You are on page 1of 290

"

PEACTIOAL

TEXT-BOOK

ON

PLANE

A'ND

SPHERICAL

TRIGONOMETRY.

WEBSTER
FBOnCBSOB

^'"3

OV

"^ELLS, S. B.,

MATHKMATIOB

HT

Tmi

MABaAOHUBBTTS

IMBTITUTM

TKimroiioeT.

LEACH,

SHEWELL,

BOSTON,

NKW

YORK,

"

SANBORN.

CHICAGO.

OV

(^MAR27

1918

'

"

'
.

Bt

OOPTBIGilT

1888,

WEBSTBB

WELLa

PREFAOE.

work

This
Plane
of

Spherical

and

High

and

been

devoted

theoretical

the

chapters

drill

thorough

triangle;

relations

fundamental
the
in
the

principles
a

plane

are

functions,

positive
proved

or

to

Before

exposition

of

the

hold

the

in

foimd
amples,
ex-

student

by

with

them,

deduced.

to
to

the

give

of

aid

of

other
and
In

right

exercises
usual
III.

Chapter
of

point

definitions

general
of

the

the

co-ordinates

angles

acute

any

fundamental

of

magnitude,
relations

are

universally.

taking
of

given

rectangular

and

be

and

functions

and

applicable

negative,

will

exercises

numerical

are

employed

and

neglected,

giving

the

to

familiarity

give

the

practical applicar

of
of

of.

computation.

being
of

needs

considerable

Triangles

view

devoted

number

to

serve

is

definitions

the

angles,

the

numerical

in

II.

Chapter

of

assortment

with

arranged

the

on

the

development

been

not

to

While

subject,

Solution

selected

carefully

the

on

the

text-book

adapted

the

to

have

formulae

the

practical

Colleges.

of

portions

of

tions

as

Trigonometry,

Schools

has

space

intended

is

the

up

the

theory

solution

and

of

triangles,

applications

of

full

Logarithms

PREFACE.

iv

is

of

the

given, including
the

of

logarithms

and

calculation

of the

and

numbers

of

use

the

tables

Trigonometrical

functions.
The
and

chapters

the

Moivre's

De

on

student

to

of

some

will

the

Equations,
introduce

to

serve

higher

of

applications
found

usually

not

are

Cubic

of

Theorem,

which

Trigonometry,

Solution

the

on

in

elemen-

text-books.

taiy

Part

II.

devoted

is

formulae

usual

for

solutions
found

of

results

all

few

Right
and

proved,

are

to

of

and

end

of
the

book

the

of

angles
Tri-

the

will

be

of

the

application

problems

simpler

for

given

are

showing

the

Spherical

Oblique

the

the

Trigonometry;

methods

At

cases.

examples

some

Spherical

to

and

Geodesy

Navigation.
The
the

has

author

of

preparation

special
and

made
this

indebtedness

Chauvenet.
for

experience,

which

those

would
of

number

add

number

of
also

treatises

Snowball,
his

acknowledge

to

from

the

teachers
value

work.
WEBSTER

Boston,

1883.

in
his

mention

Todhunter,

suggestions

materially

of

would

and

volume,

to

He
a

of

use

WELLS.

of

gations
obli-

of
the

OOI^TTEI^TS.

PART

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

I.

Paob

I.

n.

DEFLNriTiONS

The

Measurement

Functions

of

4
4

Angles

Theorems

Application

13

Algebraic

of

Functions

Signs.
Angles

of

rical
Trigonomet-

"

in

General

16
.

Co-ordinates

Rectangular
Proofs

General

...

Functions

Acute

Fundamental

in.

of

Trigonometrical

Angles

the

of

17
Fundamental

Formulse

41
.

rV.

V.

Formula

General

Theorems

62
Functions

Trigonometrical

Solution

Trigonometric

of

65

Equations

67

Logarithms

68
of

Properties
Use

of

Logarithms

Table

the
of

Solutions
Arithmetical

of

72
of

Logarithms

Arithmetical

Numbers

77
.

Problems

by Logarithms

83

Complement
and

Exponential
vii,

46

Miscellaneous
Inverse

VI.

construcrton

86

Logarithmic
use

and

of

Series

88

trigonometrical

Tables

93
of

Construction

Table

of

Natural

Sines

and

Cosines
Methods
Use

VIII.

of

Solution
Formula

93

Verification

of
the

Table

of

for

Right
the

of

96

Logarithmic

Sines, Cosines,

etc.

98

107

Triangles
Area

of

Right

Triangle

114
.

CONTENTS.

vi

Paob

IX.

General

Properties
for the

Formulae

Triangles

of

Area

of

Solution

Circumscribed

of the Area

Calculation
Solution

XI.

Third

of

Numerical

of

Equations

of

XIV.

the

139

..

148
Cosine
.

Solution

Definitions

of

and

Principles

Spherical

for

155

Triangles

158
.

Solution

of

Solution

of

Solution

of

172
174

Right

Spherical

Napier's Rules

of

150
151

tt

Napier'sAnalogies
Delambre's
Analogies
XV.

143

TRIGONOMETRY.

FoRMULiE

General

136

"

Applications

with

SPHERICAL

Geometrical

Xni.

123

Theorem,

n.

Oblique Triangle

an

Expansions of the Sine and Cosine


Exponential Values of the Sine and
Series for Calculatingthe Value
of

PART

127

Degree

Moivre's

De

Circles

Xn.

122

Triangles

Oblique

of

Oblique Triangle

an

Inscribed,Escribed, and
X.

116

Circular

Triangles

177

Parts

180

Right Triangles
Quadrantal Triangles
Isosceles Triangles

182
189

191

"

Solution

XVI.
Answers

to

the

of

Spherical

Oblique

Triangles

192
.

Examples

207

APPENDIX.
Table

of

the

Logarithms

op

Numbers

from

to

10,000
Table

of
AND
FROM

Logarithmic

the

Cotangents,
0**

TO

90**

for

Sines, Cosines, Tangents,


every

Degree

and

Minute
17

PLANE

AND

SPHERICAL

TRIGONOMETRY.

I.

Part

PLANE

TRIGONOMETRY.

-'xJiQioo'^

I.

OF

MEASUREMENT

DEFINITIONS;

ANGLES.

algebraical

and

angles,

mathematics

of

employed

are

processes

between

branch

is that

Trigonometry

1.

determine

to

which
tions
rela-

the

and

subject angles

to

in

triangles

to

computation.
In

Trigonometry

Plane

with

concerned

are

plane angles

triangles.

and

2.

is

angle

An

it contains

times
unit

of

usual

ninetieth

parts

of

called

measured

by
angle

certain

the

expressing
adopted

number

of

arbitrarily as

the

measurement.

The
the

we

unit

of

angular

part

of

unit, the

the

and

miniUes,

the

method

This

seconds.

right angle.

minute
of

To

is divided

degree

is the

measurement

into

degree,
fractional

express

into

sixty equal parts

sixty equal parts


is

measurement

or

called

called

the

sexor-

gesimcU.
3.

", ', ", respectively


of 43

4.

and

Degrees, minutes,

hundredth

was

thus,
and

43"
37

22' 37"

measurement,

proposed

in

France.

of

right angle,

by

denotes

the

bols
sym-

angle

an

seconds.

of

part

denoted

are

method

Another

tesimal,

minutes,

22

degrees,

seconds

In
and

known
this

as

the

is called

the

unit
a

cen-

is the

grade;

the

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

grade

is divided

into

the minute

and

notation

This

fact that the

reference

has

obvious

it, the

equal parts

advantages

method

mathematical

to

equal parts called minutes,

hundred

one

sexagesimal

all the

that

into

hundred

one

centesimal

had

been

method

seconds.

but, owing

the first

was

tables

called

the

to

and

employed,

calculated

with

not

into

has

come

practicaluse.
Grades

by
9

centesimal

and

and

seconds

symbols ^, \ ^\ respectively; thus,

the

grades, 13 minutes,
5.

minutes

OB

measuring angles, and

that known

and

A'O'B'

Arc

AB

the circular

as

O'A^B'

and

OAB

Let

9^ 13^ 46^^

signifies

seconds.

46

third mietitiodof

importance, is

denoted

are

be two

similar

of

one

great

method.

sectors; i.e.,the

gles
an-

being equal. Then, by Geometry,


J.'5'=

Arc

OA

0A\

ArcA^ff

ArcAB

whence,
f A!
O'A

OA
arc

Therefore, the

fraction

-, "

is

function

of

the

angle

radms

is

which

consequently be
This

angle.
that

as

is called

length

the

the

of the

measure

of

circular

measure

radius, and

magnitude
of

the

of

may
the

angle ;

is,

The

which

used

the

of

independent

circular
subtends

measure

of

an

it to the radium.

angle

is

the ratio

of the

arc

DEFINITIONS;
To

MEASUREMENT

the
illustrate,

ratio of

circular

one-fourth

of the

the circumference

of

where

by 2^,

equal

Circular

of

of 90''

measure

We

in the

found
of

^^^

^^^
=

Thus,

an

in circular

ISO** is

angle of

denote

tt

article

Hence

-.

^;

60%

; of

of

that

any

number

by

the circular

45%

30%

; of

circular

the

of

degrees may

ratio to

be

expressed

180", and

ing
multiply-

115"

of

measure

is

"

to

angle expressed

degrees by multiplyingby

the

example,

angle

as

circular

In the

"the

unit of circular
whose

arc

is

arc

is

whose

reduced

of the

equal to

radius.

The

the radius,

circular

or

be

may

dividingby

tt,

w.

84".

such

have

These

etc.

expressions
refer

angle

that

an

to

the

angle

is,the angle

the unit of circular

ure,
meas-

6, gives

57.2957795"...

3.14159265...

then

modify

sexagesimal measure

our

rule

of

as

an

by multiplyingby

measure

For

example.

The

angle

and

the rule of Art.

180^

IT

The

measure

is,the angle -|means

may

for

may

angle 1,"

degrees by

to

we

; that

measure

180^
We

since

15

method

angle |^,""the

180"

of 180"

"

15
7.

in circular

briefly,
by substituting180"

For

-^

of 180".

is"
36

more

; etc.

36

Conversely,an
or,

measure

ir.

example,

reduced

circular

the

9^1

115"

the

preceding

by findingits

measure

the result
For

multiplied

if R

3
'

; but

2^.

angle of 90" is

an

angle of

an

is the

radius

to the radius

measure

the

to

Hence,

"""

have

radius, we

6.

ANGLES.

right angle

circumference

3.14159265

tt

of

measure

circle is

OF

follows

angle

is obtained

57.2957795"...

57.2957795"...

38" 11' 49.87068''...

38.1971863".-

from

its

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

EXAMPLES.

Express

followingangles in circular

the

measure

1. 135^

3. 11" 15'.

6. 29" 15'.

7. 128"

2. 270".

4. 37" 30'.

ft 174" 22' 30".

8. 92" 48' 45".

Express

"

The

the

followingangles in sexagesimal

Complement

by subtractingit from
The
Su^lement of
subtractingit
To

from

a
an

of

an

angle is

34f

measure

the remainder

obtained

rightangle.
angle is

obtained

remainder

the

rightangles.
complement of 70"

by

two

illustrate,the

is

20", and

the supplement

is 110".

II. THE

TRIGONOMETRICAL
FUNCTIONS

9.

Let

BA

OF

G be any

acute

FUNCTIONS.
ACUTE

angle.

From

point

any
to

the

on

either

other

ANGLES.

side, as

side, thus

5, draw

forming

a
a

line B C perpendicular

right triangle

TRIGONOMETRICAL

THE

FUNCTIONS.

BC

ABC,

fraction

The

--

called the sine of the

is then

"

angle

AB

BA

C ; that is,in
The

side

righttriangle,

of either

sine

all

the

on

For

length

example,

if

MM

equal

Bsudi AB'C\

ABC

having

B'C^

of

AB,

to

the sine of BAC

are

Besides

10.

In any
The

sine of

an

not

righttrianglewhich

to

our

fixed

we

should

have

But

angle A

the

to be

seen

sine, there

the

had

the sine

righttriaugles

in conunon,
is

values

two

lar
simi-

are

equal to

obtained

the
for

equal.
are

five other

functions

of the

the ratio

of

in form.

similar

are

had

and

-^77^,.
AB'

the

point at B^

righttriangle,

cosine

of either

adjacent to

The

the

acute

angle is equal

to

the

hypothenuse.

tangent is equal

to

of

the ratio

the side

opposite to the

adjacent.

The

The

is

cotangent

the side

equal

to

the ratio

is

secant

of the side adjacentto

'

opposite,
equal

to

the ratio

of the hypothenuse to the

adjacent.

TJie cosecant
side

of the

Thus, the

definitions

angle, whose

side

of the

angle, and

and, by Geometry, the ratio of -B (7 to -45

ratio

side

taken

had

we

angle BAC

the

of the sides

the

of

of the

magnitude

the

perpendicular B^C\

the

drawn

side

the ratio

to

it.

contains

equal

that the value

to observe

important

angle depends solelyon

of

is

opposite the angle to the hypothenuse.

It is

at

angle

acute

is

equal to

the ratio

of the hypothenuse

to

the

the

sine
co-

opposite.

We

have

Th"

also the

versed

sine

followingdefinitions

of an

angle is equal

to

unity minus

of the angle.
The

coversed

I7i^ suversed

sine

is

sine is

unity minus

the sine,

equalto unityplus

the cosine.

equal

to

PLANE

6
These

nine

nometrical
in the

only

are

ratios

called the
of the

functicmaor trigo'
trigonometrical
angle. In each case it is evident, as

previous article,that

on

the

U.

of the

the value

of the flinction

angle, and
righttrianglewhich

magnitude

the dimensions

of the

is

depends

independent

contains

of

it.

nometry,
castomary, in dealingwith trianglesin Trigodenote the angles by capitalletters,
and the sides

It is
to

oppositeto

Applying
the
we

TRIGONOMETRY.

them

the

correspondingsmall

the definitions to the

usual

obtain

by

abbreviations

angles A

for the

names

letters.

and

B, and adopting

of the

functions,

"

(1)

TRIGONOMETRICAL

THE

From

12.

The

formulse

Bin ^

c cos

the

eolnmn

of each

obtain

we

b =csmB

as=c

righttriangleeither

the

side about

hypothenuse multiplied by

cos

be enunciated

principlehere expressed may

In any
to

the first two

FUNCTIONS.

as

follows

rightangle is equal

of the opposite angle

the sine

by the cosine of the adjacent angle.

or

also have

We

That

"tan^

"s=atan^

cot A

b cot B

is,

In any
to the

righttriangleeither

side abovt

tangent of the opposite angle^

the

rightangle is equal

the cotangent

or

of the ad-

ja^centangle,mvltipliedby the other side,

13.
the

By inspectionof

followingresults

the formulae

Art.

of

11,

we

deduce

sin^==cos^

sin^=cosu4

tan^

tan-B

cot A

sec

cosec

vers

covers

cot B

cosec

covers

(2)

f
sec

vers

B
B

The

important principlehere

The

sine, tangent, secant, and

illustrated may
versed

sine

the cosine, cotangent, cosecant,


respectively

A
A

be thus stated

of
and

angle

an

coversed

are

sine

of the complement of the angle,


m

It is from

this

etc., were
been

adopted by

circumstance

that

derived

the

some

functions.

; and

writers

as

the

the

names

co-sine,

principleenunciated
definition

of

the

tangent,
co-

has
plementary
com-

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

14;

also obtain

We

-4

Sin

^1

cosec

11 the results

Art.

from

cos

h
C
-x-=l
h
c

cot ui

sec

tan^

ul

"

These

written

be

may

"

(3)

follows

as

:
\

sin A

tan^=

sec

cot -4

cosec

-4

-4

cos

"W
1

-4

cos

cotu4

cosec

sec^

tan^

sin A
y

The

principleinvolved

is stated

The

sine

is the

tangent
the

of

is the

angle

an

The

earlier writers

and

To

they

defined

were

OA.

Draw
Draw

and

BH

CG

At

the

BE

be

radii
and

AF

Then,

of

an

arc

lin^s instead

as

arc

any

OA^

perpendicular to
G.

Trigonometry

on

fmictions

as

let -4^
illustrate,

is at 0.

reciprocalof

the cosecant^ the


the

is

secant

cosine.

sine, tangent, etc.,

angle^

reciprocal of the cotangent^ and

reciprocalof the

15.

thus

OB^

of

and

considered
instead

the

old

of

an

of ratios.

circle whose

centre

O (7 perpendicularto

perpendicular to 0-4,
OC, and produce 0-B

according to

the

and

CQ

to

meet

definitions,BE

was

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

10

We

may

Since
side
from
and

write

the

the

regard

may

righttrianglewhose

Then, by

+ B(P

hypothenuse to

having

as

definitions,we

taken

in

length,

unit.

AJ?.

=\/ 8=^2

\/2.

obtain

COSui

tan -4

the

been

is 3 units

-'BC^:=^d^

AC^^Aff
our

the

value

our

-"

hypothenuse

by Geometry, AC^

Hence,

of

opposite the angle u4, 1

the side

Now,

ratio

is the

cosecant

opposite,we
a

equation cosec-4

cotJ.

2v^2

2v^2
3

aecA

coversul

2v^2
versu4

1-2^2

suvers-4=

1-^2^2
1 -|-

2, Given

versui

-;

find

the

values

the

of

remaining

functions.

Since
take
nuse

versu4

the side
as

Then,

"

co"A^

adjacent

to the

we

have

angle

cos

as

J.

3, and

the

5.

BC^y/AJ^^^TAC^^^'^d

whence,

:=^4.

we

h^-pothe-

FUNCTIONS.

TRIGONOMETRICAL

THE

11

Hence,

3^8
5

In each

3. tan-4

find the values

case

6.

-"

of the

-4=

vers

4,

JL

covers

7. sin-4

-.

10, cot-4

-*

a;.

y
8.

4.

suvers-4

A
11. sec-dL=J^
11

"

17.

Let
each

=^2.
is

To

^5

find the

values

(7 be

isosceles

equal

to

an

unity.

equals 45".

V"'-^+

^
"

"

of the functions ofA^b^,

A O
righttriangle,

Then

Also, the angles A

90", each

5. cosec-4

functions

9. C0Su4=-r--

"

remaining

and

and

AB=^AC^

and

are

equal ;

B C

being

0^=^1
as

their

+
sum

PLANE

12

TRIGONOMETRY.

Hence, by the definitionB,

2^

^2
tan 45^

45"

^2

sec

ver845** =1

cot 45"

oosec45"

j^ ^l^p^
=

"

oover845"

suvers45"

by

the

v^2

)/2^

=1

column

principlesof

might
Art.

-=

"

)/2
1 +

have

yj2

"l^"^

i=

yJ2
second

v^2

^2

The

yJ2

been

derived

from

the

first

13, since 45" is the complement

of

itself.

la

To

find the

values

60".

of the functions of 30" and


B

ABD

Let

equal

to
we

Then-4(7

be
Draw

2.

BC

have
=

equilateraltriangle having

an

A
"

tan30"

side

etry,
Geom-

perpendicularto BD^ and, by


and -B^(7=iJ5-42"
^BD=^1,

30".

V-4-B*-J5C"=\/4^=V^3.

Then, by the definitions,from


sin30"

each

i
2

cos

the

60*

triangleABCy
cos30"

we

have

^=sin60"
2

-^ ii/3=cot60'
=

V'3

3^

eot30"

v'3

tan60'

TRIGONOMETRICAL

THE

30**

sec

? \/3

=-?-

30"

cosec

covers

60**

oosec

30"

60"

covers

30"

13

^
-

30"

suvers

1 +

by

vers

60'

of

30",

60"

suvers

Or

sec

the functions

eO**

3^

^S
vers

FUNCTIONS.

of 60" may

be

derived

those

from

13, since 60" is the complement of 30".

Art.

FUNDAMENTAL

THEOREMS.

To prove

19l

the

formula
sinM

when

is any
SinM

Note.

acute

denotes

+ cos*^

of the sine of A,

square

a^ +

l^

(^

^^Y+
^^Y=
1

Whence, by definition,

(sinAy^

is,

To prove

(sin^)^; that is,the

Dividingby c",

20L

angle.

By Geometry,

That

(cos-4)^

sin^J. -f cos^^

the

formvlce

COS

siaA

(5)

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

--

sin^

tan ^

By definition,

(")

--

cos^

And

(Art. 14),

cot-dL =

sinoe

tan^
cos^
we

cotu4

have

sin A

ZL

To prove
sec'-dL

the
1 +

formtUcB
tan*-4,

Dividing by 6*,

sec^A

Dividing by a',
That

The
the six

following table

principalfunctions

1 +

1 +

expresses
in terms

tan '-4

(8)

a'

a'

cosec'J.

is,

cot'J..

b^

b"

is,

1 +

+ V

c'^a^

By Geometry,

That

cosee'-4

(9)

cot*-4

the valnes

of the other

of each

five

of

THE

Six

of

TRIGONOMETRICAL

last three

The

14.

wHl

We

they
work

one

be

derived

proposed
as

15

reciprocal forms,

may

are

were

aid of the

by

exercises

as

for

illustration.

an

tan A

sin^

the formula

prove

is, the

others

articles,and

the student.

To

values, that

these

in Art.

proved

FUNCTIONS,

y/l+tan*^
yl

R1T1

By

Art.

t"nA

20,

sin^

sec^

(Art. 14).

cos^
But

by

vT+tanlZ.

sin A

21, sec^

Art.

Substituting,

tan A

Hence,

sin A

formulae

of this

in the solution

III.

of

examples

OP

less than

Geometry,
two

to

we

them

are,

as

advantageously

of Art.

16.

ALGEBRAIC
OF

SIGNS.
ANGLES

GENERAL.

right angles ;

regard

used

FUNCTIONS
IN

In

be

may

like those

TRIGONOMETRICAL

23.

+ tan"^

article

APPLICATION

"

"

Vl
The

y'l-f-tanCZ

as

but

rule,concerned

in

unrestricted

with

Trigonometry
in

angles

it is

venient
con-

magnitude.

^tff

In

the circle

diameters

AA'A^'A'^', let AA'^

drawn

at

right angles

to

and
each

A' A"*
other.

be

pan-

Suppose

of
a

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

16

the

centre

as

it comcides

of 90" ; when

OA,

; with

of 450"

We

; etc.

The

24.

that

see

interpretationof

between

When

it

0A"\

; with

OA'

; with

of

moving radius,

is taken

O-dL in

of

again,

be attached

taken

naturallybe

signifyingrevolution

as

illustrate,if the angles A

to

30"

30", and

absolute

in

magnitude,

0B'=

thus

may

conceive

positivedirection
direction

from

OB'

should

of negative
which

of rotation

positive,our

as

from

as

the

the

tion
posiwould

position

OA^".

and

we

Thus,

each

are

equal

that AOB

say

30".

It is immaterial

whatever.

OB

to distinguish

us

negative angle

opposite direction,towards

in the

enables

revolution

0^',

of

of the

measure

negative angles.

to indicate

direction

the

the

angle, as

an

positive and

positiveangle

We

of 180"

significance
may

about

angular magnitude

startingpoint,of 360"

thus

of rotation

amount

To

of 0-4'.

an

0A'\

with

revolve

positiveangular magnitude.

to any

0-4

its

direction

described

it has

and

positionOA^

in the

pivot

OA'^

with

coincides

270"

the

to start from

OB

radius

angles of

direction

magnitude

any

consider

we

but, having adopted

subsequent operations

the

certain
in

be

must

accordance.
The
to

forming
being

the

then

consider

may

in which

case

angle
In

is

terminal

initial

line.

Either

OA

and

rotation

is supposed

line; the rotating


of

the

lines

two

the initial line,the other

as

line; thus, in the angle A OB,


line,and

angle is positive;

the

the

the

adopted

the initial

the

or,

terminal

angle, we

designating an
extremity

angle A OB,

call it A

be

which

0 B

the

we

may

terminal

we

line,

consider

line,in which

case

OB
the

negative.

at the

should

terminal

may

0 A

initial line

the

from

is called

the

angle

an

OA,

line

commence,

is called

radius

the

fixed

OB,

if

but

call it i^ 0^.

of

we

if

the

always

write

initial line ; thus, in

regard
we

shall

OA

as

the

regard OJ?

ter
first the let-

designating

initial line,we
as

the

should

initial line,

we

TRIGONOMETBT.

PLANE

18

distances, OM

These

tO'Ordinates

of the

and

Pi My

point Pi

; OM\a

lines of

F, M^ the ordinate.

The

called

abaciascLs

the

of

axes

called

the

the

and

rectangvlaf

abscisaa^ and

reference, XX'

TT\

and

ordinatesj

F, respectively. Their

and

called

are

the

or

intersection

are

of

aseea

is called

the

origin.
29.

It is

point*by

of

fact that the


is

to^
x=ib

fact

y,

to

upon

the

abscissa

for

that

to b and

the

expressed

the

the

still

point (",a)

the axis

upon

; and

zero

question

avoid

the first term

; where

to refer

to the

abscissa, and
is

X, its ordinate

of

is true

same

Jf

P,^

P4 will have

this

adopted

conciselyby

more

of the abscissa

evidently
of

point

of Y.

axis

Pi, Pj, Pg, and

abscissas

above

Pg ^

the

same

ON=b,

P4 Jf

the

measured

to

the

line

XX

a,

the

the

points

to the

have

conventions

rigJUof 0

left, negative;
are

and

co-ordinates.

ambiguity, the following

positive, and
measured

in

ordinate.

to the

term

perpendiculars Pi
To

the

its ordinate

point

If, in the figureof Art. 28, OM=z

30.

ordinate

and

respectively. Thus,

point is equal

be

may

point as

the

point lies

equal

been

and

parenthesis is understood

second

If

of

the

y^a.

referringto
the

abscissa

same

in the

letters

the

expressed by saying

and

The

denote

to

cnstomary

and

are

sidered
con-

ordinates

considered

positive, and

points will

be

below, negative.
Thus

Note.
the

small

the co-ordinates

In

the

letters

algebraic sign.

figures of
denote

the

of the four

this

chapter, unless

lengthsof the

the

contrary is stated,

lines,without

regard

to their

THE

31.

We

Let

the

FUNCTIONS.

give general definitions


functions, applicableto all angles.

being

may

now

initial line be

the

taken

perpendicularon

to the initial

For

of

convenience

SINE

18

7%6

COSINE

The

between

in the

shaU

vertex

terminal

by drop-

line,produced if
the

of the

metrical
trigono-

X, the

constructed

designationwe

portionof the terminal line


the originas the "distance"
The

taken

19

for the

the axis of

as

origin. Let any point be


its rectangular co-ordinates

line, and

ping

TRIGONOMETRICAL

sary.
neces-

refer to that

assumed

point

point. Then^

of the

ordinate

to the distance.

is the ratio

of the

a:r^i"^jl

to ^Ae distance^

tangent

is the ratio

ordinate

to the

The

cotangent,

is the ratio

abscissa

to the ordinate.

The

secant

is the ratio

of the
of the
of the

distance

to the abscissa.

The

cosecant

is the ratio

of the

distance

to the ordinate.

The* above
for acute

angles in

the ratio

definitions
Arts.

are

and

to include

seen

The

10.

versed

sine, coversed

10,

sufl9ciently
generalto apply tp

are

33.

Let

us

angles XOB^,
figure:

sine, and

apply the
XOB^, XOB^,
now

""-

""

"*

and

suversed

abscissa.

those

definitions

angles.

definitions

of Art.

XOB^

of

the

sine,given in Art.

all

and

given

in the

81

to

the

ibUowing

"0

PLANE

Let

P"

TRIGONOMETRY.

P2, P3, and

P4 be

0 JB4,respectively
; and

points

any

let their

in

OJB25 OJ^,

OA,

rectangularco-ordinates

(61,tti),("62, 02), ("63? "03), (64,"04).


OPi

Ci,

OP2

Cj, 0

Pg

Then, by the definitions,we

C3, and

secX0A

cot

2l

XOBi

oosecXOA

02

sinXOJBj

tance
dis-

C4.

"i

cosXOBi

tanXO-Bi

OP4

the

have

sinXOJBi

Let

be

^
=

-"2,

cosXOA

5,
C2

tanXO^

"2

cotXOJBj

-62'

secXOBa

Si

cosecXO^a
"2

Os

"

sinX0B8

02

cosXOB8

^8
=

(k
tan X

0^3

cotX058

bs
sec

0^3

-a

cosecX058

Pa
=

-03

_"4

sinX0B4

^*

COSXOB4

C4

C4
-04

tanX0JB4

J4_

cotX054
"4

"

secX054

the

multiple of

"

terminal
360"

the definitions

are

lines

of

coincident

that the

two

angles

(Art. 26),

^4

C4

cosecX054
"4

Since

a4

which

a^

differ

it is evident

trigonometricalfunctions

of two

^4

by

jQrom
such

TRIGONOMETRICAL

THE

identical.

angles are
It is

to

customary

trigonometricalfunctions
Again,
from

an

angle

function

of any

without

sin 830"=
-

34.
and

0 y,

OT

and

OF',

the terminal

When

call the

we

OX',

line of
the

second

that

the

the

hence, any
ftmction

same

illustrate,

360")

;
cos

j^r"^quadrant;

when

and

OX

between

OX'

between

OF'

between

220".

lies between

angle

an

subtracted

or

and

as

quadrant;

quadrant;

to

sin 110"

140" H-

angle in

in the

in the third

To
=

cos

added

expressed
360".

than

identical.

by saying

flmctions

(830"- 720")

sm

140")

cos(

be

may

be

may

positiveangle less

360"

alteringits

angle

fact

of

periodic.

are

multiple of

any

-670", etc., are

this

express

21

trigonometricalftinctions

the

Thus,

angles 50", 410", 770% -310^,

the

of

FUNCTIONS.

OX,

and
in

the

fourthquadrant.
To

360"

between
-270"

and

450", etc., or

and

-360",

or

the first quadrant.


or
"

450"

between
180"

and

In

and

-270",

540", etc., or
or

general terms,
and

JL is

an

4m|+^,

if

acute

in the

35.

We

so

is 0

any

-540"

between

90",

or

between

etc., is in

90" and

180",

negativeangle between
and "630", etc., is in

on.

or

any

ger,
positiveor negative inte-

angle, the angles (see Art. 6)

(4m +
and

are

"720",

and

Any positiveangle between

quadrant; and

the second

negative angle

any
-630"

between

0" and

between

positive angle

illustrate,any

IT

l)|+
(4m

(4m
IT

3)1+

first,second, third, and

2)|+A

-4,

fourth

quadrants, respectively.

observe, by inspectionof the results in Art. 33, the

foUovmig important points in


of the trigonometricalAmotions

relation

to

the

algebraic signs

in the different

quadrants

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

22
For

angle

any

in

the

the

aU

firstquadrant^

functions are

positive.
In
and

the second

the third

In

the
the

It is
tabular

sine, tangent, cotangent, and


costomary

To

as

find

secant

and

cosine,secant, and

fourth quadrant, the cosine

form,

3a

quadrard^ the tangent

the sine,

tive, and

and

cosecant

the cosine^ tangent^ cotangent^ and

In

and

quadrant^ the sine and

to

the

express

follows

and

negative.

are

cotangent

cosecant
secant

are

posU

are

negative.

are

cosecant

positive^

are

positive,

are

negative.

foregoing principlesin

the values

of

the

functions of 0**,90**,180**,

270**r
B

JP-

Let

XOB

Let

the

XOB

be

any

co-ordinates
A.

angle,
of P

and
be

let P

be

(a?,y) ,

and

Then, by the definitions,

any

point in OB,

let OP

c,

and

FUNCTIONS.

TRIGONOMETRICAL

THE

sin^

tan-4

sec^

28

c
'

CR

008-4

cot-4

Suppose
to revolve

(c,0)

at the

OB

point on
.

about

remaining
When

line

the

OB

to

pivot in

as

with

oj

c, and

of 0

the direction

distance

constant

positionOX,

the

from

start

-4

OX,

at the distance

Thus,

coincides

OX

oosecud[=-

0.

0"; and

0,

from

from

F,

the

and

point

as

is then

its co-ordinates

are

y =0.

Hence, the equations become

sinO"=-

tanO"=-

cosO"=-

OB

cosecO"=

"

comcides

with

00

cotO"=~=oo

When

secO"=~

^4

OTj

90%

aj

0, y

c.

Hence,
sin90**=-

cos

90**=

"

tan90*=-^=oo 8ec90'*=-^=

cot90^=-

When

Hence,

OB

cosec90^=

coincides

with

OX'j

=1

"

180", a?

-c,

y =0.

PLANE

24
When
y

a=

OB

coincides

with

^4

OT,

270%

aj

0, and

Hence,

c.

"

TRIGONOMETRY.

^=-1

sin270"="

cos

270"=-

=0
c

270"=:=^

tan

cot 270"=

00

270"="

sec

cosec270"="

the

360"

the

same

as

values

Note.

without

37.

when

the

becomes

angle

0"

may

",

tan

be

0^

the

similar
90^

go

it merely
increases

cotangent

can

no

interpretationis to be
etc.
,

expressed

in

tabular

form

is

the results of the

0,

or

the Amotions

any

positiveor

IT

TT

(4n+2)^,

2
as

preceding article

in general

negative integer,we

of

(4n+l)-,

4n--"

same

literaUj;

its cotangent
indeflnitelj

equations cosec

terms, if

the

be taken

cannot

oo

in finite terms.

Expressing

shall have

decreases

foregoing results

follows

as

find for the functions

-860",

-270",

cot 0^

angle

expressed

to the

The

an

limit,and

longer be
given

equation
as

should

we

0", for 450"

of

-450", etc., the


270", 180",90",0",270",etc., respectively.

for

as

The

signifiesthat

Also,

for

find for the fhnctions

should

for the functions

as

90", etc.
-90", -180",

of
same

values

same

"

"

Continuingthe revolution,we
of

"

=00

"

the functions

and

(4n

of

0", 90", 180", and

3)-,
2

270", respectively.

PLANE

26

Since

the

coBine

TRIGONOMETRY.

is

the

as

-,

angle

varies

0^ to

fh"m

90",

the cosine
and

decreases

from

1 to 0 ;

from 90"

to

decreases

from

1 ; from

180"

negative,and
it increases

increases

from

to

from

0 to

"

1 to 0 ; and

"

180"

it is negative,
270"

to

270"

f^om

it is

to 360"

1.
y

Since
0 to

and

to

From

must

be

statement

from

270"

it is

90" it increases

from

increases

from

negative,and
it increases

from

negative, and

remaining

from

fliDCtions

0" to 360"

to

increases

qo

from

change

as

follows,

90",
from

the secant

increases

from

the cosecant

decreases

from

cotangent decreases

from

cotangent

to 0 ;

oo

1 to
to

oo

qo

1.

90" to 180",
0

to

oo

to
to

the secant

increases

from

the cosecant

increases

from

cotangent decreases

from

oo

the secant

decreases

from

the cosecant

increases

from

cotangent decreases

the secant
the cosecant

180"

270"
the

Note.

0" to

decreases

the

From

varies

0" to

the

From

to

360"

the

of

angle

the

From

ftom

0.

values

the

as

to

-,

180" it is

180"

from

270"

from

The

90" to

0 ;

to

00

"

tangent is

; ftom

00

00

"

the

In

to

to

the

1 ;

"

oo.

270",

"

to

0 ;

to"

oo

oo

to

from

to

decreases

from

oo

to

decreases

from

"

1.

"

360",

foregoing results,wherever

interpretedaccording

to the

that, as the angle varies

0 to X,

"

oo

"

simplj

means

note

from

"

the

of Art.

to

oo

"

1 ;
"

oo.

symbol
36.

Fo]\

oo

it

appears,

example,

the

0" to 90" its tangent increases

that the tangent increases

without

limit.

THE

It is evident

39.

sine and

of the
"

1 ;

TRIGONOMETRICAL

the

of

cosine

of the secant

"1

and

of

preceding article
angle

an

cosecant, between

and

that the yalues

lie between

must

cotangent,

27

between

and

oo

1 and

oo,

or

and

oo

"

between

"00.

To

40.

find the values

of the functions of ("-4)

terms

in

of A.

those

will

There
the

the

tangent and

and

of

from

FUNCTIONS.

be

four

consider, according

to

cases

as

isia

first,second, third, or fourth quadrant.

In

each

figure we

angle J.,

represent the

angle ("A).
and

hypothenuse
to the

Let

OP

OP'

P-af=P'Jkr=

Case

By

and

hypothenuse

equal, and

WJien

I.

the
.

sm-a

negative angle XOP'

the

be

positiveangle XOP

and
a,

and
one

angle of

acute

an

the

0PM

have

is in the

6, and

the

other, they

OP=OP'=c.

firstquadrant.

definitions,
a

tanud[

a
2

sec-4s=s-

"

COSu(l=s~
c

COtutl =

the

equal respectively

PM=zP'M.

OJkr=

to

perpendicular to XX';

drawn

right triangles 0PM


acute
an
angle of the

the

then, since

and

PP'

Let

the

suppose

cosec^=a

are

TRI60N0METBT.

PLANE

28

tan(-^)=-2

an(-A)=-=

"

-4)
cob("
^

8ec(-^)

oot(" u(l)=

-4)=

coBec("

"

Whence,
sin

("-4)

tan(" u(l)
=

sec(" ud[)
=

Case

"

sin^

oofl("-4)

"

tanudl

cot

oosec(" -4)s=

secudl

When

n.

(-4)

"

is in the second

OOSudl

cot A

(10)

"

coBec-4

quadrcmt*

Bee-4

c
=

"

6
c

cosecudlssa

sec(" ud[)=

"

^
6
c

eosec(" ^)=s
a

Whence

we

obtain

the

equations (10) as

before.

THE

m.

Case

We

TRIGONOMETRICAL

FUNCTIONS.

quadrarvt.

When

is in the third

have

now

tan^

siii-d =

a
=

cotA

siii(" -4)

cosec-d=

Giving

Case

tan

(".4)=

a
"

see(-^)=-.^

b
cot

"

the

IY.

"

cos(" ^)

see-4=

eosJL

29

("-4)=:

equations (10) as

When

J7"-.

is in the

cosec("

before.

fourth quadrant.

J.)

TBI60K0METBT.

PLAIIE

so

Giving the equations (10)


tt.

To

find

of those of

the vcHiies

the

suppose

A,

the

and

OP

distances
drawn

are

Since

P'M'

OP'

OM

Jjet PM=

Case

positiveangle
OP^

and

are

perpendicular to

the
=

distinguishfour

may

is

OP

taken

and

terms

When

the

0PM

OM'

represent the angle

angle 90**+^.

equals and

are

PM

and

The

P'-JT

and

O-W'

to

PM.^ the

equal by Geomtetry;
and

0PM'

and

are

equal, and

0P==

OP'^c.

PM.

OM^P'M'^bj
is in the

figure

XX'.

right triangles0PM
and

In each

cases.

to

perpendicular to OP,

OM'^a,

I.

positiveangle XOP^

angles P^OM'
hence

90** -{-Ain

of the functions of

A,

Here, also, we
we

before,

as

and

firstqiLodrant.
r

jr

Y'

TRIGONOMETRICAL

THE

We

FUNCTIONS.

31

have

now

sec

c
=

cosec-4

cos(90"+JL):
c
a

COt(90"+^):

oosec(90"H-ul)

sec(90"H-^)=--

Whence,

Bin(90**+JL)=
tan
Bee

(90"+^)

(90"-h^)

Case

We

n.

-4

cot^

"

oosec^

"

WJien

cos

(90"H--4)

cot

(90"-^A)

(90"+A)=

cosec

is in the second

sin.4 ^
tan JL

sec

quadrant.

have

now

'
"

cos

sm-d.

tan^=

"

sec

coaA=

cot^

"

cosec

udl
a

(ll)

PLANE

82

TRIGONOMETRY.

sin(90*-|--d)=-

(90^+-4)=--

cos

cot(90"H--4)=:^

tan(90"H--4)=-

sec

coflec(90*+^)

(90*+-4)=--

Giving

Case

the

m.

Giving

the

equations (U)

When

is

as

before.

in the third

equations (u)

as

qwadrani.

before.

PLANE

84
We

have

here

the

angles which

acute

43i

TRIGONOMETRl.

for all

proof

were

in Art.

proved

the formulse

for

13.

-4 in

of the functions of 180""

find the values

To

anglesof

of those of A.

terms

-4 for A

Patting 90**"

(180"-^)

tan

(180"-^)

sec

(180*-^)

cos

(180"-^)

cot

(180"-^)

(180"-^)

Art.

by

sin

(180"-^)

tan

(180*-^)

sec

(180^*-^)
These

(U),

sin

cosec

Whence,

in

"

of

an

41,

we

cos

(90"-^)

cot

(90"-^)

have

(90**-^)

cosec

sin

(90"-^)

tan

(90"-^)

sec

(90*-^)

42,
sin A

cos

(180"-^)

-cos^

tan^

cot

(180"--4)

-cot

sec-4

angle

(180"" -4)

cosec

equations express

supplement

Art.

the values

in terms

cosecJL

of the functions

of the functions

J.

of the

of the

angle

itself.

44.

To

find the values of the functionsof 180"+^

of those of A.
Putting 90"+^
sin

for A

(u),

(180"+^)

tan

(ISO^'+A)

sec

(180"-!-^)

cos

(180"+^)

cot

(180"-!-^)

eosec

(180"+^)

Art.

41,

we

cos

(90"+^)

cot

(90"-h^)

cosec

have

(90"+^)

sin

(90"+^)

tan

(90"+^)

sec

(90"+^)

in terms

TRIGONOMETRICAL

THE

Whence,
sin
tan

(180"+^)=

sec(180'*H--4)
=

To

85

by (ll),Art. 41,

(180*+^)=

45.

FUNCTIONS.

Bin^

cos

(180"+^)

tan J.

cot

(180"+^)=

sec^

"

(180"+^!)

eosec
.

the values

find

of the functionsof

2 70"

cos^

"

cot^
=

cosec

"

"

ul

in terms

of those of A,

Putting

180""^

tan

(270"-^)

Bee

(270"-^)

COB

(270"-^)

cot

(270"-ul)

(270"-^)

Art.

by

(270"-^)

tan(270"-u4)=
sec

(270"" u4)

46.

To

(ll).Art. 41,

cosec

Bin

in

(270"-ul)

Bin

Whence,

for A

"

we

cos

(180"-^)

cot

(180"-^)

have

(180"-^)

cosec

sin

(180"--4)

tan

(180"-ul)

sec

(180"-^)

43,
cos^

cos

(270"-^)

cot^

cot

(270"-^)=

cosec-4

cosec

(270""^)

2 70"

find the values of the functions of

==

tan^
=

180"

+u4 for A

sin

in

(ll).Art. 41,

(270"+^)

tan

(270"+^)

sec

(270"+^)

cos

(270"+^)

cot

(270"+^)

(270"+^)

cosec

we

cos

(180"+^)

cot

(180"+^)

cosec

(180"+^)

sin

(180"+^)

tan

(180"+^)

sec

(180"+^)

"

-^Ain

^f those of A,

Patting

-sin^l

have

sec^

terms

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

86

Whence,

Art.

by

8m(270"+-4)

-oo8^

tan

(270"+-4)

sec

(270**-!-4)

44,

cot^

"

cosec^

47.

In

which

groups,
sin
tan

similar

(360"-^)

(360"-^)

"

cos

(360".+^)

cos^

cot

(360"+A)

cot^

(360"+^)

cosec

sec

(360"-h^)

sec

cosec

truth

the

of

the

in the

of

the

of

so

40

450""

TT

integer, the
900""
results

-4, or

The

on.

as

-4, or,

-4, where

in

and

41

J.

in another

360"+-4

and
--A

angles

differ

A,

and

Art.

by

tiple
mul-

as

is 0,

angle in

for 180"

"

as

that

so

be

proved

is,by drawing

first quadrant, then


the formulae

exercises

for the student.

in Arts.

should

or

any

for

90"

the form

; and

also

may

proofs of

general, for

results

same

any

cosec

"

general principleof

to 47

operationsillustrated
extended
indefinitely
; we

J., 810""

(4wH-l)

the

at first in the

proposed

are

42

Arts.

The
be

360""^

angles

cot.4

groups

angles which

two

considering A

method

49.

of

of Arts.

second, and

second

the

cos^

identical.

are

manner

figureand

last two

the

with

accordance

formulae

The

of

the functions

as

33, that the functions

after

cosec

for the functions

4ft

(360**"^)

ul

of 360"

for the student

tan

respectively,in

ing
follow-

(360**-^)

same

sec^

cot

(360"+A)

the

"

tan-4

tan

will be

tan^

(360"-ul)=.

sm-4

way;

"

the two

proved

exercises

as

sec^

see

(270"+^)

cos

may

(270**+^)

be

may

left

(360**+^)

We

cot

sin^

sin ^

sec(360''"^)=
sin

(270**+^)=

cosec

manner

are

cos

on.

any

42

find for the

angle

(4n +

-4;

for

2)^
"

this

ously
obvi-

to 47 may

angles

in the form

positiveor
"

by

negative
540""

-4, the

-4,
same

THE

TRIGONOMETRICAL

The

50.

results

in the

the

of Arts.

Any furvction of (f^


A,

miniis

odd

preceding

following rule, which

the formulae

from

of

FUNCTIONS.

40

or

pressed
ex-

by inspection

to 47.

multiple of 90", plvs

even

an

multiple of 90", "plus

also be

article may

is derived

function of A;

is the same

37

and

A^

minus

or

function of

any

or
an

complementary

is the

function of A,
the

For

of the signsof the functions


in Art.

1.

the value

990"

Since

value

990""^

is

of

an

of

sec

apply the

quadrants
different

as

table

given

(990"" ul).
is cosec^.

result

the

third

if A

And

quadrant, in which

the

cosec-4.

Ans,

sec(990"" -4)

Find

the value

180"

Since

lute
the rule the absois acute,

sign

of

is

of tan

result

is tan -4.

in

third

quadrant,

"

"

180"

+-4).

multiple of 90", the

even

an

of the

And

if A

in which

is acute,

the

sign of

absolute
"

value

180" -[--4is

the

tangent is

positive.
Hence,

tan

"

180"

+A)

tan^.

Ans.

EXAMPLES.

Find

the

negative.

Hence,

the

in the

multiple of 90", by

odd

is in the
is

2.

acute^ and

as

35.

Find

secant

algebraicsign^regard

the values

of the

following:

3.

cot

(540"-^).

4.

sin

(-270"+^).

10.

cosec(720"-|-^).

5.

sec

(450"+^).

11.

sec

(630"+^).

6.

tan

(1260"-^).

12.

sin

(-180"-^).

7.

cot

(-90"-^).

13.

tan(0"-^).

8.

cosec(-360"-|-^).

14.

cos

9.

cos

(270"-^).

(1080"-^).

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

88
flinctions

The

of

terms

functions

the

of

whatever
certain

angle.

acute

16.

of sinSl?'" in terms

the value

Find

of

the ftmctions

of

angle.

acute

an

in

negative angle

positiyeor

any

expressed

be

may

of

have, by the rule,

We

sin317**=

sin

sin

or,

Express

the

(270"+ 47")
(360"- 43")

following in

of

terms

cos47";

sin 43".

the

functions

of

acute

angles :
cos

17.

tan522".

Express
angles
22.

the

Arts.

31'.

to

sec

19.

cosec230".

45"

28.

may

47, using the

proposed

as

(-72").

terms

of

the

20.

cot](-120").

21.

sin 865"

ftmctions

of

12'.
acute

following

The
40

18.

following in

less than

cot 163"

51.

are

45'.

152"

16.

exercises

sin 588"

be

24.

20'.

derived

from

results of Arts.
for the student.

sec

(-307").

the formulae

17 and

18.

of

They

TRIGONOMETRICAL

THE

FUNCTIONS.

89

EXERCI8E8.

the valnes

Find

of the

following:

1.

cos495".

3.

co8ec(-240").

6.

sin510".

2.

sec870^

4.

tan585".

6.

cot

52.

We

have

180"-^,
H--4,

-4, etc., have

general,that
n

is

0,

preceding articles

360"H-ul, 540"-^,
540""

"

in the

seen

OP

their sines

equal

angles
-360"

to sin^

; or, in

where
n7rH-(" 1)**-4,
its sine

negative integer,has

positiveor

any

that the

-180"-^,

or

in the form

angle

every

etc.,

(-120").

e(][ual'

to sin^.

and

required to

find

infinite number

of

are

be

an

let sin-4
illustrate,

To
We

then

the

given

value

sin^,

of

angle corresponding, there


of

solutions,each

from

know,

which

will

will be

in

-"

18, that

Art.

all the solutions

Then

-"

have

we

n7rH-(" 1)**^.

the form

or

if

follows, then, that

It

value

one

obtained

are

of -4 is 30"

by giving to

the

6
values

0,

or

any

negative integer in

positiveor

the

sion
expres-

n7r-|-(" 1)**"
6

Thus, ' if
if

solution

1, one

is

'

btr

TT

or

tt

6'

2, another

is

tt

-K

or

expression n3r-|-("1)*-

The

of A

in the

sin-4

equation

is called

The

"

"

"

"

^
6'

etc.

"

the

general value

general

value

in any

it

case

may

and

obtained

substitutingit in

In
All

sec^

be

similar

by findingany

general expression W7r+("

the

we

manner

given by

2n7r

derive

may

angles corresponding
are

of the values

one

"

-4.

to

the

given

of

-4,

l)**-4.

following:

value

of

cos

-4

or

of

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

40

angles coirespondiiigto

All

cot^

given by

are

given by

value

of

tan^

given

value

of

cosec^

of

or

to

are

("l)*-4.

n7r

given

+ A.

nw

angles corresponding

All

EXAMPLES.

1.

Find
Art.

By

51

that

see

we

Hence, the general value


2.

Find

-4=

cos

of A

general value

the

the

value

one

is 2n7r

value

general

sec^

when

"

2.

"

2ir

of

is 120

or

"

"

"

"

of

tan^

when

^3

and

"

"

By

18, if tan-4=

Art.

\^3,one

of A

value

is 60**

or

and

-,

hence, the general value


+

isn7r

corresponding

to the

first condition

-.

if co8-4=

And

"

Art.

by

-,

value

of J. is 120"

corresponding to

this condition

51,

one

or

2-.
"

and

2nir"

the

the

expressions

series of

same

value

and

of A

and

wttH--

angles only
lower

the

general value

sign is

when

conditions
2n,r-"

or

3. cosec-4=

of the

followingfind

"

-\/3.

6.

3^
6.

10.sio^

Hence,

"

the

general value

of A

1 and

the

sin-4=-i/2.
cot-4

the

is either

7. cos-4=

2^

4. tan^=l.
9. tan-4

denote

in the first expression,

each

"

in the second.

satisfyingboth

2nir"

is odd

taken

(2m-|-l)7r +
In

is

"

"

Now,

general

"

sec-4

^^3.
=

8. sec-4

\/2.

"

-iV3andcot^ iV3.
=

^2.

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

i2
In
and

following figures let

the
let PM

be
and

OM=b,

Case

II.

OP

represent the angle A,

perpendicular to XX'.

drawn

Let

OF==c.

When

is in the second

quadrant.

By

the

definitions,tan JL

sin^

c
=

Case

in.

When

is in the third

quadrant.

a
c

Here,

tan^

--

008^

sin^

cos^

PM=

a,

THE

Case

FUNCTIONS.

TRIGONOMETRICAL

IV.

Aism^

WTien

43

fourth qmadrant.

S!'

a
c

Here,
b

-4

cos

CtlTl

tan -4

formula

The

yi

thus

has

been

shown

hold

to

cos-4
J

cot^=

since

universally; and,

for any

angle

whatever

tan.^

(Art. 53),

cot -4

have

we

for any

value

of -4.

sin^

55.

To prove

"m^A

H-

Arts.

first

which

sec^-4

1 +

tan

^-4,cosec*-4

1+

cot

*-4,

and

21

; or, what

these
is the

formulaB

thing, for any

same

for

proved

were

angle

any

in the

quadrant.

If A
from

of A.
19

angle

acute

formtUce

value

for any
In

^-4

cos

the

is in the second,

figuresof

the

may

be

the

written

third,

or

fourth

quadrant,

we

preceding article,

in the forms

^+^=1,

Ti-=1+T?^

or

b'

a'

1 +
a'

have,

in either of the

But
is

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

44

oo8*-4

tan"^

-"

oot*^

"="

-5
-5-

sin*A

+ co"^A

sec*-4
,

the value

find the values

Art.

quantity

s^c*^

cosec*-4

=4
=

"s

or

universally

Given

5"
to

have

we

of

square

or

"r

Hence,

the

have

always positive,we
sin"^

figures,since

tan*-4, cosec'-d

1 +

of

of

one

the

1 +

Junctions of

of the remaining functions.

an

cot *A.

angle^

(Compare

16.)

1.

8in.^=

Given

find

values

the

of

the

remaining

functions.
3

By Art.

cosec-4

53,

"

"

"

sm-4

By"^ Art.

cos"^

55,

sin*^

cos^=

Or,

Taking

cos-4=

"

iv^5,we

iv^5

have

*^5
^"""^""cos^-IVs"

sm^

sec^

"

"

-=-"

cos-4

Taking

cos^

"

J ^^5,we

Thus

the

two

t\l^

have, in

tan^='

|v^5

cotJ^=

^sjb

sec-4=

solutions

"

1^5

similar

f v^5

to the

example

are.

manner,

TRIGONOMETRICAL

THE

sec

the

where

signs

upper

co"eoA

f v^5,

"

FUNCTIONS.

and

lower

the

46

signs

be

must

taken

together.
In
in

examples

like

general,have
which

valnes

two

will have

solutions.

two

above

the

but

The

is evident

value

one.

and

this

for

reason

there

is that

value

of Art.

of

equal
the

having

as

to 3 ;

its ordinate

there

and

equal

to

obviously two

are

in

function,

31.

