min

qal lak

lazim teruh dilwaqt


inta ta.akhart
el

haqq

bi

eydak

hands)

Directions to

Bring a hoe

to

earth
go thus
take care of
leave

turn

do

it

hat turieli (u) hat fas


hat ghalaq (muqtaf)
hat habl
;

bring a basket
bring rope
dig here
take from before you
take from behind you
make it wider
deeper yet
go down deeper
go down to water

go down

Workmen.

native

'amal-u was'a ziadah

ghawit

lissa

inzel wati lissa


inzel lil moyyah
inzel

lil

'ard sahih

deh

{lit.,

khalllh salim [slowly with

complete

over
not break

hena
imsek min qodam
imsek min wara
ifhat

mashi keda
bishweysh min

it

*'

(l)

iqlib-u

it

the

Dricks
are there

mud bricks
or burnt bricks ?
See

ma
fi

p. 13.

tiksar-ush et tub

tub nai au tub

ahmar

it)

73
Akabic.

English.

work, oh boy
pull

turn

Pronunciation.

ishtaghal ya walad
shidd or shil [carry)

push

Phonetic

dauwar-u

it

come and measure


the work

ta'ala qls esh-shoghl

but measure

it

m'teqis-u

how much

are

wages

el

ograh

kam

work

the

the

is

by the day

esh shoghl bil

yom

measure
this is very tough
I cannot lift it up
it is needful to have

deh yabis khalas


ma aqdarsh ashil-u
lazim nas ziadah

more men
ornament (-ed)

rasm (mersum)

,,

,,

bil qias

,,

,,

inscription (inscribed)
mound of ruins

kitabah (maktub)

potsherds

shuqf

cemetery

gabbanah

grave

turbah, pin. turab

kom, or

tell

Travel Talk. Arrival.


I

'auz

want a boat

this is not big enough


for us
it will not do
can you take our
luggage with you?

no

certainly, sir

[porter

you a
he can carry the lot by
himself; he is strong
he has a cart, too
I

will bring

there

is first

the cus-

wahed felukkah

deh mush keblr


'ala shan-na

bil

kifayah

ma yenf'ash
teqdar takhod el 'afsh
la

bit'a-

na wayyak?

ommal ya

sidi*

agib lak wahed shayyal


yeqdar yeshll kullu bi nafs-u;
[karro
huwa gad'af
'andu kaman wahed 'arableh

auwalan

fi

taftlsh el

gumruk

tom-house exami[carriage

nation

we

will

go

in

the

ehna neruh

Ommal corresponds to "Katherl


Used politely
t Gad'a (lit., brave).
especially in the streets, to make way.
*

fil

'arableh

should thinli so."


calling out to any man,

when

74
Aeabic Phonetic

English.

you must come with


us

Pronunciation.

lazim inta teygi wayya-na

[fare is

me how much the


how much is the fare
tell

qul-li el

bi

kam

ograh bi kam
ograh lil mahattah?

el

to the station?

person four
piastres
[much ?
and the porter, how
he is entitled to ask

each

two

kul shakhs arb'aa qurush

wa'sh shayyal, kam ?


haqq-u [Ids right] qirsheyn, wa huwa biyetlob baqshish 'ala shan
harr ketir wa'l 'afsh

and

piastres,

asking for baqshish because it is


hot and the luggage is heavy
is the luggage correct?
eleven pieces
you left one in the
steamer
you must send the
porter to enquire
about it
is

[by God] I
there
quite forgot it, sir
1

[0

my

master]

thank goodness

someone
ing

is

teqil

el 'afsh

tamam ?

had'ashra hittah*

wahedah

inta fut

lazim

tirsel

fil

wabur

esh-shayyal yis.al

'an-u

w'allah

ya

ana neslt-u khalas

sidi

hamdu

el

I'illah

fi

had

biyeglb-u dilwaqti

bring-

now

it

The Railway.
Is the station far?
no ; a quarter of an

el

mahattah ba'id ?
masafah rob'a s'aah bas3

la

whendoesthetraingo?

el

wabur

in half-an-hour

b'ad

hour's distance only

anyhow,
start

it

will not

before

the
[then

mails come
we need not hurry
*

Hittah

(sing.).

'ala

yesafir

imta?

nuss sa'ah
kulli hal ma yesafirsb
\after']

qabli

ma

mush lazim

Beyond ten the singular

is

teygi el bosta
nist'agil

baqa

always p-ed.

