PEACTIOAL
TEXTBOOK
ON
PLANE
A'ND
SPHERICAL
TRIGONOMETRY.
WEBSTER
FBOnCBSOB
^'"3
OV
"^ELLS, S. B.,
MATHKMATIOB
HT
Tmi
MABaAOHUBBTTS
IMBTITUTM
TKimroiioeT.
LEACH,
SHEWELL,
BOSTON,
NKW
YORK,
"
SANBORN.
CHICAGO.
OV
(^MAR27
1918
'
"
'
.
Bt
OOPTBIGilT
1888,
WEBSTBB
WELLa
PREFAOE.
work
This
Plane
of
Spherical
and
High
and
been
devoted
theoretical
the
chapters
drill
thorough
triangle;
relations
fundamental
the
in
the
principles
a
plane
are
functions,
positive
proved
or
to
Before
exposition
of
the
hold
the
in
foimd
amples,
ex
student
by
with
them,
deduced.
to
to
the
give
of
aid
of
other
and
In
right
exercises
usual
III.
Chapter
of
point
definitions
general
of
the
the
coordinates
angles
acute
any
fundamental
of
magnitude,
relations
are
universally.
taking
of
given
rectangular
and
be
and
functions
and
applicable
negative,
will
exercises
numerical
are
employed
and
neglected,
giving
the
to
familiarity
give
the
practical applicar
of
of
of.
computation.
being
of
needs
considerable
Triangles
view
devoted
number
to
serve
is
definitions
the
angles,
the
numerical
in
II.
Chapter
of
assortment
with
arranged
the
on
the
development
been
not
to
While
subject,
Solution
selected
carefully
the
on
the
textbook
adapted
the
to
have
formulae
the
practical
Colleges.
of
portions
of
tions
as
Trigonometry,
Schools
has
space
intended
is
the
up
the
theory
solution
and
of
triangles,
applications
of
full
Logarithms
PREFACE.
iv
is
of
the
given, including
the
of
logarithms
and
calculation
of the
and
numbers
of
use
the
tables
Trigonometrical
functions.
The
and
chapters
the
Moivre's
De
on
student
to
of
some
will
the
Equations,
introduce
to
serve
higher
of
applications
found
usually
not
are
Cubic
of
Theorem,
which
Trigonometry,
Solution
the
on
in
elemen
textbooks.
taiy
Part
II.
devoted
is
formulae
usual
for
solutions
found
of
results
all
few
Right
and
proved,
are
to
of
and
end
of
the
book
the
of
angles
Tri
the
will
be
of
the
application
problems
simpler
for
given
are
showing
the
Spherical
Oblique
the
the
Trigonometry;
methods
At
cases.
examples
some
Spherical
to
and
Geodesy
Navigation.
The
the
has
author
of
preparation
special
and
made
this
indebtedness
Chauvenet.
for
experience,
which
those
would
of
number
add
number
of
also
treatises
Snowball,
his
acknowledge
to
from
the
teachers
value
work.
WEBSTER
Boston,
1883.
in
his
mention
Todhunter,
suggestions
materially
of
would
and
volume,
to
He
a
of
use
WELLS.
of
gations
obli
of
the
OOI^TTEI^TS.
PART
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
I.
Paob
I.
n.
DEFLNriTiONS
The
Measurement
Functions
of
4
4
Angles
Theorems
Application
13
Algebraic
of
Functions
Signs.
Angles
of
rical
Trigonomet
"
in
General
16
.
Coordinates
Rectangular
Proofs
General
...
Functions
Acute
Fundamental
in.
of
Trigonometrical
Angles
the
of
17
Fundamental
Formulse
41
.
rV.
V.
Formula
General
Theorems
62
Functions
Trigonometrical
Solution
Trigonometric
of
65
Equations
67
Logarithms
68
of
Properties
Use
of
Logarithms
Table
the
of
Solutions
Arithmetical
of
72
of
Logarithms
Arithmetical
Numbers
77
.
Problems
by Logarithms
83
Complement
and
Exponential
vii,
46
Miscellaneous
Inverse
VI.
construcrton
86
Logarithmic
use
and
of
Series
88
trigonometrical
Tables
93
of
Construction
Table
of
Natural
Sines
and
Cosines
Methods
Use
VIII.
of
Solution
Formula
93
Verification
of
the
Table
of
for
Right
the
of
96
Logarithmic
Sines, Cosines,
etc.
98
107
Triangles
Area
of
Right
Triangle
114
.
CONTENTS.
vi
Paob
IX.