Thus, in the last example, the point of reference

regarded

will,

usually

are

ambiguity

given

the definitions

from

functions

tion,
each, except the reciprocalfunc-

generaltwo angles correspond to


as

remaining

the

such

be

its distance

2, and

"

may

points ;

one

in

third, the other in the fourth quadrant.

2.

cot A

Given

2; find the values

of the

remaining

ftmc-

tions.

By"^ Art.

53,

Art.

55,

By

tan^

cot^

Or,

cosec^J.

cosec-4

cot*^

1 +

Art.

54,

Whence,

cos-4

sec^

the two

solutions

upper

'together.

signs

"

^^5

"

"|^^5
"

-"r-

}i/5

|V5

cos^="|\/5,

and

tan.4

-"

cosec^="\/5,

sec-4="}^5,
the

-^

are,

sin.4="^\/5,

inhere

y5

sin-4cot-4=

cos^
Thus

"

=
^

cosecul

By

^5

"

8in^=

Then,

1+4

the

lower

signs

must

be

taken

PLANE

46

TRIGONOMETRY.

EXAMPLES.

In each

3.

find the values

case

sm^=

7.

"

of

cos^=

the

11.

"

4.

fnnctions

remamiDg

oot-4

"

13

cosec-4="

8.

2.

cot-4

12.

--

sinu4=-

6.

taiiw4="

9.

1.

a-1

co8ecJ.=sa;.

13.

sec^

A^"S.
=

6.

sec^

10.

-.

cos-4=--.

x+l

14. *taii^zs

IV.

GENERAL

FORMULA.
"

S7""

To

of the

terms

Let

AOC
OC
to

find the values


sines

OB

will

denote

Also

0J5.

pendicular to
Since

angles are

the

the

of

angle

(a;+ 2^)and
and

and

draw

BD

cos

(x -f-y)

in

y.

BOC

angle x-\-y.
perpendicular to OA,

the

From
and

angle

any

CB

y ; then

point C in

perpendicular

perpendicular to 0^

and

BE

per

-4 C

the sides
to

cosines

sin

the

denote

CA

draw

and

of

of the

sides of

equal ;

that

angle
the

CE

are

angle AOB^

is, the angle

respectivelyperpendicular
by Geometry

CE

x.

these

GENERAL

We

then

FORMULA.

47

have

AG

"m{x-\-y)

^BD+CE

CE

^BD

DC
BD

GO

GG

GB

BD

But

GG

GG
sma?

-^TTz

cosy

GG

GB

(12)
OD-BE

OA

OD

BE

00

(13)

SBb
terms

Let

To

to

of

sin

(a? y)

cosines

angle a;, and BOO

GB

will

denote
denote

GA

draw

0^.

Also
to

Since

angles are

the

the

angle

of

"

amd

BD

draw
-4 C

"

in

the

angley

any
GB

perpendicularto 0-4,

then

point O

in

perpendicular
and

BE

pendicular
per-

produced.
of the

sides

equal ;

and

(a? y)

cos

y.

From

y.

perpendicular to 0-4,

the sides
to

the

and

"

of the sines and

AGO
OG

find the values

angle B GE

are

respectivelyperpendicular

of the

angle -40J5, b}'Geometry


that is,the angle j5 GE
x.
=

these

TRIGONOAiETRY.

PLANE

48
We

have

now

.AC

sine ^ 0/

v)
^^

"

OC

OC

00

OB

BD

CE

CE

BC
X

sin

Hence,

(a; y)
"

Afifain.
^
'

v)
^^

"

OA
=

00
OD
=

BE

formulae

that

show

90".

aj

and

To

prove

(14)

in Art.

We

acute, and
Since

sma;
"
"-^

cos

V
^

sin
"'"'

y +

cos

sin

v
2f

sin y

a;

since

(is)

them

(15),

large

number

; and

it is necessary

proof of
taken

Art.
and

is not

57

of

other
to

angles, and
formulae

the

deduce

can

we

"

universally,we
the

58,

angles, and
have

we

taken

y.

for all values

true

are

general,since

acute

as

Also, in the proof of Art.

(15)

this result

60.

have

acute

as

and

from

that the

figure we

y "

cosoj

they hold universally.

It is obvious
in the

00

formulae, (12), (13), (14), and

derived

be

can

00

cos

great importance,

of

are

"

00

.
"

BO

fundamental

The

59.

(a? y)

cos

BE
.

BE^BO

00

Hence,

OD
=

00

"

"

OB

(14)

^OB
X

"

00

siny

00

But

v
^

sin

cosoj

"

OD+BE'

"

OD
T,

cosa?

00

sinos cosy

cosio;
^

"

BO

00

as

CE

and

and

BD
=

00

BD
"

BD^CE
=

of

will first show


x

general proof

and

y ; and

of

(12) and

that
from

(13)

62.

first prove

must
x

y "

(14)

and

(15)

when

",y.

have, by Art. 58,

a?, we

sin

{y

"

cos

(y

"

x)

a;)
=

sina?

sin y

cos

"

cosy

cos

a?

-f-sin y sin

cosy

and. y

are

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

50
6L
and

Art.

By

41, if

and

(14)

the formulse

y, for which

assigned

any

are

and

(15) are

values

of

true,

"

sin{90*'+(a

6){

"

{90*-f(a

cos

6) }

cos(a-6)

cos

"

But, by Arts.

(90"4- a)

sin

{b

90")

"

the

Hence,

and

41

sin

"

(a

sin

first of

sin b

(A)

b +

cos

cos

sin 6

50,

6,

cos

sin

6)

cosa,

=s

6 +

cos

sin

cos

(90"+ a)

cos

(b

90")

equations (A)

the

sin b

be

may

sin

"

in

written

either of the forms

sin{(90"+a)" "}=sin(90"+a)

sin{a-(6-90")}

or,

And

the second

be written

may

cosja" (6"90")} =cosa

and

we

and

(14)

with

assigned

values

when

true

Again, by
sin

is

of

90" 4-

and

y, such

as

(15)

and

for

true

are

b, they

6) }

(a

cos

(a

"

cos

sin

(a

sin

6) I

also

are

cos

cos

6)
b

"

sin

sin b

" (B)

b)
b

cos

"

sin b

Since, by Arts.

41

sin

(a

90")

sin

(90" + 6)

"

any

50,

(a

in accordance

increased, or b diminished, by 90".

Art.

90"+

(90"-h a) sin "

equations are

(14) and

cos

6+ sin

cos

is, if the formulae

That

90").

cos(6 -90")+sina sin(6" 90"),

that the last four

(15)

6 ;

in either of the forms

(90"+a)

=:cos

or,

observe

(90"+ a) sin

cos

Binaco8(6-90")-co8asin(6"

cos{ (90"+a)-6}

cost"

"

and

50,

cos

cos

(a

90")

cos

cos

(90" + 6)

"

sin
-

sin 6

GENERAL

the first of the

FORMULA.

equations (b)

be

may

51
written

in either of the

forms
sin

|(a 90'')
-

(a

sin

90")cos

(a

cos

90")sin

b ;

or,

sin|a-(6 + 90")| sinaco8(6-h90")" cosa8in(6-h90"),

and

the second

of

in either of the forms

(B)

cos{(a" 90")

6|

cos(a" 90")cos"-hsin(a" 90")sin6,

"

cos|a" (6+90") \

co8aco3(6+90")

all of which

is, if (14) and

That
of

y^ such

and

diminished,
But
of

and

In
values

or

(15)

as

(14) and

true

are

and

", they

(15)

for any

assigned values

also

are

true

when

y ;

to be true for any acute


proved them
consequently they are universallytrue.

general proof

The
Arts.

58

of

and

(12) and (13) may

of

60, (14) and

and
y ;

putting

(a?-h y)

cos

(a?-h y) =cosa;

aid of Art.

cos(

sin

cos

(a?+ y)

cosa?

cosy

y)

sin(
"

a?

sin( y)
"

cos

a?

sin y

obtain, by Art. 20,

we

"

the fraction
sina?

cos

cosa

cosy

sin

become

"^^^^^"y + ^^"^"^^^

tan(aj-hy)=
^

these

of

term

y^

sina? sin y

"

cosacosy
each

proved for any

cosaj

"

y) -h

"

cosy

Dividing (12) by (13),

Dividing

y)

"

given.

40,

(a?-f-2/)^

+ y)
tan(a;
^

is

values

be

now

were

place of

cos(

sin

(15)

y in

"

sino;

sin

90".

by

b increased,

Reducing by

e^

with

sin(6+90"),

have

we

62.

in accordance

are

-f sina

y
^

sinajsiny
by
cos

cosa:

cosa;

sin y
cosy

r-^

-.

cosa?
cos

cosy

smajsmy

cos

cos

cosy,

cosy

we

have

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

52

+ tany

tanac

(16)

In

Bimilar

tanastany

"

be derived

may

manner

tana?

Dividing (13) by (12)


^.

obtain

we

cosy ^-

cosa;

eot(aj+y)

Dividing each

(17)

tana;tant
tany

l+

64;

tanv

"

sina; sinv

"

;"

-,

'

+ cos2;smy

sina;oosy

by

of the fraction

term

sin
.,

sm

oj cos

sin

a;

sin y

coty

cota?

cosa?

smy

sina;

siny

"

(18)

cotaj

coty +
in

similar

cota? coty

.,

y)

"

derive

we

manner

cot(aj

"

similar

left as

The
to

sin

(19)

"

cota?

"

following formulse
those employed in

exercises

+1

^-r

coty

65.

have

-:

__

And

we

"2

==

siny,

sina^siny

sin y

a;

a;

sina;siny

cosfl;cosy

cot(a;+y)

sin

may

be

dednced

Arts.

63

and

by

64, and

methods

they

are

for the student.

(a?+

+ tany

tanaj

y
^

(20)

""

sin

tana?

(aj" y

cos(aj-|-y

"

tany

"

tana;

tany

tana;

tany

cos(a?

(a?+

"

sin

1+

tana?

4-

tany

_^
"

cos(aj

sin (x

"

"

1 +

tana;

tana;

"

tany

__

oos(aj+

"

tana;

(22)

tany

"

(21)

tany

(23)

FORMULA.

GENERAL

66.

Multiplying (12) by (14) ,

rfin(aj-f-y) sin

sin* x(l

sin* X

sin*

a;

cos*

"

sin* y)

"

result may

jjos

similar

67.

sin* y +

"

sin*

"

Putting y

in

aj

sin 2

a?

cos*

cos* a?

(12)

sin

2 sin

a;

(Art. 19)

sin* y

2a;

cos

tan2a;

y)
(25)

following,
cos* y

sin* a;

"

a? cos

-h

a;

a; cos

cos

aj

sin

(27)

(18), we
sin*

cos*

-^i5B4.

"

a;

obtain

(28)

(29)
^
^

l-tan*aj
cot*a5
a
cot 2a;

(26)

have

we

cos*

"

sin*y

"

19,

the

(13), (16), and

Similarly,from

(1

"

derived

are

(aj y)

a?

"

Art.

by

cos*

"

cos* y

manner

(x -\-y) cos

x) sin* y

(24)

sin*

"

also be written
"

In

(1

"

sin* y

"

(a;-f-y) sin (aj y)

An

sin* y

sin* x sin* y

"

obtain

we

y)

"

sin* X cos* y

This

(x

68

"

/"^\
(30)
^
^

2cota;
t

Art.

By

19, (28) may


cos2a;
2

cos

or

68.
1 +

(31)

From
cos

Dividing

a;

cos

"

(32)

2 cos*

and

a;

"

2 sin*

and

"

by

2 sin* a;
=

l-hcos2a;

2 cos*

forms

(31)

a;

(32)

have

we

of these

the second
1"

2cos*a;

a;

in either of the

be written

a;

cos

a;

2 sin*

(33)

the first,

tan*a;

(34)

PLANE

54

TRIGONOMETBT.

have

Dividing (27) by (33), we


sin 2

2Bina;co8a;

a;

sin 2

69.
and

In

"

-"r-z

_^._
cota;

^-_v
(36)

2Bm'a;

(33),(34),(35),and (36),writing x

therefore

^x in place of

2 cos*

^05

1 -h COS

we

Xy

2 sin' ^05=

place of 2x,

cos

"

(37)

a?

l+

tanix

in

obtain

x,

'

And,

2sin2;cosa;
=

oos2a;

"

/..v
(35)

2cos'a;

a;
"

tana;

l-|-coB2a;
and

co8a"

-^^^

(39)

l +

cosa?

cos

"

a;

last two,

by invertingthe

taniaj

cosa;

"

(".)

-,

sma?

14-

^,

cot^a?

cosa?

/.-x

!-;

"

(42)

sina?

70.

By Art.

67,

Bin(a?f y-f-2)

sin{(aj4-y)-f-"|

sin

(a?+ y) cosz

(sina;

cosy

-f

cosa?

-f-(cosa;cosy
=

sina? cosy
-f-cos

Similarly,from
Bos(a5+

y +

2;)
=

(13)
cosa;

cosy
"^

From

(16) we

we

obtain

sin

cosa?
X

sin y) cos
sina?

"

siny) sina?

siny

cosa;

y sin

cos

(a?+ y) smz

cos

2;

"

sin

cosa?
x

sin y sin

(43)

derive
cosa;
X

cos

"

sina;

y sin

2;

"

siny
cos

cos2
a;

siny sina; (44)

GENERAL

^('"
^

FOEMUKffi.

taii(aj
+ v) +

65

tan2;

^"=l-4nT/+T)ta".
\

+ y +

tanajtany

"

__

\1

tana?

"

tan y/

tanaj+tany+tanaj"

tan"

tanajtany

In
x

similar

manner

(13), (14), and


angle

component

terms.

71.

In

sin 3a;
3

in terms

a;

sin

a? cos

2x

=3

cos

a; COS

tan
ox

sin

a;

sin

a;

3 sin

cos

2 cos*

4 cos*

a;

sin 3a;

cos

3a;

sin

"

tan

"

67,

(1

",

"

the

of

functions

we

a;

sin 2a?

a;

sin 2

any

of

its

have

then

a;

2 sin*

a;

4 sin*

"

tan

obtain

we

(2 cos^a;

2 sin^ x) -f-cos

"

"

a;

"

Art.

by

a;

Whence,

of

-f-cos

-f-tan

tan

the

a;

functions

(16) put y=2x;

and
,

of

tany

applicationsof (12)

obtain

may

whatever

(12) (13)

cos

we

tana;

functions

the

fact, by successive

(15),

compound

tans; tana;"

derive

we

in

z^ etc. ;

y +

"

tans;"

tany

"

__

3 cos

"

a;

(2 sin

(1

sin^

"

cos

x)

x)

(Art. 19)
(46)

1)

"

a;

cos

"

2 sin

"

"

sin

cos

a;

(2 sin

(1

"

cos

cos^

x)

x)
(Art. 19)
(47)

2 tana;
.

tana;H

,
r-

tan^a;

1"
tan 3a;

/
1

2 tana;

tana;

"

Vl-tan^a;;
3 tan
1

These
and

three

a;
"

"

tan* a;

results may

(45) by putting y
,

(48)

3tan2a;

and

also be obtained
z

each

equal

to

from
x.

(43) (44)
,

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

and

Let

(12) (13) (14)

From

72.

a?

Then,

tion
obtain, by addi-

we

2 sin

sin

(a?+ y) -f

sin

(a? y)

sin

(" -h y)

sin

(X'-y)=:

coso?

sin y

cos

(a;+ y) -h

cos

(a? y)

cosa;

cosy

cos

(a;+ y)

cos(a? y)

+ y

"

"

"

+COS"

cosa

and

y=

2sin

=s

2sin

"

(o

a;

cosy

siny

6).

"

(a + ") cos } (a

2cosi(a
2

cos6

"

y:==b.

"

sin"=

"

have

+ sin6

sina
cosa

"

(a + 6), and

aj=

Replacing

"

a, and

sina

cos

2 sin

"

by

and

a;

")sin }(a

6)

"

(a -f 6) cos } (a

6)

"

} (a -h 6) sin J (a

"

6)

obtain

we

y,

6)

"

sina; +

siny=

2 sin i

(a?-h y) cos J (a? y)

(49)

sina;

siny=

cos

(a?+ y) sin i (aj y)

(50)

cos

(a?-h y) cos } (a? y)

(51)

2 sin J

(a?-f-y) sin i (a? y)

(52)

"

cosa?+cosy=
cosa?

cosy

"

"

""

"

"

"

By dividing (49) by (50), we

have

sina; +

siny_2sinK^+y)co8K^

sinaj

siny

"

student
sin

a;

cosa?

tan

J(aj+ y)cot i(a; y)

tan

K^

"

;
tan

"

!/

a;

"

sin y
^

+ cosy

v)

.1 \

(^^- 14)
_x

y)

"

following in

similar

^\

(53)

J (a;

the

prove

-f sin y
^

y)

"

'

manner

'

tan

tan

J(aj+ y)

+ cosy

cosa;

sin

may

"

J(a;-|-y)sin
J(a; y)

2cos
=

The

subtraction,

Substituting,we

73.

(15)

and

a/

K"
\

y)
^/

(54)
v

(55)
\

TRIGONOMETRy.

PLANE

58
7"
In

of the functionsof 22}** and

the values

Topid
(37), put

a;

45**.

have, by Art.

then

We

and

equation by 2,

each

17,

2cos"22}**=l-f^

2sm*22i**=l-^
Dividing

67}**.

extracting

the

square

root,

i^SZI

sin 22 J-

AS^

eos22}*"=

positivesign

The
since

22}** is

the

radical

in the

first

of

angle

an

is taken

quadrant,

here, because,
all its flmctions

positive.

are

Putting

0?

45** in

tan'22}**=

(41)

(42) ,

and

Ill50i45:

have

we

l^i^2 2^

sin 45**

}v^2

v^2

cot22}**=i"^:5i^
i/2+l
=

sin

Then, by Art.

45

22,

sec22}**=Vl+

tan*22r

=rVl + 2-2^2
Vl

cosec22}**=

ierived the functions

76.
If

find the

To

a;

==

values

a?,

22}**,we

2v^2
have

thus

of the sines and cosines of 18" and

a;

2sina;cosa;
cos

also

of 67}**.

sin 2

Dividing by

=V4

of

18% 2 a; is the complement

Whence,

V4-2v^2

+ cot^22i**

67i** is the complement

Since

+ l

2 sin

a;

of
3

3 a;, and

cos

4co8^aj

4 cos^

4~4sin*a?-3

we

72**.

shall have

05

a;

"

"

3cosa;

(Art. 71)

(Axt. 19)

GENERAL

FORMUKffi.

69
ft

We

to solve

then

have

the

4 sin^oj+

quadraticequation
2 sina?

:s=

8inx=r:l"i^l"i=:::l"^

Thus.

18" is in the first quadrant, its sine is

Since
the upper

be

sign must

given

to the

positive; hence,

radical, and

have

we

Therefore,

cosl8"=Vl-smn8"

Jfl^tl^\

1/10 -f 2 i/5\

\|(,"
J=
16

And,

since

18" is the

-^
sm72^=^^
.

VlO

Vl0-f-2i/5
4-

complement

+i 2J5
3^"
"

and

of

72", we

\/5

"oo
oos72

To

find the

"

values

cos36"=:cos(2

of the
X

"

=-i

77.

have

18")

16

and

sines

cosines

o/36"

l-28in*18"

54".

(Art. 67)

16

and

Therefore,
=

since

sm54

36" is the

=J^

Lt^\

Y10-2\^5"^^VlO-2\/5

='

And,

Jfl

Vl-.cos^36"

sin36"=

^2"
"

and

54

co8

54", we

of

complement

J^"-

=J^

78.
that

If

Ay By and

is, if -4 + JS+

have

C denote
(7=

the

180", to

angles of

prove

the

plane trianglci

relations,

PLANE

60

sin^

TRIGONOMETRY.

sin (7=

+ sin^-f

4cos"

cos"

cos"

cos2-4

+ cos2J5-f-cos2(7=
J. + 5 4-0=

Since

"

2
4

"

180%

J^

cos

cos

(7

cos

have

we

J5+C=180**-^

Now,
sin^

(49) ,

by (27) and
+

+ sin C

sin5

2sm

ifhich,by (a) and

2cos

^
2

^
s=4cos

Again, by (31) and

-l

cos2^

"

"-^

"

by (13) and

"

(15)

si

(51)

(7

2cosM

cos

(7
cos"

"

+ cos2 J5 + cos2

we

cos

5
cos

"

Hence,

2cos:^(^cos^-hcos^Z:^

But, by (A)

^
o
+ 2cos"

cos-"

cos2^

13,

~=-

"

^
"

B-\-0

o
=

"

Art.

cos-i

-i-"

h2sm

cos

"

(5

+
-f-O)

2cos(5+(7)cos(S
=

"

cos

J^

"

(7)

(Art. 43)

have

-i-C0S2-B
=

+ cos2

(7

0)

l-2cos^cos(5+C)-2cos^cos(J5"

"

-l-2cos^[cos(5-f(7)

"s

"

"

4cos-4

cos

JB

cos

(7,

cos(5-(7)]
by (13) and

(15)

GENERAL

FORMULiE.

61

EXERCISES.

79.
1

Prove

the

following relations
siny +

1.

/AKO
\
sm(45"-hy)=;

2.

tan(60---y)=
"^
^^

3.

'

eosec

a;

2.

"

^^7^^^.
l+V^Stany

} sec

cosv

^^

eoseca;.

c(MA

sin-4

6.

sin 4 -4

6.

cos

7.

sina?

8.

tana? +

4 sin -4

4-4

S sin*-4

"

A,

cos

cos* -4 4- 8 cos*^.

1"8

cos

(1 + tana?)+

(1 + cota?)

cosa?

seca?

coseca;.

cota?

sin

9.

"

-r-r

a;

(1 + tana?)*" (1 "tana?)'
\
i-z
f:

"

"
8in2aj.

(l4-tanaj)2+(l-tana;)2
10.

sec

11.

cota?

12.

sec^a?cosec^a?

18.

1 H-

cos

14.

cosy

16.

tan(30"+2/)tan(30"-y)

a;

1 +

tana;

tana?

"

cos

tan 2a;.

2 cot 2

cos

a;.

sec^a? + cosec^a?.
a? sin^y+
(sin*

2^=2

(120**+y) +

cos* a?

(120"-y)

cos

17.

cos

(a?-f-2/)
"

sin^sin(5-C)

sin* a?
+
+

cos

0.

|^i|j^l.
+
1

2cos2y

16.

cos*y).

cos

(2 a; + y)

sinBsin(0-^)
sinOsin(^-JB)

0.

18.

sin

19.

4aina?sin(60"+a?)sin(60"-a;)=ssin3".

(2a;

y)

"

2 sin

a; cos

(x + y\

siny.

PLANE

62

TRIGONOMETRY.

16 sin* a?.

20.

ein6x:=s5

21.

-3sm3a;.
4sm"ajH-4Bin"(120"H-a?)-h4sm"(240"H-a?)

22.

cos

sina?

20sin*a" +

"

(^

H-

(^

JB)cos

JB)+

(B

cos

C)

C)

(JB

cos

-4)=cos2^-hco82P-fco82C.
H-co8((7-h-4)coB((7"
or

23.

cosjr

Oil

24.

cosSa?

"

the

"
=tan2a;.

sino;

"

co8*(aj"
y)

"

followingrelations

26.

COS

C denote

A, jB,and

If

"

sin3fl;

25.

1/

"

--^-

4co8'

+ siny)*-H(co8a5
-f-cosy)*
(sino;

(a" y)cos
the

a?

cosy

angles of

sin^a;-f-sin'y"1.

plane triangle,prove

cos-4-HcosjB-|-cos(7=

+4:sin

sin

"

27.

tan^

28.

sin -4 -f-sin JB

-\-tan JB -f tan (7=tan-4

"

sin (7

sin

"

29.

sin2^

30.

cos

sin2 JB +

hcos

sin2 (7=

cos

cos

sin JB

am

(7.

/'45"
H"

^^

") ^5" +
cos

MISCELLANEOUS

V.

"

"

4sinu4

"

"

cos

"

"

C.

tan JB tan

4 sin

sin

"

cos

("45"\
-

THEOREMS.
35

Sin

80l

To

find

the

"

limitingvalues of

the

and

fractions
a?

"

when

is

decreased,
indefinitely

.Note.

In

such

fractions

and

as

expressed

in

circular

measure

(Art.6).

is supposed
*^*^

to

be

MISCELLANEOUS

XOP

Let

describe

the

at P

arc

FXP'

TP

; draw

being taken

to a;, a;

centre, and

as

any

TP'

and

right trianglesOPT

the

radius

tangents

OP'

and

Also, PM^P^M,

PT=P'T.

have

eqnal

68

as

OX,
to this

P', respectively,and join PP^.

and

Then
we

arc

be each

With

angle.

acute

an

P' OX

and

THEOJREMS.

equal, and

are

and

OX

is perpendicular

to PP\

By Geometry,
ArcPP'"

PP', and

chord

"PTP^

"

Hence,

ArcPX

"P3f

ArcPX

^PM

Therefore,
OP
Or

and

"PT

^PT

OP

OP

(Art. 5),
circular

of

measure

Representing

the

a?

sin

"

circular

a?

andJ

by

a;

simply,and

^tana;
"-;

"

or

sma;

sma;

That

a;

have

"

"1

(A)

tana?

"

of

measure

dividingthrough by sina;,we
^

and

cos

a;

sma;

is,

"

and

"cosa?.

But,
the

as

limit,we

decreases, cos

a;

approaches

have
sma;
=

1.

(Art.36), Hence,

at

PLANE

64

TRIGONOMETBT.

sin

tana?

A
Again,

o^ooBo;

coso;

indefinitely,

decreases

amx
=

As

a?

limit

the

approaches

1,

just proved, and

as

approaches
cos

Hence,

1.

at the

Urnit,

2D

have

we

tanfl5__
X

It is evident
of

small

very

these

from

results that the sines and

tangents

approximatelyproportional to

angles are

the

angles themselves.

8L

To

find

limitingvalue of (cos

the

when

ia in^

increased.
definitely

(cos^y=(coe"?y=(l-ei
Expanding by

the

BinomialHieorem,

2 sm"5 + i^"
1
/"cos^Y^
2

W5

n)

n*/l

""

...

-^

[2

"

obtain

we

1\

40?
"

1\

n
,

ny

V2

2
'

ny4"i"

n'

2nl

When

aX

'

2n

""

aX

^2

"

"J
n*

\2

is indefinitely
increased,

n)4.n^\x

is indefinitely
decreased,

sm-

and

consequently

approaches
X
n

the limit 1

(Art.80)

PLANE

66

the
Substituting

TRIGONOMETRY.

values

of

and

tana?

11

y)=L4

tan(a:+

^^l

l^i
6

Hence,

value

one

of

have

tan 2^, we

a;-4-y is

(Art. 17);

that

is,

Is

one

^
11

value

tan-^i + tan-^i is

of

3.

Prove

-"

that

of cos~^

value

one

".

"'"

-f-cos~^

\3

rcosaj=

^^""\|q~*1

Let

j^

whence,

"

.i3-ft/6

"

"

"

8-fi/6

cos-^-:il3L.=yJ |^cosy
--:Y^
=

Vl

Bina?=

Hence,

cos*a;=

"

k/1

-7-

5/2^^
siny=J^l-l^^)

and

^3\^2-^/3
6

Hence,

+
cos(a,
^
^^^ y)

j?

i"^6-i-

^^^i^iV?

"

\3

"/3

^8^2-f 2v^3-3^2H-\/3^3v/3^1
6"/3
Therefore,
of

cos-^

value

one

Jl

4-cos^

of

_l8+i/6
^"
""

"

3^ is 60** or

a;

6"/3
; that
^
^

is,one

value

TT

18

"

EXERCISES.

4.

From

6.

From

prove

the

the

formula

formula

sin 2

sin

a;

2 sin

-f y)
(a;

sin

cos

a;

cos

y +

h^

1^

prove

cos

the relation

sm-^a

sin-16

sin''\a^1-V

a').

the

sin y

THEOREMS.

MISCELLANEOUS

6.

the formula

From

tan 2

a;

7.
AJt.

From

the formula

;"

-f oot

a?

eosec

that

one

^a

cosec^f

value

of

)"

"

"

tan""^- -f 2 tan"^

Prove

that

one

value

of

cot~^

Prove

that

one

of sin"^ ^

value

is

|-eot"^3

"

"

"

10.

-"

-f oot~^

is

9.

(see Ex. 8,

the relation

79), prove

Prove

tan"^

tan

2 tan

8.

the relation

prove

r-

tan*a?

1"
2 tan~^

6T

is

-"

11.

Prove

that

one

value

of

cos"^

^
h cosec"^

",

"/82
12.

Pi-ove

that

tan

SOLUTION

83.

OF

Solve

the

Art.

By
That

19,

(2 tan"^ a)

2eos^a?"

"

2 sin^a?

5eosa?"

2 oos^a: +

is,

tan"^

a*)
.

EQUATIONS.

TRIGONOMETRIC

equation

-"

(tan"^a

2 tan

is

"

cos

a;

"

cos

a;

4=0.

"

0
2

"

--^"^25-16

Whence,

cosa?

-5"3

1
"

"

or

The

result

the cosine
we

of

2 is

"

inapplicable,
as, by

angle

an

Art.

lie between

must

have

39, the value

1 and

"

1.

of

Thus,

cosa;

One

value

of

is 120"

or

(Art. 51)

"

3
27r

aj"2w7r"

"

Ans^

Hence, by Art. 52,

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

68
2.

Solve

By Art.

equation

the

is

solution

value

of

la

a;

^"^,

67,
1

One

tan

tan*

"

evidently

x.

3 tana:.

a?

tana;

(Art. 52).

nir

6 tan

in

0;

this

the

Dividing by tana;,

general
have

we

In

following,find

the

3.

sin

4.

sina;=sin3aj.

6.

cosa;

6.

sin 2

a;

sin 2

a;.

cota: =1.
a?

cot

exponent

equal

sina;

base
is the

expressed

cos

8.

aj)
tan(45"" aj)-f-cot(45""

9.

sin

a;

2 sin

a;.

sin

logarithm of

(a -|-a;) co8(a
=

sin

cos

(a;+ ^)

x.

x)

"

4.

"

to

to

qimntity

which

the

base

is

the

raised

to

given base

must

be

quantity.

Thus, if a'=m^
the

LOGARITHMS.

of the power

the

(Divide by

VI.
The

of

7.

x.

10.

84.

the values

must

be

logarithm

is the
raised
of

exponent
to
to

equal
the

of
the

base

the

power

quantity m
a;

which

to which
; that

is

is.

briefly

69

Hence, in the system whose

log9

logi

2,

Again,

1,

suppose

base

logi
=

2,

is 3,

logl

ss

0, log3

1,

etc.

10.

Then, since
10"

=1,

O^log^l

10^

=10,

logiolO

10*

=100,

logMl00

10*

=1000,

3=logMl000

10-'=

-l

log3o.l

-2

logio.Ol

10-"=TTAnr= -001,

-3

logw.001

is, in the system whose

base

10-'=

That

rb

1, Iogl00=2,

log.001=
86.

3,

"

The

=-1"

tV

-01,

logl000

of

the

only system

in

practicaluse

System

or

the eo^onent

of

for numerical

Briggs' System,

Hence, the definition of the

is 10.

quantity is

thai power

in which

logarithm

common

of

putations
com-

10 which

eqtujia

quantity,

87.

It is

which

result

Art.

of

in

common

denotes

the

customary

Bubscript10,
the

3, log.l

0, log10
logl
-l,
log.01=-2,

etc.

is the Common
the base

is 10,

85

as

follows

logarithmsto
base; hence
:

we

omit

may

the

write

\
TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

70

logl=0
log10
loglOO

log1000
The

second

in
preferable

8"

If

log.01

log.001

form

part of the

the solution of

is not

find from

we

the

decimal

with

that

column

is

of 10, its

power

common

1.113943.

the

In

13.

the mantissa

is .113943.

first colimin

of Art.

1 and

between
10

100 and

this

87 that

10 is

equal to 0
100 is equal to 1 plus
is equal to 2 plussome

and
1000

the left of its decimal

point is

10 ; of

and

some
some

decimal

"

"

"

point is 1 ;

the second

or

is

10 ; between

of Art. 87

between

equal to

between

two

the

.1 and
.01 and

1 and

plus some

.01
.001

we

is

.1

see

lies

decimal

equal to
is equal to

8
7

plus
plus

10 ; etc.

isjthe characteristic
zeros

column

number

any

10,

number

any

decimal

point is 0 ; with
with three figures
to

2 ; etc.

from
Similarly,
the logarithm of

no

10

table,

between

; between

figureto

between

with

is,the characteristic of the logarithmof any number

one

That

; etc.

left of the

"

exact

number

to the left of the


figures

90.

10

examples.

an

from

logarithmof any
decimal ;
plus some

That

It is evident

decimal

that approximately 10^"^**'


signifies

the

some

of the results in the second

the characteristic is 1, and

89.

etc.

logl3

case

9-10

part the mantissa.

Thus,

This

onlybe expressed approximately; the integral


and
the
logarithmis called the characteristic,

logarithmcan
decimal

number

log.l=-l

between

of

the

the decimal

logarithmof
point

and

any decimal
first figurei"

LOGARITHMS.

9, with

after

"10

zero

between

the

mantissa

figureis 7,
9L

its

with

mantissa

and

90

I.
is

between

its

will be

based

are

the

on

one

10

after

"

point

and

first

; etc.

given

last

with

hereafter

portions

only

the

the characteristic

of

rules

for

Arts.

89

If

the number

less than

figure is 8, with

the mantissa

after

decimal

any

logarithm is given in the tables ;


be supplied by the reader.
The

must

characteristic

first

zeros

which

reasons

of the

and

two

10

"

of

mantissa;

point

with

For

the

71

greater than

is

the number

unity, the characteristic

of figures to the leftof the decimal

point.
If the number

II.

is less than

by subtractingthe number

found

point and

unity, the characteristic


of

between

zeros

first significant
figure from

9 ;

is

the decimal

writing

10

"

after

the mantissa.
For

example,

characteristic

of

log 906328.5

characteristic

of

log .00792

5 ;

7, with

10

"

after the mantissa.


It is

it should

part

customary in practiceto omit

of

preciselythe

logarithm.

in

operations

tissa
man-

for, and
the

as

it useful

to

it cannot

problems

some

allowed

be

will find

Beginners

and

should

same

10 after the

"

however, that it is reallya

remembered,

logarithm, and

the
to

cases

be

the

of

rest

write

jected
subthe

it in

all

conveniently

be

omitted.

Many

Note.
of

writers,in dealing
less than

numbers

student
the

Thus,
will

instead

frequently find

characteristic

to

denote

being always positive.


ience

of

of

using

numbers

The

the

characteristics
the

unity, combine

eharacteristic,writing the result


mantissa.

with

such

as

that

expression

an

minus

it alone

objection to

partly positiveand

is

as

before

7.603582

sign being
negative,

this notation

the

arithms
log-

portions of the

negativecharacteristic

3.603582

two

of

"

10, the

written

the

the

over

mantissa

is the inconveU'

partly negative.

PLANE

72

TRIGONOMETRY.

PROPERTIES

"

In any

92.

system tJie logarithm of unity

For, since a"


93.

In

any

a, for any

value

system whose

base

logarithm of zero
For

For

is minus

since, when

In

number

"

since, when

95.

of a, 0

zero.

log^l.

a"*

is

log^a.

greater than

unity^ the

=_

-^
a

0,

"

oo

"

a*=

the

0,

oo

the

log.O.

0 is +

oo

log^O.

logarithm of

offactorsis eqvxd to

00

unity, the logarithm of

a"l,

system

any

of a, 1

infinity.

is less than

If the base

value

is

is unity.
system the logarithm of the hose itself

any

In

1, for any

For, since a^
94.

LOGARITHMS.

OF

the

product of any

of the logarithmsof those

sum

factors.
Assume

the
a"

equations
^

r
whence, by Art.

"

84,

That

a' X

the

np

values
.

"

logarithm

any

log""

"

log"l"
etc.

of

^log^mnp***

log"w + log^p +

this theorem

composite

of each

X-"=mnp"'

of a, y, 2, etc.

log"m

applicationof

of

a'

y-\-^-\

log^m

a'-^^+'+'-=mnp"'

Whence,

By

a* X

is,

Substitutingthe

Iog.m

V.

Multiplying,

"

a'=p
etc.

a;

number,

its factors.

we

may

provided

"

"

find
we

"

the
know

rithm
logathg

PLANE

74

TRIGONOMETRY.

EXAMPLES.

Given

log2

calculate

97.
is

0.301030, log3

0.477121, log 7=

0.845098,

1.

log 15.

4.

log175.

7.

log7f

2.

log 125.

6.

log3f

8.

log".

8.

log^.

6.

logllf

9.

log5f

In any

eqwxt

to

system the logarithmof any power


the

exponent of the
Assume

the

logarithm of

quantity

quantity multipliedby the

power.

equation
a*=

Raising both

the

of

whence,

m,

members

of the assumed

log^m
equation

the

to

p^h.

power,
a^^im'

whence,

px

Substitutingthe

value

Ic^.^'

of a;,

log,m'=j9log,m
Given

Example.
of

required the logarithm

log 2 =.801030,

2*.
log 2*

I log2

-X

.301030

.501717.

Ans.

EXAMPLES.

log2 =.301030,

Given

log 3

.477121, calculate

1.

log 3*.

8.

logl2-".

6.

log 432*.

2.

log 2^.

4.

log 3-*.-

6.

logl296-t.

LOGARITHMa

98.
is

In

of the

system the logarithm of any

any

to the

equal

75

logarithm of

the quantity divided

quantity

by

the index

root.

1
r

log,^m

For,

Given

Example.

(^2.
log^2

of

of

root

log,(m")

log 2

log,m

(Art. 9 7)

required the logarithm

.301030,

|log2=

.301030

Ans.

.060206.

EXAMPLES.

log2

Given

.301030, log3

log^3.

1.

.477121, calculate

3.

logv^648.

6.

logv^ll25.

4.

log"/75.

6.

logv^l6875.

'

logV24.

2.

In the

d9.

system, the

common

the

having

of all numbers

mantissoe

same

sequence

that

log3.053

of the logarithms

of figures will be the

same.

example,

For

suppose

log 30.63

Then,

Iog30530

log (3.053 X 10000)

.484727

integralpower
the

same

logarithms will
to

be

+
a

of 10,
sequence

the

log 3.053

log 10000

4.484727.

log3.053

clear,then, that if

having

Or,

.484727

log (3.053 x .01)


=

any

1.484727.

.484727+1

log .03053=

by

log3.053-f log.lO

It is

log (3.053x 10)

.484727.

10

number

8.484727
be

10 ; etc.

multipliedor

thereby producing
of

log.01

figures,the

another

mantissse

ber
num-

of their

same.

if log3.053
illustrate,

.484727, then

log30.53

1.484727

log.3053

9.484727

log305.3

2.484727

log .03053

8.484727

log3053

3.48472r

log .003053

7.484727

etc.

divided

etc.

10

10
10

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

76
We

now

may

only

the

mantissae

find the

to

are

mantissa

the

table, and

of

depending

we

the

rules

number,
of

figurescomposing

of

Art.

91,
wish

we

only

have

we

prefix the

then

for, if

to

find

it from

characteristic,

proper

point,in

ance
accord-

91.

property of logarithms is only enjoyed by the

for numerical

constitutes

its

mon
com-

all others

superiorityover

computations.

Given

to calculate

Us

Assume

the

the

logarithmof

logarithm to

quantity to

certain

hase^

other base.

any

equations

f
6"
From

any

position of the decimal

system, and

100.

in the

sequence

can

the

on

with

the

table ;

given

in Art.

stated

wh}', as

reason

of

logarithm

the

This

the

see

'^}whence, I^^J^ga

m)

the assumed

ly

equations,
a"

6^,

a^

or

-sslog^d,

Whence,

==

^
or

y=

log.6

y
the
Substituting

logi

values

of

a;

and

y,

log.6
That

is,if

we

its

logarithm

the

logarithm of

lOL
and

To

to

show

know

the

any

other

logarithm of

to

base, 6, is found

6 to the base

that

certain

base,

a,

by dividingby

a.

logab x log^a

1, for any

values

of

b.

Putting

in the result of Art.

log,a

|^=-ilog.b

Whence,

100,

log"6 X log^a

log^b
=

1.

(Art.93^

LOGARITHMS.

The

theorem
the

Assume

proved independently as follows

be

may

77

equation,
a*

6,

whence

log^b

log5a

Then,

Jf^a^

Therefore,

\ogJ)

whence

log^a

a?

102.

The

of Arts.

followingexamples

95, 96, 97, and

illustrate

the

98.

logf^y=^log2

1.

|(loga-log")

logV^^^V^^
log(v^aX
=

Reduce

the

(Art. 97)

do

\oJ

2.

76)

(Art. 96)

Xog^c

(Art. 96)

logv^aH-logy^6 log{/c

(Art. 95)

logc

(Art. 98)

"

loga

following to

logft

"

their

simplest forms

log5L^.

4.

log(yaxyxc^).6. logrf^.

6.

log?-*. 7. logV^.

3.

8.

9.

OF

103.

THE

The

mantissse

calculated

of
to

log(^|-^(cd)-^).

TABLE

first table
the
six

log-V^6c*d"

\oc

USE

applications

OF

LOGARITHMS

(Appendix,

OF

pages

logarithms of all numbers


decimal
places. On the

1 to

from

NUMBERS.

16) gives the


1 to

first page

10000,
of

the

PLANE

78
table

are

This

table

the

mantissae

To

logarithms of
is added
to be

are

the

find

TRIGONOMETRY.

the

simply
found

numbers

for

1 and

convenience,

in the other

logarithm of

between

the

as

same

part of the table.

number

any

100.

consistingof four

figures.
Find, in the column

given
will

number.

be

found

headed

Then

the mantissa

in the

horizontal

vertical column

which

at the

If

top.

found,

are

only

mantissa

consists

of six

of the
line

the fourth

has

corresponding, in

be

vertical

same

example,

log 140.8

2. 148603

log .05837

8.766190

3.930236

log8516
For

number

three

consistingof

table,which

of the

page
of

needs

corresponding in

log 94.6
To

104.

or

two

the mantissa
the
which

istic
character-

proper

10

the first

figures,use

headed

the column

from

column,

explanation ;

no

in the column

figures,look

mantissa

one

the

ber
given num-

obtained

figures. Finally,prefix the


(Art. 91).

For

the

figuresof

figures may

above, in the

required logarithm

figureof

last four

the

the first two

nearest

N, the first three figuresof the

for

N, and

headed

0.

number

take

For

the

ple,
exam-

=1.975891.

find

the

logarithm of

of

number

than

more

four

figures.
For

example,

From

the

That

increase
.78

decimal

of

increase
.000132

of

to find

3.517987

log3297

3.518119

one

in the

unit in the number

logarithm. Then,

in the number

will

in the

logarithm

.000103

place.

log 3296.78.

log 3296

unit

of .78

.000132

required

find

table, we

is, an

increase

let it be

produce
to

produces

an

an
evidently',
an

increase

the nearest

of

sixth

LOGARITHMS.

79

"

'

Therefore,

log 3296.78

log 3296

.000103

3.517987

.000103

Note.

The

foregoing

differences

of

logarithms

for

We
Mnd

the table

in

the

found

Fmd

the above

from

but

their

sufficiently

the mantissa

this and

headed

of the

each

on

point.
next

difference,
page

see

differenceby

with

decimal

the rest

of the figuresof

point before them.

of the firstfour figures.

characteristic.

proper

logarithm

the

of .02243076.
Mantissa

Tabular

operation :

of the firstfour significant

the result to the mantissa

Prefix the
1.

of

position of the decimal

in the column

given number,

Add

the

regard to

Multiply the tabular


the

differences

of four figures; (calledthe tabular

below)

Note

that the

strictlycorrect,

the mantissa

between
difference

higher number
to be

following rule

the

figures,without

and

the

to

assumption

practicalpurposes.

derive

Find

is not

the

upon

proportional

are

which

corresponding numbers,
exact

is based

method

Ans.

3.518090.

difference

of 2243

350829

=194

15

"076

350844

1.164

13.58

Correction

=14.

744

nearly.

=15,

Ans.

To

Note.

figure of
the

find

whole

headed

.02243076, the

tabular
from

the mantissa

nearest

column

the

the

number
D

last

in

to

tabular

193, the

the

figure of

difference.

number

last

ending

greater mantissa, 3 ; 9 from


in 4

difference

same

the

in

in

the

that

mantissa

13 leaves

mentally,

figureof

line.

subtract

For

10.

"

the

greater, and

the next

figure to

the

number

in

last
take
the

instance, in finding log

of 2243

4, and

column

8.350844

is 9, and

the nearest

headed

D,

is

of

number

194, the

the next

ending
proper

80

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

EXAMPLES.

Find

logarithms of

the

followingnumbers

the

2.

.053.

6.

33.6908.

10.

912.255.

3.

51.8.

7.

.0602851.

11.

.876092.

4.

.2956.

8.

65000.68.

12.

7308.078.

6.

1.0274.

9.

.001030741.

13.

.0436927.

14.

Given

log7.83

.89876,

log7.84

find

.89432;

1(^

78309.

16.

log .05230

Givenlog .05229=8.718419-10,

=8.718502

10; find log 52.2938.

"

16.
find

log315.09= 2.4984346;

log315.08 =2.4984208,

Given

log .003150823.

17.

logl8.84=1.275081, log 18.87=1.275772;

Given

find

log.188527.
18.
find

log 9. 5338

Given

For

To

find

example,

logarithm is
Since

the number

let it be

point, and

in

We

the

of
increase

logarithm.
number

all of

one

table

the

is

the

the

whose

positionof

mantissa

ing,
correspond-

number,

or

corresponding

mantissa

693815, of which

the mantissa

693903,

is 4942.

of 88 in the mantissa

in the mantissa

produces

an

corresponding. Hence,
will

produce

an

increase

.34, nearly. Therefore,


4941

the

of figures

sequence

number

4941, and

unit in the number

of 30

the

point, by considering the

number

increase

unit in the

Number

affects

way

corresponding number

is, an

That

depends only on

obtain

can

find in the

corresponding

of which

find the

required to

no

except the decimal

only..

3.693845.

corresponding, we

correspondingto

the characteristic

decimal

of

792660, log 9. 5342 =.9 792843

log95.34071.

105.

the

=.9

4- '34

4941.34.

Ans.

of

crease
inan

ff

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

82
14.

Given

log 113 =2.05308,

Given

log .08630

10 ; find number

"

16.

Given

17.

log 7.3488

find number

have

the

the

Multiplication,and
the

written

the

the

parts of

mantissa

characteristic

For

should

28.964316"30

Subtraction.

2.
a

less,or
the

by 10,
For
the

in

the

be

being

example,

minuend

should

the

be

from

than

to 8.964316

both

will make

as

10.

changed

form

have

as

in
"

form

the

10,

we

have

the

3.121468
12.503964
a

3.354802;

to
10

"

; etc.

should

mantissa
from
"

to

increased

be

compensate.

2.503964,

we

write

10; subtracting from

result 9.382496"10.

9.635321-10

minuend

minuend

after

subtract

to

we

of

written

in the

subtract

this 9.635321

less

are

standing

9, subtract

mantissa

changed

etc.,

In

characteristic

"10

the

few

subtractinga greater logarithm from


a
tive,
posisubtracting a negative logarithm from

this 3.121468,
To

before

"30,

10

of

service.

of

characteristic

multiple of

13.354802-10

example,

the

and

such

"20,

"10,

we

some

give

found

will be

is greater than

logarithm

the

peculiar,we

are

98,

As

logarithms.

sum,

mantissa,

Subtraction,

Addition,

of

with

arise

may

.8662401

95, 96, 97, and

Arts.

operations

If, in the

after

before

find

2.8662350.

solution, which

Addition.

1.

the

their

to

as

10.

.8662164, log 7.3492

Division

which

problems

hints

"

=.3160333;

7.739416"10.

applicationof

perform

to

log 2.0703

9.3160138

corresponding to

In

1=8.936061

log548.3=2.739018, log 548.9 =2.739493;

Given

106.

ber
num-

0.936049.

=.3160123,

corresponding to

18.

; find

log .0863

1-10,

corresponding to

corresponding to

Given

number

=8.93601

log 2.0702

find number

114=2.05690

1.05411.

corresponding to
16.

log

from

9.583427-10,

19.583427-^20;
as

we

write

subtractingfrom

result 9.948106

"

10.

LOGARITHMS.

Multiplication.

3.

result

the

To

Addition

of

hint

and

4.

both

parts

make

the

the

of

example,

to

by 6,

we

10

to

will

as

exactly divisible by

the

quotient.
7.402938

divide

have

cation.
Multipli-

multiple of

"10

by 6,

parts of the logarithm,giving 57.402938


this

to

force

negative logarithm, add

the mantissa

the

as

reducing

the denominator.

by

such

logarithm

"10

equal

for

fraction,multiplyfirst by the

dividing a

quantity after

divisor,with
For

In

the result

divide

Division.

akeady given

applieswith

multiply a logarithm by

numerator,

both

The

83

as

"

we

add

50

to

ing
Divid-

60.

result 9.567156"10,

EXAMPLES.

1.

Add

9.096004

-10,

4.581726,

2.

Add

7.196070

-10,

8.822209

3.

Subtract

0.659321

from

4.

Subtract

7.9Q1338

"10

from

1.009800.

5.

Subtract

9.156243

-10

from

8.750404-10.

6.

Multiply 9.105107-10

7.

Divide

8.452633-10

by

4.

8.

Divide

9.670392-10

by

11.

9.

Multiply

SOLUTIONS

OF

8.447510
and

-10,

-10.

2.205683.

0.511490.

by

9.668311-10

and

by

3.

?.

ARITHMETICAL

PROBLEMS

BY

LOGARITHMS.

107.

In

findingthe

logarithms,we
Art.

value

first find

102, by the

corresponding to

aid of

the

the

the result.

of

any

arithmetical

logarithm
table, and

of

the

then

quantity by

quantity,as

find

the

number

in

TEIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

84
1.

Find

the value

By

Art.

95, log (.0631 X 7.208

of .0631

.'.

2.

512.72)

8.800029-10

log 7.208=

0.857815

log512.72=

2.709880

log of

An8.

corresponding to
Find

512.72.

log.0631=

12.367724

Number

7.208

log.0631+log7.2Q8+log512.72

Adding,

the value

of

-10

(Art. 106, 1)

2.367724

2.367724

233.197.

Ana.

?5?":^.
7980.04

,3368.52^ log3368.52- 1(^7980.04


^
^
^
7980.04

(Art. 106, 2)

log3368.52=13.527439-10
log 7980.04=
Subtracting,.-.logof

Find

the value

of

9.625434"10

^ns.

=.422118.

corresponding

Number

3.

Ans.

3.902005

(.0980937)*.

1"^ (.0980937)*
=

log .0980937

5 X

log.0980937

8.991641

10

Multiplying,

.-.

log of

Ans.

Number

corresponding

4.

the value

Find

of

44.958205

50

4.958205-10

Ans,

.0000090825.

V^^.

log yCoOl I log.001


=

7-10

(Art. 87)

67-70

(Art. 106, 4)

9.571429

log .001=
Dividing by 7,
Number

/.

log

of Ans.

corresponding

-"

.87276.

10

Ana,

LOGARITHMS.

6.

Find

the value

86

of

3*

log^

log2

ilog5^flog3

3*
log 2
log 5

.698970

divide

by

.301030

.232990
.534020

log 3

.477121

Subtracting,

the

work

of the

6.

Ans.

See

Art.

=
.

"

1.36905.

will be

examples

lO's

1 3 64 1 9

omitted

being

Ans.

exhibited

after the

in

man-

91.

the value

Fmd

.397601

two

next

customary form, the

tissae.

log of

*
.

corresponding

Number

The

multiply by |

of

V^.00003591.

log V^.00003591 I log .00003591


=

log .00003591

5.555215

7)5.555215
log of

Note.
eyldent

A
from

the

definition
may

"f the result determined

Find

9.365031

Ans.

.231756.

negative quantitj

computation, they

7.

Ans.

the value

be

of Art.
treated

86.

If

if

as

of

negative quantitiesoccur

thej

a//-.032956\
7.96183

.032956
a/AO
=

log.032956

8.517934

log7.96183

0.901013

were

^n".=

(log.032956

9.205640
"

the

is
in

sign

work.

3)7.616921
Ans.

positive,and

logarithmic

96183

log of

logarithm, as

common

no

irrespectiveof the

\V
1

have

can

(Art. 106, 4)

.160661.

log 7.96183)

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

86

COMPLEMENT.

ARITHMETICAL

106.

Arithmetical

The

Complement

of

the

logarithm

of

the cologarithm of the quantity, is


quantity,or, briefly,
logarithm of the reciprocalof that quantity.

For

the

example,

colog 4098

colog .06689

log-i-

log 1

3.612572

6.387428

log--^

log 1

log 4098

-10

log .06689

.OoDo9

following rule

The

illustrations

(8.825361 -10)

0-

will

10

from

The

cologarithm

by subtracting
others

from

quantity^ subtract

preceding

its

be

may

the

calculated

mentally

figure from
significant

last

logarithm

from

the

10, and

arithm
log-

all the

9.

application of this is to exhibit the work

The

by logarithms in

compact form

more

illustrate,
suppose

To

the

10.

