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Materials System Specification

32-SAMSS-007

23 June 2010

Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards


Table of Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Scope............................................................. 2
Normative References.................................... 2
Terms and Definitions.................................... 5
General........................................................... 7
Proposals....................................................... 7
Drawings and Other Required Data............... 8
Design............................................................ 8
Materials....................................................... 18
Fabrication.................................................... 20
Inspection and Testing................................. 24
Preparation for Shipment............................. 31
Supplemental Requirements........................ 34
Drawings, Calculations and Data................. 34

Table 1 - Acceptable Materials for Carbon


and Low - Alloy Steels.......................... 36
Table 2 - Charpy-V Impact Test Requirements.. 38
Table 3 - Material Classes.................................. 38
Table 4 - Radiography Requirements
for Heat Exchangers............................. 39

Previous Issue: 15 August 2009 Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012


Revised paragraphs are indicated in the right margin
Primary contact: Anizi, Salamah Salem on 966-3-8746139
CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2010. All rights reserved.

Page 1 of 39

Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


Issue Date: 23 June 2010
Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

The following paragraph numbers refer to API STD 660, Seventh Edition, February 2003,
which is part of this specification. The text in each paragraph below is an addition,
exception, modification, or deletion to API STD 660 as noted. Paragraph numbers not
appearing in API STD 660 are new paragraphs to be inserted in numerical order.
1

Scope
1.1

This specification covers the minimum mandatory requirements for the


manufacture of shell and tube heat exchangers and new components
(herein referred to as exchangers). It does not cover exchangers that
undergo repairs or alterations.

1.2

This specification shall not be applied to the design of non-TEMA


exchangers, such as sometimes used for lube and seal oil cooling duties
for packaged equipment like compressors, pumps and turbines.

1.3

Conflicting Requirements

1.3.1

Any conflicts between this specification and other Saudi Aramco


Materials System Specifications (SAMSSs), Industry codes and
standards, and Forms shall be resolved in writing by the Company or
Buyer Representative through the Standards Committee Chairman,
Consulting Services Department of Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.

1.3.2

Direct all requests to deviate from this specification in writing to the


Company or Buyer Representative, who shall follow internal company
procedure SAEP-302 and forward such requests to the Manager,
Consulting Services Department of Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.

Normative References
Materials or equipment supplied to this specification shall comply with the latest edition
of the references listed below, unless otherwise noted.
2.1

Saudi Aramco References


Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure
SAEP-302

Instructions for Obtaining a Waiver of a


Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering
Requirement

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards


SAES-A-007

Hydrostatic Testing Fluids


Page 2 of 39

Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


Issue Date: 23 June 2010
Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

SAES-A-206

Positive Materials Identification

SAES-A-112

Meteorological and Seismic Design Data

SAES-H-101

Approved Protective Coating Systems

SAES-H-101V

Approved Saudi Aramco Data Sheets - Paints and


Coatings

SAES-N-001

Basic Criteria, Industrial Insulation

SAES-P-111

Grounding

SAES-W-010

Welding Requirements for Pressure Vessels

SAES-W-014

Weld Overlays and Welding of Clad Materials

Saudi Aramco Materials System Specifications


01-SAMSS-016

Qualification of Pipeline and Pressure Vessel


Steels for Resistance to Hydrogen-Induced
Cracking

32-SAMSS-031

Manufacture of Clad Vessels and Heat


Exchangers

Saudi Aramco Standard Drawings


AA-036322

Anchor Bolt Details Inch and Metric Sizes

AE-036250

Ferrules for Inch Tubes (Sheets 1 & 2)

Saudi Aramco Inspection Requirements


Form 175-323100

Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Form 175-323500

Floating Heads or Tube Bundles

Saudi Aramco Forms and Data Sheets

2.1

Form 2714-ENG

Shell and Tube Exchanger Data Sheet (herein


referred to as data sheet)

Form NMR-7922-1

Non-material Requirements for Shell and Tube


and Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers

Industry Codes and Standards


American Concrete Institute
ACI 318

Building Code Requirements for Structural


Concrete

Page 3 of 39

Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


Issue Date: 23 June 2010
Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

American Petroleum Institute


API STD 660

Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers for General


Refinery Services

API RP 934

Materials and Fabrication Requirements for


2Cr-1 Mo & 3Mo Steel Heavy Wall Pressure
Vessels for High Temperature, High Pressure
Hydrogen Service

API PUBL 941

Steels for Hydrogen Service at Elevated


Temperatures and Pressures in Petroleum and
Petrochemical Plants

API RP 945

Avoiding Environmental Cracking in Amine Units

American Society of Civil Engineers


ASCE 7

Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other


Structures

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes)


ASME SA-20

Specification for General Requirements for Steel


Plates for Pressure Vessels

ASME SA-388

Ultrasonic Examination of Heavy Steel Forgings

ASME SA-435

Straight Beam Ultrasonic Examination of Steel


Plates

ASME SA-450

Specification for General Requirements for


Carbon, Ferritic Alloy, and Austenitic Alloy
Steel Tubes

ASME SA-688

Specification for Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel


Feedwater Heater Tubes

ASME SEC IIC

Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and


Filler Metals

ASME SEC V

Nondestructive Examination

ASME SEC VIII D1

Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels

ASME SEC VIII D2

Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels,


Alternative Rules

ASME B2.1

National Pipe Threads

ASME B16.5

Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings

ASME B16.11

Forged Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded

Page 4 of 39

Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


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Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

ASME B16.20

Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges - Ring-Joint,


Spiral-Wound, and Jacketed

ASME B16.21

Non-Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges

ASME B16.25

Buttwelding Ends

ASME B16.47

Large Diameter Steel Flanges NPS 26 through


NPS 60

American Society for Nondestructive Testing


ASNT CP-189

Standard for Qualification and Certification of


Nondestructive Testing Personnel

National Association of Corrosion Engineers


NACE RP0472

Methods and Control to Prevent In-Service


Environmental Cracking of Carbon Steel
Weldments in Corrosive Petroleum Refining
Environments

NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries-Materials


for use in H2S-Containing Environments in Oil
and Gas Production
Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA)
Process Industry Practices
PIP VEFV1100

Vessel/S&T Heat Exchanger Standard Details

Welding Research Council


WRC 107
3

Welding Research Council Bulletin

Terms and Definitions


AARH: Average arithmetic roughness height, which is a measure of surface texture.
Cyclic Service: Services that require fatigue analysis per AD-160 of ASME SEC VIII
D2. This applies to Division 1 and Division 2 of ASME SEC VIII.
Design Engineer: The Engineering Company responsible for specifying on the data
sheet the hydraulic, thermal and mechanical design requirements for exchanger.
High - Alloy Steels: Steels with a total alloying content more than 5%.
Hot Forming: Forming operations carried out at an elevated temperature such that recrystallization occurs simultaneously with deformation.
Page 5 of 39

Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


Issue Date: 23 June 2010
Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Hydrogen Service: Process streams containing relatively pure hydrogen and


component streams containing hydrogen with a partial pressure of 350 kpa abs (50 psia)
and higher.
Lethal Services: Process streams containing a concentration of hydrogen sulfide in
excess of 20% by volume shall be considered as lethal service. Other services as
determined by the process Licenser may also be designated as lethal services.
Low-Alloy Steels: Steels with nominal chromium content up to 5% and/or nominal
nickel content up to 3%.
Minimum Thickness: Thickness required for withstanding all primary loads,
excluding allowance for corrosion
MDMT: Minimum Design Metal Temperature, determined by the Design Engineer.
Nominal Thickness: Thickness required for withstanding all primary loads, including
allowance for corrosion.
Saudi Aramco Engineer: The Standards Committee Chairman.
Saudi Aramco Inspector: The person or company authorized by the Saudi Aramco
Inspection Department to inspect heat exchangers to the requirements of this
specification.
Thick Wall Exchanger: An exchanger or portion of it with nominal thickness greater
than 50-mm.
Utility Services: Water, air, nitrogen and steam services.
Exchanger Manufacturer: The company responsible for the manufacture of new heat
exchangers in accordance with this specification.
Sour Service: Process streams containing hydrogen sulfide for the following
conditions:
1)

Sour water with a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration above 2 mg/L (2 ppmw)
and a total pressure of 400 kPa absolute (65 psia) or greater.

2)

Hydrocarbon services meeting the definition of sour environments in NACE


MR0175/ISO 15156 as shown below:
a)

Dissolved H2S in free water (liquid) with a concentration of >50 mg/L


(50 ppmw) or,

b)

H2S in gas with a gas phase with 0.05 psia or greater partial pressure.