75
Aeabic.

English.

please go and get


the tickets
I want four first-class
there is a ticket short

Phonetic Pronunciation.

min

fadlak ruh wa gib et


tazakir
[ula
'auz arb'aa mehellat daragah

I will
never mind
bring you another

fi tazkarah naqes
m'aleysh
agib lak
wiihedah

and the money

w'al

is it

right ?
one piastre is bad
[by the life of your
father] I swear

the interpreter
there is no need to
I will ascertain from
him, all the same
the luggage goes without extra charge
no
I have paid 15
piastres
here's
the receipt [journey
I wish you a good
you are travellers
I

how

long have you


been in Egypt ?
we arrived only today
[Cairo ?
are you going
to
shall stay there

four days waiting


for the steamer
it
is
not enough
you require 2 or
3 weeks at least
our intention is to
see everything be;

we go back
England
fore

filus,

tamam?

[comjdete]

wahed qirsh batal


wa hayat abuk huwa tayyib
1

it

[only old
is good
you are right, it is
1 would like to ask

we

kaman

to

lak haqq,

huwa qadmi

ana biddi

is,al et

bass

terguman

ma

fish lezum
ana istdfhem min-u bardu

el 'afsh yertih

la

ballash

ana dof 'aat khamast'ashrah


qirsh
ah6 el wasl
;

[safety)

m'a es salamah (lit. with


hadretkum musafirin
baqa lakum kam yom fi berr
Masr?
I

wasalna en nehar deb bass

intum rayhin fi Masr ?


noqod henak arb'at eyyam,
mustannin el wabur

ma

yekfish

lazim

aqall

guma'ateyn telatah
qasdena neshuf kullu qabli

ma

nirg'a

inc:eliz

fil

bilad

el

76
Arabic.

English.

good

perhaps

you when
you return from
Upper Egypt

shall see

God

please

Phonetic Pronunciation.

kway-is

Wake me

early
the morning

in

min

tirga'u

es

Sa'id

insha,allah

An

ashuf-

insha,allah

kum lamma

Excursion.
subh

salii-ni badri es

ahram

we are going to see the

elina rayliin neshuf el

Pyramids to-morrow
do you want me to get
the donkeys ready?

bukra
hadretak 'auz in-ni aliaddar
el hemir?

perhaps we shall go
in a carriage, but

yumkin

anyhow we

shall

take food with us


everything
siiwill be all right
you must take the
necessaries for tea
the teapot, the spirit,
matches and everymust be
thing
yes,

wrapped in paper
have wrapped up
everything and put
it

and melons on the


[the wine
way
good do not forget
we want to go up the
Pyramids
just as you wish, sir
;

not

difficult,

but

one
will bring two men
to go up with you
it tires

'arableh,

fi

hal

kulli

'ala

nakhod akl wayya-na


hadir ya sidi,
yibqa tamam

shey

kulli

takhod el ashya
lowazimah li shai

el

sbirlt, kabrit,

wa

lazim

el abriq, es

lazim kullu

ana
fil

yitlaff

laffeyt kullu

wa

fi

waraq

hotteyt-u

qafas

into the basket

we can buy oranges

it is

neruli

walakin

this is

not necessary

yumki'nna nishteri bortoqan

wa shammam (or
wa ehna fi sikkali
tayyib

ma

batikh)

tinsash en nebid

biddinna nitl'a

el

ahram
[effendim

zey

deh

ma

(or

keyfak),

sa'ab,

walakin

terld

mush

yit'ab el insan {man)


agib ragileyn yitl'au wayya

hadretak

deh mush daruri

77
Ababic Phonetic

English.

am

strong and can


go up alone [once
get the tea ready at
the horse is going
lame, and is very

Pronunciation.

ana gamid wa aqdar

atl'a bi

nafs-i

haddar esh shai halan


el hosan biy 'urog wa ta'aban
ketir

tired

arbaggi biyidrab

the driver is beating


the horse without
any reason
he knows his business
he is not cruel
another time I will
take someone else
they are all alike

el

have you made an


account of what
you have spent ?