"

Note.

from

find the cologarithmof

To

evident

be

1.174639

we

in certain

to calculate

are

of calculation

by logarithms.

"

cases.

^^(?$I)=*"K"''^''^''3

That

is

loga

H-

log6

log-

log a

-f

logh

H-

cologc

is, the work

of four
of two

logarithms from
is,

exhibited

logarithms,instead

only applicableto

used

be

can

the

the

case

of

log-f

cologd

in the form

tion
of the addi-

of the subtraction
of two

sum

others.

fractions,and

The
the

of the

sum

principle
rule to be

L06ABITHMS.

AM
and

87

togetherthe logarithmsof
the

the

cologarithmsof

of

-"

79.23

^-r-.07723

10.39

^613.8

numerator

denominator.

f-

613.8

.07723

log79.23 +log

factors of the

the value

Find

Example.
^

factors of the

the

10.39

colog613.8

log 79.23=

1.898890

logl0.39=

1.016616

colog613.8=
oolog.07728=
log of

Ans.

Adding,

.*.

Number

corresponding

oolog.07723.

7.211973-10
1.112214

=11.239693
=

4-

-10

1.239693

Ans.

17.3657.

EXAMPLES.

109.

Calculate

1. 9.23841

.00369822.

3.70963

286.512

values

by logarithms the
12.

of the

following:

("3)*

2* x
|

'

1633.72

13.

"

3,

(23.8464)".

4.

(-. 000929687)^

6.

y/3.

^"^^^
14

_i_.
^

"^^ V^'
8.

16.

V^.0042937.

(1.05624)^.

11,

(-.00200016)^,

5/

yCoooi.

18.

V-

'"'"

/i5_\
VllSy

9-6829.586.

10.

V^723i9.812,

17.

9.

'

7y

-000009506694.

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

88

/.0872635Y.

*"'

.132088

(-.746892)*
-(.234521)*

29.

"

11

V.00730007
SO.

(.682913)
V

5. 95463

31.

V^61.1998

V 298.5434
82.

J/3258.826Y

^'

'

9026137
-16923.24

84.

X (-.1)".
(18.9503)^""

86-

V^3734.89 x .00001108184.

(.732465)^

86.

(2.63172)*
(.712719)*.
x

^429.0162
7

"

100

27.

28.

X.

-.00776129

/z:?M?^A*

26

-304.698

88.

\\^49309.8

.000596899)*.

(538.217 x

V^.000128883

V^-. 00819323

37

\C000827606

-.9834171

VC035 X V^.626671X vC00721033.

88.

EXPONENTIAL

We

110.

(.0628513)^'

LOGARITHMIC

AND

know

values

that for any

SERIES.

of

and

a?,

[(-97-('-r
Expanding by

-1

nx^
n

the Binomial

Theorem,

"(n-l)l

obtain

I'

n(n-l)(n-2)l

[2_ n"^
""("a!-l)

we

r"a;("a;-l)(nx-2)

n"

[3_

J
1

|2_

n'

[3_

n*

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

go
1X3.

a-

expand log,(1 + ^) in powers

To

{H-(a-l)f-=l

a:(a-l)

of

x,

^^^^(a-l)"

taininga^,a^,etc.
(Art. Ill),

But

a'

As

1 4-

the

values

two

the Theorem

(log"a)+

a;

of

a*

a;, and

1 +

=s

unless

; but

member

is

Art.

putting a?

a;,

obtain

we

calculate

to

Napierian logarithms

fraction, the series in the

converges

obtain

more

Napierian logarithm of

By

used

small

very
or

"

slowly, and

very

second

hence

is

less
use-

cases.

To

114.

be

might

divergent

is either

in most

the

formula

aj-Y+Y

This

therefore

log.(H-aj)
Note.

coefficients of

"^
2

Putting a

of a;, by

equal ; hence,

(a-l)-N

for all values

Coefficients the

expressions are

log,a

equal

are

of Undetermined

in the two

containingaf^a?^etc.

terms

formula for cakulating

number.

log.(H-a:)

113,
==

convenient

^ ^-^-f^+

aj-

...

a?,
1

/I

0^

Q^

7^

of

Subtractmg,

log.(H-a^)-log,(l-a?)=2aj

or,

by

Art.

96,

?^H-^

...

|^-f
log/i"J^"2^"
""")
y
+

-f

LOGARITHMa

91
1

Let

xss

2nH-l

Then,

l+

x_

a?

"

2n+l_2n+l

2wH-l

"

l_n

+ l

2n-\-l

f^-^) loge(n

Substituting, log.
_o/
That

1)

log,n

111,
V2n-fl 3(2n+l)'

5(2n

l)*

is.

L__+..
log.(n+l)=log."+2(^+^-^^.+
calculate

To
Art.

then

formula

the

of

ha^v^e

^H
log.l+2/'"

log.2
""

since

log.1

log.2
^*

2/'i
+
\,3

From

find

"

81

-i-+-i"
1215

.3465734

To

"

5(2 +1)"

15309

.0123457
+

"

.0008230

.0000005

...)
correct

to

we

may

calculate

log.3

; and

so

on.

"We

For

Art.

the

shall

2.302585.

colcutate the

logarithm of

common

number

Napierian logarithm.

By

-^

.0000653

.693147,

-f

1948617

177147
+

.6931468

1^

place.

log.2
=

3(2+1)'

0,

.0000056

2 X

log.lO

116.

==

^i"

\^2+l

(.3333333 +

decimal

sixth

-r

""

its

in

n=l

114.

We

or,

log"2, put

100, changing h

instance, logio2
=

to

10, and

.4342945

to e,

.693147

we

obtain

.301030.

from

PLANE

92

multiplierby which

The
derived
that

TRIGONOMETRY.

the

from

Napierian system,

of

system

any

is called

are

the modulus

is the modulus

.4342945

Hence,

system.

logarithms

of the

of

common

S3'stem.
tables

As

of

tables of

than

logarithms

into

.4342945,

or

Napierian, a

Napierian

divide

either

may

logarithms

common

tiie

it

found

by

2.302585,

quently
fre-

more

changing

common

convenient.
the

logarithm by

common

multiply

rule for

be

may

with

met

are

the

We
modulus

reciprocal of

.4342945.

Napierian logarithms
arithms, from

They
those

which

having

been

also

are

called

calculating logarithms.
in

used

originallyderived
natural

first in the

occur

computation,

called

sometimes

are

hyperbolic\ogfrom

the

logarithms,firom being

investigationof

method

Napierian logarithm'sare

but

frequently

occur

bola.
hyper-

in

of

seldom

theoretical

investigations.

EXAMPLES.

MISCELLANEOUS

1.

117.

Find

(See Art. 84.)

log82187.

2.

Find

logs15625.

3.

Find

the

logarithm of

to the base

"

"

2.

64

4.

Find

the

5.

Find

the characteristic

of

log2l83.

6.

Find

the

characteristic

of

log34203.

7.

Given

log 2

.301030, how

many

digits are

there

Given

log 3

.477121,

how

many

digits are

there

logarithm of

to the base

"

8.

in 2^?

8.
in

3^?
9.

Find

logia56. (See Art.

100.)

TRIGONOMETRICAL

10.

FindloggieS.

11.

Find

12.

Using

TABLES.

93

l("2o411.
the table of

Ic^arithm of

logarithms,find

common

52.9381.

Find

the

Napierian logarithm of

1325.07.

14.

Find

the

Napierian logarithm of

.085623.

15.

Find

the

Napierian logarithm of

.342977.

OONSTRUOTION

AND

USE

NOMETRIOAL

NcUural
A

table of natural
values

of

intervals

from

10", and

the

the

table

the

0" to

the

decimal

natural

OF

CONSTRUCTION

Let

values

of the
(f

from
"We
For
the

to

is 1'

given

are

correct

or

to

gives

the

logarithms of

functions.

TABLE

NATURAL

OF

SINES

COSINES.

it be

required

sines

and

to

cosines

calculate

first to

determination

following theorem

Jf

functions

regular

at

calculate
of

the

angles

at

approximate
intervals

of 1'

90".

have

the

angles

ical
numer-

places.

AND

119.

for

of

Functions,

rule, the interval

logarithmic functions

corresponding

tables

gives the approximate

As

90".
of

TRIQO-

kinds

Logarithmic

principalfunctions

more

of

of two

are

of

functions

values

four, five,or
A

tables

Functions^ and

OP

TABLES.

TrigonometricalTables

118.

erian
Napi-

(Art. 116.)

13.

VII.

the

is any

acute

of

the

the values
former

we

of

sinl' and

shall

make

cosl'.
use

of

angle expressed
sina? "

in circular

a?

"

measure^

then

TBIGONOMETRT.

PLANE

94

For, by Art.

67, writing

smsB

| in

2Bm~

place of

a;,

COS-

Bin-

sina?

Therefore,

| 2tanf
(1 sin'f
)

oob^

"

"

cos-

But, by Art. 80, (A), since

8ina;"2

But, by Art. 80, (A)

"

is acute, tan-"-.

f1

"

Hence,

sin"-J,"a?f 1" sin*-J


or

"

8in-"-,orBin"-"-

sin

Hence,

Art.

By

120l

80,

119, 8ina;"aj

Art.

a?

x\\

"

(a),

"

if

a;

)
,

"a5

or

"

"

is acute, sina;"

a;

and

by

--"

"

Put

equal
^

to the circular

of

measure

IT

1'=

since

1'

10800'

i"

is

of 180**

"

10800
to

correct

eight

decimal

of 1' the value

measure

mal

(Art.6)
\
f

Taking^

for

ir

places, we
.00029088821,

the value
have

for

correct

3.14159265, '
the

circular

to eleven

deci-

places.

Then,

sinl'"
"

.00029088821, and
.00029088821

^i:00029088821)f
4

The

approximate

places is

value

.00000000001.

sml'".

Hence, sinl'

of

the last fraction

to eleven

mal
deci-

Thus,
00029088820.

.0002908882, correct

to ten

decimal

places.

TABLES.

TRIGONOMETRICAL

find the value

To

of

1^

cos

the fonnnla

take

we

96

cosl'=v/l-8inn'

Vl"-(-0002908882)"

.9999999577

calculated

Haying
obtain
from

By

sines

the

cosines

and

1' to

30**

Art.

+ y)
72, sin(aj

as

follows

2sinaJC0sy

szs

a;

sin 2'

in

hy

1 and

cos(a;+l')

2co8a;cosl'"

in these

te

than
first,

"

sin(a5 y)

1'

of

"

cos

"

(x

y)

"

sin3'

8in(aj 1') (59)


"

cos(aj 1') (60)


"

the value

1'"

1', we

have

sin 0'

(.0002908882) (.9999999577)

(.0002908882)(1

.0000000428)

.0005817764
in the

; it

form

heing

.0000000423

multiply

cosl'"

hy

oos2'

Putting X

intervals

r=

multiplying
to

formuke

2 sin 1' cos

change

then

cosy

2sinaj

"

The

cosa?

sin(a;+l')
=

Note.

at

cosl', we

and

1', these become

to

angles

Giving

all

of

of sinl'

(a?+ y)

cos

Putting

the values

it at

of

much

and
once

value

less work

2cosl'cosl'"

cos

1' is for

multiply

second

.9999998308

result

.0000000423)

have

2 sin2'

"

cos

1 '"

sin 1'

(.0005817764)(1 -.0000000423)
-.0002908882

0008726646

ience
conven-

.0002908882
from

cos0'=s2cosl'cosl'"

(.9999999577)(1

2',we

to

the

subtract

of

by .9999999577.

".

the

1
-1

the

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

96
cos8'

2oos2'oosl'"

.9999996193

cosl'*

(.9999998308)(1

By continuing in this
5', ""*, 29^59', we shall
cosines
of all angles at
calculate

To

72, sin

Art.

By

cos

Putting

a;

sin
cos

Putting y

which,

from

intervals

2sina; cosy

(x + y)

cos

(30"+ y)

cos

(30"

sin30" 1' =

cos

1'-

cos30"l'

cos29"59'-sinl'

the

of

to

of

an

already

we

In

obtained

"

siny

y)

become

y)

(61)

sin y

"

(62)

sin 29" 59'

cos

29"

values

of

59', the sine and

cosine

2',3', """, 15", we

obtain

cosines

of all

angles

30" to 45".

45" to

of

respectivelythe

the

angle,

furnish

intervals

OF

calculatingthe
the results

90", since (Art. 13) the sine

are

calculated

angles at

values

of the sines and

METHODS

124.

(a? y)

previoualy calculated

y the

angle

complement

of all

for

have

angles from

For

values

cosines

(30"

sin

and

30^.

(Art. 18), these

cosy

at intervals of 1' from

the

sines
to

and

2 sina;

"

the values

in succession

of

0"

3', 4',

obtained.

are

cosine

"

(30"+ y)

Similarly,giving

and

sin

"

(a? y)
=

the

follows

as

sinaj

of

sines

the

proceed

sinl', cosl', sin 29" 59', and


of 30" 1'

of

values

the

1' from

of

(x + y)

aid

by

to

values

the

the values

l',we

giving

have

80", whence

.9999999577

way,

45", we

30" to

angles from

.0000000423)

it will

us

of 1' from

be

seen

the

sines

and
that
and

sine
the
sines
co-

45" to 90".

VERIFICATION.

sine and

correct

with

cosine

to ten

cosine

of

decimal

1' in Art.

120,

places ; and,

in

PLANE

98

in this fornmla

If to ^

and

sin 26**-

calculated

values

satisfythis

relation

this

In

correctly.

table

calculated

For
cos

we
give any value, say 10*^,

we

sin 46^the

should

TRIGONOMETRY.

sin82**+ sin62**=
of

sines

the

manner

we

sinlO**

of

if the work

these

has

five

been

angles

performed
part of the

verifyany

may

have

of sines.

table of

verifyingthe

(86''+^)

(36**-^)

cos

have

cosines, we

2 cosSe** cos^

^^__"l_cos-4

2
cos

(72**+^) +

(72**-^)

cos

72** cos^

^5-lcos4

cos

Subtracting these results,

(36"+^)

cos

(36**-^)

cos

result is known

This

USE

THE

OF

"

cos

(72**+^)

"

cos

(72"-^)

TABLE

table

LOOARITHMIG

OF

intervals

(Appendix,
of

18

pages

minute

one

sine, cosine, tangent, and

equal

the

to

and

complement

of

angles between

functions
For
at

of

the top of

the

angle, it

45" and

between
the

and

the functions

the

top;

that

cotangents of

0" to 90".

cotangent of any

90"

0" and

page,
in the

is, sines

the

are

0" and

angles between

angles

from

61) gives

to

angle

Since
are

cosine, sine, cotangent, and

of

the

SINES,

ETC.

logarithmic sines, cosines, tangents,


angles at

(64)

Legendre's Fonmda,

as

COSINES,
This

cos-4

follows
to be

that
found

the
all
the

tively
respecof

tangent

the

functions

in the table

of

45".

45", the degrees will be found

minutes

columns
in the

in the
indicated

first

second, tangents in the third, and

column,

lefthand

by

column,

the

at

names

cosines

in

the

cotangents in the fourth.

TRIGONOMETRICAL

in the

functions

the

in the

in the

first

second, cotangents in the third, and


Since

the

45"

between
the

90",

and

logarithm

increased

been

has

45"

and

45"

being greater than

90", and
and

Thus,

values

To

unity, in

angles

all these
"10

cases

be

must

in the table.

27

9.793673-10.

log tan 66"

33

0.362735.

log cot

79"

9.283225-10.

log cos

20" 54

9.970442-10.

9.864445-10.

log cos

89" 3 7

7.825451-10.

log sin

89"

9.999940-10.

log cot

12" 41'=

the

and

of

tangents of angles between

log sin 39"

find

tangent of any

cotangents of

given

are

logtan36"12

128.

in the

0" and
cotangents of angles between
unity,the logarithms are not increased

the

their true

at

names

sines

column,

by 10,

The

the

angles^the tangents

the

less than

are

after the mantissa.

written

by 10,

45", and

by

column,

tangents in the fourth.

of all

cosines

0" and

between

angles

and

sines

be found

righthand

indicated

columns

foot; that is, cosines

the

99

90", the d^rees will

and

foot of the page, the minutes

at the

and

45"

angles between

For

TABLES.

0.647713.

logarithmicsine,cosine, tangent, or

co-

angle.

acute

RULE.

Find

the table the

in

logarithmicsine, cosine, tangent, or

cotangent of the degrees and


Find

Art.

the

for
difference

minutes.

1"

If sine
T-

L
and

)
^

cotangent

or

The

columns

"tangent,"

right hand

column

,,
this
correction.
.

cosine

of seconds.

the number

tangent add

or

Note

the

I. to

128.)

Multiply this difference


by
If

corresponding. (See Note

i^

subtract

to the

contain

right of

the

the columns

headed

respective differences

of differences

is also

to be

used

for
with

"

sine/'
"

one

sine,"
co-

second;

the cohiimi

PLANE

100

"cotangent." It

headed
stand

the

on

same

When

the next.
next

below should

next

above.
IL

Note

The

will be obsenred

that

the

difference does

not

line with the logarithm,but midway between


it and
using the degrees at the top of the page, the difference
be taken ; with the degrees at the foot,the difference

given above

rule

logarithmicfunctions
or

TRIGONOMETRY.

are

of the

that the differences

assumes

proportionalto the differences

of their

angles; which is,in general,unless the angle be


exact for practical
90",sufficiently
Compare
purposes.

sponding
corre-

very

near

Art.

131.

0"

EXAMPLES.

1.

Find

logtan

17^3'

51".

logtanl?^13'=

9.491180

-10
.

379
D. 1"=

9.49lS5^ -10

7.44

=logtanl7'*13'51".Ans.

51

7.44
372.0
379.44

2.

Find

379, nearly.

66**33' 29".

logcos

log C0866**

33'=

9.599827

-10

141
D. 1"=

4.85

9.599686

-10.

Ans.

29
43.65
97.0

140.65
Find

the values

141, nearly.

of the folio "7ing


:

3.

logco835M8'42".

7.

Iogtan82*0'5.2".

4.

logsin6r58'4".

8.

logsin55Ml'43.7".

5.

logcot

12" 33' 56".

9.

Iogcos30"2'1.83".

6.

Iogcos0"47'38".

10.

Iogcot48"0'53".

TRIGONOMETRICAL

natural

The
obtained

fanctions

TABLES.

of

by finding the

if

angle,

an

numbers

101
be

reqaired, may

corresponding

to

the

rithmic
loga-

functions.
in

Thus,

Ex.

1, above, the number

9.491559

logarithm

is

10

"

corresponding
which

.310141,

is the

to

the

natural

tangent of 17" 13' 51".


the values

Find

of the

followingnatural

cosl5"31'16".

11.

12. tan72"0'23".

To

find

the acute

functions

18.

cot 50"

14.

sin48"51'6.3".

12' 44.2".

angle correspondingto

given logarithmic

sine^cosine, tangent, or cotangent.


RULE.

in the table the next

Find

gent,
logarithmicsine, cosine, tan-

cotangent, the degreesand

or

the

less

for
difference

Subtract

1".

the next

Divide

Note

(See

less from

the remainder

minutes

the

corresponding,and

I. to Art.

128.)

given logarithm.

for 1", giving the


by the difference

rection
cor-

in seconds.
sine

If

Note

paid

In

as

is greater

angle

Suppose

that

now

sine ; if

at

the

the

other

we

lefthand
from

three

Note

the

..

correction.

the

less than

in different

the
if

degrees
on

the

we

must

columns

be

ing
accord-

45".

less

next

from

; but

the

column

are

found

logarithm, attention

finding the angle corresponding

are

colunm

less

next

logarithm

top of the

in the

and

page,

the

right. We

of

minutes

with

sine

**

"

and

the

proceed similarlywith

the

foot

the

rithmic
loga-

headed

the

find it in the colunm

from

to

column

page,

functions.
It

IL
to

logarithm,

or

degrees

take

foot, we

minutes

we

find

the

take

"sine/* we
from

for the

searching

to the fact that the functions

the

,,

\ this

cotangent subtract J

or

add
tangent
^

or

;'
If cosine

is often

convenient, in looking

logarithmic

subtract

correction.

from

cosine

it the

or

cotangent,

out
to

given logarithm,

the

angle

find the next


and

add

the

sponding
corre-

greater
sponding
corre-

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

102

"

EXAMPLES.

1.

Find

the

angle whose

log sin

9.959343

"10.

9.959343-10
Next

log sin

less

9.959310

10 ;

angle cor.

65** 35'.

.95)33 (34.7,
nearly

D.l"=

285
450
380
700
the

Adding
2.

Find

correction,the angle

the

angle whose

logcot

cor.

65" 35' 34.7".

Ana,

0.169602.

0.169602

Next

less

log cot

0.169379

angle

cor.

34* 6'.

4.53)223(49.2,
nearly.

D.l"=

1812
4180
4077
1030

Subtractingthe correction,the angle cor.


Find

angles corresponding in

the

8.

logtan

0.916351.

4.

logcos

9.923569"

6.

log sin

9.863011

natural

If the

10.
-10.

logarithm and proceed


9.

Find

Since

logtan

the

log.2
=

is

function

9.301030

9.301030

-10,

5' 10.8".

following:

6.

logcot

0.215386.

7.

logcos

9.227937"

8.

log sin

9.189118

given, we

Arts.

have

only

10.
-10.

to find

its

above.

as

angle whose
=

the

=34"

tangent
"

which

10,

we

.2.
find

the

is 11" 18' 35.8".

angle
Ana.

whose

TABLES.

TRIGONOMETRICAL

the

Find
ftmctions

10.

angles oorresponding

the

to

103
natural

following

tan=?.

12.

sin =.096923.

14.

sin

16.

tan=.l.

iv^7.

11.

13.

cot =2.

To

130.
acute

find

the

cos

^^5.

logarithmic secant

an^le.

Since

and

seoo^s

coseca?s=

sin

cosx

have

we

log sec

a?

colog cos

a?

log cosecfl;

and
That

cologsino?

)
r

To

of any

cosecant

or

_x

/^o\

(Art. 108)

is,

find

the

10"10;

from

logarithmicsecant
to

the

find

logarithmicsine from

stibtract the
^

logarithmiccosine

logarithmiccosecant

siibtract the
y

10 "10.

EXAMPLES.

1.

Findrogsec22"39'.
log cos

Subtracting from

the values

2.

22" 39'

of the

the

log sec

Note.

Since

3.

=
,

we

can

find the

80" 7' 28. 2^

log sec

the
5.

0.400314.

coir

Ans.

following:

angles corresponding to
=

-10.

0.034857.

logcosec55"ll'43".

Find

4.

9.965143

10"10,

log sec
Find

22" 39'=

following:
log cosec

logarithmic cotangent

tSLUX
an

0.188783.

angle by anbtracting its logarithmic tangent

from

10"10.

of

13L

It

the differences

be

0", nor

the

with

of

angle

cotangent of

0", is

small

so

angle

the

figureof

to

the

produce

angle

an

and

gents
cotan-

1' and

logarithmic sine
of

change

of

an

near

seconds

unit in the

one

of

angle

an

requires a change of many

2' is

3' it is 2934.85.

2' and

between

for 1" for the

between

logarithmiccosine

in

right hand

the

logarithmic cosine

same

logarithmiccosines

It

132.

depended
tangent,

decimal

as

upon

cotangent of
is true

same

very

in

t^hecase

of

of

in Art.

differ in

not

small

80, that

in

the

an

that

first six

be

cannot

finding the logarithmic sine,

angle

to

near

cotangent of

or

0", or the logarithmic

angle

an

to

near

90*^ ;

finding the angle corresponding to

in

logarithmicfunction

very

being

reason

point.

accurate

cosine, tangent,

133.

do

; the

follows, then, that the ordinary method

or

the

table, the angles 1',2',3',4', and

the

to

figuresfollowing the

any

with

case

the mantissa.

their actual

and

the

cotangents of angles near

for 1" for the

that it

Thus, according
5' have

angle

an

90", or

to

near

corresponding 'angles.

table, the difference

the

to

the difference

Again,

approximately

this is not

and

general

to 90^

Thus, according
5017.17, while for

are

logarithmiccosines, tangents,

angles near

sine, tangent, or

their

that

logarithmicsines,tangents,

the

to

the table

from

seen

of

in

n., that

logarithmicfunctions

of the

proportionalto
It may

128, Note

in Art.

stated

was

the differences

to

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

104

when

accurate

it is

method

to 0"

near

for

or

90".

-findingthe

correction

logarithmic sine, tangent, or cotangent


the principle stated
angle, is based
upon

the

the sines

and

approximately proportional to

tangents of small
the

angles

angles

themselves.

To

let it be required to find log sin 3f 18".


illustrate,

By

the

principlejust stated,
sin 3' 18'': sin3'=3'18":

3'=

198":

180"

are

TRIGOKOMETBT.

PLANE

106

EXAMPLES.

following:

of the

the values

Find

1.

logsin2'26".

8.

logeot4'13".

2.

logtan3'41.8".

4.

log cos

Find

6.

7.

134.

Art.

By

logcot

be

certain

angle.

acute

acute

angles

of

angle

an

expressed
to

serves

of any

7.427926

fanctions

50, the

negative,can

logsin =7.170808

6.

6.968211-10.

logtan=

of

the

the values

of

of

of

functions

the functions

magnitude whatever, positiveor negative.

50, sin 172" 15' 11"=

Art.

By

sin
=

And

the

from

Or,

we

82" 15' 11"=

of

an

15' 11"=

sin

function

angle

is

in the solution

negative, as,
90" and

between

sign of

the

and

XVI.

examples

function

the result
work.

of

being

Examples

as

(180"-

if it

49")

were

for

(Art. 50)
example,

180", there

(See Note

in such

determined
of

7" 44'

sin 7" 44' 49"

function, properlyspeaking.

with

9.129684-10.

cosine

11")

sin 172"

If the natural

82" 15'

82" 15' 11"

cos

take

may

(90"+

table,

log cos

XV.

fanctions

the

of

example, required logsin 172" 15' 11".

For

But

angle,positive or

any

table

determine

-10.

-10.

of

in terms
the

Thus

following:

the

angles corresponding to

the

89" 56' 1.2".

case,

is

no

to Art.
we

may

in the

logarithmic
107.)
ceed
pro-

positive,the algebraic
irrespectiveof

this will be

found

in

the

logarithmic
Chapters

SOLUTIOlt

OF

SOLUTION

VIII.

TRIANGLES.

RIGHT

RIGHT

OP

107

TRIANGLES.

"

six

Eveiy triangle has

135i

elements:

three

angles. We know, by Geometry, that


when
three of
general completely determined

three

known,

are

findingthe

unknown

of the

solution

elements

from

the

given

to the

is called

is

only

necessary

to

which

cases

the

hypothenuae and

2.

Given

an

angle and

its

3.

Given

an

angle and

its adjacent side.

4.

Cfiven the

5.

Given

the two

We

shall

sides about
base

the

the

proper
may

formula

coqB=

be foaad

different

of the

of formulae

tan^

by

elements

computing

the

side

either

following rule

tan5=-

are

cases

for

be

side.

followingset

given

must

sinJ^s-

two

arise

two

rightangle.

solutions

the

COS

another

If the

the

opposite side.

hypothenuse and

righttriangles
upon

of

angle.

acute

an

know

of which

can

Given

sin-4

process

elements

1.

under

in

its six elements


The

rightangle, one

will be five

There

137.

triangleis

side.

and

triangle.

in addition

side.

is

of them

one

righttrianglesit

For

136.

provided

sides

and

of the

angle, the
remaining sides
an

T^LANE

108
tJuU

Take
the

and

of

one

fujictionof the angle which

the

given parts

angles by

the

given elements,

the

given side

and

aid

of

either

first calculate

formula
side

remaining

the

should

sides, we

are

containing
then

may

be

the

found

rule.

the above

by

involves

side.

required

If both

TRIGONOMETRY.

EXAMPLES.

1.

130.
and

Given

203.762, B

21" 42' 51".

Find

b.

In this

the formula

case

used

to be

8mB=*

and

are

co8B

Whence,

c"iaB

and

By logarithms,log b

log c

loga

logc -h log cos

and

logc
log sin-B

2.309123

9.568174

5=

Given

We

have

now

logc
-10

log cos

loga

75.3871

2.

ccosB

log sinB

1.877297

log6=
.-.

-h

.-.

13, A
sin^

67** 7'.

-:

"

and

loga

log b

log a

logsinJ.

=1.113943
=

logc=
.-.

c=

9.964400-10
1.149543

14.1105

2.277158
189.303

c.

By logarithms, log c

loga

9.968035

tan^

sin^

and

a=

Whence,

2.309123

5 and

Find

tan-4

and

"

"

log sin-4
logtan

loga

logtan^
log6
.'.

1.113943

0.374612

0.739331

6s

5.48695

-10

SOLUTION

'

3.

Given

We

have

.151213,

cos-4

RIGHT

OF

Find

.308069.

logcos-4

or

TRIANGLES.

log5

109
A

and

a.

logc.

"

log6

9.179589

logc

9.488648

9.690941

.-.-4

60" 36' 14.8"

sin-4

logcos^

find a,

To

have

we

or

logc

-h

-,

8in.4.

Then,

loga

logc

9.488648

9.940142

9.428790

log sin^
lc^a

.268404

.-.a"

this

In

Note.

example

log sin A

the

lO's

"

omitted

are

as

explained

in

Art. 91.

139.
two

sides

first,and

trigonometricalsolution

the

In

given, it is

are

the

remaining

possible,however,
independently

necessary

to find

side

then

may

to determine

of the

the

angle, by

4."2=c2;

whence,

By logarithms,
From

the

data,

loga

+ 5=.

be

angles

calculated.

It is

side

459282,
9.662079-10

log(c-6)=

9.195501-10

V(c -h ") (c

"

a=

9.428790-10

.268404,

as

"

6 =.156856

2)18.857580-20
.'.

once,

methods.

il log (c -h 6) + log (c

log(c-h")=

loga=

at

have, by Greometry,

we

6^

where

*of the

one

Geometrical

^ c^-

example

remaining

Thus, in the example just solved,


a2

of any

before.

6)

6) }

110
But
formula
mic

tiie two

when
for

14(X

21.
eter

is

computation.

according to

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

"

sides

given

yc^+V^
In

which

such

the rule of Art.

Solve

the

1.

Given

2.

Given

8.

Given

4.

Given

^=72**

6.

Given

6.

Given

7.

are

and

is not

case

", the

adapted

it is shorter

to

Ic^arithproceed

137.

followingtriangles:
^
a

74** 0'

638.5,

22M4',

6=13.242.

6'

18",

51",

275.623.

c=

501.2,

83.4001.

275.316,

204.168.

340.06,

231.69.

Given

-4

43**

=158.3.

8.

Given

6M2'

37205.62.

9.

Given

a=

24.6722,

33.0011.

10.

Given

5=

62** 55',

47.7.

11.

Given

3.465287,

6=1.436741.

12.

Given

18.

Given

14.

Given

5=10**

16.

Given

16.

Given

17.

Given

18.

Given

19.

Given

20.

Given

Find

32",

04792,

19",

51',

2M9'

34",

.02497.

200.048.

c=.7264,
=1875.321.

58** 39',

c=

10.10683,

17.30264.

37", 6

120.2162,

a=

22',

64** 0'

34** 14'

2.0008,

a=

52**

regularpentagon

is 24 inches.

to

resulting

41',

is inscribed

the

length of

35.73.

1.7087.
4247.

in

circle whose

its side.

diam*

OF

SOLUTION

22.

At

of

angle

it^

height.
The

diameter

24.

Find

of

side is 7.028

whose

25.

From

the

of

top of

The

27.

distance

top is 78.36

The

2^.

length of

observer

stand,

29.
the

From

of

30.

Find
A

the

Care

141.

are

to 0"

near

height of

the

visible from

surface
Find

the

be
in

90",or

or

out

the

will

feet

high

must

of the

an

top of

depression

of

line 1000

the

feet in

the

functions

rules

derive

21"

accurate

angles which

provide for every

when

near

series of formulae

circle

its side.

more

of

angles corresponding under

the

of

length,

to be

about

length of

employ

findingthe

of

angle

tower.

to

logarithmiccosine
now

miles.

circles.

except
righttriangle,
angle corresponding to a logarithmicsine
a

of

is 20 inches.

tower, is observed

Find

taken

These

arise in the solution

or

height

7912

as

elevation

of

sea,

buoy.

pole 80

the

18" 25' 6".

to be

is circumscribed

inches.

can

We

above

circumscribed

base

the

133

circumstances.

90",

feet

regularoctagon

angle

of

must

of Art.

tower, the

foot

is 10

methods

ble
visi-

height?

being taken

and

the

regular hexagon

diameter

whose

miles,

regular pentagon

distant.

horizontal

the

from

16' 37".

Find

10"?

the top of

extremity

measured

to

miles

the foot of
that

so

be

pole may

in

is observed
of the

the side of

far from

How

38".

the surface

miles

the earth's

the radii of the inscribed

Find

the

buoy

mountain, the earth's diameter

the

tower,

7912

as

point of
H

of

to be

taken

diagonal of

point of

remotest

mountain

top is observed

lighthouse 133

Required the horizontal


26.

base

the

being

HI

inches.

angle of depression of

the

from

mountain

length

the

feet

of the remotest

the summit

from

TRIANGLES.

of the earth

is the distance

what

100

of its

of elevation

the

23.

distance

RIGHT

ilar
sim-

case

which

in

looking

when

near

to 0".

for

righttriangles

aid of which

by

tion may

the

anglecarrespondii^ to

be determined

angle

An
of

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

112

0*^may

to

near

with

142.

Art.

By

11, cos^

avoided

be

90*^.

to

near

in the

the other

with

righttriangleby working

it is

when

accuracy

always

logarithmicfanc-

sdliitMHi

angle.

acate

-.

Hence

(Art.69),

^Il5

2sin"i^=l-oos-4=l-.-

2cos"i^=r

and

oos-4"l

1 +

=^^

-h-

sini^

Then,
From

J^,

co8i-4

Ji"?

(65)

these, by division,

(")
6
b
we
Similarly,

may

prove

(67)

formnlaB

These
itself is
in

seconds

sufficient
To

to

near

may

involve

90**,its

the

half-angles; hence,

half is

in that

be

case

45", and

to

near

found

from

if the

angle

the connection
the

table

to solve

with

precision.

illustrate,
given

1.08261, 6

1.08249

the

triangle.
Here

is

near

to 0" and

by inspection.
the formulae
colate

of Art.

a, which

may

We

142.
be

is

near

to

90", as

may

shojildthen proceed
For

done

this purpose
as

in Art.

139.

we

be determined

to find B

must

by

first cal"

PLANE

114

FOR

FOBMXTL^

143.

Case

Letting K

TRIGONOMETRY.

THE

AREA

Given

I.

denote

the

OF

hypothenuse

the area,

and

have, by

we

TRIANGLE.

RIGHT

an

acute

angle.

Geometry,

2K=^ab
But

(Art. 12), a

c8in-4, 6

coSw4

Substituting,2ir=c'sinw4
Whence,

4 ^=

Similarly,we

may

ccos^

}c'sin2-4

c* sin 2 -4

(68)

prove

4ir=c*sin2B

Case

U.

Since

Given

tan J.

(Art. 67)

an

(69)

angle and

(Art. 11) ,

its

have

we

2ir=a.

oppositeside.

a*cot-4

(70)

tan^l

Similarly,

Case

III.

Since

2 K=b^

Given
atan5
2K=a

Similarly,

an

(71)

cot B

angle and

(Art. 11),
'

at"nB

2^=6*tan4

its

adjacentside.

have

we

=i

a^tSLuB

(72)
(73)

SOLUTION

Case

IV.

Since

Given

\J{c
+

the

a)(c

hypothenuse and

Case

Y.

2K^h

Qiven

115

another

a) (Art. 139),

"

2 K=^

SimUaxly,

TRIANGLES.

RIGHT

OF

we

side.

have

"^{c+ a)(C'-a)

(74)

V/(c+ 6)(c-6)

(75)

the two

aides about

the

rightangle.

(76)

2K^ah

Here,

EXAMPLES.

1.

Given

By Case I.,

25

15" 2' 46"

log (4 K)

1.015242

30" 5' 32"

; find the

logc + logsin

21ogc
logsin

.-.

log (4^)

2.030484

9.700178

1.730662

K==

.-.

in each

of the

Find

the

2.

Given

-4=

3.

Given

-8=21"

4.

Given

=100.58,

6.

Given

2.887262,

6.

Given

43"

7.

Given

72" 8'

8.

Given

68" 48'

9.

Given

10.

Given

-8

18" 16'
33'

28'

30"

=203.078.

51",

=.8210733.

16",

30'

following:
a

42",

=.62408,
=

13.4463

39",

3",

115.738.

5.110177.
11.229.

c=

.0272768.

729.344.

c=.

57",

2 B

.-.4^=53.7851

area

area.

(^B\n2B

4ir=

Hence,

logc

10.3572,

90983.

1.643829.

-10

PLANE

116

IX.

TRIQONOMETRY.

GENERAL

144.

PROPERTIES

trianglethe

In any

sides

OF

proportional

are

ANGLES.
TRI-

to the sines

of their opposite angles.


C

will be two

There

all acute,

angles are

let the line CD

or

CD
That

h"inA

CD

each

figure

AB.

have, by Art.

and

5sin^

In

obtuse.

perpendicular\o

figurewe

is,

arise,according as the

can

them

of

one

be drawn

the left hand

From

whieh

eases

12,

asinB

asinB

whence, by the theory of proportion,


a

From

the

right hand
CD

But

sin CBD

Then,

as

6sin^

similar

manner

and

" sin .^1

we

CD

(77)
12,
asin

sinB

CBD

(Art. 43)

sin ^

s=

sin^

may

sinB

Art.

(180"- B)

sin^

figure,by

s=sin

before,

or,

In

"

sinB

prove

hi

sin^:

sinC

(78)

c:

aa=sin(7:

sin^

(79)

GENERAL

These

PROPERTIES

be

resalts any
a

OF

TRIANGLES.

escpresaedmore

"

: c

sinul

eompaedy

sin J3

117

as

follows

sin (7

or,

s\nA

In

14"

as
differenoe

is to the

By

trianglethe

any
ike

siaG

BinB

of any

sum

tangent of half the

of

sum

sides is to ikevr

two

tke

oppositeangles

twngenJtof half their differenoe.

Art.

a:"=s8mul:8inJ3

144,

Whence, by
a

theory of proportion,

the

+ 6

: a

"

sin ul + sin J9

g-f

6_sin^+sinB

'
"

sin^i

"

sin J[

"

sin B

sin^

But, by Art. 73,


sin^
sin-4

+
"

sinB_tanKJ[
sin j8

tan i

Similarly,we

"

B)
(so)

prove

may

6-c
c

a^tan"(g+^)

tan}(-4 + B)

(80) may

tani(J5-0)

.^^ ^

tanJ(0-J[)

c--a

the result

(-4

B)

_-"__^__t

Hence,

Since

tan}(180**-O)

tan

(90"- J C7)
=

cot

JO

also be written

afb^
a-6

cotiG

tan}(^--B)

(33)
^
^

146L
sum

There

the cosine

will be

all acute,
drawn

or

two
one

of

the left hand

any

them

side

is

sides^ minus

two

twice

In

each

the

as

the

AB*

figure,

righthand

figure,
BD=AD^c

Squaring,in

Adding

either case,

GJD^ to both

members,

But, by Geometry,
BD'
Also

-\-CJy=^ a\ B,ndA]y-{-Giy
AD

(Art. 12),

a*

Hence,
Case

II.

From

the

When

the included

righthand

bcosA
i!"*
+ c*

"

2 6ccos-4

angle is

figureabove,
AD=^c-\-BD

obtuse.

angles

figure let CD

BD^c-AD
From

their

acute.

according

obtuse.

eqttaito the

angle.

angle is

to consider

eases

perpendicular to

From

of

of their included

the included

When

I.

square

of the other

of the squares

Cabe

be

MaTigle the

In any

product into

are

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

118

GENERAL

PROPERTIES

CL^

Squaring,and adding

^Z"*-t-CZ"*

But,
Also

OF

to both

y, and52"2

cos

TRIANGLES.

119

members,

a"

C72)" =

(Art- 43),
cos-B

(180^- GBD)

-cosOB2)

"

That

BD

is,

acos-B

"

l^=^(?-\-a^

Hence,
We

2caooaB

"

have

then

the three

formulae,

a*=""+c2-.26ceos^
""

c* =

147.
terms

By

To

c'

+a*--2caeosB

(85)

a*4-"*-2a5co8C7

the

express

(84)

(86)

of the anglesof

cosines

trianglein

of the sides.
Art.

a" =

146,

Whence,

25c

or.
we
Similarly,

cos

25

6*4-c*-26ceosu4

cos-4

i!"*
+ c*

cos^

^"^
26c

a'

"

(87)
^

148.

To

'--

COS

'

Art.

trianglein

147,' cos-4

(88)
^
^

=s

2ab

the sines^

express

half-anglesof

have,

2ca

By^

cosines^ and

tangents of th^

of the sides.

terms

^'-f-c'-a'

^^-

26c

Subtractingboth
1-^,_4-l

members

from

y +

unity,
C-a"_2"c-y-c'

2bo

2bc

a"

FLANS

120

That

(Art. 69)
gfllrfi^i"*"^^"^)*

fa,

+ b-c){a-b+c)
(^a

BinH^

or,

Let

+ h + che

of the sides of

snm

TBIGONOMBTBY.

+ 6

a-6

"

c=ra

represented by 2a, " bdiig then


the triaogie* Then,

the

+ ft+c

c)

+ 6 +

2c"2"

"

2c

"

2(a

"

c-26=:2"-2"=2(8-^)

toi^-JSSSSS

or,

aini.B"

Similarly,

(",)

v/^~*')^'~")

(90)

injc-JIiHiMiEIl
K

Again, adding both

half-

members

(M)

ao

of

(A)

unity,we

to

have

2bc
"*

26c

2eo^iA^(^"l^

Xlu^tia.

+
+
co8'i.^=(^
"y
"

or,

But,

6 +

"

aasft+c

or,

'^-")

"H-c + aa2"

and

Hence,

(Art.69)

cos"*..!
=

"

2a

2(s

"

a)

^^(/""^)

Cos^^^Ap^S
11

oc

(92)

TBIGONOMETBY.

PLANE

122

FORMULiE

THE

FOR

OF

AREA

OBUQUE

AN

TRIANGLE.

ISOl

Case

I.

Given tvoo sides and

their induded

angle.
C

We
or

one

AB.

accordingas the anglesare all acute,


Draw
in each figureCD
obtuse.
perpendicularto
Let f denote the area.
Then, by Geometry,

have

two

cases

CD

2K=cx

But, in either figure,


by Art. 12, CD

bsmA.

Hence,

2 K=

bcBiaA

(lOl)

Similarly,

2 jr=: casing

(102)

2jr==:a"sin(7

(103)

Case

n.

Given

By Case L,
But, by Art. 144,

angles.

22r=a6sin(7
h

asiUjB

bivlB

Substituting,

the

side and

one

IT

zK^^a

smA

or

sin^

asinB

."

"
"

"

sm

ri

^mA

a'sinBsinC

(104)

sin^

Similarly,

22r=

ysin(7sinJ"

(105)

siujB
22r=

c'sin^sin^
sin (7

(106)

Case

'

m.
Case

By

TRIANGLES.

128

the three sides.

Given

SiK=bcamA

I.,

But, by Art.

OF

PROPERTIES

GENERAL

149,
2

siaA

"

-"\s(s-'a)(s

b)(s

"

c)

"

be

2V" ("-")("-

Substituting,2ir=

Vs(s" a)("

K=

or,

mSORIBED,
To

151.
circle

of

find

circle.

(107)

c)

"

CIRCUMSORIBED

CIRCLES.

of the inscribed

expression for the radius

an

"

Draw

and

6)("

"

triangle.

ABOhQ

Let

AND

ESCRIBED,

6) ("-c)

the radii

join OA,

0 the

triangle,and
OD^

OF

OE^

of its inscribed

centre

the

to

points of

tact,
con-

OC.

OB,

Since, by Greometry, OD
AC,
circle

and

by

OF

to

AB^

perpendicular to BO,

have, denoting the

we

radius

OE
of

to

the

r.

Area

OBO==^ODx

AieB,OOA

Adding,

is

.'.

Area

OAB

Area

-4B(7

Or, with the notation

BO^^^ra
CA

iOEx

^ 0-P

ir(a-f-6

of Arts.

148

AB
+

and

irb

irc

c)
150,

K=rs
JET

Hence,

ss

"

(3^)

TBIOONOMSTRY.

PLANE

124

of the inscribed

is,the radius

That

of the triangledivided

eirde

is

eqtud

ihearea

to

by its semdrperimeter,
"

153.

of

Tojind

for the radii

expressions

of the escribed

circles

triangle.

Let AB

C be any

circle

touching

Draw

the

join OA^

the

radii

OD^

OB^

OC.

the

centre

and

AB

and

triangle,and
BO,

sides

OF

OE^

the

to

the

Denoting

AG

points

produced.
contact, and

of

of the

radius

eseribed

of the

circle

by

Area

0J50

ri,

have

we

Area

05(7

Area

OOA-iOB

y^CAj^^rJ^

Area

OAB^^OF

i OD

"

But, Area-4jB0=Area

00^

i("-|-c

But,

a)

"

K^

Hence,

"

"

ina

AB^^^r^c

-h Area

jK'"iri(t

Hence,

B0==

0-4i"

a)

"

(Art. 148)

ri("

"

a)

or

r^

(109)

Similarly,if
J.0,
circle
have

and

AB

r^ be

the

and

BG

touching AB^

radius

and

of the

produced,
AG

and

escribed
and

BG

r, the

"

circle

touching

radius

produced,

we

of

the

shall

t. To

find

scribed circle of

Let ABC

OF

FBOFBBTIES

GENERAL

eotypression
for the radms

an

of

the circum-

of

its circumscribed

O the centre

and
triangle,

Draw

00,

OB,

the radii

B G.

to

and

the radius

Denoting
sinJB02"

of the circle

pendicular
per-

by E,

|^=:^

OB

But, by Geometry, the angle JBO(7=2J.;

^BOG"A.

Also, 52"
8in^

we
SimiBurly,

iJB(7=ia.

By

"

"

22

is, ^Ae radius

equal to

the

i?

"

(112)
^
^

"

2sinC7

hc^mA\

150, 2^=

substitutingin (ill),we

That

(ill)

prove

may

Art.

Hence,

or

2sinB'
154.

hence, J30Z"

i5t, 22^"^

i?=

is

OD

draw

have

we

"

126

triangle.

be any

circle.

TRIANGLES.

hence,

-7^

have

55.

"L=:"^

2^

(113)
^
^

4ir

of the circumscribed

circle

product of the sides divided

of

by four

area,

EXERCISES.

155.

1.

Li

Prove

the

followingtheorems

any

righttriangle,cot"
for any

i-^"
=

"

:
triangle

triangle
times

the

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

126
2.

aco8JB

"oos^

c.

cf
A

3.

acos^"

-r*

"

oco8-4

4.

bfAnC
tan.B==
a

ocoaC

"

6.

6cco8^-f

7.

ooti^=5""llf^(cotijB-hcotiC).

caco8^-Ha"coflC7=i(a*-H"'-l-c").

2a

8.

(6 + cysln^A

9.

10.

(6

-H

a".

(B"C).

cos

(b -H c) cos^

c)*cos*i^

(c + a) cosB

-h

(a+ b) cos

meter.

11.

aco8^

12

^=

"cosJ34-ccos(7=2asmjB8in(7.

^^sin2B

+ ysm2J"
4

18.

2i?r

5L?[i-.
=

"

ct

14.

(8

16.

rrir2r8

16.

8in*i^=

"

+ ^ +

a)tsLniA
=

r.

jK^.
^

6cr2r8
17.

1
=

Ti

1+1.
Ti

18.

sin^^

19.

COS|^^ COS^^B C08^(7

sin

I^B

sin

1^(7
=

9
=

4i2
20.

r-J^^""^^^^-^)^^""^^

(7=

the

peri*

SOLUTION

OF

SOLUTION

X.
In

four

of

144,

of the

By

the

two

any

values

any

angles.

5"l|

is,

122" 56' 58"=

and

6 sin -4

J.

103"

?j^

smB

i5,

cosec

57" 3' 2"

-^

sm^

data, provided

180".

less than

180"-

the

c.

(J.+ -B)

144,

of

20.2367, -B=19"21'6",

and

That

for

C7,a,

180"-

Art.

side and

given angles is

Find
=

guish
distin-

may

angle, by Geometry ; then, by the


The
remaining sides may be calculated.

Given

Example.
35' 52".

TRIANGLES.

the other

triangle is possible
sum

OBLIQUE

127

plane oblique triangleswe

Given

I.

first find

aid of Art.

the

TRIANGLES.

cases.

Case
We

OP

solution

the

OBLIQUE

6 sin (7 cosec

By logarithms,

log6=

62"
To

log6

"+"log sin C +

log cosec

i5

log6

log sin

l6gcosecB

.'.0

one

is known

and

the formulae

of

angle

of any

is known,

their

52", we

angle, use

take

145.
may

the rule

sides and

two

the

difference

Finally,we

may

1.306140
9.923840-10
0.479693
1.709673

51.2475
either

13"

log cos

(See Art. 134.)

Cfiven

Art.

86'

103"

78" 24' 8".

n.

logc=

log cosecant

Case

logsin (7=

finding log sin

Since

be found.

59.3588

find the

157.

log cosec

1.773485

In
or

log c

0.479693

I(^a=

log b + log sin ^

9.987652-10

logcosec5=

Note.

1.306140

log sin^=

.-.a

loga

Then

be

may
the

calculated

angles

the

130.

their included

of the other

sum

obtain

of Art.

two

by

themselves

remaining

side

angle.

angles
aid of
may
as

in

PLANE

128
Case
the

I.

The

TRIGONOMETBY.

triangle is always possible for

of

yalues

any

given parts.
Given

Example.
Cy and b.
We

167,

"

98"* 14'.

82, B^

"

Find

Aj

have
A

By^

C=

Art.

180**-

=81*

O)

"

40** 58'

tani(^-(7)

a^e

^^^tan^ (A

tani {A-C)^

or,

i^A

^i(^+0)

?"S

145,'

46' ; or,

-h

C)

By logarithms,

C)

logtan^ (-4

"

log(a

"a

"

c)+ ccicg (a + c)
logtani(u4-"-(7)

+
85

a-e"

i (^

249

O)

40** 58'

-h

1(^

col(^
logtan
logtani (ui

C)

7.603801

9.937376

9.470596

.-.^(^-0)==
4

Hence,

i(u4-"-(7)-"-i(^- C7)

C=i(J.
For

the

5r

1.929419

16** 27' 49.7"


20'49.7"

(7)-i(^-C7)=24**25'10.3"

remaining side,
b

*=

^V^f

ooeecui

asin 5

(Art. 144)

sm-a

log"

or,

loga + logsin^

loga
log sin"
logoosec^
log6
.".5

15"
Ihe

In

obtaining

the

preceding article,three

2.222716

9.995501

0.074711

2.292928

196.804

remaining
new

logoosec^

side

by
logarithms are

the

metliod

required ;

of
bat

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

180
Case

159.

Given

m.

the

sides and

two

angle opposite to

of them.

one

It

determined

provided
the

when

given parts

elements

given,

are

only exceptions

occur

111.

61.2, J.

pletely
general com-

following:

the

52.1, "

in

31"

26';

tofind

C.

B, and

By

The

of Case

those

its six

of

consider
a

triangleis

side.

are

us

Given

Example.

that

three
is

them

illustrate,let

To

c,

when

of

one

135

in Art.

stated

was

Art.

BinB

sin^

144,
"sin^
BmB

or,

That

log B\nB

is,

"

logb

cologa

log6

1.786751

cologa

8.283162

logsinu4

9.71*7259

logsinB

9.787172

.-.

B=z37"

46'

-H

log sin^

37.9", from

the table.

But, in looking out the angle corresponding,attention


be

to the

paid

of 37" 46'

supplement
values

^1 and

B2,

In every
be

can

be

must

be shown
The

cause

attempt

to

from

of

142"

have

the

will be

the

supplement

value

of B

13' 22.1".

CalUng

these

37.9", B^^z 142" 13' 22.1".


an

angle

its sine this

other

the

its

another

37.9", or

retained

by

and

have

we

where

case

determined

values

Thus

37" 46'

Bi=

angle

an

(Art. 43).

sine

same

fact that

must

in the

of

ambiguity

is at

plot the trianglefrom

occurs,

unless

answer,

considerations

ambiguity

oblique trianglehas

an

to

be

once

the data.

one

to

and

both

of

them

inapplicable.

apparent when

we

SOLUTION

OF

TRIANGLES.

OBLIQUE

131

We

first

We

now

solutions.

it is evident,

and

supplements

of

arc

equal

equal

to

to

a,

circle,cuttingAD

triangles,AB^C

or

AB^C^

The

values
and

geometrically,that

of each

Case

under

example

an

angles GB^A

of the

magnitudes

why

reason

generallygives two
the

an

radius

draw

conditions.

the

see

and

centre

angle A

the

making

either of the

Then

given

satisfies the

as

length, and

in

units

61.2

describe

units, we

B^.

and

^1

at

(7

with

Then,

is, 52.1

that

6,

straightline AD^

the indefinite
31" 26'.