Page 6 of 39

Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


Issue Date: 23 June 2010
Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Commentary Note:
HIC resistant steel is not required in caustic services, lean amine systems and rich amine
DGA systems.

General
4.1

(Exception) Pressure design code shall be ASME Boiler and pressure


vessel code, Section VIII.

4.6

Should the Exchanger Manufacturer have any part of a stress analysis


executed by a third party, the Exchanger Manufacturer shall advise the
Saudi Aramco Engineer.

4.7

No proof testing shall be permitted unless specifically approved by the


Saudi Aramco Engineer.

4.8

Application of ASME Code Cases to the manufacture of exchangers


requires approval of the Saudi Aramco Engineer.

4.9

Exchangers having partial or complete cladding shall also conform to


32-SAMSS-031 in addition to the requirements of this specification.

4.10

The Exchanger Manufacturer is responsible for the thermal/hydraulic


design (rating) and verification of the Design Engineer's
thermal/hydraulic design, if applicable. The Exchanger Manufacturer is
also responsible for the manufacture of exchanger, which includes the
complete mechanical design, Code and structural calculations, flow
induced vibration, supply of all materials, fabrication, nondestructive
examination, inspection, testing, surface preparation, and preparation for
shipment, in accordance with the completed data sheet and the
requirements of this specification.

Proposals
5.1

Purchaser's Responsibilities

5.1.1

(Exception) The Design Engineer is responsible for specifying the


thermal/hydraulic design and basic mechanical design requirements as
noted on the Saudi Aramco data sheet.

5.1.2

The Design Engineer is responsible for specifying the requirements for


Cyclic Services stress analysis.

Page 7 of 39

Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


Issue Date: 23 June 2010
Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

5.2

Vendor's Responsibilities

5.2.8

The Exchanger Manufacturer may offer an alternative design, and may


also quote on the base inquiry documents.

5.3

Performance Guarantees
The following shall be guaranteed for the length of the warranty period
specified in the purchase order or contract documents:

1)

Exchangers shall meet thermal/hydraulic performance


requirements under continuous operation at design conditions
specified on the data sheets. Thermal/hydraulic guarantee shall be
in accordance with TEMA paragraph G-5.

2)

Exchangers shall be free from damaging flow induced tube


vibration and acoustic vibration.

Drawings and Other Required Data


6.1

Outline Drawings

6.1.2

Drawings and calculations that are approved by the Design Engineer


shall not relieve the Exchanger Manufacturer of the responsibility to
comply with the Codes and this specification.

6.1.3

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall prepare drawings, calculations and


data in accordance with Form NMR-7922-1, Nonmaterial Requirements.

6.2

Information Required after Drawings are reviewed

6.2.4(d)

Flow induced and acoustic vibration analyses.

6.3

Reports and Records


The Exchanger Manufacturer shall furnish reports and records in
accordance with Form NMR-7922-1, Nonmaterial Requirements.

Design
7.1

Design Temperature

7.1.3

(Exception) The value(s) of design temperature(s) shall be as specified


on the data sheet.

7.1.4

The value of the minimum design metal temperature (MDMT) shall be


as specified on the data sheet.
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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


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Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

7.1.5

The MDMT shall be used to determine the requirements for impact


testing in accordance with the code of this specification.

7.2

Cladding for Corrosion Allowance


Cladding of exchangers, where required, shall be in accordance with
32-SAMSS-031.

7.3

Shell Supports

7.3.2(f)

Horizontal exchangers shall be supported by two saddles. The


exchanger shall be fixed at one saddle support and free to slide at the
other saddle.

7.3.6

The shell at saddle supports shall be analyzed in accordance with the


"L.P. Zick" method. Saddle supports and the exchanger shell shall be
analyzed for operating and hydrotest loads including any piping, wind or
other external loads.

7.3.7

The allowable concrete bearing stress to be used for the design of base
plates shall be 10340 kPa (1400 psi).

7.3.8

The outline drawing for horizontal exchangers shall specify locations of


the fixed and sliding saddles and dimension from exchanger centerline to
underside of saddle base plate.

7.3.9

Anchor Bolts

7.3.9.1

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall determine the size and number of


anchor bolts required. Anchor bolts shall be in compliance with
Standard Drawing AA-036322 Sht. 001 (Rev. 07 or later).

7.3.9.2

Anchor bolts shall not be less than 20 mm minimum nominal diameter.

7.3.9.3

The design of anchor bolts shall be in accordance with the requirements


of Appendix D of ACI 318.

7.3.9.4

Anchor bolts that are exposed to the weather in coastal areas, subjected
to frequent wash downs, or subjected to firewater deluge testing shall
have their diameters increased by 3 mm as a corrosion allowance.

7.3.9.5

Saddles for horizontal exchangers shall be provided with an even number


of anchor bolts with a minimum of two anchor bolts per saddle.

7.5

Floating Head

7.5.2

(Exception) Floating head covers shall be attached to the backing device


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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


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Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

or to the floating tubesheet with through bolting.


7.6

Tube Bundle

7.6.1

Tubes

7.6.1.5

Wall thickness of integral low-fin tubes, if used, shall be measured from


the inside diameter of the tube to the root of the fins. The specified wall
thickness shall be nominal, except that the actual wall thickness shall not
be less than 90% of that specified.

7.6.1.6

For expanded joints, the tubes shall extend 3 mm beyond the face of
tubesheets, except tubes shall be flush on the upper tubesheet of vertical
exchangers.

7.6.1.7

For exchangers with tube-side design pressures 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) and
above, all tubes shall be hydrostatically tested at the mill at the tube-side
design pressure and the variation from the tube outside diameter shall not
exceed the values specified in Table 5 of ASME SA-450.

7.6.1.8

For steam condensing services, when steam is in the 'U' tubes and the
process is controlled by flow control of condensate, the design engineer
shall consider wither the 'U' bends shall be in the horizontal or vertical
plane.

7.6.1.9

In exchangers with tube side as the high-pressure side, design pressure of


the shell side should be at least two-thirds of the tube side design
pressure if the shell side is not protected with a relief system. Other
options require the approval of Saudi Aramco Engineer.
Commentary Note:
This is to prevent any unexpected catastrophic failure in case of tube leak
in exchangers.

7.6.2

Tubesheets

7.6.2.5

All stationary tubesheets with through bolting design shall have nonthreaded bolt holes.

7.6.2.6

Vertical exchangers with fixed tubesheets shall be provided with flanged


vents and drains through the tubesheets.

7.6.3

Transverse Baffles and Support Plates

7.6.3.1

(Exception) Minimum thickness of baffles and support plates shall be as


per TEMA requirements.
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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


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Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

7.6.3.3

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Support plates for floating heads shall be located as close to the


tubesheet as the design and type of exchanger will permit. Support plate
shall be cut at either top or bottom or in the center to minimize
ineffective heat transfer surface at the floating head end.
Commentary Note:
Typically, this distance is approximately 150 mm (6 inches).

7.6.3.4

'U' tube bundles shall have a support plate close to the tangent line of
tubes. The support plates shall be cut to allow some flow over 'U' bends,
provided that all tubes are supported.
Commentary Note:
Typically, support plates are 50 mm (2 inches) away from the tangent line.

7.6.4

Impingement Protection

7.6.4.7

Impingement rods, if used, shall be arranged in a pattern, which will


minimize bypassing of the shell side fluid and avoid the flow hitting the
tubes directly.
Commentary Note:
Typically, two rows of rods on a triangular layout are used as an
impingement protection.

7.6.4.8

The use of distribution belts shall be considered when shell-side nozzles


are large resulting in long inlet and/or outlet unsupported tube lengths.
Commentary Note:
A properly designed belt should result in more effective use of the heat
transfer area and a more rigid bundle with better tube support.

7.6.5

Bypass Sealing Devices

7.6.5.4

(Exception) The location of the sealing devices shall not interfere with
the continuous tube lanes for square and rotated square layouts.

7.7

Nozzles and Other Connections

7.7.2

(Exception) When butt welded connections are specified on the data


sheet the ends shall be in accordance with ASME B16.25.

7.7.3

(Exception) Threaded or socket-welded connections are prohibited in


hydrogen, lethal, wet sour and caustic services. However, for other
services, threaded or socket-welded connections with 6000-lb. rating
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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


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32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

conforming to ASME B16.11 may be used for NPS 1 and smaller


vents, drains and instrument connections.
7.7.4

(Exception) Flanged connections shall be one of the following types:


1)

Forged steel long welding neck.

2)

Forged steel welding neck flange with seamless pipe, or rolled


plate with 100% radiography. The bores of nozzle flanges shall
match the nozzle neck bore.