'atiiilt

On
have seen the dahabieh, and it is a

el

hosan

bidun sabab
y'araf shoghl-u
huwa mush qasi

marrah

tani

akhod wahed

gheyr-u

kuUohum

zey ba'ad
hisab min el

{inoney)

illi

felus

sardft-u ?

the Nile.

ana shuft ed dahabieh wa


hiya merkeb 'aal

very fine boat

have you brought all


the luggage down ?
have you brought the
vegetables and mutton, fowls and eggs

nazzdlt kul

el 'afsh ?

ishtereyt el khodarat wa lahm


dani, wa firakh wa beyd;

wa

lil

merakbieh

hauwa

{or er rih)

t'ayyinat

also provisions for

the crew ?
the wind

if

is not
enough, we must

use the oars [tiful


the weather is beau-

can we land and see


the
town after
sunset ?
as you wish, sir;
the people
but
here are bad
we are not afraid

iza

kan

el

mush
'aamil

kafi,
el

lazim

nist-

maqadlf

hauwa kway-is
yumkinna ninzel neshuf el
balad deb, b'ad el maghel

reb ?
zey ma terld hadretak, walakin en nas hen^ batalln

ehna mush khaifin

78
Aeabio. Phonetic Pronunciation.

English.
if

you walk on this


side of the town,

there

is

tion
I

[boat

is

el

wonder where the

to-morrow we

will go
shooting together
there
are
pigeons
and quail and sometimes sandgrouse

want someone

to

carry the cartridges


and the basket with
the food
you will keep (walking) on the right
and lin the middle
quail are always to
be found in the

wheat
you keep behind me
and be silent [for it
I hit it; go and look
I am tired, and it is
very late

nearly six, and


we are hungry
the Berberines are

it is

fellows,

el merkeb feyn ya tara


ah6, qibli min el balad, 'ala
taraf esh sliarqi
!

bukra neruLi
saua
fi

lis-seyd

saua

hammam wa
ba'ad

el

siman wa
ahyan qatt'a

'auz walied ragil yeshll el


fishenk wa'l qafas bil akl

inta
mashi 'ala
yeniln wa ana fil wust

tekun

es

el

siman tamdlli maugudin


fi'l

qam^i

khallik wara-ni

wa

oskot

ana sibt-u ruh dauwar 'aleyh


ana t'aaban wa wakhri ketir
;

[luck

we have had good

good

min

no objec-

there it is, south of


the town, on the
east bank

iza timshi nahayadeh


balad, ma fish ba,_as

and

thoroughly acquainted with the river


certainly, they work
hard, and are not
[their pay
lazy
they are asking for
it is not due yet

bakhtena (our luck) tayyib


sa'ah sitteh taqriban wa ehna
ga'anin
el

Barabra
nas (people)
tayyibin wa 'arifin el bahr
bil kullieh

ma'alum, yishtaghalu giddan

wa mush

humma
lissa

kaslanin
[bit'a^thum

talibin

mush wafa

el

mahiyah

79
Ababic Phonetic

English.

that

yishteru hagat

to buy things

bidduhum

walakin

sahlh,

but they

true,

is

want

Pronunciation.

fantasieh

lil

for the fantasia


if

this

is

there

is

case

the

baza

fi

el

ma

l.ial,

fish

man'a

no objec-

tion

humma

they are very pleased;

and
all

my

mabsutin

khalas

kaman

ana
wa
akhdam

too would
like to serve you
I

'auz

hadretak

till

yumkin neruh saua


marrah taniah

saua

insha,allah aruh qibli

wayya

'umr-i

life

perhaps we will go
together another
time
please God I will go
south with your
next
excellency

jenabak es senah

illi

gay ah

year

you give me a
testimonial, please?

tiddi-ni

will

God keep you


good-bye

alldih

m'a

shehadah min fadlak?

yaljfazak

es

salamah

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.


Weight.
-99
144 dirhem make 1 rotl or pound =
= 2'75
1 oqqa
400 dirhem ,,
=99*05
Ikantar
100 rotl

1 pik (the principal

for cloth

and

Length.
measure)
_op.Q

English.

,,

,,

,,

"

'

"~

silk)

lb. av.

=11

I qasab

ft.

7-7G in.

,,

Surface.

400 square qasah make


or acre

...

...

feddan,
...

=1

acre 6 rods

,,

=5'44 bushels

,,

Capacity.

24

ri(6'a

make

...

rtrc/e/j

N.B. The metric system

is

commonly used

lor weight

and length.


80

EGYPTIAN MONEY.

Egyptian Value.

Systematic Name.

English

MilUeme

id.

2id.

10 Millihnes

1 Piastre or Qirsh

'

Piastres. Mill'mes.