General
Properties
for the
Formulae
Triangles
of
Area
of
Solution
Circumscribed
of the Area
Calculation
Solution
XI.
Third
of
Numerical
of
Equations
of
XIV.
the
139
..
148
Cosine
.
Solution
Definitions
of
and
Principles
Spherical
for
155
Triangles
158
.
Solution
of
Solution
of
Solution
of
172
174
Right
Spherical
Napier's Rules
of
150
151
tt
Napier'sAnalogies
Delambre's
Analogies
XV.
143
TRIGONOMETRY.
FoRMULiE
General
136
"
Applications
with
SPHERICAL
Geometrical
Xni.
123
Theorem,
n.
Oblique Triangle
an
PART
127
Degree
Moivre's
De
Circles
Xn.
122
Triangles
Oblique
of
Oblique Triangle
an
Inscribed,Escribed, and
X.
116
Circular
Triangles
177
Parts
180
Right Triangles
Quadrantal Triangles
Isosceles Triangles
182
189
191
"
Solution
XVI.
Answers
to
the
of
Spherical
Oblique
Triangles
192
.
Examples
207
APPENDIX.
Table
of
the
Logarithms
op
Numbers
from
to
10,000
Table
of
AND
FROM
Logarithmic
the
Cotangents,
0**
TO
90**
for
Degree
and
Minute
17
PLANE
AND
SPHERICAL
TRIGONOMETRY.
I.
Part
PLANE
TRIGONOMETRY.
'xJiQioo'^
I.
OF
MEASUREMENT
DEFINITIONS;
ANGLES.
algebraical
and
angles,
mathematics
of
employed
are
processes
between
branch
is that
Trigonometry
1.
determine
to
which
tions
rela
the
and
subject angles
to
in
triangles
to
computation.
In
Trigonometry
Plane
with
concerned
are
plane angles
triangles.
and
2.
is
angle
An
it contains
times
unit
of
usual
ninetieth
parts
of
called
measured
by
angle
certain
the
expressing
adopted
number
of
arbitrarily as
the
measurement.
The
the
we
unit
of
angular
part
of
unit, the
the
and
miniUes,
the
method
This
seconds.
right angle.
minute
of
To
is divided
degree
is the
measurement
into
degree,
fractional
express
into
measurement
or
called
called
the
sexor
gesimcU.
3.
4.
and
Degrees, minutes,
hundredth
was
thus,
and
43"
37
22' 37"
measurement,
proposed
in
France.
of
right angle,
by
denotes
the
bols
sym
angle
an
seconds.
of
part
denoted
are
method
Another
tesimal,
minutes,
22
degrees,
seconds
In
and
known
this
as
the
is called
the
unit
a
cen
is the
grade;
the
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
grade
is divided
into
the minute
and
notation
This
reference
has
obvious
it, the
equal parts
advantages
method
mathematical
to
hundred
one
sexagesimal
all the
that
into
hundred
one
centesimal
had
been
method
seconds.
but, owing
the first
was
tables
called
the
to
and
employed,
calculated
with
not
into
has
come
practicaluse.
Grades
by
9
centesimal
and
and
seconds
the
grades, 13 minutes,
5.
minutes
OB
that known
and
A'O'B'
Arc
AB
the circular
as
O'A^B'
and
OAB
Let
9^ 13^ 46^^
signifies
seconds.
46
third mietitiodof
importance, is
denoted
are
be two
similar
of
one
great
method.
sectors; i.e.,the
gles
an
Arc
OA
0A\
ArcA^ff
ArcAB
whence,
f A!
O'A
OA
arc
Therefore, the
fraction
, "
is
function
of
the
angle
radms
is
which
consequently be
This
angle.
that
as
is called
length
the
the
of the
measure
of
circular
measure
radius, and
magnitude
of
the
of
may
the
angle ;
is,
The
which
used
the
of
independent
circular
subtends
measure
of
an
it to the radium.
angle
is
the ratio
of the
arc
DEFINITIONS;
To
MEASUREMENT
the
illustrate,
ratio of
circular
onefourth
of the
the circumference
of
where
by 2^,
equal
Circular
of
of 90''
measure
We
in the
found
of
^^^
^^^
=
Thus,
an
in circular
ISO** is
angle of
denote
tt
article
Hence
.
^;
60%
; of
of
that
any
number
by
the circular
45%
30%
; of
circular
the
of
degrees may
ratio to
be
expressed
180", and
ing
multiply
115"
of
measure
is
"
to
angle expressed
degrees by multiplyingby
the
example,
angle
as
circular
In the
"the
unit of circular
whose
arc
is
arc
is
whose
reduced
of the
equal to
radius.