3)

Studded nozzles and proprietary designs may be offered as


alternatives provided their designs are in accordance with the Code
and with prior approval of the Saudi Aramco Engineer.

4)

Lap-type joints with loose end flange can be used for utility
services with pressure up to 1.4 MPa (200 psi) and a temperature of
120C (250F).

7.7.5

(Exception) slip-on type flanges can only be used for utility services up
to 400C (750F) design temperature and 2.1 MPa (300 psi) design
pressure, with seamless pipe nozzle necks or rolled plate with 100%
radiography.

7.7.6

(Exception) Flanges shall be in accordance with ASME B16.5 pressure


rating.

7.7.11

The quantities, sizes, ratings (ASME pressure classes) and facings of


exchanger nozzles shall be as specified on the data sheet.

7.7.12

For exchanger drain connections and other connections, where a process


stream is likely to be stagnant, the projection shall be limited to 2.5 times
the connection nominal diameter for vertical connections and to 3.5
times the connection nominal diameter for horizontal connections.

7.7.13

Flange bolt holes shall straddle the normal horizontal and vertical
centerlines of the exchanger.

7.7.14

Threaded connections shall conform to ASME B2.1.

7.7.15

When 100% radiography is required, per table 4 of this specification, on


nozzle connection to an exchanger, integrally reinforced contour forged
connections according to the following shall be used:
a)

For Division 1 exchangers: Figure UW-16.1: (f-1), (f-2), (f-3) or


(f-4).

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Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

b)

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

For Division 2 exchangers: Figure AD-613.1: (a), (b), (c), (c-1) (d)
or (e).

7.7.16

The calculated MAWP of an exchanger in the hot and corroded


condition shall not be limited by the nozzle reinforcement or the flange
rating.

7.7.17

All nozzles in thick wall exchangers shall be weld neck, long weld neck
or contour forged with inside corner radius of 13 mm minimum.

7.7.18

Integrally reinforced openings (with no reinforcing pads) shall be


provided under the following services and design conditions:
1)

Cyclic services

2)

Carbon steel with shell or channel thickness greater than 50 mm

3)

Low-chrome steels with shell or channel thickness 25 mm and


greater

4)

Openings which are 900 mm and larger with design temperature


400C and greater

5)

Exchangers with design metal temperatures greater than 425C

6)

Hydrogen service

7.7.19

All nozzles larger than NPS 4 necks shall be attached by welding


completely through the total thickness of the exchanger shell or channel,
including any reinforcement.

7.7.20

Permissible types of nozzle weld-attachments for exchangers with


shell/channel cylinder nominal thickness equal to or less than 50 mm are:

7.7.21

1)

For Division 1 exchangers: Figure UW-16.1 (c), backing rings are


to be removed, (d), (e), (f-1), (f-2), (f-3), (f-4) or (g).

2)

For Division 2 exchangers: Figure AD-610.1 (c), (d), (e), (e-1) and
(g) or weld attachments in paragraph 7.7.22 (2) of this
specification.

Permissible types of nozzle weld-attachments for thick wall exchangers


are:
1)

For Division 1 exchangers: Figure UW-16.1 (f-1), (f-2), (f-3) or


(f-4).

2)

For Division 2 exchangers: Figure AD-613.1: (a), (b), (c), (c-1),


(d) or (e), backing rings are to be removed.

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


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Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

7.7.22

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Permissible types of nozzle weld-attachments for exchangers with NPS 4


and smaller connections are:
1)

For Division 1 exchangers: Figure UW-16.1 (a), (a-1), backing


rings are to be removed, (b) or those in paragraphs 7.7.21(1) or
7.7.22(1)

2)

For Division 2 exchangers: Figure AD-610.1 (c), (d), (e), (e-1), (f)
or those in paragraphs 7.7.21(2) or 7.7.22(2).

7.7.23

Use of internal reinforcing elements is not permitted.

7.11

Handling Devices

7.11.5

Exchangers with a component weighing up to and including 27 kg


(60 lb.) shall be provided with at least one lifting lug per component.
Two lifting lugs shall be provided for heavier weights.

7.11.6

Shell lifting lugs shall be designed such that the lifted parts hang
vertically when suspended from the lugs. Lugs on insulated exchangers
shall be of sufficient standout to clear insulation.

7.11.7

Protective plugs shall be fully engaged.

7.11.8

Clad fixed tubesheets shall be drilled and tapped and provided with base
plugs of the same material as the cladding. Base plugs shall be seal
welded and ground flush with the tubesheet surface and re-drilled and
tapped for pulling eyes.

7.12

Hydrogen Service
(Exception) Where the tube and/or shell side will be exposed to hydrogen
at a partial pressure exceeding 350 kPa (50 psia), totally enclosed spaces
between welds shall be eliminated or vented with a 6 mm diameter hole.

7.13

Kettle Reboilers
Kettle type reboilers shall conform to the following:
1)

The distance between the top of weir and top of tubes shall be a
minimum of 75 mm.

2)

The distance from the weir to adjacent tangent line of the head
shall not be less than 900 mm.

3)

Weirs shall be provided with a 50 mm semi-circular drain hole.

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32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

7.14

Design Pressure

7.14.1

The value(s) of design pressure(s) shall be in accordance with the data


sheet.

7.14.2

For exchangers subjected to steam out, the Design Engineer shall specify
on the data sheet the external design pressure and corresponding
temperature.

7.15

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure

7.15.1

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall calculate the maximum allowable


working pressure (MAWP) acting on both sides of the exchanger, in the
hot and corroded condition in accordance with the applicable Code.

7.15.2

The MAWP of an exchanger shall not be limited by flange ratings.

7.16

Joint Efficiency

7.16.1

A joint efficiency of 85% or higher shall be used for the design of all
pressure containing components of ASME SEC VIII D1 exchangers.

7.17

Loads

7.17.1

Wind and Earthquake Loads

7.17.2

1)

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall calculate the static effects of


loads due to wind and the effects due to earthquake loads acting on
the exchanger in the operating position in accordance with ASCE 7.

2)

The design engineer shall determine the basic wind speed


corresponding to the Saudi Aramco in accordance to SAES-A-112.
The basic wind speed shall be specified on the data sheet.

3)

Wind pressures shall be assumed to act on the projected surface


area of the exchanger and shall include due allowances for any
platforms, ladders, piping, insulation, and equipment supported
from the exchanger.

Piping, Equipment and External Loads


1)

The design engineer shall provide piping and equipment loads


imposed on the exchanger.

2)

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall ensure that local stresses imposed


on the exchanger due to piping and equipment, lifting, supports and
other external loads do not exceed the allowable in accordance with
the applicable Code. The stress analysis shall be completed in
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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


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Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

accordance with the procedures as detailed in WRC 107 or a finite


element analysis.
7.18

Load Combinations

7.18.1

All components of an exchanger, including supports, shall be designed to


withstand the combined stresses resulting from the following:
1)

Internal and/or external design pressures.

2)

All other loads exerted on the component and specified in section


7.17.

3)

All exchanger components whether shop or field fabricated shall be


designed to withstand a full hydrostatic test in the erected position.
Combined stresses due to full hydrostatic test and wind or
earthquake loads shall not exceed 90% of the lowest Specified
Minimum Yield Strength (SMYS) of the materials of construction
at test temperature. However, forces produced, due to wind or
earthquake design conditions, may be reduced to 40% of its values.

The use of a pneumatic test may be considered when it will result in


significant cost savings in the exchanger and/or its supporting
structural/foundation. Such test requires prior approval of the Saudi
Aramco Inspector.
7.19

Shell and Channel Covers

7.19.1

ASME flanged and dished heads (torispherical) may be used for utility
services up to a design pressure of 690 kPa (100 psi).

7.19.2

One piece construction shall be used for heads of minimum thickness


greater than 50 mm and for heads in heat exchangers in cyclic, hydrogen
or lethal services. Other types of head construction shall require prior
approval of Saudi Aramco Engineer.

7.19.3

Where a forged shell-and-head junction according to ASME SEC VIII


D2, Figure AD-912-1(k) is used, one piece construction shall be used for
the remaining portion of heads mentioned in paragraph 7.19.2 of this
specification. Other types of head construction shall require prior
approval of Saudi Aramco Engineer.

7.19.4

Dished heads in thick wall exchangers shall be specified as


hemispherical unless 2:1 ellipsoidal heads are deemed economical.