-4 (7 or

lay off

of B

obtained

CB2A,
these

III.
are

respectively;

two

angles

are

other.
^

To

AC

and

solution,let

the

complete

and
C2, respectively,

B2 by Ci and

^i52 by

Ci and

(^H--Bi)=180"-

(72 180"-

(^+-82)

sides

the

69" 12' 37.9"=110"

180"-

(7.

asm

angles AOBi

the

173" 39' 22.1"=

Ci

asm

-,

That

is,

asin(7iCOsec-4,

log Ci

logcg

loga

and

C2

47' 22.1"
6" 20' 37.9"

62

(Art. 144)

or,

ABi

Then,

Cg.

(7, 180"=

denote

us

asin02Cosec-4

loga

log sin (7i+ logcosec

loga

-f

log sin C2 + log cosec

-4

1.716838

logsinOi
logcosec^

9.97076i

0.282741

log Ci=

1.970340

.-. Ci=

93.3985

loga

logsin (72
logcosec^

1.716838

9.043343

0.282741

logcg

1.042922

.-.08=11.0388

opposite

to

of

one

when

determining

AD^

line

garded

in.

an

angle
of

means

will have

two

none.

falls to the

B^

points Bi

the

triangle corresponding could

leftof

in

be

not

re*

conditions, for it would

liie

to

can

not

If either jBior ^
coincides with
given angle A.
the triangleswill, in that case, reduce
to a straight

the

contain

of

one

line,which

considered

is not

line AD

the

meets

arc

when

and

afford

Case

which
and

the

answering

as

will

under

and

one,

cases

sides

two

given,

are

example

only

of

If either

them
an

solutions, when

A^

different

the

plotting a triangle,when

in

arise

of

consideration

160.

the

TBIGONOMSTBT.

PLANE

182

in

shall

as

solution.

If the circular

point only, that is, if it is

one

only "Hie triangle,which


if the arc
does not me^
right angled ; and, finally,
it, we

to

have

gent
tan-

will be
AD

at

all,the trianglewill be impossible.


The

which

cases

below.

enumerated

are

arise, and

can

pendicular OE^

By

If .^ is acute, and
there

is but

It A\b
but

solution

If .^ is

If ^

If ^
not

AD

meet

If ^

is

All

The

"^

the

per-*

Then,
the

left of

A^ and

these

that

6, and

" sin^

"

a,

there

test

and

computation

may

the

is

"

and

be

relative

is,a righttriangle.

the circular

does

arc

6, J3ifalls to the right of


solution.

one

the

or

"

6, neither

Bi

nor

triangleis impossible.

applied mentally
magnitudes

itself determines

B^ coincide

solution.

no

there is but

right of A,

of

is

obtuse, and

tests

th^re

B2 fall to the

Bi and

solution

left,and

right or

Bi and

"me

all,and

at

and

triangle.

"8in^=sa,

and

A^

solutions.

two

are

with

"sin^"a,

and

is but

to the

except the

falls to

isosceles

is, an

a"",

fall to the

of

length

is " sin J..

5, B| coincides

="

right or obtuse,

B2

can

there

is acute, a"

and

B2

and

there

If .^ is

A,

; that

is acute,

Ey and

at

acute, a"",

right of A^

12, the

a"",

corresponding results^

solution.

one

acute, and

one

Art.

C to AD^

from

the

this

to

tiie

of 6 sin ^

test

most

data,

and

a.

satisfac-

OF

SOLUTION

b "mA

torily
; for, if
sin^, which

a,

TMANGLES.

OBLIQUE
less

equals

than, equal to,


,

will be

188

greater than

or

respectivelyless than,

equal to,
wUl

be

In

greater than

or

negative, 0,

solving any

given parts
A

whether

consequently logsin

is acute,

Case

under
and

right, or

6,

m.,

solution.

one

solution.

If A

obtuse.

example

log sin

two

are

values

has

J3 has been

solutions, in which
to be

are

We

found

to be

never

either of

the two

6, when

there

"

or

", there

; if this is
or

none,

taken

as

both

case

first examine

the

"

is

is but

6, proceed with the

"

"

"

solutions,one,

two

value of J3 is

The

If .^ is acute, and

until
the

is acute, and

supposing the

should

we

latter,the triangleis impossible unless


one

positive.

or

example
^, a,

be

to

and

unity;

0,

putation
comor

+,

respectively.

obtuse
acute

unless
and

there
obtuse

retained.

will

ftirther

illustrate

the

subject by

few

examples.
1.

Given

We

have

3.39,

here

sin ^

7.42, 0=105**
=

^^15-^

13'; find-B.

(Art. 144)

or,

logsinB

log"

log" + cologc + logsin(7

0.530200

cologc=

9.129596

log sin 0=9.984500


log sin

^=9.644296

.".J5

there

being

2.

Given

We

have

but

here

26**9'30.5"

solution, since

one

.5,

.227643, A

c"

6.

27* 5' ; find 0.

sin 0=
a

or,

1(^ BiaC=ilogc + cologa + log sin^

PLANE

134

TRIGONOMETRY.

logc=
cologa
log smJ.

9.698970

0.642746

9.658284

log sin (7=0


sin (7=

.-.

is but

there

Here

8.

Given

"We

have

solution

one

=.083,

; that

C=90^

is, a righttriangle.

-5=61^47';

=.0715,

sin -4

here

(Art. 92), or

"

find^.

"

log sin^

or,

loga
colog6

loga

8.919078

1.145694

log sin-B=
log sinJ.
Since

this is

colog" + logsinB

9.945058

0.009830

positive,sin^

1, and

"

the

triangleis impos^

sible.

Case

162.

angles might

The

; but

147

these

as

all of

compute

to

have

then

we

are

preferableto

it is

CHven

IV.

180".

adapted

formulfle

of

angles
found

The

least

the

data, provided

no

to

It is belter

148.

their

convenient,
If

the

but

is

tangent
four

angle

is to

best, since they involve

triangle is possible
side

be

only

as

one

for

must

sum

calculated, the

be

most

are

Art.

since

required.

formulae

found, the cosine

the

are

the

are

of

the work,

on

Art.

logarithmiccomputation,

to

angles by trigonometricalmethods,

logarithms

be

the

the

different

other

not

by

the formulae

will

work.

calculated

use

formulae

be

be

check

all the

If

the three sides.

for

greater than

any

the

sum

values
of

of
the

two.

If all the

angles are

used, it will be
follows

found

required, and
convenient

the
to

tangent formulae

change

their

forms

are
as

OF

SOLUTION

By

Art.

TRIANGLES.

OBLIQUE

135

148,

{8

tan}^

a) (s

"

"

"

"

=^

where

c)

"

-6)(a-c)
J(?^^)(a-6)(

1
^

b) ("

"

"a) (s

6) (s

"

c)

"

^-, and

Similarly, tanJ5="
8

1.

Ex.

By

Note.

Given

Here

2s

Hence,

20, Art. 155, r

2.5, b
aH-5

"=3.81,

logr

Also,

+
"

is the radius

inscribed

of the

2.33

c=

a=1.31,

[log(8-'a)

; find the

"

log (s

-f

log (s

log tan iA

logr

logtan iB

logr

logtan i 0=

logr

"

"

"

1.02,

log (s

"

log ("

"

0.008600

log {s

log ("-c)

0.170262

logtan i-B"=

9.419075"10

2)9.715208-l"0

9.857604-

6)

0.008600

35^4^4"

J5=

.-.^=70"

9.857604-10

logr

log (8 -a)

0.117271

log tan M

9 740333

i^
.-.^

28*^48' 32.9"

57" 37' 5.8"

Chedc, A+B

log (8 -c)=

0.170262

logtanJC=

9.687342-10

".

C==

28' 8"

9.857604-10

i 0=25"

1.48

9.849004"

9.857604-10

10

logr

"

6)
c)

"

"

log (s- 6)

logr

"

c)+ oology]
log (s a)

0.117271

.-.logr

angles.

"

colog"

circle.

b)

"

a)

log(s~

7.62

c=

"

s"

2.79,

taii}C

"

179^

0=51^54'

59' 59.8".

57' 23"

46"

10

10

PLANE

136
2.

Given

7, 6

TRIGONOMETRY.

11,

148,

By Art

9.6; find ^.

J^SUB

J J5=

cos

log COS

or,

J -B

[log"-h log (s

2"

+ 6 +

have

We

ca

thus,

"

27.6,

"

6)

or

1.139879

0.447158

cologc

9.017729

cologa

=9.154902

13.8;

"=

2.8

log"=

log ("

") + cologc -f-cologa]

"

2)9.759668
logoos}B=

TO

CALCULATE

163.

Example.

96" 30'

15";

By

Art.

9.879834

J5

40"41'11.4"

"".5

81*22'

THE

OF

AREA

Given

22.8"

TRIANGLE.

18.063, jB

35"

0' 13", A

find ^.

150,
ft

tt'sinJBsinO

rr-

^"

2K=

"
a*sinB
"

-r

"

t"

sin

/-#
C

cosec

a
J.

sinul
or,

From

log (2^)
the

0=

21oga + logsin-B-f logsin G + logcosecJ.

data,
180"-

(J.-h-B)

loga=

1.256790

180" -131"

48^ 29' 32"

loga

2.513580

log sin JB

9.758630

.-.

logsin (7=9.874404

logcosec^

0.002805

log(2jfir) 2.149419
=

2^=141.065

.".ir=

70.5325

30' 28"

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

188
26.

Given

641, 6

27.

Given

214.5637,

Find

the

28.

Given

116.082,

29.

Given

79.5, 6=94.4,

80.

Given

100,

81.

Given

31.235,

82.

Given

231, 6=197,

88.

Given

9.08072,

84.

Given

=8.024761,

J5

86.

Given

=.101

86.

Given

=.582,

87.

From

in each

area

6837,

is the distance

What

88.

From

base

of

and

from

the

100"

236

between
in

point

J5
5'

the

point 100

feet, 0D

length of

C=

=.1822451,

11" 18' 26".

c=.427.
feet

be

two

boats

14"

and

line

with

in

sea

the

32", respectively.

horizontal

feet ftirther away

the

the boats
same

above

plane

with

the

is 52" 39' ;

of its top
it is 35" 16'.

Required

the tower.

sides

The

60" 15' 46".

23", C=31"6'12".

lighthouse,200
to

53" 11' 18".

252.

tower, the angle of elevation

height of

89.
=

2", -4

3.2281,

6 =.601,

observed

are

76" 38' 13".

13" 57'

15' 41".

u4 =118"

5', A

level,the angles of depression of

lighthouse

44" 19' 53".

c=67.1.

40"
5

J5

following:

c=100,

(7=

702.

284.7906,

of the

top of

the

629,

of

field ABCD

252

line from

are

feet, and

-4J5=

Z"^=105

-4 to (7 is 311

155

feet, BC

feet, and

feet.

Find

the

the
of

area

the field.
40.
and

Wishing

B, I

length ;
and

measure

at the

found

to obtain
a

base

line CD

on

between
the

point C the angles ACD


to

be

point Z", the angles BDC


What

the distance

95" and
and

is the distance

two

buoys, A

shore, 150
and

CD

are

70", respectively; and


ADC

between

are

83" and

the

buoys?

feet

in

ured
meas-

at

the

30", respectively.

41.

In

63, and
BD

42.

75 and

1000

feet

CA

observed

of the boat
If P

Note.

from

denote

PB

meeting

DAC
G

CA

DP

and

known,

Again,
sides

angle BAC

be

angle BAD,

the

angles BAC

and

included
the

PA

we

know

calculation

XI.

of P

always

21"

and

BC^

AB,

44"

and

and

ence
circumfer-

mined.
deterthe
the

hence, also,
of

in

the

sides

and

their

calculate

may

and

two

determined.

the

angle ABD;

and

angles being known,

After

PA

and

PB

are

finally,

the

sides

found,

the

C is readily effected.

SOLUTION

We

shore, A^

the

side

difference

Then,

side

OP
OP

165.

and

two
we

be

can

and

therefore

and

DAC.

triangle ABP,"
PB

plain?

the

to

be

may

is the

angle, whence

and

angles

found;

which

in

the

the

triangle ABC,

the

the

"triangleBAD,

equal

side AD

known,

may

33', respectively.

and

P,

and

are

two

in

are

9"

A, respectively; hence,

the

and

observer, and

boat, describe

the

Geometry,

By

triangleADC

the

three

and

angles DP

are

Z".

at

area.

find the distance


feet,respectively,

position of

the

and

depression of

the

north

due

37,

are

steeple.

each

passing through A^ C,

in

of

steepleson

bear

5870

3000, 3500, and

are

angles

angles

the bluff above

church

to

the

north, respectively. If the distances

of

east

height of

DA

diagonals AO

27* 40' and

be

189

and

in line with

to

boat, three

(7, are

B, and

found

are

is the

From

the

bluff the

plain below,

apart,

What

43.

AB.BG,

the sides

top of

the

From

DEGREE.

rods, respectively. Find

42

posts in the

two

THIRD

rods, respectively;and

20

are

CD,

field AB

THE

OF

EQUATIONS

know,

be transformed
the square

THE

NUMERICAL
THIRD

by Algebra,
into

of the unknown

DEGREE.

that

another

TIONS
EQUA-

cubic

in which

quantity are

equation
the terms

wanting.

can
taining
con-

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

140

Thus, if the equation is aj*+paj*+ qx +

puttingaj==y

^,

"

0,

have

we

+^=0
"'+y(?-f)+'"-f
is in the

which

166.

Cardan's

in the
IS

required form.

form

a^-h

negative and

"

case

Method
which

To

roots

involves

the

solve the

is positive^
b

Putting X

sss

my

real and

are

cube

cos'-^

is,

This

is identical

w=cos-4,

From

(B),

where

case

unequal, and
a

binomial

dan's
Car-

surd,

ever,
by Algebra. It is possible,howby Trigonometrical methods.

equation
aa?

"

negative, and

positiveor
m'y""

4cosM

That

of

root

amy

3COS-4

"

"

f cos-4

with

-^

"

"

"

m^

But,

tion
equa-

obtained

aj?"
when

in the

0, except

cubic

any

to find the roots

167.

to solve

us

"

the three

be

cannot

-h 6

aa?

27
In this

enables

Method

"

"

"

m^

co83u4

cos3-4

(Art. 71)

(A) provided
=

*^* =

-9

^^^

^^

--:

m^"

-cos3-4

Jl^

(b)

(c)

THE

OF

EQUATIONS

DEGREE.

THIRD

the positivevalue
Substituting

of

141

(B)

in the third of

COS

a'

Since,by hypothesis,
the

taking

We

r"l.

ii"

be

value

one

3 A

of

(D) is

in

unity.

is

equal

all its values

and

z.

is

cosine

positive angle whose

least

the

then

v/-r"

--

is less than

and

inequality,

SA

of

1 ;

"

"

the

of

value

the

27
x

"

members

that

see

its cosine

possible,since
Let

thus

have

we

-.

both

of

roots

square

"*

"*
"

"

to

are

\a"

(Art. 62),
given by the expression 2nir"z
any positiveor negative integer.
Then, by (B), y
the latter

But

other

and

q is

cosj {2nw

all values

"

"}

which

of

by giving to

to

the

cos

cosi \2n'7r" z\

{2 gTT

0 and

cosja;,cosJ(27r
=

-COS-,

my^

and

is

"),

"

kl

"

w' is 0

or

z]

the

among
"

and

; hence

results obtained

ferent
Thus, only three dif-

1.

(Art. 40) ,

cosJ(27r-|-")
the values

"

the

equation

"1,

(Art.49)

I"

given by

or

for,if n has

of

are

cosf+
1, and
-cosf
|-cos(_
J_co8(---),and
\
3/
V
V
3

where

1 ;

"

"

for y ; that is

be found

can

i (2n'7r" z)J

"

included

are

"

values
different

three

w')tt

cosj {2 (Sq

""}.

nir

0 and

values

n' the values

values

coai\2

integralvalue, say 3g " n', where


any positiveor negative integer,

any

But

expression has only the

by giving

obtained

cos

where

[27
""2\'^*

__b
cosa;

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

142
If the

negatiye value

of

is taken

equation (C), we

in

shall find for y the values

co8i",

"

where

J (2 IT

"cos

denotes,

2),

"

and

before, the least positiveangle whose

as

coeineequauf^.
But

the

same

values for

co8i(2ir +"),

"

since

is

"

",w

^,

we

obtain

before.

as

EXAMPLES.

1.

Solve

Hereass4,
Or

the

equation
"=

(Art.48),

Thus,

1"^ cos

4a; +

"

Then,

"2.

cos

a^

(ir 2)
-

0.

cosz:^

f v^3

"

log3=

.477121

ilog3=

.238560

.-.

9.096910-10

l"^cos(7r-2)

=9.812591"

130*30'

"

-,

Hence, the three values

of

,^

4-

cos

43** 30' 6.3"

v'S

^cos/^"--'\
=

\3

are

i
-i-cos

V^3

18.9"
4

16

Also,

10

49*^29' 41.1"

^-"=

.".2

3j

-r-cos76"29'53.7"
y/3
"

-^cos/"^
163*
+ 5.W -^cos
V3

=-.f^3,

("" ")= logS + ^logS + colog 8

colog8

\^3

J"

"

\S

30' 6.3"

3) )/3
=

"

1.sin
V3

73* 30' 6.3"

MOIVRE'S

DE

THEOREM.

148

Now,

^^g -75

^^^^

ilogS

"-

.602060

.363500

.238560

(1)

log cos

43" 30'

log cos

76" 29' 53.7"

log sin

73" 30'

Adding (2), (3), and


the

logarithms of

numbers

Solve

the

3.

aj*

6aj-3

XII.

five

or

of

10

(3)

10

(4"
for

0.345241.

and
these

are

and

or

2.21432.
Ana.

"2.21432.

0.

4.

aj*-|-6aj*-aj- 1

0.

6.

aj"-3a^-2a?

0.

+ l

0.

THEOREM,

MOIVRE'S

DE

have

APPLICATIONS.

For

Theorem.

Moivre's

any

value

of

w,

posU

negative,integralor fractionalj

(cosi+ V^^^sina;)** cosno;


Case

I.

When

is

V"

We

(2)

(4) successivelyto (1), we

.539189,

WITH

De

-10

9.981741

followingequations

aj8-4a?-l

168.

9.368241

.539189,

2.

"

corresponding to

=1.67513,

a?

9.860549

9.731741-10,

1.67513,

Hence,

6.3"=

the values

0.224049,
The

6.3"

1 sin

nx

(114)

positive integer.

have

(cosa?+

^"

cos^aj

cos

"

a;

sino;)'

sin^a?+ 2
-f

V^

y^" 1

sin 2 x,

sin

by

a? cosa?

Art.

67.

(A)

PLANE

144

TRIGONOMETEY.

Again,
-f V
(coso;

Bina?)*

"

(cosa;-f- V

s=

(cos2 a;

sina;)'
(cosa?-f-y/" 1 sina?)

"

-|-y^" 1 sin

soo82a;cosa;

2a;)(cosa;4-

V^"1 sina;),by (A)

siii2a;8ina;

"

V--1 (sin2

-|-cos

a? cosa?

a?

sina;)

-|-V^^sin(2aj-|-a?) (Art. 57)


s=oos(2a?-|-aj)
cos3a?-|- V^" 1 sin3a;

is thus

The

theorem

The

general proof

be obtained

as

n^2

when

S.

or

positive integral exponent

may

theorem

the

Suppose

for any

follows

hold

to

seen

hold

to

when

being

n=:r,

any

positiveinteger. Then,
""=
1 sin a;)
(cosa;-h\/"

cos

-I-V~l

cosa;

raj

equation by

of this

members

Multiplying both

-hV--Tsin

r a?

sina?

have

we

V~l
(cosaj-f-

sina;)*""''^

(cos rx-\-^

l sin

"

cos

cosa?

rx

sin

"

-f-V

which

cos

(rx -\-x)-\V

cos

(r-\-l)aj+

result is

That

is,if the theorem

of w, it holds

for

been

to hold

proved

hence, also, when


true

when

is any

(sinrx

1 sin

value

cosa?

-|-cos

x)

rx

sin

a;)

(rx 4- x)

with

holds

the theorem.

for any

positiveintegralvalue

greater by unity.

when

l sin

"

y/" 1 sin(r-|-l)aj

to accord

seen

"

-\-y

sina?

rx

"-

rx) (cosx

5 ; and

3, hence
so

on.

positiveinteger.

it has

But

it holds

Thus,

the

when

already
n

theorem

4 ;

is

PLANE

146
1G9.

Patting

TRIGONOMETRY.

for

"a?

in De

a?

{co8(" ") +V-Tflin("")}"=


by

or,

Art.

V"

"

is another

1 sin

form

in one,

be united

the

+^^

{--nx)

COS

n"

y^" 1

"

of the theorem.

have

we

sin

(" wa?)

The

sin

(115)

na;

forms

two

may

a?)*= cos

1 sin

signs

upper

a?)*=cos

follows

as

(cosfl?"V"
where

Theorem,

40,

(cos X
which

Moiyre's

lower

the

or

V"

"

no?

1 sinno?

signs

(116)
be

must

taken

together.
It is to be

170.
P
to

P
cos

-,

of the

that, when

is

fraction

equal

-Of

observed

"

1 sin

-a?

is

expression (cosa; + V^" 1

For, if A; is any

values
of the q different

only one
sin

")"".

positiveinteger,

+
{cos^(^+^^")4-vCo:sin^"^
^^""}'
J? {x -f

2kir) +

V^

cos

+|5a;)+ V
cos(2j"A;ir

cos

^"

pa; -H

sin

l sin

"

The

m..

values
different
g

"

1.

is any

of

obtained

the

Art.

/"
T
yTZi

right hand

in the

by giving to

For, if k has any


term

{^pkir+px)

168,

we

that

see

05)*

COS

expression

fcir)

(Art. 49)

1"(^+^M 2A;^)
=:

p{x+

sin|"a;

Thus, by the proof of Case

(coso;-H V^" 1

sin

series

other

member

has

only

k the values

value, say mg

0, 1, 2,

positiveor negative integer.

pix + ^kir)

..^

sm

""",

g"

-h

the

0, 1, 2,

A:',where

1, and

""",

A/

is any

cos

THEOREM.

MOIVRE'S

DE

p(x + 2k7r)
L

"

"Ll--L

+ 2kfr)
^

p(x

^^

1 sin

"

147

cos

-j2mj?7r

^^--^^

vCT

co8^^

i-j-y

sin

I2

""

1 sin^i-^^

"

values

known

the

0, 1, 2,
for

is among

found

be

"

which

-^^

J) TT +

""",

expressions obtained
1.
Thus
only q
g"

expression.

the

principleof Algebra

This

that

by giving
different

values

can

the

well-

with

agrees

expression

an

to k the

has

gth

roots.

To

values

the three
illustrate,

cos

^"

^-

"

^^
"

"

That

The

sina?)*
are

-|-

and

+ V^" 1
(cosa?

V^"l sinf 05

cosf 05
cos

of

\"l
^

sin

\"l
^

sm

^^
"

-^

"

^"

^^

"

is, cosfo5-|-V""l sin fa?

last

expression may

cos

also be written

by

Art.

49,

Cf+f)+v^-^(^+")

PLANE

148

TRIGONOMETRY.

EXPANSIONS

171.

De

By

V"

the second

Expanding

COSINE.

AND

Theorem,

sinny

SINE

THE

Moivre's

-h

cosny

we

OF

(cosy + y^"

member

by

the

(a)

siny)*

Binomial

Theorem,

have

oos*y +

V^"

cofl*"^y
siny

''^y^'^ ) cos*~'ysin'y

"

lA
-|-^"

"cos*~^ysi
-j
smy
n(n"
^

l)(ri

2)

"

^cos*

To

By Algebra,
members

cos

ny

of

real

the

cos*y

"

"

equal, and

be

must

we

'*ysm'y +

imaginary portions of

and

equation (A)

""

"""

the

two

have

^ cos*"*ysin*yH
^V^^"^

LI.
sinny =ncos'^^y8iny"

/q^^^ ^co8*~^y
sin'y+

"^""

"""

LI
That
cos

is,
ny

cos*y

1
-j
^^^""^ tan^y
"

sin ny

cos*y

Putting ny

^Xj

"" n

"("-l)("-2)("-")tan

tan

and

~'

)\^~~

"

consequently y

"

-,
n

we

tan^y +""""-

have

MOIVRE'S

DE

f cos-

i508a;=

nj

1"

"

._

THEOREM.

^tan^-

a^

I49

[2^

8ina"=('co8?Y|ntan?-!il!ill)i"!iZ:^
+ ...|
nJ

\
These

be

may

3
11

written,
tan'

cos

a?

=H)"{'-|('-9^"
OB

71

tan*

^e(-=)('-9('-3V'-n*

tan^-

tan.

^,

^.

"-=H)"{^^-|('-:)('-9v^+That
cosou

is,

a?v2

=Hr{-a('-=)l
a;

tan-V

-E('-=)('-9('-9h-"
71

/tan-\8

"

...

Let,

now,

be

tan-

increased,
indefinitely

and

^
n

consequently

tan-

indefinitelydiminished.

By

Art.

80,

approaches
X
n

the

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

160

limit

1, and

by

Art.

j approaches

81, | cos-

"

at the

Hence,

the

etc., approaches

limit 1.

limit;

same

quantities1

of the

also,each

the

have

limit, we

(117)
cosaj=l-^-hg-...
sina;=a;

h.

L"

[3
It U

Note.
r

must

be

expressed

in circular

By

OF

sin
cosa5-|-V^--l

Putting

THE

110, putting x^^

Art.

in this result

and

cos

just found,

measure.

VALUES

EXPONENTIAL

172.

that, in the series for sin

eyident

(118)
^
^

"""

COSINE.

AND

SINE

for x,

(119)

(Art. 171.)

a?.

in

"x

place of

a;,

e-^^=cos(-a;) + V^sin(-aj)
V^^ sina;
x
cos
=

173.

"

Adding equations (119)

2co8aj=e"^'
Whence,

cos

Whence,

yTTlsin a:

from

sin

""

(120)

e*^

we

have

e-"^

+
-^

Subtracting (120)

and

(120)

(121)

(119) ,

we

have

e-*^

"

f122)

DE

results

These

THEOREM.

called

are

sine

of the

values

MOIVRE'S

and

the

cosine

151

exponential^or
they

hyperbolic^

first obtained

were

by

Euler.

Dividing (122) by (121),

have

we

e""ri e-"V=l
__

2V^
tanaj

"

"

\n

e*

J^

e-.v3i

(123)

"

-7=

SERIES

of

By

tan

THE

Series.

Gregory's

174.
ers

CALCULATING

FOR

To

VALUE

expand

in

OP
a

TT.

ofpow-

senes

x.

Art.

173,

^^i^e"^^
^

^-=-

1 +

e'^^-^
+

1+Vdtana?_

e"'^'^2e'^^

a.V=I
_

1-

^v:^i+ e-"V=i
Whence,

by logarithms,

log.(e-^)=log,l"A^*2S2
1
or,

2avCT

"

1 tanou

yCIitana?)

log,(1 +

which, by Art.

"

is,

2^3

V3rtana:-*^-V3Tt!E!5
+
^

2^8

...

2V^{tana.~i55!"
t5|!5^...|
+

aj=tana?-^^2^+ 5?5!2

Putting

in

tan"^y{Art. 82), we

(124)

175.

^a^^^)

113,
^

That

log,j;i~V^

Gregory's

Series

tan

y, whence

have

tair^y=y

...

(125)

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

152
"

Id

this,

expressed in
Put
or

circular

expressed in

circular

1-1

of

value
of

be

1 is

45^,

used

to

obtain

(126)
^
^

calculate

slowly

so

have

we

1-1+...
5

to

terms

great many

tangent is

measure,

it converges

but

TT,

be

might

series

This

must

measure.

then, since the angle whose

y=l;
when

series,the angle tsxr^y

all similar

in

as

as

the

to

the

even

approximate

require the

use

ordinary approximation,

3.1416.

By

Series.

Euler's

176.

2, Art. 82,

Ex.

tan-'l
+ tan-^l
=

Whence

"

(Art. 175),
^

"

"

"

series which

far

converges

-f.

...

"

"

3.2"^6.2*

3.3"

rapidlj'than

more

preceding article.
177.

Series.

Machin's

2 tan

By

Art.

67,

tan

a;

Putting

tan

a?

we

-,

a;

"

tan'a;

have

tan2a;

and

tan

4a;

"

tan'^a?

"

j_

144

...

6.3*
that

(127l
^

of

the

TRIGONOMETRY.

PLANE

154

approximately,

Thas,

Let

179.

.0001)

3.1416.

f
J

tana

"

L whence,

70

99

tan'^-70

16

tan6="

.0042

=.7854

-.0042
.7854

239

5.57

.0027

.7896

ir

(.2

Hence,

3.5"

\p

tan-'i=

99

Then,
tana

tan"

"

jv\

4.^^/^

(a

tan

0)

"

1 4-tanatan"

-1-1.
99^_

JO

""239

1^
6930

is,

That

"

tan"^

-"

239

tan~^

Hence,

'

by

Whence,

177,

Art.

value
use

of
that

TT

4tan-l-tan-i
=

in the

convenient

more

to

for

use

99

70

|
It is

tan~^-"

tan~^

239

the

tan"^"",
239

series
as

for

in Axt.

calculation

tan"^"
178.

tan-"

of
and

the

(130)

approximate

tan"^"

than

to,

Paet

SPHERICAL

II.

TRIGOIS^OMETRT.

GEOMETBIOAL

XIII.

DEFINITIONS

AND

PRINCIPLES.

with

formed
the

on

know

We

180.

The

called

sides,

the

is bounded

three

by

measured

are

well

as

expressed
in

side
found

of

terms

in

be

angle

it

sphere,

intercepts

great circles

of

arcs

the

by

result

the

as

angular

face

ratio

the

by

the

the

number

angles,

of

angles

the

of

unit
its

of

to

of

length

it may

360^, and

readily
plying
multi-

circumference

the

of

length

the

is desired,
arc

angle
tri-

spherical

If

measure.

linear

some

by finding
the

of

circle.

is, if A

That
the

of

centre

triedral

s^hervccU triangle^

triangle

are

great

if

that

angle.

Thus,

be

the

at

sides, which

its

triedral

any

its vertex

surface

ISL

Greometrj

by

radius

be

the

of

of

length

the

sphere,

degrees
of

the

side, and

in the
side

is

X2irR.

"

360

182.

of

angles
measured
in
game

diedral

The

each

of

point.

of

the
its

angle
faces,

between
and

triedral

the

spherical triangle

the

by

angles

two

and,

angle

called

are

by Geometry,

straight

perpendicular

to

lines
its

each

drawn,

edge

the

at

is
one

the

relations

between

is the

what

angle

in

altered

which

or,

and

diedral

diedral

angles

are

radius

of

sphere

the face

angles

interceptsit.

the

magnitude by varying
relations

consequently the

and

sphericaltriangle;

that the face and

It is evident

IM.

of

thing,between

same

of the triedral

elements

the

trigonometrical

of the

SphericalTrigonometry treats

183.

of

TRIGONOMETRY.

SPHERICAL

156

between

the

and

sides

entirelyindependent

sphericaltriangleare

the

of

not
;

angles
length

the

of the radius.

We

185.

as

less

shall

of

of the

some

in the

great circle

The

proofs of

side of

of the other

(6). K

two

If two

the

be

isosceles

what

found

the

each

ment
ele-

subject,especially

and

the

general

any

value

have

may

it

Geodesy,

is called

in

an}' treatise

Solid

on

The

them

are

equal

them

of
are

sphericaltriangle are
; and

the

sum

unequal, and

side ; and

it into two

the

the

unequal, the

greater angle lies

conversely.

perpendicular from
divides

equal,

conversely.

spherical triangleare

the vertex

sphericaltrianglebisects

angle, and

less than

sphericaltriangle is

of

opposite the greater


.

the

following elementary propertiesof

sides

sides

angles opposite

(d)

than

two.

angles opposite
.

is less

is

angle

(a) Any

(c)

each

is, where

Astronomy

element

an

spherical trianglesmay
Geometry

; that

angles
tri-

such

to

360**.

0** and

186.

of

to consider

convenient

sphericaltriangle^where
between

side

higher applications of

general formulae

is sometimes

where

each

and

work

180^.

is less than
in

in this

Geometry,

in

right angles,

two

semi-circumference

But

ourselves

considered

are

than

limit

the

base

to the base

and

the

of

an

vertical

symmetrical righttriangles.

PRINCIPLES.

GEOMETRICAL

(e). The
than

of

sum

sides

the

of

circumference

the

of

157

sphericaltriangleis

great circle

less

is, less than

; that

360^

(/).
greater

greater

(g).
and

S^

The

than
than

the

of

sum

less

and

two

180"

is the

poles of

the

by

the

That

In two

six

the

is,if ^,

c',respectively,

is measured

one

of the other.

is,
5

^'=180"-

a,

5'=180"-6,

Either

difference

187.

of

correspondingside

a',

is,

polar triangleof A'B'O.

ia the

of the

that

a', b',and

arcs

each angle
polar triangles,

supplement

that

right angles ;

540".

^==180"-

(i)

spherical triangle is

polar triangleot ABC,

If A'B'C
are

of

than

less than

and

then, conversely,ABO

(h)

angles

angle

between

of

180"

C=180"-c',
C"=180"-c.

sphericaltriangleis greater than


and

the

sphericaltriangleis

tH-rectangular,according
angles.
It is called

5',

=180"-

sum

called

it has

as

quadrantal when

of the other

two

the

angles.

or
Tight,bi-rectangular,

one,

it has

two,

one

or

side

three

equal

right
to

quadrant.
It is evident
a

from

Art.

186, (^), that the polar triangleof

rightsphericaltriangleis

quadrantal triangle.

SPHERICAL

168

TRIGONOMETRY.

FORMULA

GENERAL

XIV.

FOR

CAL
SPHERI-

TRIANGLES.
In

18"

to the

equal

apJiericcd
trianglethe

any

prodv^ct of the

of the other

cosines

the cosine

product of their sines and

continued

of either aide

cosine

is

sides,plus the
of their induded

angle.
example,

For

cosa

To

prove

which
Case

this

and
I.

we

he

c,

A'O

are

At

any

OA

in the

respectively,and join JB'C.


and

the

90", the angles CO

perpendiculars will

sufficiently
produced.
to the

angle A

In the

Since

of the

By

B'C""

AB.^

meet

Art.

the

in OA
OAB

AOB

the

edges

the

182

OB

and
+

A^B'C,

and

0(7'2-2

0jB'

-f--4'C7'"'-2AB'

Art.
.

'

and

OC
is

146,

cos

are

acute,

OC'cosa
A'C

both

angle BA'C

by

and

OAC,

and

are

6,

a,

A^B*

b
by h3^pothesis
and

angles

sides

draw

the

of

centre

sphericaltriangle.

trianglesOB'C
jB'(7"=OJB'2

180**.

181, the

of

planes

of

90".

0 the

measures

each

0" and

between

point ^'

in

cases,

then, by Art.
the

cos

both less than

are

OC;

perpendicular to
less than

sphericaltriangle,and

respectively.

both

sin " sin

values

any
c

sphere. Join 0-4, OB^


CO A, and A OB
BOCy
and

distinguishfive

may

b and

cos

have

may

When

ABC

Let

cos

it

equal

FORMULiB.

GENERAL

have

Subtracting these equations,we

2 0jB'

OC*

0^'S

2 A'B'

co8a

But, in the righttrianglesOA'B'


OB'^-A'B'^=

169

A'O*

"

OA'C\

and

by Geometry,

OC'"-^'C'"=

and

cos

OA'K

Hence, transposing,
2 0B'

OG'co"a==20A'^-^2A'B^

'

OA'

OA'

OjB'

OC

But, in the righttrianglesOA'B'


OA'

OA'
'

OB'

A'C

OB'

OC'

0-4'

and

A'B'

OC

^A'B'

C,

we

have

^'C

'

A'C'co"A

'

'0(7'

0-B'

Substituting,
cos

Case

cmd

II.

When

cos

cos

-|-sin " sin

of the sides h and

one

cos

is

A.

greater than 90"

90".

the other is less than

"

In the
than

triangleABC^

90".

Complete

ABC'^
less than
are

the

side

90" ; that
90" ;

less than

cosJBC"

let b be
the

lune

AO

greater than

=180"

is, the

sides

two

cose

Then, in the

b, and

"

hence, by Case

cos-4"7'

C\

CB

90", and

about

is
the

sine

less

gle
trian-

consequently

angle

I.,

sin ^C

coSjB-40'

BAC

SPHERICAL

160

TRIGONOMETRY.

But,
JBC"

180"

a, J[C"=

180*^

JB^(7'=

", and

180"

A,

Hence,

(180"

cos

a)

"

(180"

cos

6) cos c
(180" b) sine

4- sin

(180"

cos

A)

(Art. 43) ,

or

"

That

is,

cos

cos

cos

Similarly,we
90", and

Case

the

the

180"-

angle
cos

But

cos

"

A=A\
cosa

cos

h is less

when

in

; that

90" ; hence,

by

-f-sin CA

co^BA

the

90".

than

triangleABC,

is,both sides
Case

sin ^^'

cos

(180"- b) cos

about

I. ,

cos

-4'

sin

(180"- c)

(180"- b) sin (180"- c)cos^

(-cost) (" cose) -|-sin

cos5

6 sinccos^

is,
cosa

90".

greater

(Art. 43) ,

That

than

hence,

cosa

A)

cos

cos

be both

Then,

jB^'=180"-

CA

sin 6 sin

("

both greater than

and

less than

are

-f-sin 6 sin

theorem

are

ABAC,

lune

90".

b and

6, and

the

prove

When

h) cos

cos

"

triangleABC\e\,b

Complete
CA

may

greater than

III.

In the

or

"

cose

sin " sine cos^

'

SPHERICAL

164

Whence,

TRIGONOMETRY.

j^^cosa

oosb

cmc

^^^

smosinc

Similarly,
cost

C08^=r"

cose

"

cosa

cose

COsC=j^

^^"

smcsina

/,^^v
(138)

raiio

same

sm^A

of the

sides

the sines

a^

of

sphericaltriangleare

in

of tJieir opposite angles.


/coso-cosftcoscV

cos* -4

"

;"

sinasino

TIhe sines
the

cosacosft

"

^
=

.^^

sin' 5 sin'c

(cosa

"

cose)*

cos

"

191)

sin"sinc

__

sill*6 sin*e

(1

coB*")(1

"

co8*e)

"

(cosg

"

cose)*

cos

"

__

8in*6 sin*c
1

cos*6

"

cos*e

"

"

cos*a -k 2

"

cos

cos

cose

__

sin* ftsin*e

Hence,
\/ri" co8*a"

A
sm^=*-""

cos*6"

co8*c+2cosacos6cosel

sm

The

A^ 6, and

for

0"

lie between

/-"^\

(139)

sm

be taken

positivesign must

since

T-^

"

:-"

radical

the

180^,

and

here

their

sines

for,
are

positive.
Thus,
sin A

cos*a

\/[l

"

cos* 5

"

cos*e -f-2

"

cos

cos

c]

cos

sin
We

sin

should

obtain

the

sin b sin

value for the expressions

same

sino

and

as

is

evident

from

the symmetry

of the result.

sme

sin
This

sinO

sinS

sin^

Hence,
result may
sin -4

sin^:

sin

sin b

also be
sin

^^^^

written

sin 5

in the

sin 6

sinjB:slu(/s=sina:

forms,

sin C

sin6:

sin

sine

(l4l)
(142)

FORMULAE.

GENERAL

The

Art.

independently of

Let

ABO

GO

A
At

he
Join

sphere.

"

follows

as

OA,

OBy and
in

00

and

B^O^,

and

and

Hence, the

angles

to the

the

By Geometry,

5'(7' to OB,

equal

are

perpendicular to

perpendicularto 0-4

DB^

and

O'B'D

of the

angles JBOCand

the

(7'Z"

draw

join A^O*
perpendicular to 0-4, and

angles O'A'D

O the centre

then

respectively,and

-4'(7' is

proved

6, respectively.

and

DA^

Draw

00;

be

sphericaltriangle,and

point C

any

preceding article may

the

191

the sides

measure

plane AOB,
OB^

of

theorem

166

and

-B,

respectively. (Art. 182.)


In the

sin ^

sin

sin ^'0

and

sin^=smO'5'i"

B'DO\

'

int*
B'O

BO'
sin 6

Bin

B^O'D

sin ^'00'

0''
B'O'

^O'D

AO'

A'O'^O'D

O'

B'O'

O O'

BO*

'

sin 6

BO'

0'

sin A

A'O'

sin B
___

sin

0 0'

A'O'OO'

sin

A'O''

8m^^C^l"

Whence

Henc",

A^DO\

O'D
sin O'^'D

and,

0A'0\

righttriangles0B'0\

sinb'

SPHERICAL

166
In

similar

above

TRIGONOMETRY.

it

manner

fractions

is

equal

to

be

can

that

proved

each

of the

"

"

sine

In the

A, and

should

have

On

arise.

proof

of Art.

which

has

is

192

been

192,

of

to hold

the

stnJB^

article,the

on

theorem

190

to

the formulae

of

sin C
_

sin a'

by

strating
demon-

have

we

sin^'

or,

which

universally.
of Art.

method

depends

6,

sally,
univer-

of

this

of

it

a,

possiblecases

method

preferable,since

proved

theorem

inconvenience

the

the

by

elements

the

the

all the

consider

to

cases

Applying
Art.

90" ; to prove

account

all these

of

each

supposed

JB to be less than
we

could

have

figurewe

sin b'

sin c'

186, (h),

Art.

sm(180"-a)^sin(180"~6)^sin(180"-c)
sin(180"-JB)

8in(180*^-^)

!"5L^ ^

Thatis,

Thus

19"

relations

new

no

Art.

By

cos

cos

(Art. 192)
iiE"

sin C

"

cos

(Art. 43)
C

sm

obtained

are

in this way.

cos

+ sin

cos^

sin

sina

cos

sin"

cos

(A)

(B)

?2Ajl5^
ll!L^,orsinc

(C)

sin B

Substitutingfrom
cos

sm

188,

cosc=:cosa

Also

sm

sin(180"-C)

(B)
(cosa

sin B
and
cos

(C)

(A),

in

" -f-sin

sin "

cos

(7)

8in"sin(7
,

-I

"

"

"

"
sin

^^"

cos

Bu

smB
=s

cos

b COS* a -f-sin

cos

-f sin

sin b

cos

sin " cot B

sin O

FORMULAE.

GENERAL

/.

cos

(1

b sin* a

cos

or,

sin

sin 6

(sinC

Q6tB

sin

sin b

(sinC

cot B

-f-cos

cos^a)

"

sin

Dividing through by
552_

5,

cot

167

sin ", and

cos

cos

C)

cos

C)
that

remembering

obtain

we

sin b
sin

cot 6

we
Similarly,

sin b cot
c

sin

cot

196.

cos

(144)

sin ^

cot A

cos

cos

J^

(145)

sin J3 cot

C -f-cos

cos

J3

(146)

cos

(147)

sin (7 cot A

cos

sin -4 cot JJ-f

formulae

Art.

By

(143)

cos

(148)

cos^

cose

also be derived

may

from

the

first

190.

of Art.

the method

by

three

cot C +

cot 6

last three

cos

sin ^

sin b cot

The

cote

sine

cos

prove,

may

sin

sin C cot -B -f

191,
a

cos

-4=1

cos

"

cos

"

cos

"

sin b sin
b

cos

-h sin 5 sin

cos

"

cos

__

sin 6 sin

/"n\

-^

(Art.69)

or

;^i
A
sur^-d

2
,

(5
^

COS
=

c)

"

sm

But

COS

"

^.

sm

(Art. 72),
cos

cos

"

a?

sin

sin|^(a;+ y)

J (a; y)
"

Hence,
+ (g^~c)jsinna-(ft~c)(
og^2^j^--2sinH"
sin"
2 1
sm^i-4
.

or,

sin J

(a +L 6

i-l"

c) sin J (a
^

"

"

now

2s

a-^b-^c=

and

5 + c)
^^-^

smc

smo

Then

"

Let

sine

a-fft
a

"

"

6 +

+ 6 +

a^6

"

"

2c

2"

26

2""

"

2c=2(s--c)
2"=2("

"

6)

TRIGONOMETRY.

SPHERICAL

168

have

Substituting,we
sin 2

(8

sin

b) sin (s

"

c)

"

smosinc

(s

sm

"

Similarly,we

6)

"

(s

8in

c)

"

(149)

smosinc

prove

may

^
^Bin(a-c)8in(.:H^

sini5=

smcsma

(150)

"
.

/sin (s

a) sin

"

(s

6)

"

sm

smasmo
y

197.

By

Art.

191,

1+008^

cos

1+

sin"
cosa

"

cos

"

sine

(cos6

"

cose

cose

sin 5

"

sine)

sin " sine


o

or,

cosa

9-1

cos^^A

(6-4-c)
^

cos

"

.^

=
.

sm"sme

Hence,

as

in the

in Art.

proof

coqS^j^

si^i (6 +

196,

g) 8in^(5 4-

a)

sin " sine

Letting

" +

6 +

e=25,

e--g

have

we

"-|-c

2a=s2(8

"

"

g)

Substituting,
,t
^
cos'i^

sins sin
=

:-"

(5
h

g)^

"

smosme

or,

cos

we
Similarly,

"|

sin(s
/sins
\

(151)

sin " sine

prove

may
1

g)

"

"

/sinssin

x"

cosJ-B=

V
11

(s

"

J^^

b)^

smesmg

"

|sinssin(s
"

smg

smo

e)
J

(152)

FORMULJE.

GENERAL

19a

Arts:

By

197,

Isin(a" 6)sin(8" c)

sin i-4

iA

tan

and

196

169

a)
|8in8sm(8"

_^

__

cosi-^

sinftsinc

si"(8
sin

__

b) sin {s

"

sin

sin

"

(*

sinftsinc

c)

"

(153)

a)

"

Similarly,

fshiO
s

J5

tan

c) sin (s

"

sin

sin

(s

g)

"

b)

"

(1S4)

"

|sin(g-a)sin(g-6)

J (7=

tan

V
The

Note.
since

radicals

} -4,J 5,

199.

and

Art.

By

sin C

sin B

sin

sin

(s

c)

"

Arts.

positivein

taken

are

196, 197, and

198,

angles.

acute

are

190,

cosa

cosa

cos^

-f cos5

-4 +

cos
or

cos

cos

(7

cos

sin (7

sin 5

Whence,
1

cos
COStt

"

-f

sin ^

That

is

cos

(7

cos

"

sin (7

(Art. 69),
COS

"

"

2 1

ta

zsin

C +

COS

"

sin C

sinB
"

"

"

"

"

cos

"

sin^smG^
cos

(B+C)-\-

cos

sin 5

But, by Art.
cos

Hence,

sin (7

72,

y=2

-\-cos

cos

i(x + y) cos i (a? y)


"

-^"^^"^+^

siaHa

+ ^"
^l^"^^^^^

sin5sin(7

Letting ^-f^

C=2/S^

+ C-2^

j5+(7-^=^+J5

Substituting,
.

cosS

cos(S

sin

sin^smC

"

A)

2(/S'-u4)

^^

SPHERICAL

170

TRIGONOMETRY.

I
.

oobSco"(S

A)

"

(155)

or,

Similarly,we

may

sin} 6

prove

-f-

Bm}eX

B)

"

sin C sin ^

cos^VcosCiiS
-^

C)1

"

(S

cos

(156)

coaS

sin^sin^
y

200.

the first

By
1+

008a

part of the preceding article,

"25:^+^?^^

1+

cos^

cos

J3

C -I-sin J3 sin (7

cos

__

sin^sinC
2 cos" J a

or,

52iii+c^iB-Oi
=

sin^sinC

Whence, ooe'}a

"""n^

^'-

Clcos^ ^-(^-Cl]

smBsinC

sinJSsinC
But

B'-C=2(S-C)y

and

A^B-\-C=2(S-B)

co^ia^^^i^^zC^^mnJ^

Hence,

ainBamC

"|oos(^-B)co""Egl

coB}a=

Dr,

sin 5

(157)

sin C

Similarly,
N

sin (7 sin A

"
cos

ic

=4

COS

(S -A)

(158)

(S-B)

COS

sin^sinJS
J

201.

By

Arts.

cosja

and

199

200,

coa(S -B)

COB

(S-C)

'

TRIGONOMETRY.

SPHERICAL

172

ANALOGIES.

NAPIER'S

20a

Art.

By

198,
"

tsin^B

sin

sin

"

(s

a)

"

Isii^'(g --^

sin

(g

sin

(s

\ sin* (s

sins sin

a)

"

tanj^^-f tanj^.B_
tan ^5
tan^^
"

65

this,by Arts.

sin(^^
a

sin

b)

"

a)

"

(g

"

sin

(s

"

and

ft)+ sin (^

6)

sin

"

"

"

"

By

sin^ (^
sin^ (A

4-

"

Art.

"

a)

+ 6 +

"

"

"

"

g)]
a)]

6)

"

6)

"

"

"

ct)

"

73,

"

2"

(s

j^^) __tanj^ S'-h-\- (g


(s
tan^ [s 6
^B)

sin

sinj^(^ + ^) ^tan|(28
tan^(a
sin^(-4 ^)

20^

(s" 6)

by composition and division,

Whence,

But,

c)8in(8 "a)

"

From

/8ip(8

8in(g" c)
l8in(8--6)

taiijA_

c;

hence,

tan^c

^)

(161)

"

5)

^ (a

tan

6)

"

198,

fsin(^-c)sin(^-a)
|sin(8-")sin(^^c)

tani^tani^=

sinssin(s
Isin^ (s "~c)

a)

"

sin

(s

sinssin("
c)

"

__

sin"

sin^s

Whence,
sin
^

(s

"

c)

sins

1"

tan^^tani^_

l+

sin(s
tan^^tanJrJg""i
|

"

c)

sins

sins

sin

sin

(g

-f-sin

(5

"

"

c)

"

c)

"

6)

From

65 and

this,by Arts.

173

FORMUL-ffi.

GENERAL

73,

_tani [g (g c)]
cos(iA+iB)
tau^ [s + (s-c)]
^^)
cos(^^
"

"

"

But,

"

a-\- b +

cosi(^
i {A
cos

"

-\-b ; hence,

tanjc

J^)_

B)

"

tan

of Art.

the method

Proceeding according to
have, by Art.

(162)

(a + b)

190,

we

203,

sin^(4^+-B')^
sin i

(^'- J5')

tan^c^

"

(a'- b')

tan

But,

J5') i(180"-a+180"-6)
J(J.'-f
=

i(180"-a-180"+6)

ic'

i{a'-b')

i(180"-A-180''+B)

i(^'--B')

J(-a

=90"-

(180"- C)

6)

6)

i C

i(-A-^B)

tan(90"-iC)

siPri8Q"-Ha+^)]

Hence,

180"-i(a

sini("
Whence,

by

Arts.
sin

ta.ni

6)

("A-^B)

40, 42, 43,

cot^ C

j-(g + ^)
_

sin^(a

"

smi{a
or,

ft)

"

Art.

204,

tsin^{A-B)
have

we

C09i(A'+B')
^

tan

cosi(^'-J5')
That

J5)

"

cotjC

b)^

smi(a--b)
Similarly,from

tan^(^

"

tan^c^
i (a'+6')

is,
cos

Whence,

[180"- i ("x+ ")]


cosi(-a + 2")
-cosi(a

tan

(90"- j-0)

tan[180"-i(^-f
cotjO

g")
^

cos|^(a

"

6)

"

tan^(^

^)

^)]

SPHERICAL

174

TRIGONOMETRY.

co6i{a + b)

or,

_coUO

r^^.

cosJ(a
206.

other

the

theorems

articles

three
be

The

formulae

of Art.

of Art.

in Arts.

as

last
will

elements

other

as

of

used.

triangleare

The

according

case,

the

there

Napier's Analogies;

as

in each

forms

results of

the

exemplifiedby

known

are

tani(^-f-B)

6)

"

205

203

have

might

been

proved independently,

204, by startingwith

and

the

results

201.
ANALOGIES.

DELAICBRE'S

Qmi(A"B)=:Bmf^"^\

207.

A^

sm

B
"

"

Arts.

Substitutingfrom

196

sm

cos

"

2
and

cos

"

"

2'

197,

/sing sin (s-")


|siQ(3-^")sin(g-c)

sinJ(J["J5)=
\

Isin (g

sin"sinc

--

c) sin {s

{s

sin

h)"

"

Ising sin

a)

"

sincsina

sin

sincsina

{s

"

a)

sinftsinc

Isingsin (g

g)

"

{s

"

c)

__

Whence,
sini (A +

Arts.

by
B)

sin

sine

sin 6

197,

72 and

2sin^[g-6+g-a1costr^~6-(g-a)]^^^

sine

sine
But

also

2g

"

(Art. 67)

"

sin
,

"

+ 6 +

2 sin i c

"

cos

"

c;

J c.

Hence,
A
\
/
smi(ul
'

-D\
-B)

2 sin i
=

"

c cos
"

"7"

sm

ic

i (a

"

'-^

cos

6)

^cosiC ^

^c

"2iii":=^cosJ(7
cosic

(165)

GENERAL

'

sin

/
(^

J1

T"\

-B)

"

FORMULA.