The
the radius,
circular
or
be
may
dividingby
tt,
w.
84".
such
have
These
etc.
expressions
refer
angle
that
an
to
the
angle
is,the angle
ure,
meas
6, gives
57.2957795"...
3.14159265...
then
modify
sexagesimal measure
our
rule
of
as
an
by multiplyingby
measure
For
example.
The
angle
and
180^
IT
The
measure
may
for
may
angle 1,"
degrees by
to
we
; that
measure
180^
We
since
15
method
angle ^,""the
180"
of 180"
"
15
7.
in circular
briefly,
by substituting180"
For
^
of 180".
is"
36
more
; etc.
36
Conversely,an
or,
measure
ir.
example,
reduced
circular
the
9^1
115"
the
preceding
by findingits
measure
the result
For
multiplied
if R
3
'
; but
2^.
angle of 90" is
an
angle of
an
is the
radius
to the radius
measure
the
to
Hence,
"""
have
radius, we
6.
ANGLES.
right angle
circumference
3.14159265
tt
of
measure
circle is
OF
follows
angle
is obtained
57.2957795"...
57.2957795"...
38.1971863".
from
its
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
EXAMPLES.
Express
followingangles in circular
the
measure
1. 135^
3. 11" 15'.
6. 29" 15'.
7. 128"
2. 270".
4. 37" 30'.
Express
"
The
the
followingangles in sexagesimal
Complement
by subtractingit from
The
Su^lement of
subtractingit
To
from
a
an
of
an
angle is
34f
measure
the remainder
obtained
rightangle.
angle is
obtained
remainder
the
rightangles.
complement of 70"
by
two
illustrate,the
is
20", and
the supplement
is 110".
II. THE
TRIGONOMETRICAL
FUNCTIONS
9.
Let
BA
OF
G be any
acute
FUNCTIONS.
ACUTE
angle.
From
point
any
to
the
on
either
other
ANGLES.
side, as
side, thus
5, draw
forming
a
a
line B C perpendicular
right triangle
TRIGONOMETRICAL
THE
FUNCTIONS.
BC
ABC,
fraction
The

is then
"
angle
AB
BA
C ; that is,in
The
side
righttriangle,
of either
sine
all
the
on
For
length
example,
if
MM
equal
Bsudi AB'C\
ABC
having
B'C^
of
AB,
to
are
Besides
10.
In any
The
sine of
an
not
righttrianglewhich
to
our
fixed
we
should
have
But
angle A
the
to be
seen
sine, there
the
had
the sine
righttriaugles
in conunon,
is
values
two
lar
simi
are
equal to
obtained
the
for
equal.
are
five other
functions
of the
the ratio
of
in form.
similar
are
had
and
^77^,.
AB'
the
point at B^
righttriangle,
cosine
of either
adjacent to
The
the
acute
angle is equal
to
the
hypothenuse.
tangent is equal
to
of
the ratio
the side
opposite to the
adjacent.
The
The
is
cotangent
the side
equal
to
the ratio
is
secant
'
opposite,
equal
to
the ratio
adjacent.
TJie cosecant
side
of the
Thus, the
definitions
angle, whose
side
of the
angle, and
ratio
side
taken
had
we
angle BAC
the
of the sides
the
of
of the
magnitude
the
perpendicular B^C\
the
drawn
side
the ratio
to
it.
contains
equal
to observe
important
of
is
It is
at
angle
acute
is
equal to
the ratio
of the hypothenuse
to
the
the
sine
co
opposite.
We
have
Th"
also the
versed
sine
followingdefinitions
of an
angle is equal
to
unity minus
of the angle.
The
coversed
I7i^ suversed
sine
is
sine is
unity minus
the sine,
equalto unityplus
the cosine.
equal
to
PLANE
6
These
nine
nometrical
in the
only
are
ratios
called the
of the
functicmaor trigo'
trigonometrical
angle. In each case it is evident, as
previous article,that
on
the
U.
of the
the value
of the flinction
angle, and
righttrianglewhich
magnitude
the dimensions
of the
is
depends
independent
contains
of
it.
nometry,
castomary, in dealingwith trianglesin Trigodenote the angles by capitalletters,
and the sides
It is
to
oppositeto
Applying
the
we
TRIGONOMETRY.
them
the
correspondingsmall
usual
obtain
by
abbreviations
angles A
for the
names
letters.
and
B, and adopting
of the
functions,
"
(1)
TRIGONOMETRICAL
THE
From
12.