Gold

d.

s.

Dels. Cents

Coins,

Giney Masri (the


Egyptian pound)
Nuss Giney
Silver Coins.
Hiydl Masri ...

1000

100
50

500

20
10
2

200
100
50
20

10

TO
1
TO

Hub' a Riydl ...


Qirsheyn
Qirsh (Piastre)

50

.3

MilUeme

Copper pieces

{2-Para and 1-Para pieces);

50
25

of

these

and

are

\ MilUeme

used only by

the very poor.


Note.

English

tourists are

credit notes cashed in

are valued as under

recommended

English Gold.

to

have their

The following

Piastres. Millifimes.

The English Sovereign


The French Napoleon
William Bbown &

(1)
(20f.)

Co., Ltd., St.

97.5

77.1i

Mary Axe, London, E.G.

2i

Nuss Qirsh
2 Milliemes

are

10

Nickel Coins.

There

Niiss lliyal

American
Money.

English
Money.

Egyptian
Monet.

ARABIC NAME.

"Valujb.

2
1

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LAFFITTE,

French Grammar

{School Edition), by J.
Principal French Master, City of London

B.-e'-L.
Being a
School.
comprehensive work on modern lines, with numerous lessons on
the Alphabet, Accent, Liaison, &c., the Rules of Grammar

exemplified with Model Sentences, Auxiliary Verbs, Synoptical


Table of the four Conjugations, Irregular Verbs, Exercises,
Alphabetical Vocabulary. 1914. Crn. 8vo., 136 pp., brown cloth 1/6
Key (Sc/woZ^</iHo>i), by J. LAFFITTE, B.-^s-L. Crn. 8vo.
32 pp., blue wrapper
6d
A di>itinctiy able grammar, one that can be recommended without
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French Grammar by F. AHN. A Practical and Easy Method of
AUTHOR'S 14th EDITION.
learning the French Language.
Edited and Revised by C. A. Thimm. Demy 8vo., 220 pp., cloth 2/6
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Key
London: E.

to the Exercises, by F.

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French Pronunciation Made Easy, by M. H.

HEBERT.

Fourth
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Rules on Proper Nouns, Reading Exercises with Phonetic Pro-

Key to the Exercises. 1908. Cr. 8vo., 48 pp., cloth


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For learning
Revised by J. LAFFITTE, B.-6s-L.
edition.
the language by the Natural Method with Phonetic Pronunciation. Containing Alphabet and Pronunciation, The Nasal Sound,
Articles, Gender, Accent, &c.. Classified Vocabularies,
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Principal French Master, City of London School. Containing

Alphabet, Accent, Liaison, &c.. Rules of Grammar exemplified


with ilodel Sentences, Auxiliary Verbs' Synoptical Table of the
Irregular Verbs, Exercises, Alphabetical
four conjugations
Vocabulary. 1912. Crn. 8vo., 136 pp., blue wrap
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French Technical Words and Phrases, by J. A. STANDRING


and C. A. THIMM: an English-French and French-English
Dictionary of Technical Words, Business Terms and Phrases used
in Commerce, Arts, Sciences, Professions and Trades.
With an
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Second Edition enlarged 1905. 16mo., 224

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Jour, of Commerce.

French Verbs at a Glance, The. by Mariot de BEAUVOISIN


A Summary, exhibiting the Best System of Conjugation by
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Poesies de I'Enfance, Choisies, by Francois LOUIS [French


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Rules of French Grammar at a Glance, by O. F. CAMPHUIS.


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(The), No. 1. By AJAX. ENGLISHContaining Pronunciation, Notes on Grammar,


FRENCH.
Time, Days, Dates, Greetings, On the Road, Correspondence,
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Size 6 x 3^.
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Language Manual

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Toujours Pret, by Toreau de MARNEY the Ideographic French


Reader
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Manual of Conversation.
Practical
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Italian, in one book. Containing Travel Notes (Customs, Cycling,
Motoring, &c.). Tables of Money, Pronunciation, Classified ConThe Numerals,
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Containmg Alphabet and Pronunciation, Rules of Grammar


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There will be found no more useful handbooks for all who desire to
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German and English Commercial Correspondence,

MEISSNER.

With Phraseology,

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List of Merchandise,

Com-

mercial, Banking, Insurance, Shipping, Forwarding, Market,


Telegraphic, Export and Import Terms, and Tables of German
Money, Weights and ^Measures.
New Revised and Enlarged
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" For all having a correspondence in this language, the little text-book
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Times.