7.19.5

Minimum inside radius of knuckles for conical transition sections or


torispherical heads shall be as follows:
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a)

Not be less than 15% of the outside diameter of the adjoining


cylindrical section with conical section of thickness more than
2 inches.

b)

Not be less than 10% of the outside diameter of the adjoining


cylindrical section with conical section of transition sections or
torispherical heads with thickness more than 0.75 inch or less than
2 inches.

c)

Not be less than 6% of the outside diameter of the adjoining


cylindrical section with conical section of transition sections or
torispherical heads with thickness 0.75 inch and less.

7.19.6

Reinforcing for conical transition sections in thick wall exchangers shall


be provided by increased plate thickness. The use of reinforcing rings is
prohibited.

7.20

Longitudinal Baffles (TEMA 'F' shells)

7.20.1

Baffles shall be designed for 1.5 times the shell-side allowable pressure
drop and with a maximum deflection in the corroded condition of 6 mm.

7.21

Clips and Attachments

7.21.1

For insulation support attachment, refer to exchanger data sheet for the
extent and thickness of external insulation.

7.21.2

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall supply and install all clips and
attachments as specified by the Design Engineer.

7.21.3

All internal and external attachments, including clips, welded directly to


pressure parts are to be attached by continuous welding except for blank
nuts used for external insulation where tack welding is allowed.

7.21.4

All exchangers shall be provided with a grounding lug connection


welded to the fixed exchanger support.

7.21.5

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall supply and install supports required


for fireproofing materials.

7.21.6

Vertical exchangers, which are externally insulated, shall be provided


with insulation supports in accordance with SAES-N-001.

7.22

Coatings and Painting

7.22.1

The types of coating and painting systems to be used shall be in


accordance with the data sheet and the Saudi Aramco Coating Systems
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Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

attached to the purchase order.


7.22.2

Gasket contact surfaces shall not be painted.

7.23

General

7.23.1

Single tube pass TEMA rear end floating head type exchangers shall be
designed with a removable shell cover to provide easy access to the
expansion joint in the tube side nozzle.

7.23.2

Where more than one exchanger of identical design, pressure rating and
materials is required for the same service, the tube bundles shall be interchangeable.

7.23.3

Kettle type reboilers shall be provided with guide rails and a hold down
angle located above the floating end, in order to keep the bundle in place
during shipment.

7.23.4

For tube bundles that can be rotated 180 degrees, additional


impingement plate, bundle runners etc. shall be provided.

7.23.5

Exchangers with sea water on the tube side shall be fitted with ferrules
(tube end protectors) at the inlet end of tubes at each tube pass. For tube
materials other than given in paragraph 8.4.4, the requirement for
ferrules shall be confirmed with the Saudi Aramco Engineer.
Commentary Note:
Saudi Aramco Standard Drawing AE-036250 gives ferrules details for
0.75 inch outside diameter tubes. For larger tube diameters, Exchanger
Manufacturer shall propose ferrule details for the consideration of the
Saudi Aramco Engineer.

Materials
8.1

General

8.1.1

(Exception) All materials required for pressure and non-pressure


components shall be specified on the data sheet in accordance with Table
1, Acceptable Materials for Carbon and Low Alloy Steels.

8.1.2

(Exception) The Exchanger Manufacturer may propose alternative


materials at the time of proposal, but the alternative materials must comply
with all the requirements of the applicable Code and this specification.

8.1.3

(Exception) Materials other than those listed in Table 1 of this


specification shall not be permitted without the prior approval of the
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Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Saudi Aramco Engineer.


8.1.5

Material test report is requested to be certified as per 175-323100.

8.1.6

Suitability of low chrome alloy steels for use for exchangers in hydrogen
services above 205C (400F) shall be qualified through chemical
analysis, mechanical testing including but not limited to tensile,
hardness, microhardness, temper embrittlement tests and nondestructive
examinations (ultrasonic, wet fluorescent magnetic particle, etc.).
Materials specifications and tests procedures for base and weldments
materials shall be submitted to Saudi Aramco Engineer for review and
approval prior to ordering the materials from the mill.

8.1.7

All materials, except carbon steels, shall be alloy verified by the


Exchanger Manufacturer in accordance with SAES-A-206.

8.1.8

The use of C- Mo steels in hydrogen services is prohibited.

8.1.9

Materials with properties enhanced by heat treatment cycles such as


tempering, intermediate stress relief (ISR) and the final post weld heat
treatment shall be tested to verify that their mechanical properties have
been retained after all heat treatment cycles. These tests shall also
include two additional postweld heat treatment cycles to account for
future repairs or alteration.

8.1.10

HIC Resistant Materials

8.1.10.1

For exchangers designated for wet sour HIC (hydrogen induced


cracking) services as defined in Section 3 of this specification with
normal operating temperatures between 0C and 150C, all plates for
shells and heads shall be made of HIC resistant steel. HIC resistant steel
shall be qualified in accordance with 01-SAMSS-016.

8.1.11

All the components (tubesheet, tube, shell, channel, baffle, nozzle, head,
cover and ring) shall be fabricated by Saudi Aramco approved exchanger
manufacturer.

8.2

Gaskets

8.2.3

(Exception) The materials of construction for spiral wound gaskets shall


be as follows:
1)

For exchangers with design temperatures from -100C to 0C:


Type 304 or 316 stainless steel (SS) windings with solid Type 304
or 316 stainless steel outer centering rings.

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2)

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

For exchangers with design temperatures from 1C to 425C:


Type 304 or 316 SS windings with solid carbon steel outer
centering rings.

3)

For exchangers with design temperatures above 425C:


Type 321 or 347 SS windings with solid; Type 304 or 316 outer
centering rings.

4)

For exchangers in vacuum service, inner ring shall be either


Type 304 or 316 SS.

8.4

Impact Testing

8.4.1

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall determine impact testing


requirements of materials based on the values of the minimum design
metal temperature (MDMT), unless lower test temperature is specified
on the data sheet.

8.4.2

Baffle plates, sealing strips, tie-rods, sliding bars, tubes, spacers, and
support plates are exempt from impact testing requirements.

8.4.3

Impact testing requirements for materials not listed in Table 1, shall be


obtained from the Saudi Aramco Engineer.

8.4.4

The minimum acceptable Charpy impact energy values for steels listed
in Table 3 shall be per Table-2 unless larger values are specified on the
data sheet. Materials that are not listed in Table 3 shall be referred to
Saudi Aramco Engineer for classification.

8.4.5

For Div. 1 exchangers the impact testing exemptions of UG-20 (f),


UCS-66 (b)(1) and (3), UCS-68(c), UG-84 (b)(2) and by reference to
Table UG-84.4 are not permitted. For Div. 2 exchangers the exemptions
of AM-213.1 and AM-218.2 are not permitted.

Fabrication
9.1

Shells

9.1.4

Each shell section shall be completely welded longitudinally and


corrected for out of roundness and peaking of the weld seam prior to
welding to the adjoining shell section or cover.

9.1.5

All re-rolling or forming of the shell sections is to be completed prior to


radiography.

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9.1.6

The beveled edges of carbon steel plates with thickness 25 mm and thicker
and all ferrous alloy plates shall be magnetic particle examined for linear
discontinuities. Defects shall not exceed limits as per ASME SA-20.

9.1.7

Plate edge laminations revealed by magnetic particle examination shall


be completely removed and repaired per SAES-W-010.

9.1.8

External welded attachment pads shall have their corners rounded to a


minimum radius of the length or width of the pad whichever is less
with a maximum of 50 mm and shall be fully seal welded.

9.1.9

External attachment pads shall be vented through a " NPT telltale hole.
Vent holes shall be plugged with grease, wooden plugs or other nonpressure retaining material to prevent moisture from entering.

9.1.10

Attachment pad for supports, lifting lugs and other attachments shall be a
minimum of 10 mm (3/8") thick or equal to the shell thickness,
whichever is less. Attachment loads must comply with paragraph 7.17.2
above and pads shall not cover pressure-retaining welds.

9.1.11

Tapped tell-tale holes "NPT shall be provided in reinforcing pads as


follows:

9.2

1)

One hole in single piece reinforcing pad.

2)

Where a pad is split, each segment shall have at least one tapped
hole.

Pass Partition Plates


Pass partition plate shall be provided with a 6 mm (") drain hole.

9.3

Connection Junctions
(Exception) All nozzles shall be ground flush to the inside curvature of
the exchanger inside diameters with smooth inside corner radius equal to
the nozzle wall thickness.

9.5

Welding
(Exception) All welding shall be in accordance with the requirements of
SAES-W-010.

9.5.3

(Exception) All welded joints of category A, B, C and D shall be


complete full penetration welds, except for joint welds of slip-on flanges.