The
formulse
Bin ^
c cos
the
eolnmn
of each
obtain
we
b =csmB
as=c
righttriangleeither
the
side about
hypothenuse multiplied by
cos
be enunciated
In any
to
FUNCTIONS.
as
follows
rightangle is equal
the sine
or
also have
We
That
"tan^
"s=atan^
cot A
b cot B
is,
In any
to the
righttriangleeither
side abovt
the
rightangle is equal
the cotangent
or
of the ad
13.
the
By inspectionof
followingresults
the formulae
Art.
of
11,
we
deduce
sin^==cos^
sin^=cosu4
tan^
tanB
cot A
sec
cosec
vers
covers
cot B
cosec
covers
(2)
f
sec
vers
B
B
The
important principlehere
The
illustrated may
versed
sine
A
A
be thus stated
of
and
angle
an
coversed
are
sine
It is from
this
etc., were
been
adopted by
circumstance
that
derived
the
some
functions.
; and
writers
as
the
the
names
cosine,
principleenunciated
definition
of
the
tangent,
co
has
plementary
com
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
14;
also obtain
We
4
Sin
^1
cosec
11 the results
Art.
from
cos
h
C
x=l
h
c
cot ui
sec
tan^
ul
"
These
written
be
may
"
(3)
follows
as
:
\
sin A
tan^=
sec
cot 4
cosec
4
4
cos
"W
1
4
cos
cotu4
cosec
sec^
tan^
sin A
y
The
principleinvolved
is stated
The
sine
is the
tangent
the
of
is the
angle
an
The
earlier writers
and
To
they
defined
were
OA.
Draw
Draw
and
BH
CG
At
the
BE
be
radii
and
AF
Then,
of
an
arc
lin^s instead
as
arc
any
OA^
perpendicular to
G.
Trigonometry
on
fmictions
as
let 4^
illustrate,
is at 0.
reciprocalof
is
secant
cosine.
angle^
reciprocalof the
15.
thus
OB^
of
and
considered
instead
the
old
of
an
of ratios.
circle whose
centre
O (7 perpendicularto
perpendicular to 04,
OC, and produce 0B
according to
the
and
CQ
to
meet
definitions,BE
was
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
10
We
may
Since
side
from
and
write
the
the
regard
may
righttrianglewhose
Then, by
+ B(P
hypothenuse to
having
as
definitions,we
taken
in
length,
unit.
AJ?.
=\/ 8=^2
\/2.
obtain
COSui
tan 4
the
been
is 3 units
'BC^:=^d^
AC^^Aff
our
the
value
our
"
hypothenuse
by Geometry, AC^
Hence,
of
the side
Now,
ratio
is the
cosecant
opposite,we
a
equation cosec4
cotJ.
2v^2
2v^2
3
aecA
coversul
2v^2
versu4
12^2
suvers4=
1^2^2
1 
2, Given
versui
;
find
the
values
the
of
remaining
functions.
Since
take
nuse
versu4
the side
as
Then,
"
co"A^
adjacent
to the
we
have
angle
cos
as
J.
3, and
the
5.
BC^y/AJ^^^TAC^^^'^d
whence,
:=^4.
we
h^pothe
FUNCTIONS.
TRIGONOMETRICAL
THE
11
Hence,
3^8
5
In each
3. tan4
case
6.
"
of the
4=
vers
4,
JL
covers
7. sin4
.
10, cot4
*
a;.
y
8.
4.
suvers4
A
11. secdL=J^
11
"
17.
Let
each
=^2.
is
To
^5
find the
values
(7 be
isosceles
equal
to
an
unity.
equals 45".
V"'^+
^
"
"
A O
righttriangle,
Then
90", each
5. cosec4
functions
9. C0Su4=r
"
remaining
and
and
AB=^AC^
and
are
equal ;
B C
being
0^=^1
as
their
+
sum
PLANE
12
TRIGONOMETRY.
2^
^2
tan 45^
45"
^2
sec
ver845** =1
cot 45"
oosec45"
j^ ^l^p^
=
"
oover845"
suvers45"
by
the
v^2
)/2^
=1
column
principlesof
might
Art.
=
"
)/2
1 +
have
yj2
"l^"^
i=
yJ2
second
v^2
^2
The
yJ2
been
derived
from
the
first
of
itself.
la
To
find the
values
60".
ABD
Let
equal
to
we
Then4(7
be
Draw
2.
BC
have
=
equilateraltriangle having
an
A
"
tan30"
side
etry,
Geom
30".
V4B*J5C"=\/4^=V^3.
each
i
2
cos
the
60*
triangleABCy
cos30"
we
have
^=sin60"
2
^ ii/3=cot60'
=
V'3
3^
eot30"
v'3
tan60'
TRIGONOMETRICAL
THE
30**
sec
? \/3
=?