Medical

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German Technical Words and Phrases, by C. A. THIMM and


W. von KNOBLAUCH. An English-German and GermanEnglish

Dictionary of Technical Words, Business, Aviation,


Medical, Military, Shipping Terms and Phrases used in Commerce, Arts, Sciences, Professions and Trades. With appendix
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Social
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should be written The form of a German Letter.
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Practical Teacher-

(The), No. 2. By AJAX. ENGLISHContaining Pronunciation, Notes on Grammar,


Time. Days, Dates, Greetings, On the Road, Correspondence,
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GERMAN.

Manual of Conversation.
Practical
Traveller's
No. 1 (Marlborough's) English, French, GERMAN,* Italian,
in one book. Containing Travel Notes (Customs, Cycling, Motoring,
&c.). Tables of Money, Pronunciation, Classified Conversations,
subjects arranged alphabetically. The Numerals, Weights and
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Conversation.

No. 2 (uniform with No. 1). English, French, GERMAN, and


Dutch. Second Edition, 1914. Crown 12mo., 152 pp., brown
. 1/0

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meet every need of every traveller; but this little book, which
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be a valuable companion to many whose love oi European travel is
greater than their knowledge of European languages." 'iVie Field.
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" This

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HoUand." r?i<? Steamship.


"There are a very large number of plain and practical everyday
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Greek (Modern)

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HINDUSTANI.
Hindustani Self-Taught, by Capt. C. A.

THIMM

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Hindustani Text Revised by Professor J. F. Blumhardt, m.a., m.ii.a.s., Professor of Hindustani at the London
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Hindustani

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SHAMS'UL

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Hungarian Self-Taught (Tliimm's System) by


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Containing The
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ITALIAN.
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1911. Crown 8vo., 152 pp.,
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'Tail hardly fail to prove of valne in connpction with commercial


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Practical
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(Marlborough's) English, French, German & ITALIAN,
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No

Measures, Washing List, Dictionary of Words in daily use.


4th Edition, 1914. Crn. 12mo, 152 pp., round corners, red wrap. 1/0
Do,,
do. green cloth, round corners
...
...
...
1/6
,

Do.,
Italian

round corners, with tuck-in

do., leather,

Washing Book, byC.

A.

THIMM

flap

...

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for Ladies, (gentlemen,

and Families. Counterfoils in English, alphabetically arranged


Demy 8 vo., dark red wrapper ...
...
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6d.

3 iliprnie:^^:.
Japanese Self-Taught [Thimm's System In Roman Characters].
byW.J.S. SHAND, late Director, School of Japanese Language
and Literature, London. With English Phonetic Pronunciation.
Containing The Syllabary
Classified Vocabularies and Conversations; Travelling, Commercial and Trading, Naval, Military
and Religious Terms and Phrases; the Numerals; IMoney
with illustration of Japanese coinage, Weights and Measures,
Postage, &c.
Second Edition.
1915.
Crown Bvo., 96 pp.,
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Japanese Grammar Self-Taught, by H.

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J.

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Characters.
Containing
I.
Grammar and Syntax, with
Pronunciation, Native Japanese characters, &c. II. Exercises and
Extracts. 1. Exercises for Translation, with Key. 2. Reading
Exercises, with Pronunciation and Translation. 3. Japanese
Extracts, with Key. III. Vocabularies (alphabetical), JapaneseEnglish and English-Japanese, Money, Weights and Measures.
Second Edition. 1907. Crown 8vo., 184 pp., blue wrapper ... 4/0
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...
...
...
5/0
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"It

is

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bit of scholastic
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Japanese Self-Taught and Grammar,

London;

E.

MARLBOROUGH &

in one volume.

Co., Publishers, 51,

Cloth

...

7/6

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18

NORWEGIAN.

LATIN.

PERSIAN.

LATIN.

Net

TOPHAM

Latin Self-Taught (Thimm's System), by J.


(Barristerat-La\v). For learning the language by the natural method. With
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Numerals
Medical. Prescriptional, Dispensing, Legal and
Religious Terms and Phrases Quotations, Inscriptions, Mottoes,
;

Proverbs, etc., etc. Grammar, Construing, Abbreviations(Degrees,


Titles, Distinctions, etc.).
Second Edition. 1915. Crn. 8vo,
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...
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1/&

medical, will be found useful. "'i'/ie Lancet.