} c sin }
(a
^-^

COS

2 sin i

c cos

(a

b)
^

sin J

"

V"-

175
6)^

"

} ^G
^

cos

Jc
^
^
G
J

cos

/,^^\
(1^)

smic

Since

20a

tion of Art.

tan i

205*

(^ + J5)

be

can

sm^^

cosJ(a
co8j(^

coaUA

B)

.sin i

6)

"

i (a

cos

Substitutingthe

+ .B)

(-44- jB)

^^^iiHdl^tanJCsin}(l
+ -B)

-B)

^j^^ j^g^

written

^cosi(^
^PJ^cosj^(a4-")

or,

^)

value

of sin i

Ha

cos

6)

"

(A-i-B)

6)

cos

(a

6)

"

207,

gCosHa-fe)^^^^ ^

tan

Art.

from

ic

cos

=22"ii^"^Bini(7

(167)

cosjc

Similarly,we
cos

may

prove

J5) ===5ELi_(5L"^sinja

(^-

209.

The

there

articles

the last two

Analogies;

and

other

forms, according as

are

in each

sides

and

amples
excase

angles

employed.

are

The

formulae
as

manner

same

in

will be other

which

Delambre^s

called

are

of

theorems

(168)

ic

sin

still another

Certain

proved by
(a). If
in the

same

those

way,

of Art.

the results

210.

of Art.

208

might

of Art.

207

by applying

side

they

the

been

derived

in the

may

also be

proved

method

of Art.

190

to

207.

propertiesof sphericaltrianglesare

aid of the theorems


a

have

differsmore

quadrant

as

its

of this

readily

chapter.

from 90" than another


opposite angle.

side^ it is

SPHERICAL

176
For

in the

are

if

example,

To

differs

90"

from

more

than

6,

and

quadrant.

same

this, we

prove

TRIGONOMETRY.

have, by Art.
cos

-4

cos

191,
6

cos

"

cose

sin 6 sine

Since

b and

since

positive; and,

numerically greater
hence,
the

cos

is

sign of

than

180", sin 6 and

than

cos".

cos

But,

will be the

both

are

both

are

90"

from

more

numerically greater

-4 and
and

less

differs

the fraction

that is, cos

hence, A

both

are

than

6,

than

cos

90",

sign of

cos

negative ;

greater than

both

or

Hence,

both

positive,or

is

unity;

cose.

the

as

are

cos

is less than

cose

same

less than

sine

90".

(6). If
it is ill the

For

To

if A

example,

in the

are

quadrant

same

differs

this,we
cos-4

cos

and

show,

may
that

cos

-4 is

as

in the

or

both

greater

(c).

The

as

the

For
than

as

-B

cos

"

B^ A

than

case,

than

half sum
of

the

90", according
90".

C -|-sin 5 sin C

cos

-\-cos

before,

and

cos

sin (7

sin 5

that

and

cos

and

than
be

must

sin (7

x)ositive,

are

(7; hence,

cos-B

cos

both

less than

90",

90".

of

any

two

sides

is in the

quadrant

sam"

opposite angles.

example, ^ (a -f 6)

greater than

190,

numericallygreater

previous

half sum

90"

from

more

sin 5

We

angle

opposite side.

have, by Art.

cos

Whence,

its

another

quadrant.

same

prove

as

90" than

from

angle differsmore

an

as

is less

|^(-4-j-B)

than, equal to,


is less

or

greater

than, equal to,

or

To

this, we

prove

cos

TRIANGLES.

RIGHT

SPHERICAL

have, by Art.

204,

{A-\-B)

tan

177

^c

Since, Ay B^
90",

and

B)

"

i{a-\-b)

tan

each

less than

lies between

90" and

and

{A"B)

(A

cos

are

180", ic is less than


"90"

B) are both positive. Thus,


i{A
be both
and
tan J (a -I-^) must
positive,or
else cos } (-4-f 5)
tan i (a + 6)
0, and
or
be both
less
i (a + 6) must
i {A-\-B) and

and

cos

"

90",

greater than

(d)

In

there

will be

either

of the others;

lie in the
In

sides

in

quadrant
an

either

as

which

their

as

quadrant

same

as

That

is,

90", both

than

is

equilateral)

or

90"

nearer

the half

sum

half

sum

the

equal

of the

than

sides

two

must

of

the

equal

of

the

equal-

the

same

lies in

sides

opposite angle.

its

equilateraltriangle,by

side lies in the

the

quadrant

same

OP

SOLUTION

XV.

negative,

opposite angles.

triangle,by (c),

is, either

that

angles ;

isosceles

is not
side

one

Ic

to 90**.

hence, by (a), the other

quadrants

same

is in the

In

general

isosceles

an

equal

triangle(which

any

both
oo

tan

i(A-\-B)

cos

both

or

hence,

principlejust proved,
as

its

opposite angle.

SPHERICAL

RIGHT

TRIANGLES.
A

mined
sphericaltriangleis, in general,completely deter-

when
the
a

case

three

any

where

the

of

its six elements

right sphericaltrianglecan

besides
We

the
will

rightangle
now

chapter,

derive,
the

right triangles.

We

are

the

be

solved

given parts

are

from

are

three
when

known,

even

in

angles. Thus,
two

any

parts

given.
the

general

simpler forms
shall suppose

formulae

adapted
C the

to

the

of

the

solution

rightangle.

ceding
preof

SPHERICAL

178
From

Art.

cos

(7=

MaMng

TRIGONOMETRY.

188,
COS

=:

90", whence

sin ^

have

we

(3.G9)

192,
sin

sin .B

sin C

(7=

sin

sin

-4.=

-:

From

Making

Art.

cos

cos

J[

"^v

(170)
c

cos

A-^sinO

sin -4

cos

cos

C + sin5

sin (7

cos

cos

6, and

Art.

andj

cos

sin^ x"

buiB

cos

cos

-4

cos

/,-,\

(171)

190,
"

cos

cos

J5 -f sin ^

sin B

cos

cos

cos

sin A

sin 5

cos

^^^ ^

(7=90",

Hence,

216.

/,

"

become

these

cos

Making

COSjB

C=

-:

sin

cos5

cos

cos

"

sin b

"

8mJ5 T"

andJ

have

we

B=ainA

sm^

From

1,

sin

190,
"

(7=90",
cos

whence,

sin (7=

"

sin

214.

sin O

90", whence
J

sin

sin 6
__

Making

cos

cos6

Art.

From

sin 5

0=0,

cos

coscscosa

213.

sin

6 +

COS

cos

From
cos

^QS

cos

sm

sin ^

Art.

214,

-4

sin J5

212

whence, by Arts.
cos^

"

and

sin b

yi

cos

a,

cos

and
,

cos

^^^^^

sin A

cos

sin

cos

sin

cos

213,

sin

and

^^^ j^

cos

cosJB,,

NAPIER'S

formulae
In

RULES

of the

preceding

two

of

article.
elements

form,

A^

co.

J5, and

co.

6, and

and

c, which

A^ JB, and

the elements

abbreviated

an

all the

include

which

artificial rules

are

sphericalrighttriangle,the

PARTS.

dRCULAR

OF

These

complements
in

TRIGONOMETRY.

SPHERICAL

180

co.

written

are

called

are

c,

the

the circular parts.


If
ters

triangle,

in the

occur

the let-*

in which

in the order

arranged

them

suppose

we

co.B

co.^

the

of

one

any

parts, and

cent

sine

The

the

remaining

Napier's rules

Then,

selected

immediately adjacent

the two

part;

be

five may

are

of the middle

two

called

and

then

are

the

the

called

middle

the

adjor-

oppositeparts.

part

the

eqvMs

product of

the

gents
tan-

of the adjacent parts.


the

of

of the middle

sine

The

oppositeparts.
These

),

be

may

parts in succession
results

agree

If

is the

and

as

middle
co.

tan

proved by taking each


the middle

the formulae

with

and

CO.

sin
or

part eqtialsthe prodiid of the cosines

h tan

part, h
the

and

part, and

of Art.

the

are

opposite parts.

(co.B)

showing

which

agree

tan

b cot B

with

Arts.

217

and

Then, the rules give

sin

cos

sin

sin

213.

the

adjacent parts,

(co.c) cos (co.A)

(Art. 13),
sin

that

218.

co.

of the circular

sin uil

RIGHT

SPHERICAL

If b is the
and

or,

and

CO.

middle
co.

the

tan

tan

sin b

tan

cot A

If

with

agree

CO.

parts, and

cos

or,

which

cos

or,

which

agree

CO.

parts, and

which

agree

of

of the
to

cos

212

Arts.

middle
B

and

part,

the

b tan

sin

(co.A)

cos

b cot

Arts.

middle
co.

co.

and

-4

cos

and

co.

tan

(co.c)

sin

(co.B)

cos

cos

(co.^)

Arts.

on

216

cos

and

the

Trigonometry

forms

of

formulae
Plane

the

are

adjacent

" sin ^

cos

214.

differ

rules to the computer;

recollect

sin J5

Then,

opposite parts.
a

with

adjacent

214.

tan

cot

the

are

(co.c)

Then,

(co.B)

tan

cos

cos

sin

adjacent

(co.B)

tan

cos

part,
the

the

are

cos(co. J5)

216

sin 5

opposite parts.
tan

is the

Then,

and

with

sin

(co.B)

215.

(co.A)

tan

(co.c) cos

cos

sin

cos

co.

cos

highest authorities, it

218.

cot B

co.

Then,

opposite parts.

(co.c)

Napier's

analogous

and

sin

Writers
value

pai-t,co. A

cot ^

adjacent parts,

213.

tan(co.A)

and

b and

cos

or,

sin 6

(co.c)

is the

and

181

the

are

sin b

sin

217

b the

with

CO.

parts, and

If

agree

If

Arts.

and

co.

opposite parts.

middle

is the

and

(co.A)

sin b

which

Art.

part,

TRIANGLES.

seems

to

be

to

as

the

practical

but, in the opinion

regarded

by comparing

Trigonometry,

as

them

as

ble
preferawith

mentioned

the

in

222.
six

be

TBIGONOMETBY.

SPHERICAL

182

SOLUTION

OF

In the solution

of

which

cases

BIGHT

and
hypotlieniise

1.

Given

the

2.

Given

an

angle

and

its

opposite side,

3.

Given

an

angle and

its

adja^xnt side.

4.

Given

the

5.

Given

the two

sides

6.

Given

the two

angles A

the above

formiilsB of Art.
elements

when

the two

involves

which

all the

If

rule may

two

be found

cases

be solved

may

compute

are

given, the

given parts
elements

remaining

side.

B.

and

To

218.

any

another
6.

and

adjacent angle,

an

hypothenuse and

of

Any

will

sphericalright triangles,there

arise

can

TBL^NGLES.

in

convenient

either

aid of the

by
the

of

remaining

equation is tluit

proper

and

the

are

required, the following

required part.

selectingthe

proper

tions
equa-

TaJce the three

In

formulae

to

the

or

cotangent of

algebraicsigns of

function
of

found

just above
Art.

229

; the

in accordance

'^determined

after the

first of

equation in which

looking

out

the

cosine, tangent,

or

the

angle

is less

the

angle

is less than

90",
must

and

be

the

or

to

being

put the

all the terms

cotangent,

greater than
90"

in the

are

its

sign

90" ; that

each

ples
exam-

then

being

minus.

229, the signs

tive.
nega-

sign of

principlethat

signs produce
Art.

taken

first member

the

paid

cosine, tangent,

like
In

are

signs

the

omitted

amples
ex-

in

positive.

angles corresponding, if

supplement

taken.

the

of

with

unlike

produce plus, and

In

sign

90^

be

must

it,as illustrated

beneath

or

the

than

convenient

given parts.

attention

functions

the

angle greater

an

It will be

every

the computations,

making

the

involve

which

the function

determines

is

whether

is,if it is positive,

and, if negative, it is greater than

of the

angle

obtained

from

the tables

is

If tb# fonetion

the tables

from

the next

side

in the

are

By

the

acute

must

be

angle

obtained

regarded

be removed

by

the

tions,
solu-

as

principles

angle and

an
aphertccUrighttriangle^

its opposite

quadrant.

same

218, sinJB

Art.

"^

supplement

angle is eqaal

an

articles.

two

In

both

ambiguity can

unless the
of

its

and

188

sine,since the sine of

supplement,

sine of its

the

to

TRIAVGLEa

RIGHT

STBXBICAL

^^.

"

coso

sin B

l^oee

is

always positive,cos^

positiveor both
both less than 90^, or

and

"

in the

90'',the other

than

is less than

both

are

If

greater than

COS"'must

be of

b is less than

sides

both

90", or both

is

of

for

any

Art.

in

are

is

that

the other two

negative ;

90", and

the other

in the

which

found

particularexample

that
is

in Art.
may

new

any

229.

be

tlieformxda
If

cos"

are

both

cosa

and

of the sides

greater than

be done

and

is,a and

is,one

solution

may

necessityc^ looking out


this will be

that

cosa

to

have

in every

selected

and

cheek

check
from

on

out
with-

case

logarithms.
The

90".

218, by the applicationof the followingrule

Take

sides

quadrants.
different

positive; hence

opposite sign ;

logarithmicwork,
the

it follows

greater than 90".


is negative ; hence,
90", cose

It is coitve"ient
the

be

and, if the hypothenuse is greater

90^, cose

positiveor

less than

must

ooscscosacos^.

ByArt"218,
If

two

quadrant.

same

quadrant;

same

be

and

^^

is less than 90
If the hypotheniLse
are

must

90^.

greater than

equation 8in^=s

the

in the

are

both

cos

negative. Hence,

both

Similarly,from

and

ples
Examformula

the set in
:

cojitainingthe three required parts.

Napier's

rules

indicate whieb 6t the droular

are

used, the

following rule

wfll

parts correspdndingto tiiegiven

SPHERICAL

184
elements
middle

and

TRIGONOMETRY.

element

required

any

regarded

the

as

part.

If these three circular parts


one

is to be

the middle

as

If they are

then

are

adjacent^ take the part which

not

of the others

either

the others

and

party

adjacent, take

are

the middle

as

the middle

adja^centparts.

is not

adja/yent to

the others

party and

then

are

oppositeparts.
the check

For

formula^ proceed

above

as

with

the circular

parts correspondingto the three required elements.


if

Thas,
To

and

given, and

are

a, consider

find

Of these, a is the middle

sin

is

find

part, and

co.

a,

and

(co.A)

(co.c) cos

cos

by the circular
middle

the

now

parts

are

required

c, and

co.

co.

co.

are

A.

site
oppo-

Then, by Napier's rules,

parts.

To

circular

the

by and

a,

parts

part, and

6,

are

h and

sine sin -4

co.

coA\

c, and

co.
c

-4

co.

adjacent parts.

are

Then,
sin
To
CO.

(co.A)

(co.c)

For
^

parts

part, and

cos^

or

co.

JB, co.

co.

are

tan b cote

and

co.

e, and

co.

tan

(co.B)

cose

or

circular

the

formula,
middle

is the

; a

(co.A)

tan

check

the

parts.

adjacent

are

parts

b and

part, and

co.

cot-4

a,

are

cot JB

are

by and

adjacent

Then,
sin

tan b tan

(co.B)

tan b cotB

EXAMPLES.

229.

1.

Using

the

218

Then,

parts.

CO.

middle

is the

sin

(co.c),

By the circular

find

tan b tan

Given
rule

70"

of Art.

18', A

100".

223, the three

Find
formulae

a,

by and
from

are,

co8-4=
sin-4==5iE?^
,

sme

"

",

tanc

cose

cot -4 cot JB.

B.
Art

SPHERICAL

That

++sin

Hence,

+--

sin^, t"nb

log sin

log sin

log tan

logtanc

logcos

log cot
Since

ambiguity
A

is

obtained

from

When

of

case

logtan A

be taken,

must

is determined

by

the

also be

must

as

from

principleof

also, the

the tables must

element
of

cases

a,

in the

explained

its

Art.

the

sine, but

225

for,

90".

greater than
of

supplement

the

angle

be taken.

the rule of Art.


=

fiinctions

the
values

of

found

log sin c
log sin^

value

sina

used
6 and

volve
always be so written as to inin determining the required parts.
log cot JB may then be taken from

work, and
of

the

sum

should

9.973807-10

9.993351

-10

log tan c
log cos^

=9.967158"10

180"-

9.527753

log tan-4

0.753681

log tan

0.281434

log coti?=

180"-JB=
5=

equal the previously

log sin a.

log cot

is here

cotB.

t"nb

log sin

Ic^ cos

in

0.446054

9.239670-10

logtanft =9.685724-10

67" 59' 50.6''


112"

below

should

logtan

the first part of the

or

formula

check

shown

as

formula

227, the check

sin
The

first member,

B.

6, and

tan B

The

-4

-f-logcos
c

supplement of an angle corresponding is to be


be conveniently expressed by writing 180"
may

the

minus

By

logsin

the

taken, it

the

element

greaterthan 90", a

in the

Thus,

tan A

cose

negative,the supplementaof

are

is removed

+-

cos^, cotJB

tanc

the tables

from
The

224.

in Art.

cotJB

and

tan"

angles obtained

since

186

is,

4sin a

the

TRIANGLES.

RIGHT

180" -6=

9.4"

0'

"

25" 52' 20.9"

152" 23' 13.1"

7' 39.1"

CJiecJc.

10

27"36'46.9''

154"

log sin

9.685724-10
0.281434

9.967158-

10

TRI60N0METHT.

flPBEBKTAL

IM
2.

Giyen

By

Art.

6',b

132^

^,

"

tanBaa-:

sin 6

log tan

coac

Bs3

log cose

or^

log tan

log sin

"

log tan

"

"

log tan

cot

formula

log Bind

-*

log sina

logGos"

is

JB^ or oosctan^tanB=l

log tan

J. -f

logtanBs=
log tan

9.990161

log sin

0.053878

logtan"

48** 32' 41.7"

0.666967

9.870390

0.796577

80* 55' 26.6"

Check.

9.826351

2"=

9.323194

log cos

9:i49545

log tan

^=0.053878

8r55'17.4"

logtan

logco6C
180*-c

c=s98*
Given

27' 18.3"

^=131*

log cos
log cos

k)gl=

0.044039

180*-^=

8.

(?sk^coaa

the check

cot^

ss

e.

coscsscosaooBft

"

log tana

s=

log COS
By Art. 227"

and

suia

log tao^

Hence,

A, B,

Find

are

"

tan-4

and

77^ 51'.

formulae

the three

223

J5=

6' 42.6'^

146*

15'

19",

log 1==

9.149545

0^796577
0.000000

lOa* a' a7".

a"

Find

A, b^

c.

By

Art

223, the three formulas

cosa

That

are

tanc

sma

is,

"*

cos^ss

"*"

cosa

*"

sin

"

"T

JB, tan"s=sinatan^,

nr

tanc

tana
=

cos^

Hence,

log cos

log cosa

log tan

s=log

log tan

sina +

log tana

"

log sm

l(^tanJB
log cos JB

SPHERICAL

188
225

Arts.

its

and

TRIGONOMETRY.

226, both

or

supplement

the

be retained

must

log tan

log sin

b =9.555636

0.542981

21"

=9.794626

logsinB

9.645271

26" 13' 18.3"

1.3"

153" 46' 41.7"

or

Check.

log 8in-4

9.982878

logsln"=

9.910365

log sine

=9.910365

54" 26' 26.7"

logsin^

125"

or

It does

b must

than

90",

given

be

Art.

and

in the

same

b must

be

in the second

less than

in different

with

the values

Thus, the

the

of b and

33'

33.3",

6=

is

greater

Since

of

the

is

value

greater

90" must

greater than

90",

of b greater than

225, the value


of

that with

the value

less than

solutions

two

54"26'26.7",
=125"

value

when

quadrants.

it follows

be taken

be combined

is less than

quadrant, and

quadrant,

90" must

90" ; and

c=

226, when

hence, also, by Art.

90", and

9.645271

follow,however, that the parts can

not

and

9.555636

33' 33.3"

promiscuously ; for, by

log cos

9.439897

9.893243

c=

or,

J[

lojgsinc=

taken

log cos

tables

case.

logsin

than

the

from

in each

3' 58.7"

158*56'

or

obtained

=0.098617

logtana

of

angle

be

90".

are

158" 56'
21"

1.3", -B

153" 46'

41.7";

26" 13' 18.3".

3' 58.7", B=

"^'

The

figureshows,

solutions

in this

case.

in another

For,

J!^ forming the lune ABAC^

way,

\i AB

the

why
and

should

there

^C

triangleAB

be

be two

produced

C has

to

the side

RIGHT

SPHERICAL

and

the
A

angle

angled

of the

(7.

at

And

sides

Solve

the

and

the

the

side

the

and

triangles are

both

right-

c' and

that the sides

it is evident
are

b and

and

189

equal, respectively,to

triangleABCy

angle CBA*

the

A*

angle

TRIANGLES.

b' and

of
supplements, respectively,

the

angle CBA.

followingtriangles:
6.

Given

6.

Given

J[=

7.

Given

8.

Given

5=

9.

Given

10.

Given

11.

Given

12.

Given

13.

Given

137*23', a=160^
50^ 21', ^=122^40^

160%

80**

a=

61**

a=

61*39

67*36'.

6=

81** 53

c=

38* 28'.

5=112*

3'.

5=123*38'.

5
,

6=144*12'.
,

^=

99M7

152*20

57'

111*

6=

15*

3'.

37*

4'.

14.

J[=

Given

62*59

5=
,

16.

Given

144*

54

16.

Given

144*

54

17.

Given

18.

Given

19.

Given

20.

Given

"=137*

Given

c=

47*34

6=

69*18',

21.
22.

230.

Since

OF

the

101*

14'.

161*

52'.

114*32

^=

=113*

7'.

73*

6=110*47'.

25

A=z

74*51'.

62* 59' 10".

polar triangleof

84*27'.

c=

TRIANGLES.

QUADRANTAL

right triangle(Art. 187), we have


triangle,and take the supplements
calculation.

B
,

Given

SOLUTION

=131*

a=146*32'.

quadrantal triangleis
only

of the

to

solve

this

parts found

right

by

the

SPHERICAL

190

Example.
A., B, and

the

b^4gr6(f.

polar righttriangle
by AffC\

90% ^'=
Art.

By

a^^rW,

112*

22', B'=

131*

10'

; to

a'

-"

eot ^' cot B'

cot4'

ooso'

is,

co8a'

"^\

co9Z"'=

Bm

52i4;"
coBc'

or.

the

cotJJ'

Bin

4-

log coa

a'

logcos A^

logcos

6'

logCOB

log COB

c' =

log sin J3'

"

^"

log sin

J.'

log cot -4'+ log cot V

check.
cos

log cos

or,

log cos

^'

log sin

B^

c'esooeo'
e' B

oob6'

log COB a'+ log COS 5'

9.580892

loff cos
cos
log

9.876678

log

a' =9.703714

log cos

180*-

a'

180*

=a

69* 38' 9.6"

B'

sin A'

log cos

-d'

9.818392

":

9.966033

9.852359

"

44**37' 6.2"

log cot -4'

9.614359

log cot B'

9.941714

log COB

c'

9.556073

log cost's*

68* 54' 41.3"

log cose'

log cos

Check.
a'

"

^=180*-a'=

jBp=180*-6'*
C=180*-c'

59*38'

9.6"

44*87'

6.2"

=111*

9.703714

9.852359

=9.556073

Thus, in the given quadrantal triangle,

and

a',6',and c'.

218,

cos

For

have, by

we

find

sin^=22S4',
"nji'^"2Lg,
ods c*
That

Find

(A),

186,

0'=

c^9(f,

C.

Denoting
Art.

Given

TRIGONOMETST.

5' 18.7"

SFHEBICAL

OF

SOLUTION

Art.

By
fco the

base

vertical

of

TBIAlfGLES.

RIGHT

ISOSCELES

191

TRIANGLES.

186, (d), the perpendicular from


isosceles

an

angle, and

trianglebisects

divides

By solving

it into two

of

one

these

the vertex

the base

and

the

angles.
symmetrical righttri-

we

find

can

the

required

parts of the given triangle.


Given

Example.
A^ B^

and

(7"

^IIS**, * s=115%

71* 48'.

Find

e.

Denoting the elements of one of the righttriangles


by A\
jy, C*, a',b\ and c\ where (? is the rightangle^ we have
c'=o=:115%
We

to find the

then

are

?1E^'

sin^'=

J['= JC=35"54'

and

parts a' and

and

B^ in this

c' =

cos

triangle.

oot^'cotB'

(Art.218)

smc'
-

sin a'

or,

sine'

9.957276

log sin c'

9.7681
logsinJl'ss

log sin

cot5'=

sin-4',and

cose' tan-^*
c'

log cos

7S

-h

9.625948

logtan^'r^ 9.859666
-B'

a'

9.725449

log cot

a'

32"6'8.7"

180^-jB'=:

^'

9.485614

72" 59' 23.5"


107*'

0'36.5"

Then, in the given isosceles triangle,


0'

A^B=B'=l0r
If the

given parts

36.5", and

are

a,

6, and

triangleis indeterminate,

90", the

trianglewill satisfythe given


rt the

given parts
If in

two

and

sides
one

to that of

or

two

other
an

are

2a'=

A^ and
since

each

a, and

The
each

is

equal

to

bi-rectangular

any

conditions.

A^ By and

64** 12' 17.4"

is

is true

same

equal

to 90".

sphericaloblique trianglethe given parts are


angles which are supplements of each other,
element, the solution

isosceles

triaagle*

may

be at

onoe

reduced

SPHERICAL

192

TRIGONOMETRY.

.J^

For, if

a,

the

by completing
in
A

A^

if

Again,

180** -5,

A'B

ABA^C

6'

180""

given,and

are

form

we

180"

b,

"

triangleA* BC

that

a;

is, the triangle

\" isosceles.

BC

lune

side

the

which

element

b, and another

A'BC

A;

the
that

element

given,

are

triangleA^BC,

A'

is,two

the

angles of

and
and

triangle

equal.

are

XVI.

in

then,

180""

another

JB, and

OP

SOLUTION

SPHERICAL

OBLIQUE

TRIANGLES.
In the solution of

distinguishsix
a

2.

CKven

two

8.

Given

the three sides.

4.

Given

the three

5.

Given

two

sides and

6.

Given

two

angles and

By

the

applicationof

solution

of

the

made

under

to

Cases

it is not

side and

"olutioa of

adjacent angles,

two

sides and

their included

depend
1,3, and
to

angle,

angles,
the

upon

angle oppositeto

the side

example

any

essential

may

Qiven

be

cases

sphericaloblique triangleswe

the

the

opposite to

under

Cases

solution

more

of them.

one

of them.

principlesof
of

and
5, respectively,
consider

one

than

sphericalobliquetriaiigles.

Art.

2, 4, and
another
vice

three

versa.
cases

186, (^),
6, may

example
Thus
in the

SPHERICAL

The

student

made
Art.

in

bear

must

regard

mind

carefully in

solution

the

to

198

of

the

marks
re-

right trianglesin

224.

Case

Given

I.

Given

Example.

aide

70%

and

adjacent angles.

two

131"

18', c

116".

Find

C,

6, and

a,

TRIANGLES.

OBLIQUE

By Napier's Analogies (Arts. 203, 204),

have

we

tanj-c

sin^ (JB-hA)
_

sin

i (B "-4)

tan^ (b

oosj^(^+^)_

tan^c

co8^(JB" ^)
Whence,

or,

tan^ (6

tan^ (6

tan^(6
=

tsLTii
(6 4- a)^
^^

a)

"

^^^f)^"^/

tan^ (b-{-a)
From

the

tan

Jc
^

cosec^ (B +A)

4=

^.

cosi(JB-|-^)

sin^ (B "A)

a)

sini(B-^)

a)

a)

"

4-

cos^(JB "A)

i^B-^A)

sec

tan^c

tan-J-c

data,

i (JB-^)

30"

39', i(JB4-^)=100"39',

ic

58"

=9.707393

logcosi(JB-^)

=9.934649

logcoseci(JB+-4)=0.007546

logseci(iJ+^)

=0.733277

logtanl^c=0.204211

logtan^c

=0.204211

logtanJ(6 4-a)

=0.872137

logsini(B-^)

logtanJ(6-a)
...

=9.919150

i{b'-a)

=39"41f50.6"

180"-i(6
.-.

Then,

i (6

^ (6 + a"

i (6 -f.a) + i (6

a)

a)

a) =82"21'16.7"

|^(64-a)=97"38'43.3"
57" 56' 52.S"
1 37" 20' 33.8

"

TRI"k"KOM"TRT.

SPHERICAL

IM
To

C,

find

have, by Art. M5,

we

8in

sin i

S5

(6

o)

"

(" + a)

logsini(b
logcosec} (6

(6

coeec

a) tan } {B "-4.)

"

a)=z 9.996122

"

a)

logtan 1 (B-'A)

=:

0.194681

9.772745

kC00ti(7"

9.963548

10=4r*24'

C=; 94* 48' 12.2"

.-.

valne

The

of

also be

may

6.1"

detennined

by

the

formnla

(Art.205),

cotJ0=^iii5"")tanJ(5+^)
ooBi("

a)

"

triangleis always possiblefor

The

values

any

of the

given

elements.

f.

Given

Example.
JB, (7,and

Given

II.

Case

137*'

their included

aides and

two

20',

116%

cotjJ^

sin}(5 + c)_

tanJ(^-C)*

8inJ(6-c)
Whence,

tanH-B--a)
tani (J +

tan} (^

From

"

(7)
"

i(B+C)=s
the

(6

Find

have

g)

} (" + c)

cos

cos

c)

(o

tan

(JB+ C)

c)

sin

"^

ii? ^)cotM

cos

(6

coti^^

g4J^"cotM
+

sin J

cos

(6 + c)
J

(ft c) coeec
"

+
tan

^=70*.

a.

By Napier's Analogies (Art. 205), we

or,

angle.

(6

(6 + c) coti^i

+
J.
coti
i(jb+ c)
-

"

c)

sec

data,

c)

10*

40', J(6 + c)"126"40', M=:35*

SPHERICAL

196

TRIGONOMETRY.

logsin (a -6)

9.496919

c)

9.804886

a)

0.003934

logcosecs

0.384777

logsin ("
logcosec ("

"

"

2J 9.690516
log tan M

9.845258

M=35''0'
.".^=:

131*

18'

followingforms

found

convenient
Art.

70^0'

13.8"

find

we
Similarly,

The

6.9"

31.8", C

of the

equations of

all the

when

94'' 48' 5.6"

angles

Art.

198

will

be

required, (Compare

are

162.)

if*=^{s
sin

a) sin (a

"

sin

b) sin {a

"

c)

"

A;

then,

tan}^

sin

(s

a)

"

tanJB

-7

sin (s

(8

sm

values

The
the

formulae
the

only
is

Arts.

of

four different

elements

(e) ;
the

or

198

of Art.

be

found

If all the

197.

logarithms are

formulae

also

may

are

the

required.

triangleis always possiblefor

any

aid

by

angles

are

convenient,

most

are

but

to be

one

of
quired,
reas

angle

preferred,as

the least work.

satisfythe

which

tliat is, if

sum

196

c)

"

197

involve

The

and

of Art.

formulae

required,the

they

-4, JB,

of

b)

"

of the other

2^ +

two.

"

conditions

360", and

of
no

values
Ait,

of the

given

186, (a) and

side is

greater than

SPHERICAL

Case

Find

Art.

By

Given

6, and

a,

Given

IV.

Example.

TRIANGLES.

OBLIQUE
the three

70%

197

angles.
=

131** 18',

94** 48'.

c.

201,
^

cos^-

tania=.L
\

co8(/S-JB)cos(/S'-C)
cos^co8(^-3)

tapi6=J
V
U

tan

Since

Note.

it has

negative signs in
From

(/S'-(7) cos

cos

(/S-^)

".fll^^^^^^I^HS

cos("S-^)cos(/S'cos
{S -A) cos (/S'
-^)

been

proved

tangents of the half sides


the

(6^~^)

cos

in Art.

always real,we

are

that

202

need

the
pay

ralues
no

of

attention

the
to

the formulae.

the data,

+-5 + 0=296'*

2/S'=^

6',

/S'=148'*3'

or

Then,
/S'-(7=53M5'

78^*3',/S'--B=16M5',

"8'--4=

log cos/S'=

9.928657

{S -A)

9.316092

-B)
log sec (/S'

0.018829

0.223063

log cos

(/S' C)

log sec

2)9.486641
=

9,743320

ia

28"58'33"

57^*57'

logtanJa

.-.

In

similar
h

If all the
the formulae

137** 20'

sides

are

of Art.

find

we

manner,

6"

25.8",

1 15^ 59' 40.4"

required,the following modifications


201

if^=^
cos(^ -A)

may
"

be

used

COS/5

cos{S ^B)

cobIS-G)

of

values

The
formulae

four

involve

201

logarithms
formulae

of

If all the

are

the

are

required.

Art.

shown

must

be

satisfythe
be

to

"180'

trae

and

required,

are

If but
be

to

are

as

one

only

side

is

preferred, as

in Art.

of Art.

and

eadi

is, A+B

of

the

(7, must

"

given

186, (/), and

That

202.

J.+J5

and

raiaes of the

for any

condition

"540'',

C+A"B^

+ C"Ay

sides

aid of the

convenient,

most

200

by

the least work.

which

those

A)

'^

also be found

may

triangleis always possiMe

elements

180*

200.

or

Art.

of

required, the

The

199

of Arts.

different

they

", and

of a,

formulae

the

^K"xm{S

tuiia

then,

TSIOONOMETKY.

aPHBEICAL

198

+ C

quantities

lie between

-180^

and

Ca'se Y.

240.

Given

the

8ide8 and

ttco

angle oppoail^

to

of them.

one

Example
Find

Given

1.

-4, C7,and

By

Art

192,

5|54""E",
or

log sin

logcosec 6
log sin

To

find C and

18'.

2""^
smo

sin

=:

9.928183

0.169079

6 sin B

cosec

5=9.875793

logsm^
.-.

8in^

sm6

sin^

is,

21',B=131*

c.

sm^
That

67',6=137*

a"57*

J[

c,

we

9.973055

70"l'30.3",

or

have, by Arts.

109* 58' 29.7"


203

and

205,

c."tjC=?iHii|"")tani(^-^)
sin

(6

"

a)

(A)
nbxh{B-A)

'^

SPHERICAL

Or,

oot

J 0=B

sin }

tan

sin i {B+A)

(" -f- a)

the first value

Using

B+A

20r

TRIANGLES.

OBLIQUE

A^

of
19'

a)

cosec

cosec

i {B"A)

"

tan

}(S" ^4)

tan

i (6

a)

"

have

we

B-A

30.3",

39' 45.15",
i(JB-+-J.)":10(y'

pr,

(6

199

(5-^)

61" 16' 29.7"

"

30' 38' 14.85"

39*^ 42'

Also,

97^39',

J(6 + a)=
which

From

i ""

a)

obtain

we

O=94*50'8.8'S

116M'18.^

B+A

{B+A)

or,

29.7",

120*^ 38'

14.85'^

68",

150** 57' 24.4"

25'

values

(A)
ic

is such

be

no

Case

After

the

90**.

may

be

{b+a) and
smi (B+A)
sarrie

and

tanic

10** 39' 45.15"

150** 57' 24.4"

given

be

1'18.2"

in the

tions
equa-

iC

positive,since

H^ice, if either of the values


and

tan

Thus

sometimes

of

} c negative,there

will

will sometimes

be

there
no

tan

solution

in

examples

correi^iidiDg"

obtained, the number

readily determined
i
are

{B+A)

are

less than

are

both

and
but

tan

if

of

by inspection. For,

positive. Hence,

sign, cot i C
ic

been

have

triangle is possible;

cot i O

53",

article must

cot i C

values of A

the

V.

the

solutions

21** 19' 30.3"

8.8", c=116**

i (7 and

cot

solution, and

one

under

have

94*50'
147** 25'

preceding
make

to

as

c-

trianglecorresponding.

only

and

(7=

of

less than

are

since

of the

{B^A)

are

58' 29.7", (7

The

and

solutions

70** 1'30.3",

ul=109**

or,

B^A

have

we

the two

A=

haT"

we

241** 16'

0=147**

Thns,

A^

of

which

From

vahie

the second

Using

Jc

are

they

negative, and

180**,sini(6 + a)

ifB"A
both

have

and

"

positive,and

differentsigns,

there

is

no

triangle

SPHERICAL

200
That

TRIGONOMETRY.

vatuea

is,ordy those

of A

he retained

can

greater or less than B according as

is

greater

in the example of Art. 240,


illustrate,

To

values

both

242.

of

Example

A^ B^ and

Find

are

less than

2.

Given

J3, we

have

are

less thou- 6.

b ;

a"

and,

snce

solutions.

two

57**56',
cs=116^

(7=94**48'.

b,
BiaA

sin

sin C

sin

Here,
sin

sm^

or,

or

which

sin C

BmC7 /v
.

sina

=r

9.928104

0.046840

oosecc

sine

log sin
log cosec

logsin (7=

9.998474

log sin^

9.972918

69*^58'31.2", or

.-.

Since

hence

but

have

we

of A

less than

be retained

can

corresponds

solution, which

one

IIOM'28.8''

to

the

of A,

first value
To

only values

a"c^

find B

and

b, we

cot}5

have, by Arts.

5!5i_(5Jl2)tan
sin i

(c

203

and

205,

(O-^)

a)

"

tanJ6=S5iigt4)tan}(c--a)
Using

the first value

(7 +
or,

of

A,

have

we

(7-^

ui=164"46'31.2",
82" 23'

i(C+A)=

12" 24'44.4"

i(C-^)=

15.6",

24" 49' 28.8"

Also,

i{c
From

a)=^

which
5=

we

86" 58',

{c^a)

29"

2'

obtain
131"

16'

Thus, the only solution


ui

20",

137"

19' 13.8"

is

69"58'31.2", J5=131"16'20",

6=

137"

19' 13.8''

SPHERICAL

Example
A^

OBLIQUE

Given

8.

TRIANGLES.

126**,c=70**,

201

J5

56^

Find

a,

C.

and

2iE^=?"",

Here,

8inC=5iS""i"d?

or

sin^

sin 6

log sin
log cosec

sin 5
=9.972986

0.092042

log sin^=

9.918574

log sin (7 =9.983602

Since
than

both

5, it follows
If

of

the

first

the

no

244.

there

are

given parts

of

be

course

been

long

thought

and

of

TT

is less

to make

as

the

log sine

computation positive,the
in this

impossible;

case

also

there

given by
the

given
and

inconvenient

of

while

determine

the

elements

when

when

for

mining
deter-

there
These

none.

application,and
them

give

to

authors

some

rules

it has

here.

In

of

solutions

number

are

not

practice it
by

the

241.

Given

VI.

angles and

two

the side

(oppositeto

them.

Example.
Find

the

one,

worth

of Art.
Case

one

such

in

been

have

preferable to

method

B^ while

solution.

no

are

105** 38' 46.4"

or

solution.

Rules

very

is

obtained

13.6",

greater than

are

by inspection of
solutions,when
only

two

is

that

angle

triangle will
will be

of C

values

21'

(7=74**

.-.

a, c, and

Here,

J.

Given

109"

58', 5

18', 6 =137"

131**

20'.

C.
sin
_--

sm"

sin -4

a
=

sin"sin^

or

_^,

sma

=
.

sinB

BinB
9.831058

logsin"=
log sin^
log cosec
log sin
.-.

9.973078

0.124207

=9.928343

57" 59'

0.8",

or

122" 0'59.2'

SPHERICAL

202

find (7 and

To

e,

T"IGOlfOMET"T.

have^ by Arto.

we

and

208

205,

(A)

Using

the first value


6 +

i(b +

or,

of a,

195M9'

97* 89'

a) "=

haye

we

0.8",

30.*",

J (ft

79*^ 20' 59.2"

-a*=

a)

39" 40' 29.6"

Also,

i(J5-f-^)
From

which

the seoond
6 +

From

Thus, the

of a,

we

85" 11'

be

is

shown

YI.,

by

retained

greater

Also,
there

for
when

or

if the

will be

Rules

have

no

have

one,

0.8"

7" 39' 30.4"

64"1'6.8"

aid of
in

which

and

64"

sometimes

241, that

none

of the

5.8"
two

and

it

preceding

only those values


less than

or

1'

sometimes

are

equations (A)

greater

150^55'21"

1.4", 0=

Y., there
and

of

according as

B.
such

are

solution
been

the

are

less than

data

one,

Art.

12.8", c

85" 11'

in Case

as

only

as

24'

as

make

to

log sin

positive,

corresponding.

given

in this case,

determining by inspectionwhen
only

15" 19'

-am

are

0'59.2", (7=

122"

article,exactly
can

1.4", "

0.8", 0=147"

solutions, sometimes
be

29.6",

solutions

two

In Case

may

55' 21^^

obtain

we

57" 59'
=

value

150"

J(6-a)=

C=

or,

129" 40'

which

o"=

12.8",

"

10" 40'

"

a=259"20'59.2",

i (6 + a)

or,

24'

147"

i{B -A)

38',

find

we

Using

120"

when

Just stated \a preferable.

none

as

there

; bat

in

well
are

as

two

in Case

Y.,

solutions,

practicethe

method

TRIGONOMETRY.

SPHERICAL

204
; and

them
the

angles between

the

points

determine

the

this

arc

of

bearings

meridians

and

the

the

points

of
each

"om

other.

Thus,- if Q
meridians,
from

Q, and

from

Q'.

Q'

and

possible to
and PQ' Q by
For, if EE'

the

the solution

angle QPQ'=
longitude of Q. Also,

and

known,

the

When

Note.

bearing

arc

be

la the

following examples

may

the

given, it
angles PQQ'

the

of

been

by

the

diameter

wich,
of Green-

longitude of Q'-

Q^

latitude

of

ma}'^ be
found

in

method
of

90"

latitude

Q'.

Thus

triangle PQQ'

the

elements

Q Qf has

of

are

the meridian

QPG^

angle

calculated

length

PG

PE

and

Q'

of

bearing

Q'

and

their

sphericaltriangle.

Q'= 90**+

remaining
the

miles

included

the

and

of

Q'PG^-

E'

PE'+

PQ'=

sides

QQ'

arc

is the equator, and

the

and

the
the

longitudes of Q

determine

is

Q,

and

determines
angle PQQ^
the angle PQ^ Q determines

and

PQ'

PQ

the

latitudes

If the

points and

the

are

two
are

calculated.

angular

explained

the

of

earth

measure,

its

in Art.

181 ;

is taken

as

7912

miles.

25.
and

Boston

the

lies in lat. 42"

latitude

shoi-test distance
of each

26.
and

place from

Calcutta

28' 38"

is 51"

of Greenwich
in miles

N., Ion. 71" 4' 9" W.

21' 22"

between

the

N.

places,and

Find-the
the bearing

the other.

lies iii lat. 22" 33' 5"

N., Ion. 88" ;.9'2"E.;

lat. 33"

S., Ion. 71" 4^' 15" W.

Valparaiso Ues

1' 56"

SPHERICAL

shortest

the

Find

27.
48"

Sandy

19' W.

If the

latitude

declination

of

place of

of

the sun,

does

35"

N., Ion. 74** 0'

great circle

the meridian

cross

is

hour

of

the

of

N., Ion. 8**


from

course

of 50" W.

the altitude

and

known,

solution

the

the

places,and

the other.

place

determine

to

serves

latitude

Queenstown

to

the

lies in lat. 51** 50' 4"

Queenstown

Hook

Sandy

206

between

lat. 40** 27'

lies in

what

In

in miles

place from

Hook

; and

W.

distance

of each

bearing

the

TRIANGLES.

OBLIQUE

and

sphericaltriangle

day

the

at

time

and

observation.
Z
E

Thus,

let

be

l^B^

the
the

observer's
celestial

north

pole;

Zthe

zenith; S the sun's position; PSM

through
SM

Then

the

i"

Then,
90"-

sun's
the

known,
If 24
have

meridian

.and

the

hours

be

the time

EP;

place of

declination

altitude ; and
That

the

horizon;
ing
pass-

great circle

ing
pass-

declination,SN
side

the

; SZ=

of

multipliedbj^the
hence,

o'clock,if the observation

if this

PM-S3f

SN=^

the

the

90"

the

latitude

triangleSPZ

of
are

be calculated.

may

required for

altitude,and

90"-

is, the three sides


SPZ

SP

ZN-

PZ=^P-^Z=

angle

its

observ^ation.

triangleSPZ,

the sun's

place.

celestial

meridian

ZSN

place ; and

sun's

of the

in the

HH}

equator;

the

S*

and

the latitude

EZ

we

sun's

the

through

position;

the

ratio of this
sun

time

is taken

to

be
in

angle

to

360",

from

S to

the

subtracted

from

12

move

thejnorning, or added,

ftFHERICAL

a06

taken

if

in

time

the
If

the

and

the

the

difference

is,

of

15',

to

28.

declination

its

13'

50"

is

find

noted

at

15**

sun's

N.

If

place.
in

mind

longitude

of

time

the

borne

that

longitude,

altitude

the
the

of
in

made

one

sun

47'

35''

N.,

its

of

vessel

taken

at

vessel?

the

o'clock

at

IS',

morning,

is

longitude
the

14^

the

the

observation

of

be

to

latitude

the
is

is

on

local

of

of

altitude

37"

lat.

observed

is

and

S.,
of

31.
22"

the

what

the

Melbourne,

In

hoar

is

day

p.m.

declination

being

30.
sun

be

the

15".

If

day.

time,

Francisco,

S.

3"

the

will

What

San

12"

of

of

the

be

360^
to

to

36'

should

observation

the

Greenwich

29.

18*

and

longitude

to

second

observes

and

hour

the

A.M.

in

corresponds

being

N.,

it

time
one

this

the

correspond

and

hour

observation

between

time

mariner

the

longitude,

to

of

hour

one

minate

time

hours

24

of

determines

above

the

obeervation.
time

reducing

that

of

obtain

we

Gi*eeDwieh

calculated

In

sfberaoon,

place

chronometer,
as

XBIGONOMETSr.

At

90".

48'

46'.
is

36"
If

S., the
the
in

made

altitude

sun's
the

of

declination

morning,

the
is

find

the

lat.

42"

iV

arc

^Z

day.
what

when

At

Note.

25"

be

obsei*vation

the

the

N.,

to

37"

lat.

will

hour
its

sunrise

declination

the

sun's

the

rise

sun

is

15"

altitude

in

N.

is

0,

Boston,

so

that

the

comes
be-

TO

AIJfSWEES

EXAMPLES.

THE

Art.

4.

page

9.

28"

38'

52.4".

14.

114"

35'

29.6".

18.

42"

58'

18.6".

16.

100"

54'

5.1".

16.

40'

30"

Art.

52

33.8''.

41.

40,

pagea

11.

2n7r-f--3

12.

2n7r-74

Art.

83

68.

page

.-.(fci).

7.

sin

8.

nir",-.
6
V

9.

mr-\-'-.
.4

8.

TT

n^

^ orn,r"^.

IT

tan"^/^smasin5

10.

Art.

\1

95

"

sinacosfty

73.

page

1.

1.681241.

5.

1.924279.

9.

2.702430.

2.

2.644438.

8.

2.753582.

10.

3.489536.

3.

1.748188.

7.

2.225309.

11.

4.191785.

4.

1.991226.

8.

3.848558.

12.

4.158543.

"

ANSWERS.

208

Art.

96

74.

; page

1.

1.176091,

4.

2.243038.

7.

0.853872.

2.

2.096910.

6.

0.522879.

8.

1.066947.

3.

0.154902.

6.

1.045758.

9.

0.735954.

Art.

97

74.

; page

1.

0.286273.

8.

4.604095-10.

6.

0.878494.

2.

3.612360.

4.

9.893973-10.

6.

4.812327-10.

Art.

98:

75.

page

1.

0.068160.

3.

0.351447.

i.

1.017051.

2.

0.460070.

4.

0.937530.

6.

1.056811.

Art.

104

80.

; page

6.

0.011739.

12.

3.863506.

6.

1.527511.

18.

8.640409-10.

7.

8.780210-10.

14.

4.89381.

8.

4.812917.

16.

1.718451.

9.

7.013150-10.

16.

7.4984240-10.

10.

2.960116.

17.

9.275374-10.

11.

9.942550-10.

18.

1.9792784.

Art

105;

pages

81, 82.

4.

6.61005.

9.

1000.06.

14.

11.327.

6.

55606.5.

10.

9.77667.

16.

8.63076.

6.

-011089..

11.

.00130514.

16.

.2070207.

7.

186.334.

12.

.034277.

17.

.00548803.

8.

.223905.

13.

46.7929.

18.

734.9114.

Art

129

; pages

102, 103.

3. 83^ 5' 13.7".

7. 80" 16' 9".

12.

33" 41' 24.3".

4. 33^0'

8. 8" 53' 30.2".

13.

41" 48' 37.1".

16.2".

6. 46*^ 50' 33".

10.

5" 33' 43.2".

14.

61" 52' 28.3".

6. 31" 20' 28.4".

11.

26" 83' 54.1".

16.

5" 42' 38.2".

210

ANSWERS.

Art

130;

2. 0.085603.

4. 66" 33' 29.1".

3. 0.765716.

6. 40" 21 '2.8".

133;

Art

1.

103.

page

6.849928-10.

106.

page

3. 2.911304.

6. 3' 11.706''.

4.

8. 5' 5.6562".

2. 7.031536-10.

7.063608-10.

7. 89" 50' 47.4768".

Art

1.

=264.952,

2. ^=51"

52'

3.

4.

=87.6355,

6. ^

6. ^=55"

pages

110, 111.

75.9488.

J5

38" 7'

5.41295.

26.9148.

50.3",

47" 51'

52.1",

JB

42"8'7.9",

43'

57.5",

J5

34"

167.593.

36987.4.

53" 13'

24.3918.

8.

6=4023.93,

9.7",

14.3056,

7.

9. ^

140;

230.535,

16'2.5",

36" 46'

53.5747,

11. ^

65" 30'

18.9", J5=24"29'41.1",

12.

58" 35'

43.8",

10.

56.7",

B
a

J5

31" 24'
410.254.

13.

0=456.429,

14.

=.713415.

16.

=1876.87,

6=76.1761.

18.

=30.5136,

6=18.5891.

17.

18.

c=

30" 17'

24.4",

213.637,

c=

19. ^

20.

.136736,

58" 39'

1.6",

7005.71,

B
a

J5
6

59" 42'

3.3",

811.715.

6=184.706.
c

411.487.

41.2042.

3.15341.

16.2", a

=.0409003.

35.6",

58.4",

6=

20.^382.

=176.603.
=

31" 20'

5571.62.

1.04093.

ANSWERS.

212
^

83M4'

87.2",

J5

12. ^

55** 55'

49",

5=

11.

13.

6=1.00425,
=

68** 48'

23'' 5'

16. ^

120"

16.

=447.366,

34.8",

52" 10'

18.

=342.602,

19. ^

49" 23'

67"8'

5=

112"51'

27.3",

59.6",

39'

12.2", (7

34.8",

31.1",

6.92084

25.2", a

2.91143.

32.7",

72" 53'

303.276.

58" 38'
59"

171" 4'

60.6656.

57',

18.9",

28.

J5=37"23'24.6",

(7=110"

24.

(7 =

J5

26.

Impossible.

26.

J.

60" 51'

3.4",

J5

27.

J.

67" 36'

57.6",

(7=

43'

16.4",

C=lll"56'50.6",

90",

or,

^=23"

28.

5112.25.

33.

29.

2624.07.

30.

.310864.

10'

8.6559.

c=

11.4", (7=71"57'49.2".

(7=

110.677,

1.06344.

o=

22.

44" 19'58.8^

4^5.664.

J5=

3.83539.

2.32217.

J5=

20. ^=90",
21. ^=2"

13.4", C=24"31'30.6",

17'

17. ^
a

25.2",

22.8",

79" 44'

c=

14. ^
or,

45" 9'

49.4",

49"59'39",

.0888837.

65.352.

6=127.316.

46" 7'

1.4",

(7=

73" 1' 55".

68" 3'

9.4",

283.908

123.519.

38.

153.629

ft.

34. 46.17725.

39.

29799.8

sq.ft.

3506.815.

86.

.00181672.

40.- 247.998

31.

135.3545.

86.

.117655.

41.

1569.952sq.rds.

32.

21595.4.

87.

482.089

42.

247.741ft.

43.

PA,

8347.42

12.7266.

ft. ; PB,

Art

167

ft.

7566.65

; page

ft ;

PC,

143.

2.

2.11491,

1,86081,

or

-.254101.

3.

2.66907,

2.1451,

or

-.523977.

4.

.47762,

6.1364,

or

-.34129.

6.

3.49086,

.83424,

or

.343382.

ft.

5091.92

ft.

213

AKSWER"

Art

149^ 39'

229

; page

189.

6 =38*^ 27' 7.8".

35.8", 5=66'*41'51.3",

:40*^42'45.3", 6=134''30'30.6",
J5

:149"40'4.3",

137" 22' 14.6".

:154"43'5.1",

=110"9'21",

=113"25'33.6",^=109n3'3".

:66n5'34.7",

=127n4'4.2",

:72"28'58.8",

5.3",

152" 56' 21. 7".

107"0'44.5".

140'*39'53.9",c

112"39'8.4".

152"57'42",

70" 15'

109" 44' 46.8".

J5=27"2'18",
=

c=47"32'40.9".

=26"24'16.2",

:109"51'3.4",

-B

10n5'36.2",

:70"8'56.6",

JB=78"44'23.8",

13.2";

120"51'19.7",5=34"0'7.1".

:4r5'37",

73" 32' 38. 7";

106"27'21.3".

:146"31'31.2", 6 =109"48'10.9",

c=73"35'5.9".

:101"48'49.6", 6=166"8'37.9",

c=50"18'25.7".