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9.5.11

Welds attaching nozzles and their reinforcement pads and other


attachments to pressure components shall not be closer than 20 mm from
any pressure retaining welds. See also paragraph 10.2.1.4.

9.5.12

Where a split-reinforcing pad is required, the weld joining the pad


sections shall be oriented with the circumferential direction of the shell.
Welding the pad sections together shall be done without using a backing
strip.

9.6

Heat Treatment

9.6.2

(Exception)
1)

2)

The following tubes shall be stress relief heat treated after cold
forming and bending:
a)

U bends, including 150 mm of straight portions measured


from the tangent line of all carbon steel tubes for exchangers
in caustic, wet sour and amine services.

b)

Monel, brass and all chrome alloy tubes in all services.

The following tubes shall be solution annealed:


a)

Entire tubes manufactured of unstabilized or non low carbon


stainless steels or Nickel base alloys in accordance with
ASME SA-688.

b)

U bends, including 150 mm of straight portions measured


from the tangent lines of all stabilized or low carbon stainless
steels or Nickel base alloys.

9.6.3

Code exemptions for PWHT of P4 and P5 materials are not permitted for
applications involving either wet sour service or hydrogen or materials
exceeding 1.5% nominal chromium content.

9.6.8

PWHT shall be done when required by the applicable Code or when


required by SAES-W-010.

9.6.9

The maximum PWHT soaking temperature for quenched and tempered


carbon and low alloy steels, including C-0.5 Mo, shall not exceed the
temperature at which the test pieces were heat treated as shown on the
Mill Test Certificates or 650C maximum for carbon steel, 690C
maximum for C-0.5 Mo and 700C for low alloy steels.

9.6.10

Final PWHT shall follow all welding and repairs but shall be performed
prior to any hydrotest or other load test.
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9.6.11

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

A sign shall be painted on a postweld heat treated exchanger and located


such that it is clearly visible from grade:
"Caution Exchanger Has Been Postweld Heat Treated Do Not Weld".

9.6.12

PWHT shall be in accordance with the requirements of SAES-W-010.

9.8

Gasket Contact Surfaces other than Nozzle Flange Facings

9.8.6

Gasket seating surfaces shall comply with the following:


1)

For spiral wound gaskets, 125 to 250 AARH, in all services, except
hydrogen.

2)

For spiral wound gaskets in hydrogen service, 125 to 150 AARH.

3)

The side-walls of ring joint flanges in all services, 63 AARH.

4)

For non-metallic gaskets, 250 to 500 AARH.

The surface roughness of machined surfaces, other than gasket contact


faces, shall not exceed 500 AARH.
9.9

Tube-Hole Grooves

9.9.4

Tubesheet tube hole diameters and tolerances shall be special close fit
when tube bundle vibration is suspected or when exchanger is in cyclic
service.

9.9.5

Tube expanding procedures shall incorporate stops to prevent tube


expansion past tubesheet faces.

9.9.6

Tube expansion and tube-end welding (where specified) procedures shall


be submitted to the Saudi Aramco Inspector for review and approval
before start of fabrication.

9.9.7

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall submit a mock-up sample of the tube


to tubesheet weld when tubes are strength welded to the tubesheet. This
sample shall contain a minimum of four tubes and shall be prepared
using the same materials and fabrication procedures (including heat
treatment) as are to be used in actual production. Approval from the
Saudi Aramco Inspector is required prior to start of production. No need
to repeat the test if similar joint design was done in the past 6-months.

9.12

Forming and Heat Treatment

9.12.1

Heat-treatment, as a separate operation, shall be performed after a


forming operation (hot or cold) for any of the conditions listed below.
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The heat treatment shall be annealing, normalizing, normalizing and


tempering, or quench and tempering, as required.

9.12.2

10

Heads and other double-curvature components with nominal


thickness exceeding 50 mm.

Heads and other double-curvature components made of P-No. 3, 4, 5,


9A or 9B materials.

Any hot-formed component.

For any hot forming operation, the procedure shall be submitted to Saudi
Aramco Engineer for approval prior to commencement of any
fabrication requiring hot forming. The procedure shall describe all heat
treatment operations and tests to be performed. The tests shall include,
but not limited to, all of the mechanical tests required by the original
material specification.

Inspection and Testing


10.1

Quality Assurance

10.1.7

The responsibility for quality assurance rests with the Exchanger


Manufacturer in accordance with the applicable Code and the
requirements of this specification.

10.1.8

Exchangers manufactured in accordance with this specification are


subject to verification by the Saudi Aramco Inspector in accordance with
Saudi Aramco Inspection Requirements Form 175-323100.

10.1.9

All required Nondestructive Examination shall be included in inspection


procedures established according to ASME SEC V and this specification.
A written procedure shall address each inspection method and technique
used including acceptance criteria. When required by the purchase order
the procedure(s) shall be submitted to Saudi Aramco Inspection
Department for approval.

10.1.10

All Nondestructive Examination, including Magnetic Particle and Liquid


Penetrant examinations, shall be performed by personnel certified in
accordance with ASNT CP-189, or equivalent National Certification
Programs that has been approved by the Saudi Aramco Inspection
Department. Personnel responsible for interpretation of Nondestructive
Examination results shall be certified to a minimum of Level II.

10.1.11

Magnetic-particle, liquid-penetrant, ultrasonic and radiographic


examinations on exchangers to be postweld heat-treated shall be made
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after completion of final heat treatment.


10.1.12

All pressure and non-pressure welds shall be visually inspected where


accessible. All segments of longitudinal, circumferential or built-up head
pressure weld seams covered or rendered inaccessible by internals, lifting
lugs or other attachments shall be fully radiographed the entire affected
length plus 10 inches either side prior to installation of the attachment.

10.1.13

Additional examination of any weld joint at any stage of the fabrication


may be requested by the Saudi Aramco Inspector, including reexamination of previously examined joints. The Saudi Aramco Inspector
also has the right to request or conduct independent NDE of any joint. If
such examination should disclose gross non-conformance to the
requirements of the applicable Code or this specification, all repair and
NDE costs shall be done at the Exchanger Manufacturer's expense.

10.1.14

All necessary safety precautions shall be taken for each examination


method.

10.1.15

Surface irregularities, including weld reinforcement, inhibiting accurate


interpretation of the specified method of examination shall be ground
smooth.

10.1.16

Examination of all welds shall include a band of base metal at least one
inch wide on each side of the weld.

10.1.17

The Saudi Aramco Inspector shall have free access to the work at all
times.

101.1.18

Saudi Aramco shall have the right to inspect the fabrication at any stage
and to reject material or workmanship which does not conform to the
specified requirements.

10.1.19

Saudi Aramco reserves the right to inspect, photograph, and/or videotape


all material, fabrication, coating, and workmanship and any materials,
equipment, or tools used or to be used for any part of the work to be
performed.

10.1.20

Saudi Aramco may reject the use of any materials, equipment, or tools
that do not conform to the specification requirements, jeopardize safety
of personnel, or impose hazard of damage to Saudi Aramco property.

10.1.21

All of the rights of Saudi Aramco and their designated representatives


for access, documentation, inspection, and rejection shall include any
work done by sub-contractors or sub-vendors.

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10.1.22

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall provide the Saudi Aramco Inspector


all reasonable facilities to satisfy him that the work is being performed as
specified.

10.1.23

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall furnish, install, and maintain in a safe


operating condition all necessary scaffolding, ladders, walkways, and
lighting for a safe and thorough inspection.

10.1.24

Prior to final inspection and pressure testing, the inside and outside of
the exchanger shall be thoroughly cleaned of all slag, scale, dirt, grit,
weld spatter, paint, oil, etc.

10.1.25

Inspection at the mill, shop, or fabrication yard shall not release the
Exchanger Manufacturer from responsibility for repairing or replacing
any defective material or workmanship that may be subsequently
discovered in the field.

10.2

Quality Control

10.2.1

Radiographic testing shall be performed as follows:

10.2.1.1

All radiography shall be performed with intensifying screens. Only lead


or lead foil (fluoro-metallic) screens shall be permitted unless otherwise
approved by the Saudi Aramco Inspection Department.

10.2.1.2

Tungsten inclusions in Gas Tungsten Arc welds shall be evaluated as


individual rounded indications. Clustered or aligned tungsten inclusions
shall be removed and repaired.

10.2.1.3

Radiography requirements for heat exchangers are outlined in table 4 of


this specification.

10.2.1.4

Where it is not practicable to meet the spacing requirement in paragraph


9.5.11 of this specification such that a nozzle or an attachment weld of a
reinforcing pad or a structural component will either intersect or
encroach on a butt weld, the following shall be performed.