THIMM.

Revised and EnC. A.


With Phonetic Pronunciation.
larged by P. Th.
Containing Vocabularies, Elementary Grammar, Conversations,
Phrases and Sentences, Forms of Letters, Commercial, Legal and
Religious Terms, Travel Talk, Motoring, Cycling, Photography,
Fishing, Shooting, Amusements, INEoney with illustration of
Norwegian coinage and English and American values, Weights
and Measures. Fifth Edition. 1912. Crown 8vo., 128 pp.,
...
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...
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...
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Norwegian Self-Taught, by

HANSSEN.

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I>ERSIi3LN.
Persian

Self-Taught,

SHEYKH HASAN.

by

In

Roman

Characters], witli English Phonetic Pronunciation. Containing


The Persian Alphabet, Transliteration and Pronunciation;
Outline of Grammar with Persian Characters; Classified VocabuTravel Talk Trade and Commerce
laries and Conversations
Post Office and Correspondence; Illustration of the Persian
Coinage; Persian Handwriting; The Numerals, Money with
;

English and American values. Weights and Measures. 1909.


.

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2,6-

a most welcome addition to the Self-Tanght Srrie6.' Those


who flei're to acquire a colloquial and practical knowledge, and to all
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" This

B-ymba

London:

E.

is

'

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Co., Publishers, 51,

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RUSSIAN.

PORTUGUESE.

SINHALESE.

19

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Net

Portuguese Self-Taught (Thimm's System), by E. da CUNHA.


Vocabularies,
Containing
With Phonetic Pronunciation.
Elementary Grammar, Conversational Phrases and Sentences,
Commercial, Tradnig, Legal, and Religious Terms, Travel Talk,
Cycling, Motoring, Photograpriy, Amusements, Tables of Money,
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Portuguese Grammar, by L. de

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6d.

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RUSSIAN.
Russian Self-Taught,by C.

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With English Phonetic


In Russian and l-ioman Characters.
Pronunciation Containing Vocabularies of words in general
use; Elementary Grammar; Colloquial and Idiomatic Phrases;
Travel Talk; Cycling, Photographic, Shooting, Fishing, Naval,
Military, Commercial and Trading Terms and Conversations;
Tables of Money with illustration of Russian coinage and
English and American values, Weiglits and Measures.
Fifth Edition. 1915. Crown 8vo., 134 pp., blue wrapper ... 2/0
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Russian Grammar, by F.

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SIISJIHLALESE.
WICKREM

ASINSinhalese Self-Taught, by Don M. de Zilva


GHE,M.A.,Epigraphist to tlieCeyion Government. JuSinhalese&
Roman chaiaclers, with the English Phonetic Pronunciation.
Containing the Sinhalese Alphabet, with transliteration and
phonetic signs used; CI i si tied Vocabularies and Conversations;
Outline of Grammar; Terms and Phrases for Travel, Commerce,
Planting, Public Works, Fishing and Shouting, &c.; Numerals,
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...
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Alphabet and Pronunciation, Notes on Articles, Gender, Accent,
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Carl Cederlof, with English Phonetic Pronunciation. Containing Classified Vocabularies, Colloquial and
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EX.

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Tamil Self-Taught, by Don M. de Zilva

WICKREM ASINGHE,

Epigraphist to the Ceylon Government. In Roman characters,


The
Containing
Pronunciation.
Phonetic
with English
Classified Vocabularies and Conversations EnglishAlphabet
Vocabulary; Travelling, Commercial,
Alphabetical
Tamil
Official, Planting, Shooting and Fishing Terms and Phrases
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2/6

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Tamil Grammar Self-Taught. by Don M. Zilva de

WICKRE-

MASINGHE.

In Tamil and Roman Characters. Containing


Grammar and Syntax. Alphabet and Pronunciation. Tamil
I.
Characters Transliteration. Parts of Speech. Rules of Syntax.
III. TamilExercises in Tamil and English, with Key.
II.
1906.
English Vocabulary, Alphabetically arranged.
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...
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^Do.
"Is a great improvement on any attempt of the kind which has preceded it, and will without the slightest doubt be found very uselul by
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tion before."

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In one volume. Crown 8vo.,


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Tamil Self-Taught and Grammar.

Observer.

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MARLBOROUGH &

Co

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51,

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