:60"31'5",

:112"2'35.4",

=147"31'53.8",
=

109" 12'

:41"6'44.4",

5 =26"
^

74" 7' 14.9",

Art.

2. ^=142"

247;

=69"34'54.1",
32'

37.8",

b
-B

6.8",

25' 11.

75" 5' 55.8",

pages

54.4", 6 =149"11'40.8",

4.

=100"

50'

0.4",

or,a=114"43'24.9",

J5

135"2'40",

^=70"1'35.5''.

27"52'36",

34'

a=65"16'35.1",

c=81"53'36".

=120"30'31.5", O=50"30'2.6".

=144"

(7

143"50'6.6".

203-206.

14"23'5.7",

9", ^=37"4'29.7".

3.

J.

=105"44'3.8",

:68"17'28.5",

6.

.^=27"3'38.3";

:156"30'31.4", ^

c
.

=69"50'39",

:25"19'53.5",

6. ^

122"5'51.4".

:154**40'6.5", i5

:25n6'54.9",

110'' 48'

1.

66"42'30.5",

97"26'56.4",

163"35'53.1",

(7=32"26'52.8".
c=4ri0'46.4".
(7

65"32'58.3".

38"43'48.2".

165"41'37.4";

=162"20'37",

=100"7'37.6",

C=126"40'40".

ANSWEBS.

214
7.

Impossible.
26.2",

8. JB =42^37'

C=160"l'41.4^

153"39'8.4";

or,JB=137"22'33.8",

(7 =50^9'

90^5' 12.2".

9.

^=35"30'54",

B=24"42'28",

138** 24' 38. 2".

^=60**16'21.5",

10.
11.

27'

6 =114"

1.7",

12.

Impossible.

13.

14.

0=90%

16.

a=89**25'36",

16.

Impossible.

=69** 29' 30.

134^51'45.1",

=82"33'3.6",

7",

1.8",

c=69"23'5.4".

c=120**10'2.7", jB=50M3'28".
B=113**38'46.3",
6 =85** 4' 2.8",

6 =114**
c

17.

c=90%

18.

6 =33** 58'

19.

a=100**0'8.4",

6 =49** 59'

aO.

jB=42**37'21.8",

a=153**38'48.6", ^

or,

B=137**22'38.2",

a=90**5'43",

21.

79"9'59.6".

53' 15.7".

72**l'5".

6=65**32'31.2", J5=62**51'42.6".
18.9",

c=64**6'3.7",

135**5'15.2", 0=50**

^=37**39'44".

56.4",

=60** 0' 11.2".


=

160**1'26.6";

u4 =50** 19' 2.6".

29' 54.8",

a=69**34'45".

22. Impossible.
28.

=42**37'5.2",

6 =129**

or,

=137**

"=

24.

22'

54.8",

^=46**31'9.6",

N.

26.

19**58'

23.4",

miles

71** 38' 5.2" W.

bearing of
; of

26.2";

JB=26**21'6.4".

J5=41**40'14.8", 0=125**

25. Distance, 3275.17


N.

41 '19. 4", J5 =89** 54'

Boston

Greenwich

31' 51.8".

from
from

wich,
Green-

Boston,

53** 7' 14" E.

Distance, 11,012.8 miles; bearing of Calcutta


64** 20' 58.4"

S.

E. ; of

Valparaiso

S. 54** 55' W.
49** 58' 8.2"

27.

Latitude

28.

29.

14** 57' 22.4".

30.

h.,

31.

h., 3

h., 0

m.,

2 m.,
m.,

43

s.,

a.m.

s.,

a.m.

26 s.,

a.m.

44

N.
; Ion. 44** 49'

18" W.

from

paraiso,
Val-

from

cutta,
Cal-

TABLE

THX

OF

OF

L06AEITHM8
FROM

AlTD

THB

COSINES,

SINES,

LOGARITHMIC

10.000,

TO

OF

FOB

COTANGENTS,

AND

0** TO

FROM

LEACH,
BOSTON.

SHE

EVERY

90^

AND

WELL,
NEW

TANGENTS,

MINUTE

AND

DEGREE

NUMBEE8

YORK.

SANBORN.
CHICAGO.

OOPTRIGBV,
Br

WBBSTBR

1878,
WKUA

TABLE,
oosTAnmrQ

ths

LOGARITHMS

OF

FROM

TO

""""

NUMBERS

10,000,

LOOARITHMB

OP

NUMBBRS.

LOOAKITHMS

W.| 6
53o 716003
1
a
8

6838
7671

I \
716087
6924
7764

8603

8686
9414
4i 9331
6 720169 720242
6

7
8
9

0986
1811
8634
3466

mm

716364716337
7088
7004
7171
7920
8003
7837
8761
8668
8834
9497
9680
9663
720326 720407 720490

1068
1893
3716
3638

1161
1976

1233

1316
2140

3068
3881
3703

2963
3784

724622

724604

2798
3620

9408
730217

716421
7264
8086
8917
9746

8678
9489
730398

8769

1106
1911

1024
1830

9670
730378
1186

_1991

716764
7687

7431

76041

8169
9000

8363

8336] 8419'

724686 734767
6320
7134
7948

EO

7338

9828
720673 720666
1398
1481
2222
3306
3046
3137
3948
3866

6603

7786
8697

T
B
7166041716688
716671

II

6423
6338
7063
7866

6340
6166
6972

NtTMfiB"S.

OP

6686
6401
7216
8029
8841
9661
730469

9166]

9083
9911
720738

9248

9994 720077
720821
0903
1663
1646
1728
2387
2662
2469

3209
4030

3291
4112

724849
6667
6483
7297

724931

8110
8922

8191

9732
730640
1347
1266
2162
2072

6748
6664
7579

83

83
83
83
83
83

82
82

S374j82
4194

82

725013
6830

82
82
82
81

6646

7400
8273
9084

9003
9813
9893
730621 730702
1428

1508

2233

2313

81
81
81
81
81
81

1640

732716

732796

732876

80

3618

3
3

3679
4480
6279

80
80

4320
6120
6918
6716
7611
8306
9097

3698
4400
6200
6998
6796
7690
8384
9177

9889

4
6
6

660 740363 740442 740621 7406001740678


1388' 1467
1
1152
1230
1309
1939
2176
2018
2254
%
2096
3
2726
2961
2804
2882
3039
4
3610
3746
3667
3823
3588
6
4293
4371
4449
4528
4606
6076
6
6153
6309
6231
6387
7
6855
6933
6167
6011
6089
8
6634
6712
6790
6868
6946
9
7412
7489
7567
7645
7722

732966 733037 7331171


3769
3839
3919
4640
4720
4560
6439
6359
6519
6157
6237
6078
6317
6964
7034
6874
7113
7670
7749
7829
7908
8463
8543
8622
8701
9256
9335
9414
9493
9968 740047 740126 740205 740284

79

1646
2332

79
79
78
78

3118
3902
4684

78

6466

78
78
78
78

6246
7023
7800

77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
76
76

756027

756103

756180

756256

6636
7396

6712
7472

6788

6864

6940

7548

7624

7700

8166

8306

8382

8458

8912

8230
8988

7016
7775
8533

9668
6 760422

9743
760498

9063
9819

9139
9894

i60573i760649

9214
9970
760724
1477
2228
2978

1
2
3
4
6

1176

1251

1326,

1928

2078

2679

2003
2764

14)2
2163

2829

29041

T.

I
U

EE

79

740757

660 748188 748266 748343 748421 748498


1
8963
9040
9118
9196
9272
3
9736
9814
9891
9968 750045
3 760508 750586 750663 760740
0817
4
1279
1356
1433
1510
1587
6
2048
2125
2202
22791 2356
6
2816
2893
3047
2970
3123
7
3683
3660
3736
3813
3889
8
4425
4348
4501
4578
4654
9
6112
6189
5265
5341
5417

$70 765876 765951

80
80
80
79
79
79

9290
760045
0799
1552
2303
3053

766332 766408 756484 756560


7092
7168
7244
7320
7851
7927
8003
8079
8685
8609
8761
8836
9517
9441
9366
9592
760121 760196 760272 760347
0875
0950
1025
1101
1627

1702

1778

1853

2378

2453
3203

2529
3278

2604
8353

3128
6

76
76
76
76
76
76
75

76
76
76

El

OF

NUMBERS.

13

TABLE

OF

SINES,

COSINES,

LOGARITHMIC

TANGENTS,

irOB

DEGBEE

AND

QUADRANT.

COTANGENTS.

AND

EVERT

MINUTE

OF

THE

LOOARITHHIC

SINES, COSINES,

20

LOGARITHMIC

SINES, COSINES,
20

Sine.

"cT

8.542819
.646422
.549995
.658589
.657054
.560540
.563999
.567481
.570836
.574214
.577566

1
a

8
4
6
6

7
8
9

10

D.

Cosine.
9.999785
.999781
.999726
.999722
.999717
.999713
.999708
.999704

60.04
59.55
59.06
58.58
68.11
67.65
67.19
66.74
56.30
55 87

.999699
.999694
.999689

55.44
8.680892
.684193
.687469
.590721
.698948
.597162

11

12
18

14
15
16
17
18

.600332

.603489
.606628
.609734

19

20

.999680
.999675
.999670
.999665

54.19
53.79
53.39

.999660

53.00
62.61

.999666
.999660

52.23
51.86

.999645

.999640

24

8.612828
.615891
.618937
.621962

25

.624965

26

.627948
.630911
.633854
.636776
.639680

27
28
29

80 i

33

8.642563
.646428
.648274

34

.651102

36
86
37

.653911

38

.662230

39

.664968
.667689

81

82

40
41
42

48
44
45

46
47
48
49

.656702
.669475

8.670393
.673080
.675751
.678406
.681043
.683665
.686272
.688863
.691438

60

.693998

51

8.696643
.699073
.701689

52
53

64

.704090

55
66

.706577
.709049

57

.711507

58

.713952
.716383
.718800

69
60

I Cosine.

.07
.07
.07
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08

.999629
.999624
.999619
.999614

.999608
.999603

.999597

48.71

.999592

48.39
48.06

.999586

9.999581
.999575
.999570

47.75
47.43
47.12
46.82
46.62
46.22
46.92
45.63
45.35
45.06

.999664
.999558

.999663
.999547
.999541
.999535
.999529
9.999524

44.79
44.51
44.24
43.97
43.70
43.44
43.18
42.92
42.67
42.42

.999518
.999512
.999506
.999500
.999493

.999487
'.999481
.999475
.999469

M
.09
.09

.999456
.999450
.999443

.999437
.999431

40.97

.999424

40.74
40.51
40.29
D.

.999418
.999411
.999404

Sine.

.546691
.650268
.668817
.667886
.660828

.564291

.667727
.671187
.674620
.677877

.684614
.687796
.691051
.694288
.597492
.600677
.608889
.606978
.610094-

8.613189
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10

9.999463

42 17
41.92
41.68
41.44
41.21

D.

.11
.11
.11
.11
.11
.11
.11
.11
.11

D.
870

.616262
.619313

.622343
.626352

.628840
.631308
.634256

.637184
.640093

8.642982
.646863
.648704
.661637
.654362

"667149
.669928

.662689
.665433
.668160

8.670870
"673663
.676239
.678900
.681644
.684172
.686784
.689381
.691968
.694629
8 697081

.699617
.702139
.704646
.707140
.709618
.712083
.714534
.716972
.719396

I Cotang.

I Cotang. 1
1.456916

60.12
59.62
59.14
58.66
58.19
67.73

67.27
56.82
56.38
55.95
55.52

8.681208

.08
.08
I .08
.08
.08
.08
.08

9.999636

51.12
60.76
50.41
50.06
49.72
49.38
49 04

Tang.
8.648084

9.999685

55.02
54.60

51.49
21
22
23

iiL

55.10
54.68

54.27
53.87
53.47
53.08
62.70
52.82

51.94
51.58
61.21
50.85

50.60
60.15
49.81
49.47
49.13
48.80
48.48
48.16
47.84
47.63
47.22
46.91

46.61
46.31
46.02
45.73
45.44
45.16
44.88
44.61
44.34

44.07
43.80
43.54
43.28
43.03
42.77
42.52

42.28
42.03
41.79
41.55
41.32
41.08
40.85
40.62

.453309
.449732

69

68
67

.446183
.442664

66

.439172
.435709

65
54

.432273

68

.428863

62

.426480

61

.422123

50

1.418792
.415486

48

49

.412205

47

.408949
.405717
.402508

46

45
44

.399323

43
42

.396161
.898022
.389906

41
40

1.386811
.383738
.380687
.877657
.374648
.371660
.868692
.865744
.862816
.859907

39

38
87
86
86
84
83

82
31
30

1.357018
.864147
.851296
.348463
.345648

29
28

27
26
25

.842851

24

.340072
.337811
.334667

23

.831840

20

1.329130
.326437

19

22
21

18
17

.323761

.321100
.818466
.815828
.813216

16
15
14

13

.810619

12

.308037
.305471

11

i;302919
.800383
.297861
.295354
.292860

10
9

7
6
6

.290382

.287917

.285465

40.40

.283028
.280604

1
0

D.

Tang.

I M.

TANGENTS,

21

COTAN"JENTS.

AND
3"

M.

Sine.
8.71bbOO
.721204
.723595
.725972
.728337
.730688
.733027
.735354
.737667
.739969
.742259

0
-1
2
3
4
5
6

7
8
9
10

D.

Cosine.
9.999404

40.06
39.84
39.62
39.41
39.19
38.98
38.77
38.57
38.36
38.16

.999398

.999891
.999884
.999378
.999371
.999364

.999857
.999350
.999343
.999836

37.96
9.999329

8.744536
.746802
.749055
.751297
.753528
.755747
.757955
.760151
.762337
.764511

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

37.76
37.56
37.37
37.17
36.98
56.79
36.61
36.42
36 24
86.08

22
23
24
25
26

27
28
29
30

32
33
34
35
36

37
38

.801892

39

.803876

40

.805852

41

8.807819
.809777
.811726
.813667

42
43
44
45

.815599

46

.817522

47

.819436

48

.821343
.823240

49

.999294

.999279
.999272
.999265

.999250
.999242
.999235

.999227
.999220
.999212
.999205

.999197
.999189
9.999181
.999174
.999166

.999158
.999150
.999142

.999134
.999126

.999118
.999110

9.999102
32.63
32A'J
32.34
32.19
32.05
31.91
31.77
3163
31.49
31.35

.999094

.999086

.999077
.999069
.999061
.999053
.999044
.999036

.999027
9.999019

8.827011

51

59

.828884
,830749
.832607
.834456
.836297
.838130
.839956
.841774

60

.843585

.52
53
54
55
56

57
58

Cosine,

31.22
31.08
30.95
30.82
30.6i)
30.56
30.43
30.30
30.17

D.
12

D.
11
11
11
11
11
11
12
12

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

.999286

34.18
34.02
33.86
83.70
33.54
33.39
33.23
33.08
32.93
32.78

.825130

50

.999308
.999301

35.83
35.70
35.53
35.35
35.18
35.0 L
34.84
34.67
34.51
34.34

6.787736
.789787
,791828
.793859
.795881
,797894
.799897

31

.999315

9.999257

8.766675
.768828
.770970
.773101
.775223
.777333
.779434
.781524
.783605
.785675

21

.999322

.999010

.999002
:d98993
.998984
.998976
.998967
.998958
.998950
.998941

Sine.

12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13

13
13

13
13
13
13

13

8.767417
.769578
.771727
.773866
.775995
.778114
.780222
.782320
.784408
.786486
8.788554
.790613
792662
-794701
.796731
.798752
.800763

.802765
.804758
.806742

13
^.8087
13

14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14

40.17
39.95
39.74
3.4.52
39.30
Sd.UJ
38 8^
38.68
38.48
38 2r

17

.810683

.812641
.814589
,816529
.818461
.820384

.822298
.824205
.826103

3r.8r
37.63
37.49
37.2a
37.10
36.92
36.73
36.55
36.33
38.18

33 00
35.83
35.65
35.48
35 31
35.14
34 97
34.80
34.64
34.47

14

14
14

14
14
15
15
15

| P.
MO

60

1.280604
.278194
.275796

59
58

.273412

57

1271041
.268683
.266337

56

.264004

63

.261683

62

.259374

61

.257078

50

1.254793

49

.252521

48
47

55
54

.250260
.248011

46

.246773
.243547

45

.241332

43

.239128
.236935

42

.234754

40

44

41

1.232583

39

.230422

38

.228273

37

.226134

36

.224005

35

.221886
.219778
.217680

83

.215592

81

.213514

30

34
82

29

1.211446

34.31
34.14
33.99
33.83
33.68
33.52
33.3r
33 22
33.07
32.92
32.77
32.62
32 48
32.33
32.19
32.05
31.91
31.77
31.63

.209387
.207338

28

.205299

26

27

.203269

25

.201248
.199237
.197235
.195242
.193258

24
23
22
21
20
19

1.191283
.189317

18

.187359

17

.185411
.183471
.181539
.179016
.177702
.175795
.173897

16

1.172008
.170126

.168252

.166387

15
14
13
12
11
10

31.50
8.827992

14

1 Cotang. )

39.or

8.746207
.747479
.749740
.751989
.754227
.756453
.758668
.760872
.763065
.765246

13
13
13

D.

Tang.
b.719396
.721806
.724204
.726588
.728959
.731317
.733663
.735996
.738317
,740626
.742022

.829874
.831748
.833613

.835471
.837321
.839163

.840998
.842825
.844644

Cotang.

31.3^
31.23
31.10
30.96
30.83
30.70
30 57
30.45
30.32
I".

.164529

.162679
.160837
.159002
.157175

.155356

1 Tang.

3
2
1

22

SINES, COSINES,

LOOARITHMIC

4P
M

Sine.

Casine.

D.

9.998941

30.05
29.92
2^.90
29.67
29.55
2J.43
2J31
29.19
29.07
28.96

.998932
.998923
.998914

.998905
.998896
.996887

.998878
.998869
.998860

.098851

28.84
28.73
28.61
28.50
28.39
28.28
28.17
23.06
27.95
27.83
2r.73

9.998841
.998832
.998823
.998813
.998804
.998796

.998785
.998776
.998766

998767

.15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16

.998738

.998728
.998718
.998708
.998699
.998689

.998679
.998669
.998659

16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
17
17

41

,913488

43

.915022

44
46

916550
918073

46

919691

47

921103

48

922610

49

924112

30

925609

51

8. 927100

52

928587

53

030068

54

931544

56

933015

56

934481

57

935942

58

937398

69

938850

60

940296

I Cosine.

.998629

.998619
.998609
.998509

.998589
.998578

.998568
.998558

17
17
17
17
17
17
17

17
17
17

25.66
23.56
25.47
25.38
25.29
25.20
25.12
25.03
24.94
24.86

.998537
.998527
.998516
.998506

.998474
.998464
998453

24.77
24.69
24.60
24.52
24.43

.998431
.998421

.998410
.998399
.998388
.998377

24.35

24.27

.998366

24.19

.998355

24.11

p.

17
17

18
18

9.998442

17

.998496
.998485

.D98344

Sine.

.851846
.863628
.865403
.857171
.868932
.660686
.862433

8.864173
.866906
.867632
.869351
.871064
.872770
.874469
.876162

.877849
.879529

.882869
.884530
.886185

.887833
.889476
.891112
.892742
.894366
.895984

.899203
.900803
.902398
.903987

.905570
.907147
.908719
.910285
.911846
8.913401

9.998548

8 911949

42

.998639

D.

18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18

18
D.

850

.914951
.916495
.918034
.919568
.921096
.922619

.924136
.925649
.927156

8928658
.930156

.031647
.933134
.934616
.936093

.937565
.939032
.040494
.041962

( Cotang. |

I Cotang.
1.155356

30.19
30.07
29.95
29.82
29.70

29.58
29.46

29.35
29.23
29.11
29.00
28.88
28.77
28.66
28 54
28.43
28.32
28.21
28.11
28.00
27.89

27.79
27.68
27.58

27.47
27.37
27.27
27.17

27.07
26.97
26.87

8.897596

9.998649

23.60
26.51
26.41
28 31
2o.22
26.12
2'3.03
25.93
25 84
2J.75

Inng.
8.844644
.846455
.848260
.850057

8.881202

9.998747
27.63
27.52
27.42
27.31
27.21
27.11
27.00
25.90
28.80
26.70

26.77
26.67
26.58
26.48
26.38
26.29
26.20
26.10
26.01
25.92
25.83
25.74
25.65
25.56
25.47
25.38
25.30
25.21
25.12
25.03
24.95
24.86
24.78
24.70
24.61
24.53
24.45

24.37

24.29
D.

60
59

.163545
.151740
.149943

58
67

.148154

56

.146372
.144597
.142829
.141068

55
54
53
52

.139314

61

.137567

50

1.135827

49

.134094
.132368

48
47

.130649
.128936
.127230

45

.125531

43

.123838

42

.122151

41

.120471

40

1.118798
.117131
.115470
.113815
.112167

39

35

.110524

84

.108888
.107258

82

.105634

31

46
44

38
87
36

83

.104016

30

1.102404

29

.100797
.099197

28
27

.097602

26

.096013

25

.094480

24

.092853
.091281
.089715

22

.088164

20

1.086599

19

.085049

18
17

.083505

23
21

.081966
.080432
.078904
.077381

16

.075664

12

.074351
.072844

11

1.071342
.069845
.068353

.066866

15
14

13

10

.065384

.063907

.062435
.060968

.059506

.068048

| Tang.

| M.

TANGENTS,
M.

Sine.

8.940296

.941738

.943174

.944606

.946034

5
6

.947456
.948874

.950287

.951696

.953100

10

.954499

11

8.955894

12

.957284

13

.958670

14

.960052

15

.961429

16

.962801

17

.964170

18

.965534

19

.966893

20

.968249

21

8.969600

23
24
25
26

27
28

24.0:i
23 94
23.87
23.79
23.71
23.63
23.55
23.48
23.40
23.32
23.25

.980259

80

.981573

.998322
.998311
.998300

.998289
.998277
.998266
.998255
.998243
.998232

23.17
23.10
23.02
22.95
22 88
22.80
22.73
22.06
2259
22.62

.998209
.998197
.998166
.998174
.998163
.998151

.998139
.998128
.998116
9.998104

22 44
22.38
22.31
22.24
22.17
22.10
22.03
2197
21.90
21.83

.998092
.998080

.998068
.998056
.998044
.998032
.996020

.996008
.997996

36

.984189
.985491
.986789
.988083
.989874

37
38

.991943

82

9.997985

83
84
85

21.77
21.70
21.63
21.57
21.50
21.44
2138
21.31
21.25
21.19

.990660

39

.993222

40

.994497

.997972
.997959
.997947
.997935
.997922

.997910
.997897
.997685
.997872

8.995768

41
43

.997036
.998299

44

.999560

45

9.000816

46

.002069

47
48

.003318
.004563

49

.005805

50

.007044

61

9.008278

42

52
53

.009510
.010737

54

.011962

55

.013182

56

.014400

57

.015013

58

.016824

59

.018031

60

.019235

Cosine,

9.997560

21.12

.997847
.997886
.997822
.997809
.997797
.997784
.997771
.997758
.997745

21.06
21.00
20.94
20.87
20.82
20.76
20.70
20.64
20.58

9.997732
.997719
.997706
.997693
.997680

20.52
20.46
20.40
20.:"4
20.29

.997667

20.23

.997654

20.17
20.12
20.06

P.

.997641
.997628
.997614

Sine.

23

COTANGENTS.

Tang.

D.

| Cotang. |

8.941952

.99833S3

8.982883

31

D.

Cosine.

9.998220

.978941

29

9.998344

.970947
.972289
.973628
.974962
.976293
.977619

22

D.

AND

19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21

.943404

.944852
.946295

.947734
.949168

.950597
.952021
.953441
.954856

.956267

24.21
24.13
24.05

23.97
23.90
23.82
23.74

23.66
23.58

23.51

21

21
22
22
22
22
22

22

| D.
84=

60

.056596

59

.055148

58

.053706

67

.052266

66

.050832

65
64

.049403

'.047979

63

.046659
.045144
.043733

52
61
50

23.44
8.957674
.959075
.960473
.961866

.963255
.964639
.960019

.967394
.968766
.970133

23.37
23.29
23.22
23.14
23.07
23.00
22.93
22.86
22.79

1.042326

49

.040925

48
47

.039527
.038134
.036745
.035361

46
45

44

.033981

43

.032606

42

.031234

41

.029867

40

22.71
8.971496
.972855
.974209
.975560
.976906
.978248
.979586
.980921
.982251

.983577

1.028504

22.65
22.57
22.51
22.44
22.37
22.30
22.23
22.17
22.10
22.04

8.984899

.986217
987532
.988842
.990149
.991451
.992750
.994045

.995337
.996624

21.97
21.91
21.84
21.78
21.71
21.65
21.58
21.52
21.46
21.40

8.997908
.999188
9.000465

.001738
.003007
.004272
.005534

.006792
.008047
.009298

21.34
21.27
21.21
21.15
21.09
21.03
20.97

20.91
20.85
20.80

.011790
.013031

.014268
.015502

.016732
.017959
.019183
.020403
.021020

Cotang. I

.027145
.025791

89

38
,

.024440

20.74
20.68
20.62
20.56
20.51
20.45

20.39
20.33
20.28

D^

37
86

.023094

85

.021752
.020414
.019079
.017749

84
83
32
81

.016423

SO

1.015101

29

.013783
.012468
.011158
.009851

28

27
26
25

.008549

24

.007250

23

.005955

22

.004663

21

.003376

20

1.002092

19

.000812

18

0.999535

17

.998262

16

.996993

15

.995728

14

.994466

13

.993208

12

.991953
.990702

11
10

0.989454

9.010546

21

1.05b048

.988210
.986969
.985732

.984498

.983268
.982041
.960817
.979597

.978380

| Tang.

7
6

3
2
1

M.

24

SINES, COSINES,

LOGARITHMIC

Sine.

.020435

.021632

.022826
.024016
.025203
.02638a
.027567
.028744
.029918

6
6

7
8
9
10

.031089

11

14

9.032257
.033421
.034582
.035741

16

.036896

16

.038048
.039197

12
18

17
18

.040342

19

.041485

20

.042625

21

9.043762

22

.044895

23

.046026

24

.047154

25
26

.048279
.049400

27

.050519

28

.051635

29

.052749

80

.053859

81

9.054966

32

.056071

33

.057172

34

.058271

35

.059367

86

.060460

37

.061551

38

.062639

39

.063724

40.

9.065885

42

.066962

48

.068036

44

.069107

i45
46
47
48

.072306
.073366

49

.074424

50

.075480

51

9.076533

53

.077583
.078631

54

.079676

55

.080719

56

.081759

57

.082797

58

.083832

59

.084864

60

.085894

Cosine,

Cosine.
9.997614
.997601
.997588
.997574
.997661
.997647
.997634
.997620
.997507
.997498
.997480

D.

19.36
19.30
19.25
19.20
19.15
19.10
19.05
18.99
18.94
18.8J
18.84
18.79
18.75
18.70
18.65
18.60
18.55
18.50
18.45

.997452

.997439
.997426
.997411
.997397
.997388

.997369
.997355
.997341

.22
."i
.23

.23

18.17
18.13
1808
18.04
17.99

17.90
17.86
17.81
17.77
17.72
17.68
17.63
17.59
17.55

.997242

.997228
.997214
.997199

.997170

.997156
.997141
.997127

.997112
.997098
.997083
.997068
.997053

.997024

.997009
.996994

.996979
.996964
.996949
.996934
.996910

.996904
9.996889

17.60
17.48
17.42
17.38
17.33
17.29
17.25
17.21
17.17

1).

.026251

.020456
.027656
.028852
.030046

.23
.23

.033609

19.85
19.79
19.74
19.69

9.034791
.23
.23
.23

.23
.23
.23

.2)
.23
.23

19.64
19.58
19.53
19.48
19.43
19.38
19.33
19.28
19.23
19.18

.035969

.037144
.088316

.039486
.040651

.041818
.042973
.044130

.045284

.23
9.997327
.997313
.997299
.997285
.997271
.997257

.996874

.996858
.996843

.996828
.996812

.996797
.996782
.996766
.996751

Sine.

D.
20.83
20.17
20.11
20.06
20.00
19.96
19.90

.024044

.'2i

.24

.24
.24
.2i
.24
.24

19.13
19.08
19.03
18.98
18.93
18.83
18.84
18.79
18 74

.047582
.048727
.049869
.051008
.052144

.053277
.054407
.055536
.066659

.24
.24
.24
.24
.24
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25

18.65
18.60
18.55
1851
18.46
18 42
1837
18.33
18.28
18.24

.058900
.060016
.061130
.062240

.063348
.064453
.065556
.066656
.067752

9.068846
.069938
.071027

18.19
18.15
18.10
18.06
18.02

.072113
.073197
.074278

17.97
17.93
17.89

.075356
.076432
.077506
.078576

17.84

.25
.25
.25
.26

.26
.26

.26
p.

60

.977166

59

.976956

58

.974749

67

.973545

56

.972346

65

.971148

64

.969964

63

.968763
.967676

61

.966891

60

62

0.965209
.964031
.962856
.961684

46

49
48

47

.900615

45

.959349
.968187
.957027

44

.965870
.954716

41

43
42
40
89

.962418

88

.951273

87

.950131
.948992
.947856

86
85
84

.946723

83

.946593

82

.944465

81

.943341

80

0.942219

29

17.76
17.72

.080710
.081773
.082833

17.67
17.63
17.59
17.55
17.51
17.47
17.43

.083891
.084947
.086000
.087060
.088098
089144

I CoMng.

.939984

28
27

.938870

26

.937760

26

.936652

24

.935547

23

.934444

22

.933346
.932248

20

0.93U54

19

.930062

18

.941100

21

.928973

17

.927887

16

.926803

15

.925722

14

.924644

13

.923568
.922495

12

.921424

10

0.920356

11

17.80

9079644
.25
.2)

0.97b3bO

18.70
9 057781

.24
.24

I Cotang. |

0.953566

9.046434

.21
.24
.24
.21

9.997039
17.94

.022834

.031237
.032426

9.997186

18.41
18.36
18.U
18.27
18.22

Tang.
9.U21620

.22
.22
.22
.22

9.997466
19.41

.070176
.071242

52

20.00
19.95
19.89
19.84
19.78
19.73
19.67
19.62
19.57
19.51
19 47

.064806

41

D.

.919290

.918227
.917167

.916109
.915053
.914000

.912950

4
8

.911902

.910856

| Tang.

M.

'

TANGENTS,

AND

"^/S

COTANGENTS.

^t^

70
M.

Sine.

9.085894

.086922

.087947

.088970

.089990

.091008

.092024
.093037
.094047
.095056

7
8
9
10

.096062

11

9.097065

12

.098066

18

.099065

14

18

.100062
.101056
.102048
.103037
.104025

19

.105010

20

.105992

21

9.106978

D.

Cosine.

17.13
17.()9
17.04
17.00

.996735
.996720
.996704
.996688
.996673
.996657

16.96

16.92
16.88
16.84
16.80
16.76

.996641

.996625
.996610
.996594

16.72

15
16

17

23

.107951
.106927

24

.109901

25
26

.110873
.111842

27

.112809

28
29

.113774
.114737

30

.115698

22

31
33

.117613
.118567

34

.119519

35
36

.120469
.121417

37

.122362

38

.123306

39

.124248

40

.125187

16.6S
16.U5
16.61
16.57
16.53
16.49
16.45
16.41
16.38
16.34

.996562
.996546
.996530
.996514

.996498
.996482
.996465
.996449

.996433
.996400

.996384
.996368
.996351
.996335

.996818
.996302
.996285
.996269

.996235

15.90

.996219

'15.87

.996202

15.83
15.80

.996185

.996168

15.76

.996151

15.73
15.69
15.66
15.62

9.135387
.136303

58

.137216

54

.138128

55

.139037

56

.139944

57
58

.140850

.996134

.996117
.996100

.142655
.143565

60

Cosine.

D.
12*

T"ing. I
9.089144
.090187
.091228
.093302

.094336
.095367
.096395
.097422
.098446

.099468

.996049
.996032
.996015
.995998

.995980
.995963
.995946
.995928

.27
.27
.27
.27
.27
.27
.27
.27
.27
.27

,102519
.103532
.104542
,105550
.106556

.995859
.995841
.995823
.995806

.995788
.995771
.995763

Sine.

16.58
16.54

.111551
.112543
.113583

.114521
.116507
.116491

.117472
.118462
.119429
^

59
58

.905664

67
56
55

.904633

54

.903605

53

.902578

52

.901554

51

.900582

I 50

0.899518

49

."98496

48
47

.897481

16.65
16.61

.109559

16.50
16.46
16.43
16.39
16.36
16.32
16.29
16.25

.896468

46

.895458

45

.8C4450

44

.893444
.892441
.891440

43

.890441

40

42
41

0.S69444

39

.888449

38

.887457
.886467
.885479
.884493

37

34

.883509

83

.882528
.881548
.880571

81

86
85

82
80

9.120404

.28
.28
.28
.28
.28
.28
.28

.28
.28

.121377
122348
.123317
.124284
.125249
.126211

.127172
.128130
.129087

16.22
16.18
16.15
16.11
16.07
16.04
16.01
15.97
15.94
15.91

9.130041

.29
.29
.29

.29
.29
.29
.23
.29
.2:)

.130994

.131944
.132893
.133839
.134784
.135726
.136667
.137605
.138642

.23

.995876

16.72
16.69

.107559
.108560

60

.909813

.906698

16.95
16.91
16.87
16.84
16.80
16.76

.101504

U.9l0b56

.908772
.907784

^.110556

.27
.27
.27
.27
.27
.27
.27
.28
.28
.28

15.87
15.84
15.81
15.77
15 74
15.71
15.67
15.64
15.61
15.58
0.860524

9.139476

9.995911
.995894

I Cotjuipj.

9.100487

9.996083
.996066

1).
37.38
17.34
17.30
17.27
17.22
17.19
17.15
17.11
17.07
17 04
16.90

.092266

.28

15.25
16.22
15.19
15.16
15.12
15.09
15.06
15.03
15.00

.141754

59

.26
.26
.26
.26

9.996252

15.94

15.56
15.52
15.49
15.45
15.42
15.39
15.35
15.32
15.29
52

\26

9.996417

16.30
16.27
16.23
16.19
16.16
16.12
16.08
16.05
16.01
15.97

15.59

51

.26
.26
.26
.26
.26
.26

9.996578

9.116656

32

D.

9.996751

.23
.23
.29

.29
.29
.20

.29
.29

.29

.140409

.141340
.142269
.143196
.144121
.145044
.145966
.146885
.147e03

| D. \ Cotang.
812-

15.55
15.51
15.48
15.45
15.42
15.39
15.35
15.32
15.29
D.

.859591

.858660

.867731

.856804

.855879

.864966

.854034

.853115
.862197

Tanor.

SINES, COSINES,

LOGARITHMIC

26

8"
Sine.

9.143555
.144453
.145349
.146243
.147136

0
1
2
8
4
5

.148026

6
7

.148915
.149802

.150686

.151569

10

.152451

11

9.153330

12

.1-54208

13

16

.155083
.155957
.156830
.157700

17

.158569

18
19

.159435
.160301

20

.161164

14
15

21

9.162025

22

.162885

23
24

.163743
.164600

25

.165454

26

.166307

27
28

.167159
.168008
.168856
.169702

29
30
31
32
83
34
35
36

37
38
39
40

9.170547
.171389
.172230
.173070
.173908
.174744
.175578
.176411
.177242
.178072

42

9.178900
.179726

43

.180551

41

44

.181374

45

.182196

46

.183016

47

.183834

48

.184651

49

.185466

50

.186280

51

9.187092

52

.187903

53

.188712

54

.189519

55

.190325

56

.191130

57

.191933

58

.192734

59

.193534

60

.194332

Cosine.

9.995753

14.96
14.93
14.90
14.87
14.84
14.81
14.78

.995735

.995717
.995699
.995664
.995646

.995628

14.75
14.72

.995610
.995591

14.G9

.995573

14.66

0.995555
.995537

14.63
14.60

.995519

14.57

14.54
14.51
14 48
14.45
14.42
14.39
14.36
14.33
14.30
14.27
14.24
14.22
14 19
14.16
14.13
14.10
14.07

.995501
.995482
.995464
.995446

.995427
.995409
.995390
0.995372
.995353
.995334
.995316
.995297

.995278
.995260

.995241
.995222
.995203
0.995184

14.05
14.02
13.99
13.96
13.94
13.91
13.88
13.86
13.83
13.80

.995165
.995146

.995127
.995108
.995089

.995070
.995051
.995032
.995013
0.994993

13.77
13.74
13.72
13.69
13.66
13.64
13.61
13.59
13.56
13.53
13.51
13.48
13.46
13.43

.994974
.994955
.994935
.994916

.994896
.994877
.994857
.994838
.994818

47803
48718
49632
50544
51454

.30

52363

.30

53269

.30
.30

54174

55077
55978

.30

.30
.30

56877
9. 57775

.30
.30
.30
.31
.31

58671
59565

60457
61347
62236

.31

63123

.31
.31

64008
64892

.31

65774

.31
9. 66654
67532

.31
.31

68409

.31
.31
.31
.31
.32
.32
.32

76224

77084
77942

.32

.32

78799

.32

79055

.32
.32
.32
.32

80508
81360

82211
83059

.32

.32
.32
.32
.32
.33
.33
.33

9. 83907
84752

85597
86439

87280
88120
88958

89794

.33

90629

.33
.33

91462
9

.33
.33
.33

13..38

.994660

.33

.994660

.33

.994640

.33

Sine.

D.
810

58

.846781

54

14.36
14.33
14.31
14 28
14.25
14.23
14.20
14.17
14.15
14.12
14.09
14 07
14 04
14.02
13.99
13.96
1.3.93
13.91
13.89
13.86

93124

13.84
13 81

93953

13^79
13.76
13.74
1.3.71
13.69

98074

13.66
13.64

98894
99713

i).

57
66
55

.845826

53

.844928

52

.844022

51

.843123

50

0.842225

49

.841329

48

.840485

47

.839543

46

.838653

45

.837764
.836877

44

.835992

42

.835108

41

.834226

40

0.833846

39

.832468
.831591
.830716
.829843
.828971

"

92294

Cotancr.

59

.850368
.849456
.848546
.847637

14.64
14.61
14.58
14.55
14.53
14.50
14.47
14.44
14.42
14.39

97253

60

.851282

14.93
1490
14.87
14.84
14.81
14.79
14.76
14.73
14.70
14.67

96430

.994620

0.852197

15.26
15.23
15.20
15.17
15.14
15.11
15.08
15.05
15.02
14.99
14.96

95606

,33

I CotHiig.|

D.

94780

.33
.33

D.

75362

.994700

13.30

74499

.32
.32

13 41

13.33

69284
70157
71029
71899
72767
73634

.31

9.994798
.994779
.994759
.994739
.994719

13.36

ang.

.30
.30
.30
.30

.995681

'

D.

Coftine.

43

38
87
86
85
34

.828101

33

.827233

82

.826366

81

.825501

80

0.824638
.823776

29

.822916

27

.822058

26

.821201

25

.820345

24

.819492

23

.818640
.817789
.816941

22

0.816093
.815248
.814403
.813561
.812720
.811880

19

28

21

20

18
17
16
15
14

.811042

13

.810206

12

.609371
.808533

11

0.807706
.806876
.806047

10
9
8

.805220

7
^6

.804394

.803570
.802747

.801928

.801106

"00287

j Tang.

M.

28

LOGARITHMIC

M.

Sine.

1).

SINES, COSINES,

Cosine.

D.

9.9U3361
11.93
11.91
11.89
11.87
11.85
11.83
11.81
11.79

.37
.37
.37

.993307
.993285

.37

.993262

.37
.37
.38

.993240
.993217
.993196

.38

.993172

.38

.993149

11.76
11.73

.38

.993127

.247057

.247794
.248530
.249264
.249998
.250730

.251461
.252191
.252920
.253648

.38
9.993104

11.71
11.69
11.67
11.66
11.63
11.61
11.59
11.58
11.56
11.54

.38
.38
.38
.38
.38
.38
.38
.38
.38
.38

.993059
.993036
.993013
.992990
.992967
.992944
.992921
.992898
9.992875

.38
.38
.39
.39
.39
.39
.39
.39
.39
.39.

.992852
.992829
.992806

.992783
.992759
.992736

.992713
.992690
.992666
9.992643

11.33
11.31
11.30
11.28
11.26
11.24
11.22
11.20
11.19
11.17

.39

.992619

.39

.992596

.39

.992572

.39

.992549

.39

.992525

.39

.992501

.39
.40
.40
.40:

.992478
.992454
.992430
9.992406

11.15
11.13
11.11
11.10
11.08

.40
.40
.40
.40
.40
.40
.40
.40
.40
.40

.992382
.992359
.992335
.992311

.992287

11.06
11.05
11.03
11.01
10.99

9.254374

.993081

11.62
11.80
11.48
11.46
11.44
11.42
11.41
11.39
11.37
11.35

D.

9.246319

.993329

11.77

i Tang.

.992263
.992239
.992214

.992190

.255100
.255824
.256547
.257269

.257990
.258710

.259429
.260146
.260863

9.261578
.262292
.263005

.2637 1"
.264428
.265138
.265847
.266555

.267261
.267967
9.268671
.269376

.270077
.270779
.271479
.272178
.272876
.273673
.274269
.274964
9.275658

.276351
.277043

.2777*34
.278424
.279113
.279801
.280488

.281174
.281858

12.30
12.28
12.26
12.24
12.22
12.20
12.18
12.17
12.15
12.13
12.11
12.09

12.07
12.06
12.03
12.01
12.00
11.98

11.96
11.94
11.92

11.90
11.89
11.87
11.86
11.83
11.81

11.79
11.78

11.76
11.74
11.72
11.70
11.69
11.67
11.65
11.64
11.62

11.60
11.58

11.67
11.65
11.63
11.61

11.60
1148
11.47
11.46
11.43
11.41
11.40

| Cotang. |
0.753681

.752943
.752206
.751470
.750736
.750002
.749270
.748539
.747809
.747080
.746352
0.746626

.744900
.744176
.743453
.742731
.742010
.741290
.740571

.739854
.789137
0.738422
.737708
.736995
.736283

60
59
68
57
66
66
64

53
52

I 61
60
49
48

47
46
45
44
43
42
41

I 40
39

88
87
36

.735672

35

.734862
.734153
.733446
.732739
.732033

84

0.781329

33
32
81
SO
29

.730625
.729923
.729221
.728521

28
27

.727822

24

.727124
.726427
.725731
.725036

28

0 724342

19

.723649
.722957
.722266
.721576
.720887
.720199
.719512
.718826
.718142

18
17

26
25

22

21
20

16

16
14
13
12
11
10

9.992166

10.98
10.96
10.94
10.92
10.91
10.89
10.87
10.86
10.84

.992142
.992117
.992093
.992069
.992044
.992020
.991996

.991971

.40
.40
.41
.41
.41
.41
.41
.41
.41

Cosine.

D.

Sine.

.283225

.283907
.284588
.285268

.285947
.286624
.287301

.287977

11.38
11.36
11.35
11.33
11.31
11.30
11.28
11.26
11.25

.288652

.991947

9.282542

D.
70O

I Cotang. \

D.

0.717458

.716775
.716093
.715412
.714732
.714053
.713376
.712699
.712023
.711348

| Tang.

9
8

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

| M.

TANGENTS,

AND

20

COTANGENTS.

11"
M.

Sine.

D"

10.82
10.81
10.79
10.77
10.76
10.74
10.72
10.71
10.69
10.67
10.66

.991922
.991897

.991873
.991848
.991823

.991649
.991624
.991599

.991674
.991649
.991624

.991498
.991473
.991448
9.991422
.991397
.991372
.991346
.991321
.991295
.991270
.991244

10.37

.991218

10 36
10.34

.991193

.991141

.991115
.991090
.991064

.991038

10.26

.991012

10.23

.990986

10.22

"

.990960

10.20
10.19

.990934

.289326
.289999
.290671
.291342
.292013

.292682
.293360

.42

.294017
.294684

.42
.42
.42

.296349
9.296013

.42

.990882
.990855

.990829
.990803
.990777
.990760
.990724
.990697
"990671

.42

.42
.42
.42
.42
.42
.42
.42

.990618
.990591
.990666

.990638
.990511
.990485
.990468
.990431
.990404

Sine.

.298001
.298662
.299322
.299980
.300638

.301296
"

.301961

9.302607
.42
.42
.43
.43
.43
.43
.43
.43
.43
.43

.303261
.303914

.304567
.306218
.305869
.306619
.307168
.307815
.308463
9.309109

.43
.43
.43
.43
.43
.43
.43
.43
.43
.44

.309764
.310398
.311042

.811685
.312327
.312967
.313608
.314247
.314886
9.316523

.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44

9.990644

10.03
10.01
10 00
9.98
9.97
9.96
9.94
9.93
9.91

.296677
.297339

.42

9.990908

10.17
10.16
10.14
10.13
10.11
10.10
10.08
10.07
10.05
10.04

.41
.41
.41
.41
.41
.41
.41

9.991167

10.32
10.31
10.29
10.28
1026

.991799
.991774
.991749
.991724
.991699

10.48
10.46
10.45
10.43
10.42
10.40
10.39

D.

Tang. I

D.

\ Cotang.

11.23
11.22
11.20
11.18

0.711348
.710674
.710001
.709329
.708658

9.288662

9.991674

10.64
10.63
10.61
10.59
10.58
10.66
10.54
10.53
10.51
10.50

Coaine.

D.

Cosine.
9.991947

.44
.44
.44

.44
.44

.45
.45

.45
.45

| D.
7A^

u..

.816169

.316796
.817430
.318064
.318697
.819329
.319961

.320592
.321222

9.321851
.322479
.323106
.323733
.324358
.324983

.325607
.326231

.326853
.327476

| Cotang. |

11.17
11.15
11.14

11.12
11.11
11.09
11.07

11.06
11.04
11.03

11.01
11.00
10.98
10.96
10.96
10.93

10.92
10.90
10.89
10.87
10 86
10.84
10.83
10.81

10.80
10.78

10.77
10.76
10.74
10.73

10.71
10.70
10.68

10.67
10.65
10.64
10.62
10.61
10.60
10.58
10.57
10.55
10.54
10.53
10.51
10.50
10.48
10.47
10.45
10.44
10.43
10.41

10.40
16.39
10.37
10.36
D.

60
69
68

67
66

JQ79g7

66

7707818

64

.706660
.705983
.705316

63
61

.704661

60

62

0.703987
.703323
.702661

49

48
47

.701999

46

.701338
.700678
.700020
.699362
.698705
.698049

46
44
43
42
41
40

0.697398
.696739

89

38
87

.696086
.696433

36

.694782

86

.694131

84

.693481

33

.692832

82

.692186

81

.691637

30

0.690891

29

.690246

28

.689602

27

.688958

26

.688316

25

.687673
.687033

24

.686392

22

23

.686753

21

.686115

20

0.684477

19

.683841

18

.683205

17

.682570

16

.681936

16

.681303

14

.680671

13

.680039

12

.679408
.678778

11

0.678149
.677621
.676894
.676267

.675642
.675017
.674393
.673769
.673147

10

7
6
4
8
2

1
0

.672526

\ Tang.

M.

30

SINES, COSINES,

LOGARITHMIC

120
Sine.

M
0

9.317fe79

.318473

2
8

.311"066
.819658

.320249

.320840

6
8

.331480
.322019
.322607

.823194

10

.323780

11

9.3243")6

12

.324950

13

.325534

14

17

.326117
.826700
.827281
.327862

18

.828442

19

.829021

15
16

.990324

0.86

.990297
.990270
.990243
.990215
.990188
.990161

0.84
0.83

9.82
9.80
9.79
9.77
9.76

.342679
.343239

45

.343797

46

.344355

47

.344912

48

.345469

49

.346024

50

.346579

51

54

9.347134
.347687
.348240
.348792

55

.349343

56

.349893

57

.350443

52
53

58

.850992

59

.351540

60

.352088

Cosine.

.45
.45
.45

.45
.45
.46
.46
.46
.4}
.46
.46

.990079
.990052
.990025

.989997
.989970
.989942

.46

.9S9915

.46
.46
.46

.989887
.989860

.46
.46
.46
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47

.989804

.989777
.989749
.989721
.989693
.989665
.989637
.989609

.989582

.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47

.989525

.989497
.989469
.989441
.989413
.989384
.989356
.989328
.989300

.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.48
.48
.48
.48
.48

.989243
.989214
.989186

.989157
.989128
.989100
.989071
.989042
.989014
9.988985

.48
.48
.48
.48

.988956

.988927
.988898
.988869

.48
.988840

.48
.49
.49
.49

.988811

.988782
.988753

Sine.

.328715
.829334

.829953
.330570
.831187
.831803
.832418
.833038
.333646

.334871
.335482
.336093
.336702
.337311
.337919
.338527
.339133
.339739

.340948
.341552
.342155

.342757
.343358

.343958
.344558

.345157
.345755

.346949

.347545
.348141

.848735
.349329
.349922
.350514
.351106
.351697
9.352287

9.989271

.988724
P.

.328095

9 846353

9.989553

9.22
9.2L
9.20
9.19
9.17
9.16
9.15
9.14
9.13

9.340344

9.989833

9.35
9.34
9.32
9.31
9.30
9.29
9.27
9.26
9.2.5
9.24

j Tang.

9.334259

9.990107

.842119

44

.45
.45
.45
.45
.45
.45

.990134

9.75
9.73
9.72
9.70
9.69
9.68
9.66
9.65
9.64
9.62

9841558

43

P.

D.

I Cotang.
0.672526

9.327474
,

9.48
9.46
9.45
9.44
9.43
9.41
9.40
9.39
9.37
9.36
42

.990378
.990351

9.61
9.60
9.58
9.57
9.56
9.54
0.53
9.52
9.50
9.49

41

Cosine.
9.99U4U4

9.90
0.88
9.87

.829599

20

D.

J).
770

.352876
.853465
.354053
.854640

.355227
.355813

.356398
.356982

.357566
0 858149
.358731
.359313
.359893

.360474
.361053
.361632
.862210

.362787

10.35
10.33
10.32
10.30
10.2i^
10.28
10.26
10.25
10.24
10 23
10.21
10.20
10.19
10.17
10.16
10.15
10.13
10 12
10.11
10.10
10.08
1007
10.06
10.04
10.03
10.02
10.00
9.99
9.98
9 97
9.96

9.82
9.81
980
9.79
9.77
9.76
9.76
9.74
9.73
9.71
9.70
9.69
9.68
9.67
9.66
9.65
9.63
9.62
9.61

.363364

\ Cotang. |

D.

59

.671285

58

.670666

67

.670047

56

.669430

65

.668813

64

.668197
.667582
.666967

53

.666354

60

0.665741

49

62

51

.665129

48

.664518
.663907
.663298
.662689
.662081
.661473
.660867
.660261

47

40

0.659656

89

.659052

88
87

46
45
44
43
42

41

.658448
.657845
.657243

86

85
84

.656642

"

9.94
9.93
9.92
9.91
9.90
9.88
9.87
9.86
9.85
9.83

60

.671905

.656042

83

.655442

82

.654843

81

.654245

30

0.653647

29

.653051

28

.652455

27

.651859

26

.651265

25

.650671
.650078
.649486

24

.648894

21

.648303

20

23
22

0.647713

19
18

.647124
.646535

17

.645947
.645360
.644773
.644187
.643602
.643018

16
15
14
13
12

11
10

.642434

0.641851
.641269
.640687
.640107

9
8

7
6

.639526

.638947
.638368
.637790
.637213

.636636

| Tang.

8
2

4
|

TANGENTS,

31

COTANGENTS.

AND
13"

M.

Sine.

9.352088

.352635

.353181
^53726
.354271
^54815

.355358

.355901

.356443

.356984
.857624

3
4

10
11

9.358064

12

.358603

13

.359141

14

.359678

15

^60215

16
17
18

.360752
.361287

19

.362856

.361822

20

.362889

21

9.363422

22

.363954

23

.364485

24

.365016

25

.865546

26

.366075

27

.366604

28

29

.367131
.367659

80

.368185

31

9.368711

32

.369236

33

.369761
.870286
.370808
.371380

34
35
36

37
88
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

47
48
49
50

.371852

.872373
.372894
.373414

.374452
.374970
.375487
.376003
.376519
.877035
.377549
.378063
.878677

52
53

.880113

54
56

.380624
.881134
.381643

57

.382152

55

58
59

60

D.

Cosine.

.382661
.383168
.383675
Codine.

9.988724

9.11
9.10
9.09
9.08
9.07
9.05
9.04
9.03
9.02
9.01
8.99

.988666
.988636

.988607
.988578
.988548
.988519
.988489
.988460

.49

.988430

.988812

.50

.988282
.988252
.988223
.988193
.988163
.988133

.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50

9.988103
.988073
.988043
.988013
.987983
.987953
.987922
.987892

8.85
8.84
8.83
8.82
8.81
8.80
8.79
8.77
8.76

.50
.50
.50
.50
50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.51

.967662
.987832

9.987801

8.75
8.74
8.73
8.72
8.71

.98V771
.987740
.987710
.987679
.987649
.987618
.987588
.987557
.987526

8.70
8.69
8.87
8.66
8.65

9.987496
.987465
.087434
.987403
.987372
.987341
.987310
.987279
.987248
.987217

8.64
8.63
8.62

8.61
8.60
8.59
8 58
8.57
8.56
8.54

9.987186
.987155
.987124
.987092
.987061
.987030

8.53

8.52
8.51
8.50
8.49
8.48
8.47
8.46
8.45
D.