10.2.1.4.1

If the nozzle is installed onto or encroaching on a butt weld in the


exchanger wall:
1)

Radiography of the butt weld in the exchanger wall for a length


equal to three times the diameter of the opening with the center of
the opening at mid-length.

2)

Where a reinforcing pad is required, the butt weld shall be ground


flush and radiographed, prior to the installation of the reinforcing
pad.
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10.2.1.4.2

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Where an attachment weld of a reinforcing pad or a structural component


will either intersect or encroach on a butt-weld in the exchanger wall:
1)

The butt weld shall be radiographed for a length of the projection


of the intersecting or encroaching segment of the attachment weld
plus a minimum of 50 mm on either side.

2)

Perform magnetic particle examination on the exchanger side of the


joint attaching the reinforcing pad or structural component.

10.2.12

Weld hardness testing shall be in accordance with the requirements of


SAES-W-010.

10.2.13

Ultrasonic Examination

10.2.13.1

For thick wall exchangers

10.2.13.1.1

Ultrasonic Examination of Plates and Welds

10.2.13.1.2

a)

All plates, including plate-like forgings, such as shell rings shall be


ultrasonically examined in accordance with ASME SA-435.

b)

All category A and B welds are to be 100% ultrasonically


examined in accordance with the applicable Code in all services.

c)

All category C and D welds shall be ultrasonically examined in


cyclic, hydrogen or lethal services in accordance with the
applicable Code.

d)

If ultrasonic examination is not practical, the whole joint shall


either be magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examined after each
6 mm of weld deposit.

f)

All pressure retaining welds and exchanger support attachment full


penetration welds shall be 100% ultrasonically examined after final
heat treatment.

Ultrasonic Examination of Forgings


All forgings, except plate-like forgings and standard flanges in accordance
with ASME and API material specification shall be ultrasonically
examined in accordance with ASME SA-388. Acceptance criteria shall be
in accordance with ASME SEC VIII D2, paragraph AM-203.2(c).

10.2.14

Magnetic Particle Examination

10.2.14.1

Permanent magnetic yokes are not permitted.

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Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

10.2.14.2

Prods are not permitted for use on: air-hardenable materials, materials
which require impact testing, and on the fluid side of pressured
components for exchangers in wet sour service.

10.2.14.3

Magnetic particle examination or liquid penetrant examination shall be


performed on the surfaces of hot formed and reheat treated as per the
applicable Code.

10.2.14.4

Except for non-ferromagnetic materials, wet fluorescent magnetic


particle examination using an AC yoke is required for the following:
1)

All internal welds and areas where temporary welds have been
removed, for exchangers in wet sour, caustic, amine, and hydrogen
services.

2)

All internal and external welds and areas where temporary welds
have been removed when the nominal thickness of pressured
components is 25 mm and thicker.

3)

Exchanger support attachment welds.

10.2.14.5

Final acceptance of the exchanger shall be based on completion of all


required NDE after the final postweld heat treatment.

10.2.14.6

For thick wall exchangers:

10.2.14.6.1

All edges prepared for welding and all openings shall be magnetic
particle examined in accordance with the applicable Code.

10.2.14.6.2

Forgings shall be examined on all surfaces, utilizing wet fluorescent


magnetic particle method after final machining. All defects shall be
removed and repaired by welding in accordance with SAES-W-010.
Except for welding edges, liquid penetrant examination is acceptable as
an alternative to magnetic particle examination.

10.2.14.6.3

All ferro-magnetic welds are to be wet fluorescent magnetic particle


examined after final heat treatment.

10.3

Pressure Testing

10.3.1

For Division 1 exchangers: Test pressure shall be 1.3 times its


calculated MAWP in the hot and corroded condition multiplied by the
lowest ratio (for the materials of which the tube side is constructed) of
the allowable stress for the test temperature to the allowable stress for the
design temperature.

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Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

For Division 2 exchangers: Test pressure be 1.25 times its calculated


MAWP in the hot and corroded condition multiplied by the lowest ratio
(for the materials of which the tube side is constructed) of the stress
intensity for the test temperature to the stress intensity for the design
temperature.
10.3.2

(Exception) An independent hydrostatic test of shell-side and tube-side


shall be performed. The temperature of the water during hydrostatic
testing shall be maintained at not less than 17C throughout the testing
cycle.

10.3.3

(Exception) Hydrostatic test pressure shall be held for a minimum of one


hour per 25 mm of exchanger shell/channel thickness and in no case less
than one hour.

10.3.4

Water used for pressure testing shall be potable.

10.3.11

After completion of all external and internal welding and heat treatment
and prior to painting, exchangers shall be pressure tested using water as
the testing media in accordance with the applicable Code and this
specification. Pneumatic testing in lieu of hydrostatic testing requires
the approval from Saudi Aramco Inspection Department.

10.3.12

No preliminary pressure testing shall be made prior to postweld heat


treatment.

10.3.13

The use of shellacs, glues, lead, etc., on gaskets during testing is


prohibited. No paint or primer shall be applied to an exchanger prior to
hydrostatic testing.

10.3.14

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall furnish all test materials and


facilities, including blinds, bolting, and gaskets.

10.3.15

Hydrostatic pressure testing shall be performed with gaskets and bolting


identical to those required in service and as specified on the data sheet.
These gaskets may be used as service gaskets if the bolted joint is not
disassembled after completion of hydrostatic pressure testing.

10.3.16

The manufacturer shall supply the following:


1)

Minimum two sets of spare gaskets with a blind flange for all
nozzles.

2)

Minimum one set of service gaskets and two sets of spare gaskets
for each nozzle with companion flanges in the exchanger.

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3)

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

All bolting with minimum 10% spare bolting (3 minimum for each
size) per exchanger.

10.3.17

After testing, the exchanger shall be completely drained and thoroughly


dried including around the internals.

10.3.18

For other than differential-pressure design exchangers, test pressure for


the shell side and the tube side shall be as per the applicable code

10.3.19

For differential-pressure design exchangers, test pressure shall be as per


the applicable code.

10.3.20

Vertical exchangers that are tested in the horizontal position shall be


adequately supported such that the primary stresses in any part of the
exchanger do not exceed 90% of the minimum specified yield strength of
the exchanger material.

10.3.21

Horizontal exchangers are to be tested while resting on their permanent


support saddles, without additional supports or cribbing. Primary
stresses in any part of the exchanger for this case shall not exceed 90%
of the minimum specified yield strength of the exchanger material.

10.3.22

All welded attachments provided with tell-tale holes shall be


pneumatically tested at minimum 35 kPa (5 psi) prior to heat treatment
and exchanger pressure testing. Tell-tale holes must not be plugged
during the exchanger pressure test.

10.4

Nameplates and Stampings

10.4.1

(Exception) Each exchanger shall be identified by a nameplate and


marked with the information required by the applicable Code and the
requirements of this specification. The nameplate and its mounting
bracket shall be located such that the nameplate is easily readable from
grade or platform. The brackets shall extend from the outside of the
exchanger to clear insulation, and with sufficient access for surface
preparation and painting. The nameplate markings as required by
UG-116 of the Code shall be stamped or engraved such that the
nameplate material is permanently deformed with the symbols.

10.4.4

Nameplates shall be 3 mm minimum thickness and manufactured from


type 304 stainless steel or Monel and welded to the mounting bracket
according to PIP VEFV1100.

10.4.5

Exchangers shall be Code stamped for all services, in accordance with


the applicable Code.

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Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

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32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

10.4.6

The mounting bracket material shall conform to Table 1 and it shall be


continuously seal welded and positioned such as not to allow for
collection of moisture or rain.

10.5

Repairs during Fabrication

10.5.1

The Saudi Aramco Engineer must review and approve crack repair
procedures, required by the applicable Code, prior to commencement of
the repair work. It is the responsibility of the manufacturer to ensure that
repairs done by the mill of any material defects, per the applicable Code,
are documented.

10.5.2

After completion of repairs required by the applicable Code, the


following shall be repeated:
a)

Heat treat the repaired section if it has been heat-treated prior to the
repairs.

b)

All nondestructive examinations performed on the repaired section


prior to the repairs.

Preparation for Shipment


11.1

Protection

11.1.1

The Manufacture shall protect the equipment from mechanical and


corrosion damage in order to assure that the equipment will be serviceable
after shipping, storage, and construction. The duration of these activities
is assumed to be 24 months. If longer period is specified, the required
protection measures shall be determined on a case-by-case basis.

11.1.2

Prior to shipping, exchangers are to be completely dried.

11.1.3

After drying, the equipment is to be cleaned from all loose scales, weld
slags, dirt and debris to the satisfaction of the Saudi Aramco Inspector.

11.1.4

Temporary covers, 3 mm thick steel or wood cover with neoprene


gasket, for flanges shall be bolted in place with a minimum of 4 bolts
equally spaced and sufficient to contain the protective media inside the
exchanger. Bolts shall be protected from external corrosion by a rust
preventive grease or equivalent substance liberally applied over the bolt
surface. Flanges with permanent blind flanges shall be secured with the
gaskets and bolting specified for service.

11.1.5

Threaded nozzle connections shall be protected with threaded plugs and


by the use of an appropriate lubricant with rust preventive compound
Page 31 of 39

Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


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Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

such as Cortec VpCI-369 or equivalent.


11.1.6

Tell-tale holes in reinforcing pads shall be protected with wooden plugs


or packed with rust preventative grease such as Denso paste.

11.1.7

Flanged connections and all other machined surfaces not described


elsewhere in this section shall be protected by use of an appropriate
lubricant with rust preventive compound such as Cortec VpCI-369 or
equivalent.

11.1.8

Export packing, marking, and shipping shall be in accordance with the


purchase order.

11.1.9

The exchanger manufacturer is responsible for ensuring that the


exchangers being shipped are adequately braced and shall provide
temporary supports where appropriate to ensure adequate support of the
exchanger during shipment.

11.1.10

Internal & External Protection

11.1.10.1

For carbon steel and stainless steel fully assembled heat exchangers,
spray interior surfaces (both shell and tube side) with a vapor phase
inhibitor such as Cortec VpCI-307 or 309 or equivalent. Apply the
Cortec product at a rate of 0.3 kg/m. Other manufacturer's products
should be applied at treatment rates recommended by the manufacturer if
greater than the specified treatment rates of 0.3 kg/m. If possible, vapor
phase inhibitor powder shall be sprayed directly into the tubes so that it
can be easily detected exiting from the opposite end of the tube. For
copper alloy construction, VpCI-307 or equivalent shall be specified.
Exchangers must be sealed vapor tight using metallic covers for the
inhibitor to be effective.

11.1.10.2

The shell and external surfaces shall be protected by preparing the


surface and fully coating the external surfaces using the specified Saudi
Aramco coating specification prior to shipment.

11.1.10.3

Solid stainless steel exchangers which are to be shipped by ocean freight


or are to be stored in a coastal or near coastal location but are not
specified to be coated in service shall be protected by the application of a
temporary soft external coating such as Cortec VpCI 368 or Daubert
Chemical's Tectyl 506 or equivalent. Coating shall be removed prior to
service using a non-caustic steam wash. Alternatively, solid stainless
steel exchangers shall be 100% wrapped and sealed in a 4-mil thick
anticorrosion polyethylene film containing vapor phase corrosion
inhibitor such as Cortec VpCI 126 Blue or equivalent. Equipment that is
Page 32 of 39

Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


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Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

an emergency spare for long term storage shall be wrapped in Cortec's


10-mil thick MillCorr film or equivalent. Stainless steel exchangers
shipped by ocean freight must be protected from sea spray, rain, etcetera.
11.1.10.4

Tube bundles shipped separately from shells must be adequately


protected and supported to prevent mechanical and corrosion damage.
Tube internals shall be protected using Cortec VpCI-307 or VpCI-309 or
equivalent as detailed in Paragraph 11.1.7.1, above. External surfaces
shall be protected by spraying with Cortec VpCI 368 or Tectyl 506 or
equivalent. These coatings must be removed prior to operation in cases
where they might cause a contamination problem. Alternatively, the
complete tube bundle shall be 100% wrapped and sealed in a 4-mil thick
anticorrosion polyethylene film containing vapor phase corrosion
inhibitor such as Cortec VpCI 126 Blue or equivalent. Equipment that is
an emergency spare for long term storage shall be wrapped in Cortec's
10-mil thick MillCorr film or equivalent.

11.1.11

Use of Nitrogen blanketing with temporary rust preventive substance


such as Tectyl 846 or a vapor proof bag with moisture control is an
acceptable protection measure for carbon and low chrome alloy steels
without Austenitic Stainless Steels internally cladded or Austenitic
Stainless Steels weld over-layed exchangers.

11.1.12

Nitrogen blanketing at a pressure of 35 kPa (5 psi) shall be provided for


Austenitic Stainless Steels or internally cladded or Austenitic Stainless
Steels weld over-layed exchangers in the following conditions:
1)

During transportation (Ocean and Land).

2)

At fabrication shop/site after completion of its fabrication.

3)

At construction site from its arrival until its commissioning.

11.1.13

Nitrogen blanketing at a pressure of 35 kPa (5 psi) shall be provided for


components that can not be protected properly by the use of vapor phase
inhibitor due to inaccessible difficulties such as shell's internal surface
for fixed tubesheet heat exchangers.

11.1.14

Temporary internal coatings for use on exchangers with corrosion


resistant linings (such as stainless steel and Monel clad) must be chloride
free, suitable for its intended use and not result in crevice corrosion.

11.1.15

For exchangers which have permanent internal coatings, the Exchanger


Manufacturer shall contact the Saudi Aramco Engineer for any corrosion
protection required.

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Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

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32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

11.1.16

Martensitic stainless steels such as Type 410 and Type 420 are
particularly prone to atmospheric corrosion especially when shipped by
sea. The Manufacturer shall prepare a preservation and shipping plan for
approval by CSD.

11.1.17

For dry gas and liquefied gas systems, excess powder vapor phase
inhibitors shall be removed from major equipment at a convenient point
in construction operations before start-up if there could be a risk of
compressor fouling, filter plugging, or similar problems.

11.1.18

Bolt heads shall also be protected with a rust preventative compound to


prevent corrosion during shipment, storage and construction.

11.1.19

Spare bolts shall be protected with a rust preventative compound to


prevent corrosion during shipment, storage and construction.

11.2

Identification

11.2.4

Marking shall be done with water-insoluble materials that contain no


harmful substances that would attack or harmfully affect the exchanger
at ambient and operating temperatures.

11.2.5

Marking materials shall be free of lead, sulfur, zinc, cadmium, mercury,


chlorine, or other halogens.

Supplemental Requirements
12.1

General
(Exception) Exchangers with cylindrical pressure components greater
than 50 mm thick shall be manufactured in accordance with Section 9
and the requirements for thick wall exchangers as detailed in this
specification.

13

Drawings, Calculations and Data


13.1

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall prepare drawings, calculations, and


data in accordance with NMR-7922-1, Nonmaterial Requirements.

13.2

Drawings and calculations that are approved by the Design Engineer


shall not relieve the Exchanger Manufacturer from the responsibility to
comply with the Codes, and this specification.

13.3

Exchanger manufacturer shall prepare drawings which indicate the


ultrasonic readings thickness of the exchanger shell, heads and nozzles.

Page 34 of 39

Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


Issue Date: 23 June 2010
Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

An adequate number of readings shall be taken to represent the actual


thickness of the components.
13.4

20 November 2007
5 April 2008
15 August 2009
23 June 2010

All approved data sheets, drawings and forms are to be typed and
submitted to Engineering Drawings Services (EDSD) for inclusion into
Corporate Drawings Management System.

Revision Summary
Major revision.
Editorial revision.
Editorial revision to replace cancelled SAES-A-301 with NACE MR0175/ISO 15156.
Editorial revision to add paragraph 8.1.11.