.49
.49
.49

.988371
.988342

8.87

.986998

.986967
.986936
.986904

Sine.

Tang. I

.61
.51

.61
.51
.51

.51
.51
.51
.61
.51

.52
.52
.52
.52
.52
.52
.52
.52
.62

.864515
.865090
.865664

.866237
.866810

.867382
.867953
.868524
.369094

9.869663
.370232
.370799
.871367

9.48
9.46
9.45
9.44
9.43
9.42
9.41
9.40
9.39
9.38

.871933
.372499
.873064
.878629
.874193
.874756
9.875319
.375881
.876442
.877003
.877563
.878122
.878681
.879239
.879797
.880354
9.380910

9.37
9.35
9.34
9.33
9.32
9.31
9.30
9.29
9.28
9.27

.381466

.382020
.382575
.883129
.383682
.384234

.884786
.385337
.385888

.386987

.387536
.888084
.888631
.889178
.889724
.890270
.890815
.891360
9.391903
.392447
.892989

.393531
.394073
.394614
.895154

.895694
.896233

.396771

0.636636

60

.636060

59

.635485

58

.634910

57

.634336

56

.633763

55

.633190

54

.632618
.632047
.631476
.630906

53

0.630337
.629768

49

.629201

47

.628633
.628067
.627501
.626936
.626371
.625807
.625244

46

40

0.624681

39

.624119

38

52
51
50

48

45
44
43
42
41

37

.623558
.622997
.622437
.621878

86
35
84
33

.621319

'

I D. '.Cotang. |
7(r"

Cotang.

9.60
9.59
9.58
9.57
9.55
9.54
9.53
9.52
9.51
9.60
9.49

.863940

9.386488

.51
.51
.51
.52
.52
.52
.52
.52
.62
.52

D.

9.863364

.49

9.988401

8.98
8.97
8.96
8 95
8.93
8.92
8.91
8.90
8.89
8 88

D.
.49
.49
.49
.49
.49
.49
.49
.49
.49

.988695

9.373933

9.379089
.379601

51

9.26
9.25
9.24
9.23
9.22
9.21
9.20

.620761

32

.620203

31

.619646

30

0.619090

29

.618534

28
27

.617980
.617425
.616871
.616318
.615766

9.19

9.18
9.17

26
25
24
23

.615214

22

.614663
.614112

20

21

19

0.613562

9.15
9.14
913
9.12
9.11
9.10
9.09
9.08
9.07
9.06
9.05
9.04
9.03
9.02
9 01
9.00
8.99
8.98
8.97
D.

18

.613013

.612464

.611916

16

.611369

15

.610822

14

.610276
.609730
.609185
.608640

13

1.608097
.607563
.607011

9
8

.606469

.605927
.605386
.604846
.604306
.603767

.603229

Tang.

12
11
10

4
8
2
1

32

LOGARITHMIC

SINES,

COSINES,

14"
Sine.

M.

9.383676
.884182
.884687

0
1
2

.885192
.886697

8
4

.886201
.886704
.887207
.387709

.888210

10

.888711

11

12

9.889211
.389711

13

.390210

14

.390708

15

.891206

16

.391703
.892199

6
6

17
18

.892695

19

.893191

20

.393685

21

9.894179

22

.394673

23

.395166

24

.895658

25

.896150

26

.896641

27

.897132

28

.897621

29

.398111

30

.898600

Cosine.
9.986904
.986878

8.44
8.48
8.42
8.41
8.40
8.39
8.38

.986841

.986809
.986778
.986746
.986714
.986688

8.37
8.36
8.35
8.34

.986651
.986619
.986687

.986528

8.32
8.31
8.30
8.28
8.27
8.26
825
8.24
8.23

.986491
.986469

.986427
.986396
.986363
.986331
.986299
.986266

32

.399576

33

.400062

34

.400549

35

.401035

86
37

.401520

.402005

88

.402489

39

.402972

40

.403455

41

9.403938

42

.404420

43
44

.404901
.405382

45

.405862

46

.406341

47

.406820

48

.407299
.407777

49
50

.408254

61
52

9.408731
.409207

53

.409682

54

.410157

55

.410632

56

.411106

57

.411579

58

.412052

59

.412524

60

.412996

Cosine.

.53
.53
.58
.53

.53

.986202
.986169

.986187
.986104

.986072
.986089

.986007
.985974
.985942

.985876
.985843
.985811
.985778

.985745
.985712
.985679
.985646

.985613

.985547

8.02
8.01
8.00
7.99
7.98

.985514

.985480

,985447
.985414
.985380

7.97
7.96
7.95
7.94

.986347
.985314
.985280

9.985247

7.94

.985213

7.93
7.92
7.91
7.90
7.89
7.88
7.87
7.86
D.

.985180
.985146

.985113
.985079
.985045
.985011
.984978
.984944

Sine.

.898383
.898919

.53
.53

.400624

.53
.53
.58

D.

.401068
.401691

.402124

8.96
8.96
8.95
8.94
8.93
8.93
8.92
8.90
8.89
8 88
8.87

9.402656

.53
.53
.63
.53
.53
.53
.54
.54
.54
.54

.403187
.403718
.404249

.404778
.405308
.405886

.406864
.406892
.407419

8 86

8.85
8 84
8.83
8.82
8 81
8.80
8.79
8.78
8.77

9.407946

.54
.54
.54
.54

.54
.54
.54
.54
.54
.54
.55
.65
.55
.55
.55

.55
.55
.55
.55
.55

9.985580

8.03

.897846

.63

9.985909

8.13
8.12
8.11
8.10
8.09
8.08
8.07
8.06
8.05
8.04

.897809

.899455
.899990

9.986234
8.22
8.21
8.20
8.19
8.18
8.17
8.17
8.16
8.15
8.14

Tang,
9.396771

9.986565

8.33

9399088

31

J_D.

.55
.55
.55
.55
.55

.56
.56
.56
.56
.56

.408471

.408997
.409521
.410045
.410669
.411092
.411615

.412137
.412658

9413179
.413699
.414219

.414738
.415257
.415775
.416293
.416810

.417326
.417842
9.418358
.418873
.419387
.419901

.56
.56
.56
.56

.56
D.

8.67
8.66
8.65
8.64
8.64
8.63
8.62
8.61
8.60
8.59
8.58
8.57
8.56
8.55

.420415

.420927
.421440
.421952
.422468

.422974
9.423484

.56
.56
.56
.56

8.76
8.75
8.74
8.74
8.73
8.72
8.71
8.70
8.69
8.68

.423993
.424503
.425011
.425519

.426027
.426634

.427041
.427547

8.55
8.54
8.53
8.52
8.51
850
8.49
8.48
8.48
8.47
8.46
8.45
8.44
8.43
8.43

.428052

I Cotftng.I

D.

| Cotang. |
0.603229

60

.602691

69

.602154

68

.601617

67

.601081

66

.600646

55

.600010-

64

.699476
.698942
.598409
.697876

63
62
61
60

0.597344

49

.596813
.696282
.695761

48

.695222

46

47
46

.694692

44

.694164

43

.593636

42

.593108

41

.692681

40

0 592056

39

.591529

88

.691003

87

.690479
.589955

85

.589431

34

86

.688908

33

.688386

82

.587863
.587342

81

9.686821

29

80

.586301

28

.686781
.685262
.684743
.584225
.583707
.583190
.582674
.682158

27

0.681642
.581127
.680613

.680099
.679585
.579073
.678560
.678048
.677537
.677026

26
26
24
23
22
21
20
19

18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10

0.676516
.676007
.575497

9
8

.674989
.574481
.678973

7
6
4

.573466

.572959

.572453
.571948

I Tang.

| M.

TANGENTS,

AND

83

COTANGENTS.

15"
M.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

7
8
9
10

Sine.

D.

Cosine.

9.412996

7.85
7.84
7.83
7.83
7.82
7.81
7.80
7.79
7.78
7.77
7.76

.4iai67
.413938
.414408
.414878
.415347
.415816
.416283
.416751
.417217
.417684

.984910
.984876

.984842
.984808
.984774
.984740
.984706
.984672
.984637
.984603

.984535

.984500
.984466
.984432
.984397
.984363
.984328
.984294
.984259

9.984224
.984190

7.67
7.66
7.65
7.64
7.63
7.62
7.61
7.60
7.60
7.59

.984155
.984120

.984085
.984050
.984015
.983981
.983946

.983911
9.983875

7.58
7.67
7.56
7.55
7.54
7.53
7.52
7.62
7.61
7.50

43

9.431879
.432329
.432778

44

.433226

45

.433675
.434122

42

46

47
48

.435462

.435908

51
52

55

.438129

56

.438572

57
58

.439456

59
60

.983558

9.983523
.988487
.083452
.983416

.983381
.983345

.983309
.983273
.983238
.983202

.983130

.983094
.983058

7.39

.983022

7.38
7.37
7.36
7.36
7.36

.439897
.440388

D.
13

.982986
.982950
.982914
.982878
.982842

Sine.

Tang.

| Cotang. |

D.

9.428052

.57
.57

.67
.67

.428557
.429062
.429566

.87

.430070
.430573

.57
.57
.67
.67
.67
.67

.431075
.431577
.432079
.432580
.433080

.67
.67
.67
.67
.68
.58
.58
.68
.68
.68

9.433580
.434080
.434579
.435078
.435576
.436073
.436570

.437067
.437563
.438059
9.438554

.68
.58
.58
.58

.68
.68
.68
.58
.58
.68
.68
.69

.69
.59
.69
.59
.69

.59
.69
.69
.59
.59
.59
.69
.59
.69
.69
.60
.60
.60

9.983166

7.40

.439014

Cosine.

.983594

7.41
7.40

.436798

.437242
.437686

53

.983629

7.46
7.45
7.44
7.44
7.43
7.42

9.436353

54

.983805
.983770
.983735
.983700
.983664

7.47

.435016

49

.983840

7.49
7.49
7.48

.434569

50

D.

9.984569

7.75
7.74
7.73
7.73
7.72
7.71
7.70
7.69
7.68
7.67

41

9.984944

.60
.60

.60
.60
.60
.60
.60
.60
.60

| D.
74"

.439048
.439543
.440036
.440529
.441022

.441514
.442006

.442497
.442988
9.443479
.443968

.444458
.444947
.445435
.445923
.446411
.446898

.447384
.447870
9.448356
.448841
.449326

.449810
.450294

.450777
.451260

.451743
.452225

.452706
9.453187
.453668
.454148
.454628

.455107
.455586
.456064
.456542
.457019
.457496

Cotang. I

8.42
8.41
8.40
8.39
8.38
8.38
8.37

8.36
8.35
8.34
8.33
8.32
8.32
8.3L
8.30
8.29
8.28
8.28
827
8.26
8.25
8.24
8.23
8.23
8.22
8.21
8.20
8.19
8.19
8.18

8.17
8.16

8.16
8.15
8.14
8.13
8.12
8.12
8.11
8.10
8.09
8.09
8.08

8.07
8.06
8.06
8.05
8.04
8.03
8.02
8.02

8.01
8.00
7.99
7.99
7.98
7.97
7.96

7.96
7.96
D.

| Tang.

II

SINES, COSINES,

LOGARITHMIC

84

16"
Sine.

iM

D.

9.982842

9.440338
.440778
.441218
.441658

0
1
2
8
4

.442096

.442535
.442973
.443410
.443847
.444284
.444720

7
8
0
10
11
12
13
14

19

.449054

17
18

21

.449915

23

.450345

24

.450775

25

.451204

26

.451632

27
28

.452060

.452488

29

.452915

81

9.453768

82

.454194

83

.454619

34

.455044

35

.456739

39

.457162
.457584

40

45

9.458006
.458427
.458848
.459268
.459688

46

.460108

47

.460527

48

.460946

51

.462616

53

.463032

54

.493448

55

.463864
.464279

56

57

.465108

59

.465522

60

.465935

Cosine.

.982551
.982514

.982477
9.982441
.982404
.982367
.982331

.982294
.982257
.982220

.982183
.982146
.982109

.982035

.981998
.981961
.981924
.981886

.981849
.981812
.981774

.981737
9.981699

7.10
7.09
7.08
7.07
7.07
7.06
7.05
7.04
7.04
7.03

.981662

.981625
.981587
.981549
.981512

.981474
.981436
.981399
.981361

.60
.60
.61
.61
.61
.01
.61
.61
.61

.61
.61
.61
.61
.61
.61
.61
.61
.62
.62
.62
.62

.63
.63

.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.64
.64
.64
.64
.64

.981171
.981133
.981095
.981057
.981019
.980981

9.980942
.980866

.980827
.980789
.980750

.980712

D.

.64

.980673

.64
.64

.980635

6.89

.64
.64
.64
.64
.64
.64

.980904

6.90

.980596

Sine.

.458449

.458925
.459400
.459875
.460349

.460823
.461297
.461770
.462242

9.462714
.463186
.463658
.464129
.464599
.465069
.465539
.466008
.466476
.466945

.467880
.468347

.468814
.469280

.469746
.470211
.470676
.471141
.471605
9.472068

.981209

6.93
6.92
6.91
6.90

.457973

9.467413
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62

.981247

6.93

9.457496

.981285

6.95
6.94

j Tang.

D.

9.981323

7.02
7.01
7.01
7.00
6.99
6.98
6.98
6.97
6.96
6.95

.464694

58

.982587

7.16
7.16
7.15
7.14
7.13
7.13
7.12
7.11
7.10

9.462199

52

.982624

9.982072

.461782

50

.982660

7.17

.461364

49

.982696

7.23
7.22
7.21
7.20
7.20
7.19
7.18

.456316

88

.982805
.982769
.982738

7.23

.455893

37

44

7.24

.455469

36

43

7.25

.453342

30

42

7.26

9.449486

22

41

7.33
7.32
7.31
7.31
7.30
7.29
7.28
7.27
7.27

.446459

20

16

7.34

9.445155
.445590
.446025
.446893
.447326
.447759
.448191
.448623

15

Cosine.

D.
730

.472532

.472995
.473457
.473919

.474381
.474842
.475303
.475763

.476223
9.476683
.477142
.477601
.478059
.478517
.478975
.479432
.479889
.480345
.480801
9.481257
.481712
.482167
.482621

.463075
.483529

.483982
.484435

.484887
.485339

| Cotang. |

I Cotang. |

D.

0.542504

7.94
7.93
7.93

7.92
7.91
7.90
7.90
7.89
7.88
7.88
7.87
7.86
7.85
7.86
7.84

7.83
7.83
7.82
7.81
7.80
7.80
7.79
7.78
7.78

7.77
7.76
7.75
7.76
7.74

7.73

60

.542027

59

.!f41551

58

.541075
.540600

57
56

.540125

55

.539e51
.539177
.638703
.538230
.637758

64
63

62
61
60

0.537286

49

.536814

48

.536342
.635871

47

.535401

45

.634931
.634461
.633992

44

.533524

41

46

43
42

.533055

40

0.532587
.532120

38

.531653

37

39

.631186

36

.530720

35

.530254

34

.529789

33

.529324

32

.628859

31

.628395

80

7.73
7.72

7.71
7.71
7.70
7.69
7.69
7.68
7.67
7.67
7.66
7.65

7.65
7.64
7.63
7.63
7.62
7.61
7.61

7.60
7.69
7.59
7.68
7.57
7.57
7.56
7.56
7.65
7.54
7.53
D.

0.627932

29

.527468
.527005

28

.526543

26

.526081

25

.525619

24

27

.525158

23

.524697
.524237
.523777

22

0.523317
.522858

19

21
20.

18

.622399

17

.521941
.621483
.621025
.520568
.520111
.519655
.519199

16
15
14
13
12
11

10

0.518743
.518288
.617833
.517379

.516925

.516471
.616018

.515565
.515113
.514661

| Tang.

M.

7
6

8
1
0

86

SINBS, COSINES,

LOGABITHMIC
D.

Cosine.

D.

9:978206
6.48
6.48
6.47
6.46
6.46
6.45
6.44
6.44
6.43
6.42
6.42

8.37
6.36
6.36

.978124
.978083
.978042
.978001
.977959
.977918
.977877

68
68
69

.612636

69

.518921

69
69
69
69
69
69

.614349

6.20
6.20
6.19
6.19
6.18
6.18

70
70
70

70
71
71
71
71
71
71
71
71
71

Sine.

.614777
.615204
.515631

.616057

.516910
.617336
.517761
.618185
.618610
.619034
.619468
.519882
.520305

.521151

.521573
.521996
.622417
.522838
.623259
.623680

.624100
.624520
9.624939
.625359
.625778
.526197
.626615

.627033
.627461
.627868
.628286
.528702
9.529119

71
71
71
71
71
71
72
72
72
72

.529536
.629950

.530366
.630781
.531196
.631611
.582025

.632439
.632863
9.583266

9.976060
.976017
.975974
.975930
.975887
.975844
.975800
.975757
.975714
.975670

6.17
6.16
6.16
6.15
6.16
6.14
6.13
6.13
6.12

.613498

9.520728

70
70
70
70
70
70
70

9.976489
.976446
.976404
.976361
.976318
.976275
.976232
.976189
.976146
.976103

6.23
6 22
6.22
6 21

.513064

9 516484

69
69
60
69
69
70
70
70
70
70

9.976914
.976872
.976830
.976787
.976746
.976702
.976660
.976617
.976574
.976532

6.29
6.28
6.28
6.27
6.26
6.26
6.25
6.25
6.24
6.23

D.

.612206

9.977335
.977293
.977251
.977209
.977167
.977126
.977083
.977041
.976999
.976957

6.35
6.34
6.34
6.33
6.32
6.32
6.31
6.31
6.30
6.29

68

9.977752
.977711
.977669
.977628
.977586
.977644
.977503
.977461
.977419
.977377

6.37

Cosine.

.978166

.977836
.977794

6.41
6.41
6.40
6.39
6.39
6.38

Tang.

D.

72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72

.533679
.634092
.634604

.634916
.636328
.635739
.686150
.536561

7.16

7.16
7.16
7.14
7.14
7.13
7.13
7.12

7.12
7.11
7.10

D.

710

Cotang.

.487794
.487365
.486936
.486507
.486079

7.09
7.09
7.08
7.08

7.07
7.06
7.06
7.05
7.06
7.04
7.03
7.03
7.03
7.02
7.02
7.01

7.01
7.00
6.99
6.99
6.98
6.98
6.97
6.97
6.96
6.96
6.96
6.96
6.94
6.93
6.93
6.98
6.92
6.91
6.91
6.90
6.90
6.89
6.89
6.88
6.88
6.87
6.87
6.86
6.86
6.85
6.85
6.84

D.

60
59
68

57
56
65

.485651
.485223
.484796

52

.484369
.483943

50

0.483516

7.10

.536972

j Cotang.
0.488224

9.611776

.483090
.482665
.482239
.481816
.481390

54
53
51

49
48

47
46
45
44

.480966

43

.480542

42

.480118

41

.479695

40

0.479272

39

.478849
.478427
.478005
.477583
.477162
.476741
.476320
.475900
.475480

88
87

0.475061
.474641
.474222
.473803
.473386
.472967
.472549
.472132
.471716
.471298

86

85
84
83
82
31

30
29
28
27
26
26
24
23
22
21
20

0.470881
.470466
.470050
.469634
.469219
.468804
.468389
.467975
.467561
.467147

19

0.466734
.466321
.466908
.466496
.465084
.464672

.464261
.463850
.463489
.463028

Tang.

18

17
16

15
14

13
12

11
10
8

7
6
6
4
8
2

1
0

M.

TANGENTS,

37

COTANGENTS.

AND
19""

rM. i

D.

Sine.

6.12
6.U
6.11
6.10
6.09
6.09
6.08
6.08
6.07
6.07
6.06

.975496

.976462
.976408
.975365
.976321
.975277
.976233
9.975189
.976145
.975101
.975057
.975013
.974969
.974925
.974880
.974836

6.05
6.05
6.04
6.04
6.03
6.03
6.02
6.01
6.01
6.00

.974792
9.974748
.974703
.974659
.974614
.974570
.974525
.974481
.974436
.974391
.974347

6.00
5.99
5.99
5.98
5.98
5.97
5.96
5.96
5.95
5.95

9.974802
.974257
.974212
.974167
.974122
.974077
.974032
.973987
.973942
.973897

5.94
5.94
.5.93
5.93
6.92
6.91
5.91
5.90
5.90
6.89

9.973852
.973807
.973761
.973716
.973671
.973625
.973580
.973535
.973489
.973444

5.89
6.88
5.88
5.87
5.87
5.86
5.86
5.85
5.85
5.84

9.973398

5.84
5.83
5.82
5.82
6.81
5.81
5.80
5.80
5.79

Coftine.

D.
18"

Cosine.
9.975670
.976627
.976683
.975539

.973352

.973307
.973261
.973215
.973169
.973124
.973078
.973032
.972986

Sine.

D.

Tang,

D.

| Cotang. |

9.536972
.73
.73
.73
.73
.73
73
73
.73
'73
.73
73

.537382

.537792
.538202
.638611
.639020

.539429
.539837
.540246

.540653
.541061

9.541468
.641875
.642281
.542688

.73
.73
.73
.73
.73
.74
.74
.74
.74
.74

.543094
.543499
.543905

.544310
.544715
.645119

6.84
6.83
6.83
6.82
6.82
6.81
6.81
6.80
6.80
6.79
6.79
6.78
6.78
6.77
6.77
6.76
6.76
6.76
6.75
6.74
6.74

9.545524

.74
.74
.74
.74

.545928
.546331

.546735
.547138
.547540
.647943
.548345
.548747

.74
.74
.74
.74
.74
.75

.549149

9.549560
.549951

.76
.75
.76
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75

.550352

.550752
.551152
.551552
.551952
.552351

.552750
.553149

9.553548

.75
.75
.75
.76
.76
.76
.76
.76
.76
.76

.553946
.554344

.554741
.555139
.555636

.555933
.556329

.656725
.557121
9.557517
.557913
.558308
.558702
.559097
.559491
.559885
.560279
.560673

.76
.76
.76
.76
.76
.76
.76
.76
.77

6.73
6.73
6.72
6.72
6.71
6.71
6.70
6.70
6.69
6.69
6.68
6.68
6.67
6.67
6.66
6.66
6.65
6.65
6.65
6.64
6.64
6.63
6.63
6.62
6.62
6.61
6.61
6.60
6.60
6.59
6.59
6.59
6.58
6.58
6.57
6.57
6.56
6.56
6.55

.661066

p.

I Cotang.

70^

D.

Tang,

M.

Sine.

I
0

SINES, COSINES,

LOGARITHMIC

S8
|

.634746

.635092
.635488
.635788
.636129
.636474
.536818

4
6

6
7
6

.587163
.687607

10

D.

5.78

.972940

6.77
6.77
6.77
6.76
6.76
6.75
6.74
6.74
6.78
6.78

.972894
.972848
.972802

.n
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77

.972751
4)72709
i)72668
.972617
.972570
.972524

.972131

".72
6.71

.972386

.972338
.972291

6.71
6.70
6.70

.972245
.972198
.972151

6.69
6.69
6.68
6.68

.972105

.972058

.77
.78
.78
.78
.78
.78
.78
.78
.78
.78

5.62
5.62
5.61
5.61
5.60
5.60
5.69
5.59
558
5.68
9.548024

41
42

.548359

43

.548693

44

.649027

45

.549360

46

.549693

47

.550026
^50359

48
50

51
52

53
54
55
56

57
58
59
60

"651024
9.561356
.651687
.552018

.553670
.554000
.654329

j Cosine.

.78
.78
.78
.78
.78
.79
.79

.79

.971208
.971161
.971113
9.971066

.971018
.970970
.970922
,970874
.970827
.970779
.970731
.970683
.970635
9.970586
.970588

.80
.80
.80
.80
.81
.81
.81
.81

.970490
.970442
.970394
.970345
.970297
.970249
.970200

Sine.

D.

.565763
.666153
.666542
.666932
^67320
.667709
.668098

.668486
.668878

.669648
.670035
.670422
.670809

.671195
.571581
^71967
.672352
.672788

.581149
.581528
.581907
.582286

.582665
.583043

.683422
.583800

D.

| Cotang. |

| Cotong. j
0.438984

6.55
6.54
6.54
C.53
6.68
6.68
6.6i
6.58
6.51
6.51
6.50
6.50
6.49
6.49
6.49
6.48
6.48
6.47
"47
6.46
6.46

6.45
6.46
6.45
6.44
6.44
6.43
6.43
6.42
6.42
6.48
6.41
6.41
6.40
6.40
6.39
6.39
6.39
6.38
6.38
6.37
6.37
6.36
6.36
6.36
6.35
6.35
6.34
6.34
6.34
6.33
6.33
6.32
6.32
6.32
6.81
6.31
6.30
6.30
6.29

.684177

.970152
D.

.664983

9.578123
.79
.673507
.79
.678892
.79
.574276
.79
.574660
.79
.575044
.79 j
.675427
.79
.575810
.79
.676193
.79
.676576
.79
9.576958
.80
.577341
.80
.677723
.80
.578104
.80
.578486
.80
.678867
.80
.679248
.80
.579629
.80
.580009
.80
.580389
.80
9.580769
.80

9.971540
.971493
.971446
.971398
.971351
.971303
.971256

5.49

.663419
.663811
.664202
.564592

.79

5.52
5.52
6.52
5.51
6.51
5.60
6.60
5.49

.552349
.552680
.553010
.553341

.78

.971964
.971917
.971870
.971828
.971776
.971729
.971682
.971685
.971588

5.57
5.57
6.56
5.56
5.56
5.56
5.54
6.54
5.53
5.53

.650692

49

.561459
.561861
.562244
^62686
.668028

8.669261

9.972011

6.67
6.67
6.66
6.66
6.66
5.65
6.64
5.64
5.68
5.63

9 565373

9.972478
5.72

Tang,
9.661066

9.9729b6

9.534052
.634399

Cosine,

P.

P.

60

.438541

69

.438149
.437756
.437364
.436972
.436581
.436189
.435798
.435408
.485017

58

0.484627
.434237
.483847
.433458
.483068

57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49

48
47
46
45

.432680

44

.482291

43

.431902

42

.431514

41

.431127

40

0.430789

89

.480352

88

.429965

37

.429578

86

.429191

86

.428806
.428419
.428033
.427648
.427262

84

0.426877
.426493
.426108
.425724

29

26

.425340

25

.424956

24

83

82
81
80

28
27

.424578

23

.424190

22

.423807

21

.423424

20

0.423041

19

.422659

.422277

18
17

.421896

16

.421614

15

.421133

14

.420752

13

.420371

12

.419991

11

.419611

10

0.419231
.418851
.418472

9
8

.418093

.417714
.417335
.416957

.416578

5
8

.416200

.415823

Tang.

I M.

TANGENTS,

39

COTANGENTS.

AND
210

M.

Sine.

9.554329
.554658
.554987
.555315
.555643
.555971
.556299
.566626

.556963

9
10

.557280
.557606

11

9.56T932

12

0
1
2
3
4
6
6

19

.558268
.568683
.558909
.559234
.559558
.559883
.560207
.560531

20

.560855

21
22

9.561178
.561601

23

.561824

24
26

.562146
.562468
.562790

27

.563112

13
14
15

16
17
18

25

28

.663433

29

.563755

30

.564075

D.

5.48
5.48
5.47
6.47
5.43
6.43
5.45
5.45
5.44
5.44
bAi

33

.565036

34

.566366

36

.565676

36

.566996

37
38

.666314

89

.566961

.567269

41

9.567587

42

.567904

43

.568222

44

.568639

45

.568866

46

.569172

47
48

.569488
.569804
.570120
.570435

49
50

.970006
.969957
.969909
.969860
.969811
.969762
.969714
.969665

.969469

.969420
.969370
.969321

.969272
.969223

.969173
9.969124
.969076

53
54
55
56

57
58

.968926

.968877
.968827
.968777
.968728
.968678
9.968628

6.34

.968479

5 32

.968429

5.32

.968379

6.3 L
5.3 L
5.3L
5.3a
5.30

.968329

.968278
.968228
.968178
9.968128

52)

59
60

Cosine

6.28
5.28
5.23

5.27
6.27
6.26
5.2a

9.967624
.967573
.967622
.967471
.967421
.967370
.967319
.967268
.967217
.967166

5.25
6.24
5.24
5.23
5.23
6.23
5.22
5.22
5.21

D.

.84
.84
.84
.84
.84
.84
.84
.84
.84
.84

.908078
.968027
.967977
.967927
.967876
.967826
.967776
.967725
.967674

5.2)

.572636

.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.84
.84

.966578
.968628

5.33
5.3{

.572950
.573263
.573575

.82
.82
.82
.82
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83

.96b976

5.35

Sine.

Tang.

D.

| Cotang. |
0.415623

6.29
6.20
6.28
6.28
6.27
6.27
6.2r
6.26
626
6.25
6.25

.584565
.584932
.585309

.585686
.586062
.586439
.686815
.587190
.587566
.587941
9.688316
.688691

60

.416446
.415068
.414691
.414814
.413938
.413561
.413185
.412810
.412434
.412069

59

58
67
66
55

54
53
52
61

50

6.25
6.24
6.24
6.23
6.23

.689066

.589440
.689814
.590188
.590662
.590985
.691308
.691681

6.23
6.22
6.22

6.22
6.21

9.692054

.969025

525
52

.82
.82
.82
.82
.82
.82
.82
.82
.82
.82

.969667
.969518

5.38
5.38
5.37
5.37
5.33
6.36
5.36
5.35

9.570751
.571066
.571380
.571695
.572009
.572323

51

.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81

9.969616

.566632

40

D.

9.584177

.970065

5.41
5.4i
5.42
5.42
5.41
5.41
5.4)
5.40
5.3J
5.3J

9.564396
.564716

31

.970103

5.34
82

Cosine.
9.970152

.84

.84
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85

6.21
6.20
6.20
6.19
6.19
6.18
6.18
6.18
6.17
6.17

.692426
.692798

.698170
.693642
.693914

.594286
.694666

.696027
.696398
9.596768
.696138
.696608
.696878
.697247
.597616
.697985

0.404232

6.17
6.16
6.16
6.16
6.15
6.15
6.15
6.14
6.14
6.13

.598354

.698722
.599091
9.599459

6.13
6.13
6.12
6.12
6.11
6.11
6.11
6.10
6.10
6.10

.699827
.600194
.600662
.600929
.601296

.601662
.602029

.602395
.602761

9.603127
.603493

.603868
.604223
.604688
.604963
.606317
.605682

.606046

6.09
6.09
6.09
6.08
6.08
6.07
6 07
6.07
6.06

29

.403862
.403492
.403122
.402763
.402384

28

27
26
26
24

.402015

23

.401646

22

.401278
.400909

20

21

0.400641

19

.400173
.899806
.899438
.899071
.898704
.898338
.897971
.897605
.397239

18
17

0.396873

16
15
14
13
12
11
10
'

.606410

D.

63^

| Cotang. |

D.

j Tang.

M.

sines, cosines,

looabithmk:

40
Sine.

M.

9.578575

.678888

1
a

X74200
.574512
.574824
.575186
.575447
.675768
.576069

4
6
6

7
8

.576379

0
10

.576689

11
12

9.676999
.577809
.577618
.577927
.578236
.578545
.578858
.579162
.579470
.579777

18
14

15
16
17
18
19

20

23

9.680085
.580392
.580699

24

.581005

25

.581812
.581618
.581924
.582229
.582535
.582840

21
22

26

27
28
29

SO
81
82
83
34
85
86

37
88
89
40

41
42

48
44

45
46
47

48
49
50
61
52

58
54
55
56

57
58
59
60

9.583145
.583449
.583754
.584058
.584861
.584665
.584968
.585272
.585574
.585877
9.586179
.586482
.586788
.587085
.587386
.587688
.587989
.588289
.588590
.588890
9.589190
.589489
.589789
.590088
.590387
.590686
.590984
.591282
.591580

Cosine.

D.
6.21
6.20
6.20
6.19
6.19
6.19
5.18
6.18
6.17
5.17
5.16

9.967166
.967115
.967064
.967013
.066961
.906910
.966859
^66808
.966756
.966705
.966653
9.966002

5.16
6 16
5.15
6.15
5.14

.966650
.966499

.966447
.966396
.966344

5.U

.966292

5.13
5.13
5.13
5.12

.966240
.966188
.966136
9.966085

5.12
6.11
5.11

5.11
5.10
6.10
5.09
5.09
5.09
5.08
5.08

5.07
6.07
5.06

5.06
5.06
5.05
5.05
5.04

.966033

.965981
.965928

.965876
.963824
.965772
.965720
.965668
.965615
9.965568
.965511
.965458
.965406
.965358
.965301
.965248
.965195
.965143
.965090

5.04
5.03
5.03
5.03
5.02
5.02
5.01
5.01
6.01
5.00

Tang.

D.

9.6U6410
.606778
.607137
.607500

.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85

.607863
.608225
.608588

.85
.85
.86
.86

.608950
.609312

.609674
.610036

.86

9.965087
.964984
.964981
.964879
.964826
.964773
.964719
.964666
.964613

.964560

5.00

9.064507
.964454
.964400
.964847

4.99
4.99
4.99
4.98
4.98
4.97
4.97
4.97
4.96

.964294

.964240
.964187
.964133
.964080

9.610397
.86
.86
.86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86

.610759
.611120
.611480

.611841
.612201

.612561
.612921
.618281
.613641

| Cotang. |
0!3"3d90 60

D.
6.06
6.06
6.06
6.0"
6.04
6.04
6.04
6.03
6.03
6 03

6.02
6.(^
6.01
6.01
6.01
6.00
6.00

6.00
5.99
5.99

9.614000

87
87
87
87
87
67
87

87
87
87
87
87
87
87

88
88
88
88
88
88

.614359
.614718
.615077
.615435
.615793
.616151
.616509

.616867
.617224
9.617582
.617939
.618295
.618652
.619008
.619364

.619721
.620076
.620432
.620787
9.621142

88
88
88
88
88
88
88
89
89
89
89
89

89
89
89
89
89
89
89

.393227

59

.892863

58
57

.892500

.892137
.391775

56

.391412

54

55

.891050

53

.890688

52

.890326

51

.889964

50

0.889603

49

6.02

'

.964026

.591878

I Cosine.

.621497
.621852
.622207
.622561
.622915
.623269
.62362a

.923976
.624380
9.624688
.625086
.625888
.625741
.626093

.626445
.626797
.627149
.627501
.627852

5.98
5.98
5.98
6.97
5.97
6.97
5.96
".96
5.96
".95
5.95
5.95
5.94
5.94
5.94
5.93
5.93
5.93
5.92
5.92
5.92
5.91
5.91
5.90
5.90
5.90
5.89
5.89
5.89
5.88
5.88
5.88
6.87
5.87
5.87
5.86
5.86
6.86
5.85

.889241
.388880
.388520
.888159

48

.387799

44

.387439
.387079
.386719

43

.386359

40

0.386000

89

.385641

88

.385282
.384923
.384565
.384207
.383849
.888491
.383183

87

47
46
45

42
41

86
35

84
33
82
31
80

.382776
0.382418
.382061
.881705
.381348
.380992
.380636
.880279

29

U28
27
26
25
24
23

.879924
.379568

22

.879213

20

0.878858

19

.878503
.878148
.877793
.877439
.877085
.876731
.376877
.376024
.875670

18

21

17
16
15
14

13
12
11

10
9
8

0.875317
.874964
.874612

.874259
.873907

.878555
.373203
.872851
.372499
.872148

6
8
2

'

P.

Sine.

I p. i Cotany. |
67"

D.

| Tang.

TANGENTS,

AND

41

COTANGENTS.

230

M.

Sine.

9.591878
.592176
.592473

0
1
2

10

.692770
.593067
.593363
.593659
.593955
.594251
.594547
.594842

11

9.595187

12

.595432

13

20

.595727
.596021
.596315
.596609
.596903
.597196
.597490
.597783

21

9.598075

3
4
5
6

7
8
0

14
15
16

17
18
19

22

.598868

23

.598660

24

.598952

25

.599244

20

.509536

27

.599827

28

.600118
.600409
.600700

29
30
81

9.61)0990

82

.601280
.601570
.601860
.602150

33
84

85
36

.602439

37
38
89
40

.602728
.603017

41

4.96
4.95
4.95
4.96
4.94
4.94
4.93
4.93
4.93
4.92
4.92

43
44

.604745

45

.605032

46
47
48

.605319

53
64
66
66

67
58
69
60

.963811
.963757
.963704
.903650
.963596
.963542

.963488

.963379
.963325

.963271
.963217
.963163
.963108
.063054
.962999

.962945

.962836
.902781

.962727
.962672
.962617
.962562
.962508
.062453

.962398
9.962343
.962288
.962233
.962178

4.84
4.83
4.83
4.82
4.82
4.82
4.81
4.81
4.81
4.80

.962123

.962067
.962012
.961957
.961902
.961846

9.961791
.961735

4.80
4.79
4.79
4.79
4.78
4.78
4.78
4.77
4.77
4.76

9.606751
.607086
.607322
.607607
.607892
.608177

62

.963865

.961680
.901624
.961569
.961513

.961458
.961402
.961346

.961290
9.961235
.961179

4.76
4.76
4.76
4.75

.961123

.961067
.961011
.960955
.960899
.960843
.960786
.960730

4.74
4.74

.608461
.608746

4.74
4.73
4.73

.609029
.609818

Coeine.

D.

Sine.

Tang.

D.

9.627852
.89
.89
.89
.90
.90
.90
.90
.90
.90
.90
.90

.628208

.628554
.628905
.629255
.629606

.629956
.630306
.630656
.631005

.631356

6.85
6.85
5..85
6..84
5..84
6..83
6..83
6..83
5..83
6.82
682

.91
.91
.91
.91
.91
.91
.91
.91
.91

.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.93'
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.94
.94

.632053
.632401
.632750
.633098

.633447
.633705
.634143
.634490
.634838

tt6"

f 60
59
58

67
56
55
54

.369694

53

.869844

52

.868995
.868645

51
50
49

6 82

.867947

48

581

.867599
.867250

47

.866902
.866553
.866205
.865857

45

5.81
581
5.80
6.80
6.80
6.79
5.79

46
44
48
42

.866510

41

.866162

40

0.864815
.364468
.364121
.863774
.863428
.363081
.362735
.362389

89

.362044

81

5.79
9.635185
.635532
.635879
.636226
.636572
.636919

.637265
.637611
.637956
.638302
9.638647
.638992
.639337
.639682
.640027
.640371
.640716
.641060
.641404
.641747
9.642091
.642434

.642777
.643120
.643463
.643806
.644148
.644490
.644832
.645174
9.645516

.645857
.646199

.646540
.646881
.647222
.647562
.647903
.648243

5.78
578
6.78
6.77
5.77
5.77
5.77
5.76
6.76
6.76
5.75
5.75
5.75
5.74

6.74
5.74
5.73
5.78
5.73
5.72
5.72
5.72
5.72
5.71
5.71
5.71
5.70
5.70
5.70
5.69
5.69
6.69
6.69
5.68
6.68
5.68
5.67
5.67
6.67

.648583

\ D

Cotang. {
0.872148
.871797
.871446
.8710"5
870746
.870894
.870044

0.868296

9.681704

.90
.90
.90
.90
.90
.90
.91
.91
.91
.91

9.962890

.606179
.606466

61

.963919

4.87
4.87
4.87
4.86
4.86
4.85
4.85
4.85
4.84
4.84

.605892

50

P.

9.963434

.605606

49

.963972

4.91
4.91
4.91
4.90
4.90
4.89
4.89
4.89
4.88
4.88

.603594

9.603882
.604170
.604457

Cosine.
9.964026

.603305

42

D.

| Cotang. |

D.

88

87
86
85

84
88
32

.361698

80

0.861858
.361008
.360668
.360318
.859973
.859629
.359284
.358940
.858596
.358258

29

0.857909

19

.857566
.857223
.856880
.856537
.856194
.855852
.855510
.355168
.854826
0.854484
.854148
.858801
.853460
.853119
.852778

28

27
26
25
24
23
22

21
20

18

17
16
15
14
13
12

11
10
9^
8

7
6
5
4

.852438

.852097

.361757
.851417

| Tang.

|M

42

BINES, COSINES,

LOGARITHMIC

2io

Sine,

P.

Cosine.

1 Tang,

D.

D-

| Cotang. |
_

(".6ouai3

.609597
.6098h0
.610164
.610447
.610729
.611012

.611294

.611576

.611858

8
4
6

10

11
12

.612140

.612983

14

.613264

15

.613545
.613825
.614105
.614385
.614665

17
18
19
20

.614944

21

9.615223

22

.615502

23

.615781

24

.616060

23

.616338

26

.616616

27
28

.616894

29

.617172
.617450

30

.617727

81

34

9.618004
.618281
.618558
.618834

82
33
33

.619110

86

.619386

37

.619662

38

.619938

39

.620213

40

.620418

41

9.6207G3

42

.621038

43

.621313

44

.621517

45

.621861

46

.622135

47

.622409

48

.622682

49

.622956

50

.623229

51

9 623502

53

.623774
.624047

53
54
55
56

57
58
59
60

4.09
4.68
4.68
4.67
4.67
4.67
4.66
4.66
4.66
4.65

.612702

4.65
4.65
4.64
4.64
464
4.63
4.63
4.62
4.02
4.62
4.61
4.61
4.61
4.60
4.60
4.60
4.59
4.59
4.59
4.58
4.58
4.57
4.57
4.57
4.56
4.56
4.56
4.55
4.55

4.55
4.54
4.54
4.54
4.53
4.53
4.53
4.52
4.52
4.52

.624319
.624591
.624863
.625135
.625406
.625677
.625948

I Cosine.

.94
.94

.960448
.960392

.960335
.960279
.060222
.960165
.

.960052

.959995
.959938
.059882
.959825
.950708
.059711

.959654
.959596
9.959539

.959482
.959425
.959368
.959310
.959253

,959195
.059138
.9590S1
.959023
9.958965
.958008
.958850
.958792

.958734
.958677
.958619
.058561
.958503
.958445

9.958387
.958329
.958271
.958213
.958154
.958096

.958038
.957979
.957921
.957863
9.957804
.957746
.957687
.957628
.957570
.957511
.957452
.957393
.957335

D.

Sine.

.649263
.649602

.94
.94
.94
.94
.94
.04
.94
.94

.649942
.650281
.650620
.650959

.651297
.651686

i351974
9 652312

.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.06
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.97
.07
.97
.97

.97
.97

.97
.97
.97
.97
.97
.97
.97
.98
.98

.98
.08

.98
.98

.98
.98

.652650
.652988

.653326
.653663
.654000

.654337
.654674
.655011
.655348
.

9.655684
.656020
.656356
.656692

.657028
.657364
.657699
.658034
.658369

.658704,
9.659039

.659373
.659708
.660042

.660370
.660710
.661043

.661377
.661710
.662043

9.602376
.662709
.663042

.663375
.663707
.664039

.664371
.664703
.965035
.665366

9.665697
.666029
.666360
.666691

.667021
.667352
.667682
.668013
.668343

6*66
6.66
6.66

5.66
5.05
5.66
506
5.64
5.64
5.04
6.63
6.63
5.63
6.63
6.62
6.62
5.62
6.61
6.61
6.61
5.61
.60
.60
.60
69
59
59
59
58
68
5.58
5.68
5.57
5.57
5.57
5.57
6.56
5.66
6.50
5.55
555
5.55
5 54
5.54
5.54
5.54
5.53
5.63
6.53
5.63
5.52
5.52
5.62
561
5.51
6.61
5.61
5.50
5.50
6.50

.668672

.957276

.648923

.94

.960505

9.960109

9612421

13

16

4.73
4.72
4.7-2
472
4.71
4.71
4.70
4.70
4.70
4.69
4.69

9.6485bd

9."o0/d0
.960674
.960618
.960561

D.
66""

Cotang. |

D.

0.351417
.851077
.350737-

60
59
68

.350398

57

.350058
.849719

56
55

.349380

64

.849041
.848703

62

53

.848364
.848026

61

0.347688
.847350
.847012
.346674
.846337
.346000

49

.845663

60

48

47
46
45
44
43

.845326

42

.844969

41

.844652

40

0.344316

89

.843080

88

.843644

87

.843308

86

.842972

35

.842636

84

.842301

83

.341966

82

.341631

81

.841296

80

0.340961
.340027

28

29

.840292

27

.839958

26

.839624

25

.839290

24

.838957

23

.838623

22

.838290

21

.837957

20

0.337624

.837291

19
18

.836958

17

.336625

16

.336293

15

.335961

14

.835629

13'

.885297
.334965

11

.834634

10

C.33480B
.333971
.833640

12

9
8

.333309

.832979
.832648

.832318

.331987
.331657

.831328

Tang.

M.

44

LOGARITHMIC

SINES, COSINES,
26""

M.
0

1
3
8
4
6
6

7
8
9
10

11
la
13
14
15
16

17
18
19

20
21

22
23
24

25
26
27
28
29

80
81

Sine.
9.641842
.642101
.642860
.642618
.642877
.643185
.643393
.643650
.643908
.644165
.644428
9.644680
.644936

.645198
.645450
.645706
.645962
.646218

.646474
.646729
.646984
9.647240
.647494
.647749
.648004
.648258
.648512
.648766
.649020
.649274
.649527

83

9.649781
.650034
.650287

84

.650539

32

33

.650792

86
87
88

.651044

89

.651800
.652052

40
41

.651297
.651549

9.652304

42

.652555

43
45

.652806
.653057
.653308

46

.653558

47

.653808

48

.654059

49

.654309

44

50

.654558

51

9.654808

52

.655058

53

.655307

54

.655556

55

.655805

56
67

.656054
.656302

58

.656551

59

.656799
.657047

60

Cosine.

P.

Cosine.

D.

9.953660

4.31
4.81
4 31
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.29
4.29
4.29
4.28

.953599

.953537
.953475
.953413
.053352

.963290
.053228
.953166
.953104
.953042
9.952980

4.28

4.28
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.26
4.20
4.26
4.25
4.25

4.25
4.24
4.24
4.24

4.24
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.22
4.22
4.22
422
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.20
4.20
420
4.19
4.19
4.19
4.18
4.18
4.18
4.18
4.17

4.17
4.17
4.16
4.16

4.16
4.16
4.15
4.16

4.16
4.14
4.14
4.14
4.13

.952918
.962855
.952793

.962781
.952669
.952606
.952544

.952481
.952419

0.952356
.952294

.952231
.952168
.952106
.952043
.951980

.951917
.951854

.951791
9.951728
.951665
.951602
.951539

.951476
.961412

.051349
.951286
.951222
.951159
9.951096
.951032
.950968
.950905
.950841
.950778

.950714
.950650
.950586

.950522
0.050458
.950394
.950330
.950266
.950202
.950138

.950074
.950010
.949945

Sine.

D.

| Cotang. j

9.688182

1.03
1.03
].0:"
1.03
1.03
1.03
1.03
1.03
1.03
1.03
1.03
1.04

1.04
104
1.04
1.04
1.04
1.04
1.04
1.04
1.04

J.04
1.04
1.04
1.06

1.05
1.06
1.06
1.06

1.06
1.06
1.06
1.05
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.00
1.06
1.06

1.06
1.06
1.06
1.06

1.00
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.07

1.07
1.07
1.07
1.07
1.07
1.07

1.07
1.07

1.07

.949881

"dT"

Tang.

""dT
630

.688502
.688823

.689143
.689463
.689783
.690103

.690423
.690742
.691062
.691381
9 691700
.692019

.692338
.692656

.692975
.693293
.693612
.693930

.694248
.694566

6.34
6.34
6.34
6.33
6.33
6.33
6.33

5.33
6.32
6.d2
5.32
6.31
5.31
5.31

5.31
5.31
5.30
6.30
6.30
5.30
5.29

9.694883
.695201
.695518

.695836
.696153
.696470

.696787
.697103
.697420
.697736
9.698053
.698369

.698685
.699001
.699316
.699632

.699947
.700263
.700678
.700893
9.701208

.701523

.701837
.702152

.702466
.702760
.703095
.703409
.703723
.704036
9.704350
.704663
.704977
.705290
.705603
.705916
.706228

.706541
.706864
.707166

Cotang.

5.eo
5.20
6.29
6.29
5.28
6.28
6.28
5.28
6.27
6.27
6.27

6.27
5.26
6.20
6.26
6.2G
5.26
6.25
6.25
6 25
6.24
6.24
5.24
6.24
6.24
6.23
5.23
6.23
5.23
6.22
6.22
6.22
5.22
6.22
5.21
6.21
5.21
5.21
6.21

"dT"

0.298792
.298477
.298163

19

18
17

.297848
.297534
.297220

16

.296905

13

15
14

.296591

12

.296277

11

.295964

10

0.295650
.295387

9
8

.295023

.294710
.294397

.294084

.293772

.293459

.293146

.292834

Tang.

M.

M.
I
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

7
8
0
10

Sine.
U.657047
.657295
.657542
.657790
.658037
.658284
.658531
.658778

D.

.659025

.659271
.659517

1.07
1.07

.949616
.949752

.949688
.949628
.949558

1.07
1.08
1.08

.949494
.949429
.949364

.949300
.049235

1.08
1.08
1.08.
1.08
1.08
1.08

9.949170
4.10
4.09
4.09
4.09

.949105
.949040

.948975
.948910
.948845
.948780
.948715
.948650
.948584

4.03
4.08
4.08

4.08
4.07
4.07

4.04
4.04
4.03
4.03
403

4.02
4.02
4 02
4.02
4.01
9.667065
.667305
.667546
.667786
.668027
.668267
.668506

4.01
4.01
4.01
4.00
4.00
4.00
3.99
3.99
3.99
3.99

.668746
.668986
.669225
9.669404

'.669703
.660942
.670181

.670419
.670658
.670896
.671134
.671372
.671009
Cosine

.948454

.948388
.948323
.948257
.948192
.948126

.948060
.947995
.947029
9.947863
.947797
.947731
.947665
.947600
.947533
.947467

.947401
.947335
.947269
a.947203

.947136
.947070
.947004
.946937
.946871
.946804
.946738
.946671
.946604
9.946538

3.98
3.98
3.98
3.97
3.97
3.97
3.97
3.96
3.96

D.
14

.709349

.709660
.709971
.710282

.946471
.946404
.946337
.946270
.946203
.946136

.946069
.946002

J11836
.712140
.712456
.712766
.713076
.713386

9.716785

1.10
I.IO
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10

1.10
l.lf)
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.11
1.11
1.11
l.ll
1.11
l.ll
1.11
1.11
1.11
1.11
1.11
1.11
1.11
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12

Sine.

D.
4J2o

60

-292522

59

.292210

58

.29U98
.291u"6

67
56

.291274

55

.290963

54

.290651

53

.290340

52

.290029

51

.289718

50

5.18
5.18
5.18
6.17
5.17
6.17
5.17
5.16
5.16
5.16

9.713696
.714005
.714314
.714624
.714933
.715242
.715551
.715860
.7161G8
.716477

1.09
1.03
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
l.OD
1.10
1.10

.945935

0/2uIil34
5"20
6.20
5.20
5.20
5.19
5.19
5.19
5.19
5.19
5.18
5.18

d.7 10593
.710904
.711215
.711525

1.08
1.08
1.08
1.08
1.08
1.08
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09

9.948519

4.07
4.07
4.08
4.03
4.0(1
4.05
4.0d
4.05
4.05
4.04

.707478
.707790
.708102
.708414
.708726
.709037

\ Cotang. I

D.

i".707106

9.949bbl

Tang.

\ D.

Cosine.

4.13
4.13
4.12
4.12
4.12
4.J2
4.11
4.11
4.11
4.10
4.10

4.")

COTANGENTS.
AND
270

TANGENTS,

.717093
.717401
.717709
.718017
.718325
.718633
.718940
.719248
.719565
9.719862
.720169
.720476
.720783
.721089
.721396
.721702
.722009
.722315
.722621

5.1G
5.16
5.15

5.15
5.15
5.15
6.14
6.14
5.14
5.U
5.14
5.13
5.13
6.13
5 13
5.13
6.12
6.12
5.12
6.12
5.12
6.11
6.11
6.11
6.11
6.11
6.10
5.10

9.722927
.723232
.723538
.723844
.724149
.724454
.724759
.726065
.725369

5.10

.278911
.278604
.278298
.277991
.277685
.277379

5.10

6.08

0.277073
.276768
.276462
.276156
.275851
.275546
.275241
.274935
.274631
.274326

D.

j Tang.

6.10
6.09
6.09
6.09
6.09

6.09
6.08
5.08

.725674

Cotang. I

0.280138
.279831
.279524
.279217

19
18

17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8

7
6
6
4
8
2
1
0

| M.

46

SINES, COSINES,

LOGARITHMIC

280
Sine.
9.67 10U9
.671847
.672084
.672321
.672558
.672795
.673032
.673268
.673505
.673741
.673977
9.674213
.674448
.674684
.674919

.675155
.675390
.675624

.675859
.676094
.676328
9.676562
.676796
.677030

.677264
.677498
.677731
.677964

.678197
.678430
.678663

9.678805
.679128

.679360
.679592
.679824
.680056

.680288
.680519

.680750
.680982
9.681213
.681443
.681674
.681905
.682135
.682365
.682595
.682825

.683055
.683284
9.6835U

.683743
.683972
.684201
.684430
.684658

.684887
.685115
.685343

.685571
Cosine.

D.

Cosine.