Page 35 of 39

Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


Issue Date: 23 June 2010
Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Table 1 Acceptable Materials for Carbon and Low - Alloy Steels


[Note: The numbers in ( ) refer to the specific notes at the end of the table]
Design Temperature
Exchanger
Component
Shells, channels,
dished heads,
tubesheets, rolled
nozzle necks,
covers, and
reinforcing pads

-100C to -47C

-46C to 0C

1C to 425C

351C to 645C

SA-203
Grade D or E

SA-516
Grade 70N, or
SA-537 Class 1

SA-516
Grade 70, or
SA-537 Class 1 or
(1)
SA-285 Grade C
(6)
SA-387 Grade 5

SA-333 Grade 3

SA-333 Grade 6

SA-106 Grade B
(1)
SA-53 Grade B
(6)
SA-335 Grade P5

SA-249 Type
304

SA-334 or
SA-249 Type 304

SA-179 or SA-214
(6)
SA-213 Grade T5

Forged flanges

SA-350 LF3

SA-350 LF2

SA-105
(6)
SA-182 Grade F5

Wought fittings

SA-420 WPL3

SA-420 WPL6

SA-234 WPB
SA-234 Grade
(6)
WP5

SA-234, Grades
WP11, 12 or 22

Studs/nuts for
pressure
connections

SA-320 L43/
SA-194
Grades 4 or 7

SA-320 L7/SA-194
Grade 2H

SA-193 B7/SA-194
Grade 2H

SA-193
B5, or B16/
SA-194 Grade 3

Internal
attachment
(4)
clips

SA-203
Grades D or E

SA-516
Grade 70N, or
SA-537 Class 1

External
attachment
(4)
clips

SA-203
Grades D or E

SA-516
Grade 70N, or
SA-537 Class 1

Saddle
Supports and
Lugs

SA-203
Grades D or E

SA-516
Grade 70N, or
SA-537 Class 1
or SA-285 Grade
C

SA-516 Grade 70,


or SA-285 Grade C,
(1)
or SA-36

SA-387
Grades 11, 12 or 22

Anchor bolts

SA-307 Grade B

SA-307 Grade B

SA-307 Grade B

SA-307 Grade B

Pipe, nozzle
necks
Tubes

(2)

(3)

SA-516 Grade 70,


or SA-537 Class 1,
or SA-285
(1)
Grade C
SA-516 Grade 70,
or SA-537 Class 1,
or SA-285 Grade C,
(1)
or SA-36

SA-387
Grades 11, 12 or 22

SA-335
Grades P11, 12 or
22
SA-179 or
SA-214 or
SA-213 Type 304
SA-182,
Grades F11, 12 or
22

SA-387
Grades 11, 12 or 22

SA-387
Grades 11, 12 or 22

Page 36 of 39

Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


Issue Date: 23 June 2010
Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Table 1 Acceptable Materials for Carbon and Low - Alloy Steels (cont'd)
General Notes:
A)

Materials for hydrogen service shall be selected in accordance with API PUBL 941 using a value for the
hydrogen partial pressure 10% above the design partial pressure and a temperature of 30C above the design
temperature.

B)

Materials for exchangers in amine service shall be selected in accordance with Table 1 and API RP 945.

C)

Materials for exchangers in wet sour service, with design temperature up to 100C (212F), shall be in
accordance with Table 1, with the following revisions:

D)

1)

Forged flanges and forged fittings are restricted to: SA-350 LF1 or LF2 or SA-266, Class 4 S2, S9.
Flanges above 24-inch diameter shall be SA-266, Grade 4, S2, S9.

2)

Studs and nuts are restricted to: SA-193 B7M or L7M and SA-194 Grade 2HM.

3)

It shall satisfy the requirements of NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 and NACE RP0472.

4)

For exchangers under the service conditions specified in paragraph 8.1.9.1, shells and heads formed
from plate shall be manufactured from HIC resistant steel.

Materials for pressure components in sea water service shall be in accordance with Table 1 with the following
revisions:
1)

Carbon steel pressure components in contact with seawater shall be clad or weld overlayed with Monel
in accordance with 32-SAMSS-031.

2)

Tube material shall be either Cu/Ni SB-111 (Alloy Number C71500) or Titanium SB-338 Grade 2.

E)

Low alloy steels shall not be mixed, i.e. an exchanger requiring 1 Cr- Mo materials shall have all
components manufactured from 1 Cr- Mo.

F)

Low alloy steels shall be specified in the normalized and tempered heat treated condition.

G)

The material for nameplate mounting brackets shall be of the same type and material grade as the shell
material.

H)

Impact testing of materials and welding procedures are required when MDMT is lower than -28C.

I)

Impact testing of materials is only required when MDMT is -27 to -18C. Impact testing of welding procedures
is not required for this temperature range, (unless otherwise required by the applicable Codes), if the
consumable classifications per ASME SEC IIC has impact property requirements at -46C or lower.

Specific Notes:
1)

SA-36, SA-53, SA-283, and SA-285 materials shall only be used for utility services.

2)

Tubes in hydrogen, wet sour, amine and caustic services shall be seamless.

3)

Saddle support wear plates shall be of the same ASME material as the shell material.

4)

All internal and external clips and attachments on exchangers shall be of the same ASME material as the
attached pressure component.

5)

Baffles, tube supports, tie rods, spacers and impingement protection shall be of the same basic material as
the tubes except for high alloy steel tubes when these components may be of carbon steel provided shell side
fluid does not require more corrosion resistant material. For titanium tubes, the materials for these
components shall be subject to approval from Saudi Aramco Engineer.

6)

For hydrocarbon services containing hydrogen sulfide or organic sulfides at temperatures exceeding 550F.

Page 37 of 39

Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


Issue Date: 23 June 2010
Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Table 2 Charpy-V Impact Test Requirements


Minimum Required Impact Value for Full Size Specimen at MDMT, Joules
Reference Thickness, t, inch
Material Class

t<

<t<1

1<t<2

t>2

1a
1b
2a
2b
2c
3

34/27
34/27
34/27
34/27
34/27
34/27

34/27
34/27
34/27
34/27
34/27
34/27

34/27
34/27
34/27
34/27
47/38
34/27

34/27
34/27
34/27
47/38
61/48
34/27

Notes:
1)
2)

In the notation such as 34/27, the first number is the minimum average energy of three
specimens and the second number is the minimum for one specimen impact test results.
See Table 3 for material specification.

Table 3 Material Classes


Class
1a
2b
2a
2b
2c
3
2b
2b
2c
1a
3
2a
2b
2b
2c
2b
3
2b
2c
2a
2b
2c
2b
2c
2c
2c

SA 53
SA 105
SA106
SA 182
SA 182
SA 203
SA 204
SA 266
SA 266
SA 333
SA 333
SA 333
SA 335
SA 336
SA 336
SA 350
SA 350
SA 387
SA 387
SA 442
SA 516
SA 533
SA 537
SA 420
SA 234
SA 234

Material Specification
Gr. B
Gr. B
Gr. F11 and F12
Gr. F22
Gr. D and E
Gr. A, B and C
Cl. 1
Cl. 2 and 4
Gr. 1
Gr. 3
Gr. 6
Gr. P11, P12 and P22
Gr. F12
Gr. F11 and F22
Gr. LF2
Gr. LF3
Cl. 1, Gr. 11, 12 and 22; Cl. 2, Gr. 12
Cl. 2, Gr. 11 and 22
Gr. 55 and 60
Gr. 70
Cl. 1
Cl. 1
Gr. WPP3 and WPL6
Gr. WPB
Gr. WP11, WP12 and WP22
Page 38 of 39

Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment


Issue Date: 23 June 2010
Next Planned Update: 19 November 2012

32-SAMSS-007
Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Table 4 Radiography Requirements for Heat Exchangers


Weld Joint Category

Radiography (RT)

Notes

A and B

Per Code Design Criteria


(Spot or 100%)

(1) and (4)

100%

(1), (3) and (4)

100%

(1), (2), (3), (4) and (5)

Notes:
1.

100% RT is required in heat exchangers under any of the following services or design conditions:

Lethal services.

Hydrogen services.

Cyclic services.

Unfired steam boilers with design pressure exceeding 50 psi.

Heat exchanger weld joints requiring full radiography per the applicable Code
(see UW-11 for Division 1 exchangers and AF-220 for Division 2 exchangers).

Thick wall heat exchangers.

Butt welds in nozzles attached to weld neck flanges.

Butt welds in integrally reinforced contoured fittings.

2.

UT for Category-D weld joint in attachments with a reinforcing plate must be performed prior to
installing reinforcing plate.

3.

UT from accessible side must be conducted after any heat treatment, if applicable.

4.

UT methods which generate permanent records may be used as a substitute to radiography in


heat exchangers that require 100% RT per the applicable Code and this specification. Such UT
methods must be approved by Inspection Department prior to commencement of any work.

5.

UT methods which generate permanent records may be used as a substitute to RT where a weld
joint can not be readily radiographed, because of the joint geometry, e.g., Category D weld joint
using integrally reinforced nozzle without a contour that would facilitate radiography or a nozzle
with a reinforcing pad. Such UT methods must be approved by Inspection Department prior to
commencement of any work.

6.

UT may be substituted for RT for NPS 4 and smaller connections to nozzles and manways.

7.

To facilitate 100% radiography of category-D weld joint, it shall be according to:


a)

For Division 1 exchangers: Figures UW-16.1: (f-1), (f-2) (f-3) or (f-4).

b)

For Division 2 exchangers: Figures AD-613.1: (a), (b) (c), (c-1) (d) or (e).

Page 39 of 39