D,

.945868
.945800
.945733

3.95
3.95

3.95

.945666

3.95
3.94
3.94
3 04
3.5*4
3.93
3.93

.945598
.945531
.945464
.945396

.945328
.945261

1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12

1.12
1.13
1.13
1.13

.725979
.726284
.726588
.726892
.727197
.727501
.727805
.728109
.728412
.728716

1.13
9 729020

9.945193

3.03
ZM2
3.92
3.92
3.12
3.91
3.01
3.91
3.91
3.90

.945U5
.945058
.944990
.944922
.044854
.944786
.944718
.944650

.944582
9.944514

3.90
3.90
3.90
3.89
3.89
3.89
3.88
3.88
3.88
3.88

.944446

.944377
.944309
.944241

.944172
.944104
.944036

.943967
.943899
9.943830

3.87
3.87
3.87
3.87
3.86
3.86
3.86
3.85
3.85
3.85

.943761
.943693
.943624
.943555
.943486

.943417
.943348
.943279
.943210

1.13
1.13
1.13
1.13
1.13
1.13
1.13

1.13
1.13
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.14

1.14
1.14

.729323
.729626
.729929
.730233
.730535
.730838
.731141
.731444
.731746
9.732048
.732351
.732653
.732955
.733257
.733558
.733860
.734162
.734463
.734764

1.14
1.14
1.14
1.15
1.15
1.15
1.15

1.15
1.15
1.15

9.735066
.735367
.735668
.735969
.736269
.736570
.736871
.737171
.737471
.737771

1.15

9.738071

9.943141

3.85
3.84
3.84
3.84
3.84
3.83
3.83

.943072
.943003
.942934
.942864

.942795
.942726
.942656

3.83

.942587

3.83
3.82

.942517
9.942448

3.82
3.82
3.82
3.81
3.81
3.81
3.80
3.80
3.80
D.

.942378
.942308
.942239
.042169
.942099
.942029
.941959
.941889

.941819

Sine.

D.

9.725674

9.945935

3.d6

\ Tang,

1.15
1.15
1.15
1.15
1.15
1.16
I.IG
1.16
1.16
l.!6
1.16
1.16
1.16
1.16
1.16
1.16

1.16
1.16
1.17

D.

610

.738371
.738671
.738971
.739271
.739570
.739870
.740169
.740468
.740767
9.741066

.741365
.741664
.741962
.742261
.742559
.742858
.743156
.743454
.743752

I Cotang. |

I Cotang. I
0.274326

5.08
5.08
5.07
5.07
5.07
5.07
5.07
5.06
5.06
5.06

5.06
5.06
5.05
5.05
5.05
5.06
5.05
5.04
5.04
5.04
5.04
5.04
5.03
5.03
5.03
5.03
5.03
5.02
5.02
5.02
5.02
5.02
5.02
6.01
5.01
5.01
5.01
5.01
5.00
5.00
5.O0
5.00
5.00
4.99
4.99
4.99

4.99
4.99
499
4.98
4.98
4.98
4.98
4.98
4.97
4.97
4.97
4.97
4.97
4.97
D.

.274021
.273716
.273412
.273108
.272803
.272499
.272195
.271891
.271588
.271284
0.270980

.270677
.270374
.270071
.269767
.269465

60
59
58

57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48

47
46
45
44

.269162

43

.268859

42

.268556
.2 J8254

41
40

0.287952

89

.267649

38

.267347
.267045
.266743

37

.266442

34

36
85

.266140

33

.265838
.265537

32
81

.265236

30

0.264934

29

.264633

28

.264332

27

.264031

26

.263731

25

.263430

24

.263129

23

.262829

22

.262529

21

.262229

20

0.261929

19

.261629
.261329

18
17

.^61029

16

.260729

15

.260430

14

.260130

13

.259831

12

.259532

11

.259233

10

0.258934

.258635

.258336

.258038
.257739

.257441

.257142

.256844

.256546

.256248

| Tnng.

M.

TANGENTS,

AND

COTANGENTS.

48

LOGABITHMIC

SINES, COSINES,
80O

M.

Sine.

9.698970
.699189
.699407

.699626

.699844
.700062
.700280
.700498
.700716
.700933
.701151

0
1

6
6

7
8
9
10

13

9.701368
.701585
.701802

14

.702019

15

.702236
.702452
.702669
.702885
.703101
.703317

11
12

16
17
18
19
20

24

9.703533
.703749
.703964
.704179

25

.704395

26

29

.704610
.704825
.705040
.705254

SO

.705469

21
22
23

27
28

32

9.705683
.705898

33

.706112

34

.706326

35

.706539

36

.706753

37

.706967

38

.707180
.707393
.707606

81

39
40

8.64
3.64
a.64
3.64
3.63
3.63
3.63
3.63
3.63
3.62
3.62
3.62
3.62
3.61
3.61
3.61
3.61
3.60
3.60
3.60
8.60
3.59
3.59
3.59
3.59
3.59

3.58

42

43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

3.55
3.55

52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59

Cosine.

.986872
.936799

9.936725
1.22
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23

.936652

.936578
.036505
.936431

.036357
.936284
.936210
.936136
.936062

9.935988

1.23
1.23
1.23
1.24
1.21
1;24
1.24
1.24
1.24
1.24

.935914
.935840

.935766
.935692

.935618
.935543
.935395

9.935246

1.24
1.24
1.24
1.24
1.24
1.24
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25

.935171
.935097
.935022

.934948
.934873
.934798
.934723
.934649
.934574
0.934499

3.55
3.54
3.54
3.54
3.54
3.53
3.53
3.53
3.53
3.53
3.52
3.52
3.52
3.52
3 51
3.51
3.51
3.51
3.50

.711629
.711839

60

1.21
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.22

.936946

.935320

3.55

P.

1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.26
1.26

.934424
.934349

.934274
.934199
.934123

.934048
.933973
.933898

.933822
9.933747
.933671

1.2fi
1.26
1.26
1.26
1.26
1.26
1.26
1.26
1.26

.933596

.933520
.933445
.933369
.933293

.933217
.933141
.933066

D.

Sine.

Tang.
9.761488

.037019

3.58
3.57

3.56
8.56
3.56

9.937531
.987458
.987385
.987312
.987238
.937165
.987092

.935469

3.56

9.709941
.710153
.710364
.710575
.710786
.710997
.711208
.711419

51

Cosine.

3.58
3.58

3.57
3.67
3.57

9.707819
.708032
.708245
.708458
.708670
.708882
.709094
.709306
.709518
.709730

41

D.

D.
"".

.761731
.762023
.762314
.762606
.762897
.768188
.768479
.763770
.764061
.764852
0.764643
.764933
.765224
.765514
.765805
.766095
.766385
.766676
.766965
.767255
9.767545
.767834
.768124
.768413
.768703
.768992
.769281
.769570
.769860
.770148
0.770487
.770726
.771016
.771303
.771592
.771880
.772168

.772457
.772745
.778033
0.773821
.773608
.773896
.774184
.774471
.774759
.775046
.775388
.775621
775908
0.776195
.776482
.776769
.777056
.777342
.777628
.777915
.778201
.778487
.778774

I Co"nng. |

D.
4.86
4.86
4.86
4.86
4.85
4.85

4.85
4.85
4.85
4.85
4.84
4.84
4 84
4.84
4.84
4.84
4.84
4.83
4.83
4.83
4.83
4.83
4.83
4.82
4.82
4.82
4.82
4.82
4.82

4.81
4.81

4.81
4.81

4.81
4.81
4.81

4.80
4.80
4.80
4.80
4.80
4.80
4.79
4.79
4.79

4.79
4.79
4.79
4.79
4.78

4.78
4.78
4.78
4.78
4.78
4.78
4.77
4.77
4.77
4.77

D.

Cotang. I
0.238561

60

.238269

59

.237977
.237686
.237394
.287103
.236812

58

.286521

58

.236230

62

57
56
55
64

.235939

51

.235648

50

0.235357

49

.235067

48

.234776
.234486

47

.234195

45

.233905

44

46

.233615

43

.233325

42

.233035

41

.282745

40

0.232455

89

.232166

88

.281876
.281587
.231297
.231008
.230719

87
85

.280430

82

.230140
.229852

81

0.229563

86
84
83

30
29

.229274
.228985
.228697

27

.228408

25

.228120
.227832
.227548

24

.227255

21

28
26

23
22

.226967

20

0.226679

19

.226392

18

.226104

17

.225816

16

.225529

15

.225241

14

.224954

13

.224667
.224379
.224092

11

0.223805
.223518
.228281
.222945
.222658
.222372
.222085
.221799

IJ
10
9
8

7
6
5
4
3
2

.221512

.221226

| Tnng.

| M.

TANGENTS
M.

9.711839

0
1

.712050

.712260

.712469

.712679
.712889
.713098
.713308
.713517
.713726
.713935

5
G
7
8
9
10

12
13
14
15
16

17
18
19

9.716224
.716432
.716639
.716846
.717063
.717259
.717466
.717673
.717879
.718085

21
22
23
24
25
26

27
28
29
30
31
83
34
85
86

37
38
89
40
41
43

.72075^

44

.720958
.721162
.721366

45
46
48

.721978
.722181

49
50

9.722385

51
52

.722688

53

.722791
.722994

54
56

.723603

57
58

.723805
.724007
.724210

59
60

Cosine.

.932633

1.,27

.932380

1,,27
1.27

.932304
9.932228

1.27
1.27
1.28
1.28
1.28
1.28
1.28
1.28
1.28
1.28

.932151

.932075
.931998
.931921
.931845

.931768
.931691
.931614

.931537

9.d31460

1.28

.931383

1.28

.931306

1.28
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29

.931229

.931152
.931075
.930998
.930921

.930843
.930766

9.930688

1.29

.930611

1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30

.930533

.930466
.930378
.930300
.930223

.930145
.930067
.929989
9.929911

1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.31
1.31
1.31

.929833
.929755
.929677
.929699
.929521
.929442
.929364
.929286
.929207
9.929129

1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31

.929050

.928972
.928893
.928815

.928736
.928657
.928578
.928499
.928420

D.
14

Sine.

D.

1.27

.932457

3.39
3.39
3.38
3.38
3.38
3.38
3.37
3.37
3.37

.723197
.723400

55

.932609

3.41
3.41
3.40
3.40
3.40
3.40
3.40
3.39
3.39
3.39

.721670
.721774

47

.982838
.932762
.932686

49

COTANGENTS.

Ttiiig.j

1.26
1.27
1.27
1.27
1.27
1.,-27
1..27

.932914

3.43
3.43
3.43
3.43
3.42
3.42
3.42
3.42
3.41
3.41

9.7203^5
.720549

42

.932990'

3.45
3.45
3.45
3.45
3.45
3.44
3.44
3.44
3.44
3.43

9.718291
.718497
.718703
.718909
.719114
.719320
.719525
.719730
.719935
.720140

82

AND

9.933066

3.48
3.47
8.47
3.47
3.47
3,47
3.46
3.46
3.46
3.46

.715602
.715809
.716017

20

Cosine.

8.50
3.50
3.50
3.49
3.49
3.49
3.49
3.49
3.48
3.48
3.48

9.714144
.714352
.714561
.714769
.714978
.715186
.715394

11

D.

Sine.

D.

58^

9.77b774
.779060
.779346
.779632
,779918
.780203
.780489
.780775
.761060
.781346
.781631
9.781916
.782201
.782486
.782771
.783066
.783341
.783626
.783910
.784195
.784479
9.784704
.785048
.786332
.785616
.786900

.786164
.786468
.786752
.787036
.787319
9787603

.787886
.788170
.788453
.788736
.789019
.789302
.789685
.789808
.790151
9.790433

.790716
.790999
.791281
.791663
.791846
.792128
.792410
.792692
.792974
9.793256
.793538
.793819
.794101
.794383
.794604
.794945
.795227
.796608
.795789

| Cotang. |

D.
4.n
4.77
4.76

4.76
4.76
4.76
476

4.7G
4.76
4 75

4.75

{ Cotang. |
0.221226

60

.220940

69

.220664

68

.220368

57

.220082

66

.219797

56

.219511

64

.219225

63

.218940

62

.218654

51

.218369

60

4.76
4.75
4.76
4.75
4.76
4.76
4.74
4.74
4.74
4.74
4.74
4.74
4.73
4 73
4.73
4.73
4.73
4.73
4.73
4.72
4.72
4.72
4.72
4 72
4.72
4.72
4.71
4.71
4.71
4.71
4.71
4.71
4.71
4.71
4.70
4.70
4.70
4.70
4.70

4.70
4.70
4.69
4.69
4 69
4.69
4.69
4.69
4.69
4.68

D.

0.209667

19

.209264

18

.209001

17

.208719
.208437

16

.208164

14

.207872

13

.207590

12

15

.207308

11

.207026

10

0.206744

.206462

.206181

.206899

.205617

.206336

.205055

.204773

.204492

.204211

| Tang.

LOGAIUTHUIC

SINES, COSINES,
I

D-

1 Tung.

D.

I Cotttng.]

.724113

.7-24014
.734UB
.72GOI7

.SIS 104

.TJ62i9
.Ti5420

.7Z:iGJl

.927046
.M7S8T

.7iJS23

.937787
.917708

.72ej"E

.937628

B 7le4!S
.726029
,7IC8J7

9.B37G49
.037470
.027300
.017310

.027231
.OZTIJI
.027071

B.B287fil
.926671
.926591
.926^11

.8D2e"13

.E02T93
,803073
G0335I
.803630

.Tsooie

.803908

.730216

.804187

9.730416

.804466

.804745
.731009

,805303

.731206
.731404

.73160]
.73I7BS

.03o3B4

.731996

.025-^03

.733193
9.7323B0
.i32i67

.920222
g.oasui

.935000
.024070

.024697
.024816

.924736
.924654

.924073
.924491
.924409

0.934328
.934240

.024164
.924033

.924001
.023919

.923637
.923755
.923073
.oas.-.oi

ig. 1

p.

I Tang-

I M.

62

SINES, COSINES,

LOCAKITHMIC

340

Sine.

9.7475ti-i

.747749

"

.747936
.748123
.748310
.748497
.748688
.748870
.749056
.749243
.749429

4
6
6

7
8
9

10
11

20

9.749615
.749801
.749987
.750172
.760358
.750543
.750729
.750914
.751099
.751284

21

0.751469

22

.751654

23

30

.751839
.752023
.752208
.752392
.752576
.752760
.752944
.753128

12
13
14
15
16
17

18
19

24
25
26
27
28
29

31

9.753312

32

.753495

33

39

.753679
.753862
.754046
.754229
.754412
.754595
.754778

40

.754960

34
33
36
37
38

41

9 755143

42

.755326

43

.755508

44

.755690
.755872
.756054
.756236
.756418
.756600
.756782

45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

| Cwtiie.

D.

9.918574

I)

8.12
3.12
:M2

.918404

3.11

.018233

1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.43

.918489
.918318

3.11
3.11
3.11

.918147
.918062
.917976
.917891
.917805
.917719

3.11

3.10
3.10
3.10

1.43

1.43
1.43

9.917634
.917548

3.10
3.10
3.09
3.09
3.09
3.09
3.09
3.08
3.08
3.08

1.43
1.43

.917462

1.43
1.43
1.43

.917376
.917290
.917204

1.43

.917118

1.44

.917032

1.44
1.44
1.44

.916946
.916859

9.916773
.916687

3.08
3.08
3.08
3.07
3.07
3.07
3.07
3.07
3.06
3.06

1.44
1.44
1.44
1.44
1.44
1.44
1.44
1.45
1.45
1.45

.916600

.916514
.916427
.916341
.916254

.916167
.916081
.915994
9.915907

3.06
3.06
3.06
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.04
3.04

1.45
1.45
1.45

.915820

.915733
.915646

1.45

.915559

1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.46

.915472
.915385
.915297
.915210
.915123
9.915033

3.04
3.04
3.04
3.04
3.03
3.03
3.03
3.03
3.03
3.02

9.756963
.757144
.757326
.757507
.757688
.757869
.758050
.758230
.758411
.758591

3.02
3.02
302
3.02
3.01
3.01
3.01
3.01
3.01

|
jllosine.

D.

1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.47

.914948
.914860

.914773
.914685
.914598
.914510
.914422
.914334
.914246
9.914158

1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47

.914070
.913982
.913894
.913806

.913718
.913630
.913541
.913453

Sine.

0.828987
.829260
.829582

.829805
.830077
.830349

.880621
.830893
.831165

.831437
.831709

D.

4.53

4.53
4.53

4.53
4 53

4.53
9.831981
.832253
.832525

.832796
.833068
.833339
.833611

.833882
.834154
.834425
9.834696

.834967
.835238

.835509
.835780
.836051
.836322
.836593

.836864
.837134

9.837405
.837675
.837946
.838216
.838487
.838757
.839027
.839297
.839568
.839838
9.840108

.840378
.840647
.840917
.841187
.841457
.841726
.841996
.842266

842535
9.842805

.843074
.843343
.843612
.843882
.844151

.844420
.844689
.844958

D.

550

| Cotnn":. |

\ Cotang. |
0.171013

4.54
4.54
4.54
4.54
4.54

4.53
4.53

4.53
4.53
4.52
4.52

4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.51
4.51
4.51
4 51
4.51
4.51
451
4.51
4.51
4.51
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.60
4.50
4.50
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.48
4.48
4.48
4.48
4.48

.845227

.913365

| Tang.

D.

.170740
.170468

60
59
58

.170195

67

.169928
.169651

56

65

.169379

54

.169107
.168835

53

.168563

51

.168291
0.168019

52
50
49

.167747
.167475
.167204

46

.166932

45

.166661

44

48

47

.166389

43

.166118

42

.165846

41

.165575

40

0.165304

39

.165033

38

.164762

37

.164491

86

.164220

36

.163949

34

.163678

83

.168407

32

.163136

31

.1^2866

30

0.162595

29

.162325

28

.162054

27

.161784

26

.161513

25

.161243

24

.160973
.160703
.160432

23

.160102

20

22
21

0.159892

19

.159622

18

.159353

17

.159083

16

.158813
.158543
.158274

15
14
13

.158004

12

.157734
.157465

11

0.157195
.156926
.156657
.156388
.156118
.155849

.155580

.156311

10

7
6
5
4

.155042

.154773

| Tang.

M.

TANGENTS,

53

COTANGENTS.

AND
36"

M.

D.

Sine.
9.758591
.768772
.758952
.759132
.759312
.759492

0
1
2
3
4
5
6

.759672

.759852
.760031
.760211
.760390

9
10

8.01
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2 99
2.99
2.99
2.99
2.99

9.760569
.760748
.760927
.761106
.761285
.761464
.761642
.761821
.761999

11
12
13
14
15
16

17
18
19

22
23
24
25
26

27
28
29
SO

32
33
34
35
36

37
38
39

.765544

40

.765720

41

50

9.765896
.766072
.766247
.766423
.766598
.766774
.766949
.767124
.767300
.767475

51

9.767649

42

43
44
45
46

47
48
49

53

.767824
.767999

54

.768173

55

.768348
.768522
.768697
.768871
.769045
.769219

52

56

57
58
59
60

Cosine.

.912922
.912833

.912744
.912655
.912566

.912477
9.912388

"912121

.912031
.911942

.911853
.911763

.911674
.911584
9.911495

2.97
2.96
2.96
2.96
2.96
2.96

.911315

.911226
.911136
.911046
.910956

.910866
.910776
.910686

2.95
2.95
2.95

9.910596

2.95

.910415
.910325

.910235
.910144
.910054
.909963

.909873
.909782
9.909691

2.93
2.93
2.93
2.93
2.92
2.92
2.92
2.92
2.92
2.91

1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52

.909601
.909510
.909419

.909328
.909237
.909146
.909055
.908964

.908873
9.908781

2.91
2.91
2.91
2.91
2.90
2.90
2.90
2.90
2.90

41

1.50
1.50
1.50
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51

.910506

2.95
2.94
2.94
2.94
2.94
2.94
2.94
2.93
2.93

D.

1.49
1.49
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50

.911405

2.96

1.48
1.49
1.49
1.49
1.49
1.49
1.49
1.49
1.49
1.49

.912299
.912210

2.98
2.98
2.97
2.97
2.97
2.97

9.764131
.764308
.764486
.764662
.764838
.765015
.765191
.765367

81

.913010

2.98
298
2.98

0.762356
.762534
.762712
.762889
.763067
.763246
.763422
.763600
.763777
.763954

21

147
1.47
1.48
1.48
148
1.48
1.48
1.48
1.48
1.48
1.48

.913099

2.98

.762177

20

D.

Cosine.
9.918365
.913276
.913187

1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.53
1.53
1.53
1.53
1.53

.908690

.908599
.908507
.908416
.908324
.908233
.908141
.908049

.907958

Sine.

Tang.
9.845227
.845496
.845764
.846083
.846302
.846570
.846889
.847107
.847376
.847644
.847913
9.848181
.848449
.848717
.848986
.849254

.849522
.849790
.850058
.850325
.850593
9.850861
.851129
.851396

.851664
.851931
.852199

.852466
.852733
.853001
.853268
9.853535

.853802
.854069
.854336
.854603

.854670
.855137
.855404

.855671
.855938
9.856204

.856471
.856737
.857004
.857270
.857537
.857803
.858069
.858336

.858602
9.858868
.859134
.859400
.859666
.859932
.860198
.860464
.860r30
.860995

]X
4.48
4.48
4.48
4.48
4.48
4.47
4.47
4.47
4.47
4.47
4.47
4.47
4.47
4.47

4.47
4.47
4.47
4.46
4.46
4.46
4.46
4.46
4.46
4.46
4.46
4 46
4.46
4.46
4.45
4.45
4.45
4.45
4.45
4.45

4.45
4.45
4.45
4.45
4.45
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.43
4.43
4.43
4.43
4.43

4.43
4.43
4.43
4.43
4.43

.861261

D.
nAo
54

Cotang. I

D.

I Cotang. I
0.154773

60

.154504

59

.154236

68

.153967
.153698

56

.153430

66

.153161
.162898

64

.152624

62

.152356
.152087

60

57

53
61

0.151819

49

.161551
.161283

48
47
46

.161014

.160746
.150478

46

.150210

43

.149942
.149676

41

.149407

40

0.149139

44
42

89

.148871
.148604
.148336

88

.148069

35

.147801
.147534
.147267

34

.146999

87
36

S3
82

,81

.146732

30

0.146466
.146198
.145931

29

.145664

26

.145397

'.145130

28

27
25
24

.144863

23

.144596

22

.144329

21

.144062

20

0.143796

19

.143529

18

.143263

17

.142996

10

.142730

15

.142463

14

.142197

13

.141931

12

.141664

11

.141398

10

0.141132
.140806

.140600

.140334

.140068

.139802
.139536
.139270

.139005
.138739

| Tang.

3
2
0

54

SINES, COSINES,

LOGAUITHMIC

36"
Sine.

9.709219

.769393

.769566
.769740
.769913
.770087

8
4
5

.770260
.770433
.770606
.770779
.770952

7
8
9
10

9.771125
.771298
.771470

11
12
18

.771648
.771815
.771987

14
15
16

.772159
.772331
.772503
.772675

17
18
19
20

9.772847
.773018
.773190
.773361

21
22
23
24

.773533
.773704
.773875
.774046
.774217
.774388

25
26

27
28
29
30

0.774558
.774729
.774899
.775070
.775240
.775410
.775580

81

32
33
84
85

86
87
38

.775750
.775920

89
40

.776090

41

9.776259
.776429
.776598
.776768

42
43
44

.776937
.777106
.777275
.777444
.777613
.777781

45
46
47
48
49
50

59

9.777960
.778119
.778287
.778455
.778624
.778792
.778960
.779128
.779295

CO

.779463

51
52
53
54
55
56

67
58

Cosine.

P.

Cosine.

D"

.907866

.907774
.907682
.907590
.907498
.907406

.907314
.907222
.907129
^07037

1.63
1.63
1.63

.861527
.861792

1.53

.862323
.862589
.862854
.863119
.863385

1.63

1.63
1.63
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64

.906852
.906760
.906667
.906576
.906482
.906389
.906296
.906204
.906111

9.906018

2.86
2.86
2.86
2 85
2.85
2.85
2.85
2.85
2.85
2.84

.905925
.905832

.905739
.905645
.905552
.905459
.905366

.905272
.905179
0.905085

2.84
2.84
2.84
2.84
284
2.83
2.83
2.83
2.83
2.83

.904992
.904898
.904804

.904711
.904617
.904523
.904429
.904335

.904241
9.904147

2.83
2.82
2.82
2.82

.904053
.903959
.903864

.903770
.903676

2.82
2.82

.903581

2.81
2.81
2.81
2.81

.903487
.903392
.903298
9.903203

2 81
2.8L
2 80

.903108
.903014
.902919

2.80

.902824

2 80
2.80
2.80
2.80
2.79

.902729
.902634
.902539
.902444

1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66

Sine.

.863650
.868015

.864446
.864710
.864976
.865240
.865505
.865770
.866035
.866300

.866564
9.866829

1.65
1.66
1.66
1.56
1.56
1.66
1.66
1.56
1.66

.867094
.867358
.867623
.867887
.868152
.868416

.868660
.868945

.869209

1.66
166
1.66
1.66
1.56
1.66
1.66
1.56
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.57
1.57
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.57
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.58
158
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.59
1.69

.902349

D.

.862058

9.864180

9.906945

2.88
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.86
2.86
2.86

1".

9.861261

9.907958
9.90
2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89
2.88
2.88
2.88
2.88
2.88

Tang.

I).

9.869473
.869737
.870001
.870265
.870529
.870793
.871057
.871321
.871585
.871849
9.872112
.872376
.872640
.872903
.873167
.873430
.873694
.873957
.874220
874484
9.874747
.875010
.875278
.875636
.875800
.8760G3
.876326
.876589
.876851

4.43
4.43
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42

4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.39
4.39
4.39
4.39
4.39
A 33
4.39
4.39
4.39
4.:i9

4.39
4.39
4.39
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.38

.877114

\ Cotang. I

D.

Tang.

I M.

TANGENTS,

AND

65

COTANGENTS.

37"
iM. 1

Sine.

D.

Cosine,

9.779463

0
2

2.79
2.79
2.79
2.79
2.79
2.78
2.78
2 78
2.78
2.78
2.78

J79966
.780133
.780300
.780467
.780634
.780801
.780968
.781134

3
4
5
6

7
8

9
10

9.781301
.781468
.781634
.781800
.781966
.782132
.782298
.782464
.782630
.782796

11
12
13
U
15
16

17
18
19
20

22
23
24
25
26

27
28
29
30

33
34
35
36

37
38
39
40

42
43
44
45

/ 46
47
48
49
50
51
53
54
55
56

57
58
59
60

Cosine

.901490
.901394

0.901298
.901202
.901106

1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.61

.901010
.900914
.900818
.900722
.900626
.900529
.900433

9.900337

1.61
1.61
1.61
1.61
1.61
1.61
1.61
1.61
1.61
1.62

.^00240
.900144
.900047
.899951
.899854

2.75

.899757
.899660
.899564

2.75
2.75
2.74
2 74

.899467
9.899370

2 74
2 74
2.74
2 74
2.73
273
2.73
2.73
2 73
2.73

.899176
.899078
.898981
.898884
.898787
.898689
.898592
.898494

9.898397
.898299

1.63
1.63
1.63

.898202
.898104

1.63

.898006

1.63
1.63
1.63
1.63
1.63
1.63

.897908
.897810
.897712
.897614
.897516

2.71
9.897418
.897320
.897222
.897123

2.71
2.71
2.71
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70

P.

1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64

.897025
.896926
.896828
.896729
.896631

1.64
1.64
1.64

.896532

Sine.

Tang.
9.877114
.877877
.877640
.877908
.878165
.878428
.878691
.878953
.879216
.879478
.879741
9.880003
.880265

.880528
.880790
.881052

.881314
.881576
.881839
.882101
.882863

9.882625
.882887
.883148

.888410
.883672
.888934
.884196

.884457
.884719
.884980

D.
4.38
4.38
4.38

4.38
4.38
4.38
4.38

4.37
4.37
4.37
4.37

4.37
4.37
4.3T
4.37
.4.37

4.37
4.37
4.37
4.37
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36

9.885242

1.62
1.62
1.62
1.62
1.62
1.62
1.62
1.62
1.62
1.63

.899273

2.72
2.72
2.72
272
2.72
2.72
2.71
2.71
2.71

9.787883
.788045
.788208
.788370
.788532
.788694
.788856
.789018
.789180
.789342

52

.902063
.901967
.901872
.901776
.901681
.901585

2.76
2.76
2.75
2.75
2.75

9.786252
.786416
.7S6579
.786742
.786906
.787069
.787232
.787395
.787557
.787720

41

.902158

2.76

9.784612
.784776
.784941
.785105
.785269
.785433
.785597
.785761
.785925
.780089

31
32

1.69
1.69
1.69
1.69
1.59
1.59
1.59
1.59
1.59
1.59
1.60

.902253

2.77
2.77
2.77
2.77
2.77
2.77
2.76
2.76
2.76

9.782961
.783127
.783292
.783458
.783628
.783788
.783953
.784118
.784282
.784447

21

D.

9.902349

.779631
.779798

D.

62^

.885503
.885765
.886026

.886288
.886549
.886810

.887072
.887333
.887594
9.887855
.888116
.888377
.888639
.888900
.889160

.889421
.889682
.889943
.890204
9.890465

.890725
.890986

.891247
.891507
.891768
.892028

.892289
.892549

.892810

| Cotang. |

4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35

4.35
4.35
4.34

Cotang. I
0.122886
.122628
.122860
.122097
.121885
.121572

60
59
58

67
66
56

.121809

64

.121047
.120784

58

.120622

51

.120259

60

62

0.119S97

49

.119736

.119472

48
47

.119210

46

.118948

45

.118686

44

.118424

43

.118161
.117899
.117637

42
41
40

0.117375
.117113

88

.116852

87

89

.116590

86

.116828

85

.116066

84

.115804

83

.115543

82

.115281

81

.115020

30

0.114758
.114497
.114235
.113974
.113712

25

.113451

24

29
28

27
26

.113190

23

.112928
.112667

22

.112406

20

0.112145

.111884

21

19
18

.111623

17

.111361

16

.111100

15

.110840

14

.110579

13

.110318
.110057

11

.109796

10

12

0.109535

4.34
4.34
4.34
4.34
4.34
4.34
4.34
4.34
4.34
D.

9
8

.109275
.109014

.108753

.108493

.108232
.107972
.107711

4
8
2
1

.107451
.107190

t Tnng.

|M

56

LOGARITHMIC

SINES,

COSINES,

38"

M
0
1
2
8

D.

Sine.

9.789342
.789504
.789065
.789827

4
5

.789988

.790310
.790471

2.69
2.69
2.69
2.69
2.69
2.69

.790149

2.68.

.790632
.790793
.790054

2.68
2.68
2.68
2.68

13

0.791115
.791276
.791436

2.08
2.67

14

.791596

8
9
10

11
12

15

.791767

16
17

.791917
.792077
.792237
.792397
-792557

18
19
20

2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67

2.67
2.66
2.66

2.66

9.792716
.792876
.793035
.793195
.793354
.793514
.793673
.793832
.793991
.794150

21
22

23
24
25
26

27
28
29
80

2.66
2.66
2.66
2.65
2 05
2.65

2.65
2.65
2.65

32
33
34
35
36

37
38
3")
40

2.64
2.64

2.64
2.64
2.64

2.64
2.63
2.63
2.63
2.63

9.795891
.796049
.796206
.796364
.796521
.796679
.796836
.796993
.797150
.797307

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
60

2.63
2.63
2.63
2.62

2.62
2.62
262
2.62

2.61
a.6i

9.797464
.797621
.797777
.797934
.798091
.798247
.798403
.798560
.798716
.798872

61
62
53
54
55
56

57
58
69
60

Cosine.

9.896532
.896433
.896335
.896236
.806187
.896038
.895930
.895840
.896741
.895641
.895542
9.895443
.895343
.895244
.896145
.895045
.894945
.894846
.894746
.894646

.894546

2.61
2.61
2.61
2.61
2 61
2.61
2.60
2.60
2.60

.894346
.894246

.894146
.894046
.893946

.893846
.893746
.893645
.893544

9.893444'
.893343

.893243
.893142
.893041
.892940
.892839
.892739
.892638
.892536
9.892435
.892334
.892233
.892132
.892030

.891929
.891827
.891726
.891624
.891523
9.891421

.891319
.891217
.891115
.891013

.890911
.890809
.890707
.890605
.890503

D.

| D.

Sine.

Tang.

D.

1.64
1.65
1.65
1.65
1.65
1.05
1.65
1.65
1.65
1.65
1.65

.898070
.893331
.898591
.893851
.894111
.894371
.894682
.894892
.895152

.895412

60

.106930

59

4.84

.106669

58

4.84

.106409

57

4.34
4.34
4.34
4.34
4.33
4.33
4.33
4.33

.106149

56

.105889

55

4.84

9.895672

1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67

.896032
.896192
.896452
.896712
.896971
.897231

.897491
.897751
.898010
9.898270
.898580
.898789
.899049

.899308
.899568
.899827
.900086
.900346
.900605

9.900864
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.69
1.69
1.69

1.69
1.69
1.69
1.69
1.69
1.69
1.70

1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70

1.70
D.

510

.901124
.901383
.901642
.901901

.902160
.902419
.902679
.902938

.903197
9.903455
.903714
.903973
.904232

.904491
.904750
.905008
.905267
.905526

.905784
0.906043

.906302
.906560
.906819

.907077
.907336
.907594

.901852
.908111
.908369

Cotan^. I

Cotang. I
0.107190

9.892810

9.894446

2.64

9.794308
.794467
.794626
.794784
.794942
.795101
.795259
.795417
.795575
.795733

81

I Coaine.

4.33
4.33
4.33
4.33
4.33
4.33
4.33
4.33
4.33
4.33

.105629

54

.105368
.105108
.104848
.104588

53

0.104328'

4.32
4.32
4.32
4.32
4.32

4.32
4.32
4.32
4.32
4.31
4.81
4.31

4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31

4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.30
D.

49

45

.103029

44

.102769
.102509

42

48

47
46

43

.102249

41

.101990

40
89

.101470

38

.101211

37

.100951

36

.100692

85

.100432

34

.100173

33

.099914

32

.099654

31

.099395

30

0.009136
.098876
.098617
.098358

29
28

27
26

.098099

25

.097840
.097581
.097321
.097062

24

.096803

20

0.096545

19

23
22
21

.096286
.096027
.095768

18
17

.095509

15

16

.095250

14

.094992

13

.094733
.094474

11

.094216

10

0.093967

4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31

51
50

.104068
.103808
.103548
.103288

0.101730

4.33
4.33
4.33
4.32
4.32
4.32
4.32
4 32
4.32
4.32

52

.093698

12

9
8

.093440

.093181
.092923

.092664

.092406

.092148
.091889

.091631

Tang.

M.

TANGENTS,

57

COTANGENTS.

AND

39^
M.

Sine.

D.

9.890503
.890400
.890298
.890195
.890093
.889990
.889888
.889785
.889682
.889579
.889477

2.60

2.60
2.60
2.59
2.59
2.59
2.59
2.59
2.59
2.58
2.58

D.

Cosine.

2.58

1.71
1.71
1.71
1.71

1.71
1.71
1.71
1.71
1.71
1.71
1.72
1.72
1.72
1.72
1.72
1.72
1.72
1.72
1.72
1.73

.889168

2 58
2 58
2.58
257
2.57
2 57
2.57
2.57

.889064
.888961
.888858
.888755
.888651
.888548
.888444
9.888341
.888237
.888134

2.57
2.56
2.56
2.56
2.56
2.56
2.56
2.56
2.55
2.55

1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.74

.888030

.887926
.887822
.887718
.887614
.887510

,887406
9.887302*

2.55
2.55
2.55
2.55
2.54
2.54
2.54
2.54
2.54
2.54

1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.76

.887198
.887093
.886989
.886885
.886780
.886676
.886571
.886466
.886362

9.886257
.886152
.886047
.885942
.885837
.885732
.385627
.885522

2.54
2.53
2.53
2.53
2.53
2.53
2.53
2.53
2.52
2.52

1.75
1.75
1.75

1.75
1.75

1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.76

.885416
.885311

.908628
.908886
.909144
.909402
.909660

.909918
.910177
.910435
.910698
.910951

9.911209
.911467
.911724
.911982
.912240

.912498
.912756
.913014

.913^71
.913529
9.918787
.914044
.914302
.914560

.914817
.915075
.915332
.915590

.915847
.916104
9.916362
.916619

.916877
.917134
.917391

.917648
.917905
.918163
.918420

.918677
9.918934

Cotaiig.I

D.
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30

4.30
4.80
4.30
4.30

4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.29
4.29
4.29
4.29
4..29
4..29
4..29
4 29
4..27
4 29
4..2J
4.23
4.2J
4.29
4.23
4.23
4.29
4.23
4.29
4.23
4.28
4.28

4.28

.919191

4.28
4.28

.919448
.919705

4.28

.919962
.920219

.920476
.920733
.920990

.921247
9.921503

9.885205"

Cosine.

4.28
4.28
4.28
4.28
4.28
4.28
4.28

"

2.52
2.52
2.52
2.52
2.52
2.5L
2.51
2.51
2.51

Tang.
9.908369

1.70

9.889874
.889271

2.58

Ao

1.7fi

.884994

1.76

.884889

1.7H
1.76
1.76
1.76
1.76

.884783
.884077
.884572
.884466
.884360

1.76

.884254

D.

1.76

.885100

Sine.

D.

50"

.921760
.922017
.922274
.922530

.922787
.923044
.923300

.923557

4.28
4.28
4.28
4.28
4.28
4 28
4.28
4.28
4.27

.923813

Cotang.

D.

Tanp.

58

SINES, COSINES,

LOOABITHMIC

40"
M

U
1
2
8
4
5
6

7
8
9

Sine.
9.bUb067
.808218
.808368
.808519
.808669
.808819
.808969
.809119
.809269
.809419

10

.809569

11

18

9.809718
.809868
.810017
.810167
.810316
.810465
.810614
.810763

19

.810912

20

.811061

12
13
14
15
16

17

21

9.811210

27
28

.811358
.811507
.811655
.811804
.811952
.812100
.812248

29

.812396

30

.812544

22
23
24
25
26

31

9.812692

32

.812840

33

39

.812988
.813135
.813283
.813430
.813578
.813725
.813872

40

.814019

34
35
36
37
38

41

9.814166

42

.814313

43

.814460

44

48

.814607
.814753
.814900
.815046
.815193

49

.815339

45
46
47

50

.815485

51

9.815631

52

.815778

53

.815924

54

.816069

55

.816215

56

59

.816361
.816507
.816652
.816798

60

.816943

67
58

Cosine.

D.

Cosine.

D.

9.884254

2.51
2.51
2.51
250
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.49
2.49

.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.78
.78

.863617
.883510
.888404
.883297
.883191
9.888084
.882977
.882871
.882764
.882657

2.49
2.49
2.49
2.49
2.48
2.48
2.48
2.48
2.48
2.48

.78
.78
.78
.78
.78
.78
.78
.79
.79
.79

.882550

.882443
.882336
.682229
.882121
9.882014

2.48
2.47
2.47
2.47
2.47
2.47
2.47
2.47
2.46
246

.79
.79
.79
.79
.79
.79
.79
.80
.80
.80

.881907
.881799
.881692
.881584
.881477
.881369
.881261

.881153
.881046

9.880938

2.46
2.46
2.46
2.46
2.46
2.45
2.45
2.45
2.45
2.45

.80
.80
.80
.80
.80
.80
.81
.81
.81
.81

.880830

.880722
.880613
.880503

.880397
.880289
.880180
.880072
.879963

9.879855
.879746
.879637
.879529
.879420
.879311
.879202
.879093
.878984
.878875

2.45
2.45
2.44
244
2.44
2 44
2.44
2.44
2.44
2.43

.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.82
.82
.82
.82

9.878766
.878666
.878547
.878438
.878328
.878219
.878109
.877999
.877890
.877780

2.43
2.43
2.43
2.43
2.43
2.43
2.42
2.42
2.42
D.

.77

.884148
.884042
.888936
.883829
.883728

Sine.

.82
.82
.82
.82
.82
.83

.83
.83
.83

Tang.

9.923818
.924070
.924827
.924583
.924840
.925096

.925352
.925609
.925865
.926122

.926378
9.926634
.926890

.927147
.927403
.927659
.927915
.928171

.928427
.928683
.928940
9.929196
.929452

.929708
.929964
.920220

.930475
.930731
.930967
.931243
.931499

9.931755
.932010
.932266
.932522

.932778
.933033

.933289
.933545

.933800
.934056

9.934311
.934567
.934823

.935078
.935333

.935589
.935844
.936100
.936355
.936610
9.936866

.937121
.937376
.937632
.937887
.938142

.938398
.938663

.938908

D.
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27

4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
427
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27

4.27
4.27
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26

4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25

.939163

D.
4::o

Cotang. I

D.

Cotang. I
0.076187

60

.075930

59

.075678
.075417
.075160
.074904
.074648
.074391
.074135
.073878
.073622

58

67
56
55
54
53
52
51

60

{ 0.073366

49

.073110
.072863
.072597
.072341
.072085
.071829
.071673
.071317

48

41

.071060

40

0.070804
.070548
.070292
.070036

89

47
46
45
44
43
42

38
37
36

.069780

35

.069525

34

.069269

33

.069013

32

.068757

31

.068501

30

0.068245

29

.067990

28

.067734
.067478
.067222
.066967
.066711

27
26
25
24
23

.066455

22

.066200

21

.065944

20

0.065689

.065177

19
18
17

.064922

16

.064667

15

.065433

.064411

14

.064166

13

.063900

12

.063645

11

.063390

10

0.063134

.062879

.062624

.062368
.062113
.061858

.061602

.061347
.061092
.060837

Tang.

5
4

1
0

M.

SINES, COSINES,

LOGABITHMIC

60

420
Sine.

M.

9.826511
.825651
.825791
.825931
.826071

1
2
8
4

.826211

.826351
.826491
"826681
.826770
.826910

7
8
9
10

9.827049
.827189
.827828
.827467
.827606
.827745
.827884
.828023
.828162
.828301

11
12
13
14

15
16

17
18
19

20
21

9.8^8439

22

.828578
.828716
.828855
.828993
.829181
.829269
.829407
.829545
.829683

23
24
25
26

27
28
29
80

40

9.829821
.829959
.880097
.880234
.830372
.880509
.830646
.830784
.880921
.881058

41

9.831195

42

.881332

43

46

.831469
.831606
.831742
.831879

47

.832015

48

.832152

49

.832288
.882425

81
32
38
84

35
86

37
38
39

44
45

50
51

52
58
54
55
56

57
58
59
60

D.

Cosine.

-9.871078
.870960
.870846
.870732
.870618
.870504
.870390
.870276
.870161
.870047

2.34
2.83
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
2 33
2.33
2.32
2.32

.869933

1.90

.954945

1.90
1.00
1.90
1.90
1.90
1.90
1.90
1.91
1.91

.955200

9.869818

2.32
2.32
2.32
2.32
2.:i2
2.32
2.31
2.31
2.31
2.31
2.31
2.31
2.31
2 30
2.30
2.30
2 30
2.30
2.30
2.30

.869704
.869589
.869474
.869360
.869245
.869130
.869015
.868900
.868785

2.28
2.28
2 28
2.28
2.28
2.28
2.27
2.27
2.27
2.27

9.832561
.882697
.832833
.832969
.833105
.833241
.833877
.883512
.883648
.883783

2.27

I Cosine.

D.

2.27
2.27
2.26
2.26
2 26
2.26
2.26
2.26

9.868670
.868555
.808440
.868324
.868209
.868093
.867978
.867862
.867747
.867681

.867399
.867283
.867167
.867051
.866935
.866819

.866703
.866586
.866470
9.866353
.866237
.866120
.866004
.865887
.866770
.865653
.865586
.865419
.865802
9.865185
.865068
.864950
.864888
.864716
.864598
.864481
.864368
.864245
.864127

Sine,

.955454
.955961
.956215

.956469
.956728
.956977
9.957231
.957465
.957789
.957993
.958246
.958500
.958754

.959008
.959262
.959516

58

.044039

4.23
4.23
4.23
423
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23

.960023

.960277
.960531

.960784
.961038
.961291
.961545
.961799
.962052

.962560

.962818
.963067
.968320
.968574
.968827
.964081
.964335
.964588
9.964842

1.94
1.94
1.94
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95

69

.045055
.044800
.044546
.044293

4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23

9.962806

1.93
1.93
1.93
1.93
1.93
1.94
1.94
1.94
1.94
1.94

60

.045809

4.23

9^959769

1.92
1.92
1.92
1.92
1.92
1.92
1.93
1.93
1.93
1.93

0.0466($3

4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23

.955707

1.91
1.91
1.91
1.91
1.91
1.91
1.91
1.92
1.92
1.92

9.867515

2.29
2.29
2.29
2.29
2.29
2.29
2.29
2.29
2.28
2.28

9.954437
.954691

1.90

I
Ck"tang.

D.

Tang.

D.

.965095

.965349
.965602
.965855

.966105
.966362

.966616
.966869
.967128

4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.22

53

.048023

60

0.042760

49

.042515

48
47

52
51

46
45

.041500

44

.041246

48

.040992
.040738
.040484

42

0.040281'
.089977

89

.089723

87

.039469

86

.039216
.088962
.038709
.038455
.088201
.087948

85

41
40

0.087694
.037440
.037187

4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22

D.

| Cotang.

D.

88

84
83

82
81
80
29

28
27

.036983

26

.036680
.086426
.086173

25

.035919

22

.035665
.035412

21

0.035158

9.967376
.967629
.967888
.968186
.968889
.968643
.968896
.969149
.969403
.969656

470

.048785
.048681
.048277

.042261
.042007
.041764

1.95
1.95
1.95
1.96
1.96
1.96
1.96
1.96
1.96

57
56
55
54

.034905
.084651
.084898
.084145
.038891
.083688
.088384
.038181
.082877

24
28

20
19

18
17
16

15
14
18
12
11

10

0.032624
.032871
.082117

.031864
.081611

.031357

.081104
.080851

8
7
5

.080597
.030344

TANGENTS,

AND

61

COTANGENTS.
430

M.

Sine.

9.833783

.833919

.884054
.834189
.834825
.834460
.834595
.834780

3
4
5
6

7
8

.834865

.834999
.835184

10
11
13
13
14
15
16

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
2"
26

27
28
29
80
31
82
83
84
85
86

87
88
89
40
41

9.836611

47
48
49
60
61
62
5354
65
56

57
68
69
60

.862946
9.862827
.862709
.862590

.662471
.862353
.862234
.862115

.861996
.861877
.861758

I).

.861519

.861400
.861280
.861161

.861041
.860922

2.22
2.22
2.22
2.22
2.22

.838078
.838211
.888344
.888477
.838610

.888742
.888876
.839007
.839140
9.839272

.860802
.860682
.860562
9.860442

2.22
2.2L
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.2L
220

.860322

.860202
.860082
.859062
.859842
.859721
.859601
.859480
.859360
9.859239

2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20

.859119
.858998

.858877
.858756
.858635

2.20
2.19
2.19
2.19
2.19

9.840591
.840722
.840864
.840985
.841116
.841247
.841378
.841509
.841640
.841771

.858514
.858393

.858272
.858151

9.858029
.867908
.857786
.867665
.857543
.857422
.857300
.857178
.857056
.856934

2.19
2.19
2.19
2.1P
2.18
2.18
2.18
2.18

2.18

D.

Sine.

Tnng.

9.969656

1.96
1.96
1.97
1.97
1.97
1.97
1.97
1.97
1.97
1.97
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98

1.98
1.98
1.98

1.99
9.861638

2.22

9.837945*'

I Cosine

.863183
.863064

2.23
2.23
2.23
2.22

.836745
.836678
.837012
.837146
.837279
.837412
.887646
.837679
.837812

.889932
.840064
.840196
.840328
.840459

.863538

.863419
.863301

2.23
2.23
2.23

.836343
.886477

.839800

.863892
.863774
.863656

2.2(3

.886209

46

Cosine.

.864010

2.24
2.24
2.24
2.24
2.24
2.24

.835941
.836075

45

2.26
2.25
2.25
2.25
225
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.24
2.24

.835403
.835538
.835672
.835807

44

43

D.

9.864127

9.835269

.839404
.889536
.839668

42

1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.iK)
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.03
2.03
2.03
2.03
2.03
2.03

.969909

.970162
.970416
.970669
.970922
.971175
.971429
.971682
.971935
.972188

9.972441
.972694
.972948
.978201
.973464
.978707
.973960
.974213
.974466
.974719
9.974973

.975226
.976479
.975732
.975985
.976238
.976491
.976744
.976997
.977250
9.977503
.977756
.978009

.978262
.978515
.978768
.979021
.979274
.979627
.979780
9.980083
.980286

.980538
.980791
.981044

.981297
.981560
.981803
.982056
.982309

9.982662
.982814
.983067
.983320
.983673
.983826
.984079
.984331
.984584
.984837

| J). | Cotang. |
46^

1".

Cotang.

4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21

D.

| Tang. | M-f

62

SINES, COSINES, "C

LOGARITHMIC

U9
M

Sine,

4^.541771

.841902

.842033

.842168
.642294

D
2.18
2.18
2.18
2.17

2.17

.842424

.842555
.842686
.842816
.842946
.843076

2.17
2.17
2.17
2.17
2.17
2.17

8.843206
.843336
.848466
.843695
.843726
.843855
.843984
.844114
.844243
.844372

2.16
2.16
2.16
2.16
2.16
2.16
2.1$
2.15
2.16

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

D.
2.08
2.03
2.04
2.04
2.04
2.04
2.04
2.04
2.04
2.04
2.05

.856812
.866690
.866568
.866446
.866328
.666201
.866078
.866956
.866833
.856711
9.866588

2.05
2.05
2.05
2.05
2.05
2.05
2.05
2.06
2.06
2.06

.855466

.855342
.866219
.866096

.864973
.864850
.864727
.854603
.864480

2.16

25

9.844502
.844631
.844760
.844889
.845018

26

.845147

27
28

.845276

21
22
23
24

,846405

29

.845533

30

.845662

31

8.846790

32

.845919

33

.846047
.846175
.846304
.846433
.846660
.846688
.846816
.846944

34
35
36

37
38
39
40
41

45
46

.847709

47
48

.847836
.847964

49

.848091

43
44

9.864356
2.1S
2.U
2.15
2.15
2.15
2.15
2.U
2.14
2.14
2.14
2.U
2.14
2.14
2.14
2.14
2.13
2.13
2.13
2.13
2.13

9.847071

.847199
.847327
.847454
.847582

42

2.13
2.13
2.13
2.12
2.12
2.12
2.12
2.12
2.12
2.12

50

.848218

51

9.848346
.848472
.848599
.848726
.848852
.848979
.849106
.849232
.849359
.849485

2.12
2.11
2.11
2.11
2.11
2.11
2.11
2.11
2.11

Cosine.

D.

52
53
64
55
56
67
68
59
60

I Tang.

D.

".b56934

Cosine.

2.06

.864233

2.06
2.06
2.06
2.06
2.06
2.07
2.07
2.07
2.07

.854109
.853986
.853862
.863738
.853614
.853490

.663366
.853242
9.863118
.862994
.862869
.862745

2.07
2.07
2.07
2.07
2.07
2.08
2.08
2.08
2.08
2.08

.852620

.852496
.852371
.862247
.852122
.851997
9.851872
.851747
.851622

.851497
.861372
.851246

.851121
.850996

.850870
.850746
9.850619
.850493
.850368

.850242
.850116
.849990
.849864
.849738
.849611
.849486
Sine.

.986090
.985343
.885596

.986848
.986101
.986354
.986607
'

.986860
.987112
.987365

9.987618
.987671
.988123
.988376
.988629

.988882
.989134
.989387
.989640
.989^93
9.990146
.990398
.990651
.990903
.991156
.991409
.991662
.991914

.992167
.992420
9992672
.992926

.993178
.993430
.993683
.993936

.994189
.994441
.994694

.994947

2.08
2.08
2.08
2.09
2.09
2.09
2.09
2.09
2.09
2.09

9.996199

2.09
2.10
2.10
2.10
2.10
2.10
2.10
2.10
2.10

9.997726

.995452

.995706
.995957
.996210
.996463

.996716
.996968

.997221
.997473

.997979
.998231
.998484
.998737
.998989
.999242
.999496

.999748

4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.2L
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.2 L

D.

4""

| Cotang. |

0.015163

60

.014910

69

.014657

68

.014404

57

.014152

66

.013899

65

.013646

54

.013393

53

.013140

62

.0128"8

51

.012635

50

0.012882

49

.012129

48

.011677
.011624
.011371
.011118
.010866

47
45

.010613

42

46
44
43

.010360

41

.010107

40

0.009865

89

.009602

38

.009349

87

.009097

86

.008844

86

.008691

84

.008338

83

.008086

82

.007833
.007680

81
80

0.007328
.007076

28

29

.006822

27

.006570
.006317

26

.006064

24

.005811

23

.005559

22

.005306

21

.005053

20

25

4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21

0.004801

19

.004548

.004295

18
17

4.21
4.21

0.002274

.004043

16

.003790
.003537

15

.003286

13

14

.003032

12

.002779
.002527

11
10
9
8

.002021
.001769

4.21

.001516

4.21

.001263

4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21

.001011
.000758

4.21

0 000000

| Cotang. |

.000505
.000253
0 000000

D.

Tang.

4
2
1
0

I M.