30"
cosec
covers
60**
oosec
30"
60"
covers
30"
13
^

30"
suvers
1 +
by
vers
60'
of
30",
60"
suvers
Or
sec
the functions
eO**
3^
^S
vers
FUNCTIONS.
of 60" may
be
derived
those
from
Art.
FUNDAMENTAL
THEOREMS.
To prove
19l
the
formula
sinM
when
is any
SinM
Note.
acute
denotes
+ cos*^
of the sine of A,
square
a^ +
l^
(^
^^Y+
^^Y=
1
Whence, by definition,
(sinAy^
is,
To prove
Dividingby c",
20L
angle.
By Geometry,
That
(cos4)^
sin^J. f cos^^
the
formvlce
COS
siaA
(5)
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE

sin^
tan ^
By definition,
(")

cos^
And
(Art. 14),
cotdL =
sinoe
tan^
cos^
we
cotu4
have
sin A
ZL
To prove
sec'dL
the
1 +
formtUcB
tan*4,
Dividing by 6*,
sec^A
Dividing by a',
That
The
the six
following table
principalfunctions
1 +
1 +
expresses
in terms
tan '4
(8)
a'
a'
cosec'J.
is,
cot'J..
b^
b"
is,
1 +
+ V
c'^a^
By Geometry,
That
cosee'4
(9)
cot*4
the valnes
of the other
of each
five
of
THE
Six
of
TRIGONOMETRICAL
last three
The
14.
wHl
We
they
work
one
be
derived
proposed
as
15
reciprocal forms,
may
are
were
aid of the
by
exercises
as
for
illustration.
an
tan A
sin^
the formula
prove
is, the
others
articles,and
the student.
To
values, that
these
in Art.
proved
FUNCTIONS,
y/l+tan*^
yl
R1T1
By
Art.
t"nA
20,
sin^
sec^
(Art. 14).
cos^
But
by
vT+tanlZ.
sin A
21, sec^
Art.
Substituting,
tan A
Hence,
sin A
formulae
of this
in the solution
III.
of
examples
OP
less than
Geometry,
two
to
we
them
are,
as
advantageously
of Art.
16.
ALGEBRAIC
OF
SIGNS.
ANGLES
GENERAL.
right angles ;
regard
used
FUNCTIONS
IN
In
be
may
like those
TRIGONOMETRICAL
23.
+ tan"^
article
APPLICATION
"
"
Vl
The
y'lftanCZ
as
but
rule,concerned
in
unrestricted
with
Trigonometry
in
angles
it is
venient
con
magnitude.
^tff
In
the circle
diameters
drawn
at
right angles
to
and
each
A' A"*
other.
be
pan
Suppose
of
a
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
16
the
centre
as
it comcides
of 90" ; when
OA,
; with
of 450"
We
; etc.
The
24.
that
see
interpretationof
between
When
it
0A"\
; with
OA'
; with
of
moving radius,
is taken
OdL in
of
again,
be attached
taken
naturallybe
signifyingrevolution
as
to
30"
30", and
absolute
in
magnitude,
0B'=
thus
may
conceive
positivedirection
direction
from
OB'
should
of negative
which
of rotation
positive,our
as
from
as
the
the
tion
posiwould
position
OA^".
and
we
Thus,
each
are
equal
that AOB
say
30".
It is immaterial
whatever.
OB
to distinguish
us
negative angle
opposite direction,towards
in the
enables
revolution
0^',
of
of the
measure
negative angles.
to indicate
direction
the
the
angle, as
an
positive and
positiveangle
We
of 180"
significance
may
about
angular magnitude
startingpoint,of 360"
thus
of rotation
amount
To
of 04'.
an
0A'\
with
revolve
positiveangular magnitude.
to any
04
its
direction
described
it has
and
positionOA^
in the
pivot
OA'^
with
coincides
270"
the
to start from
OB
radius
angles of
direction
magnitude
any
consider
we
subsequent operations
the
certain
in
be
must
accordance.
The
to
forming
being
the
then
consider
may
in which
case
angle
In
is
terminal
initial
line.
Either
OA
and
rotation
is supposed
the
lines
two
as
angle is positive;
the
the
the
adopted
the initial
the
or,
terminal
angle, we
designating an
extremity
angle A OB,
call it A
be
which
0 B
the
we
may
terminal
we
line,
consider
line,in which
case
OB
the
negative.
at the
should
terminal
may
0 A
initial line
the
from
is called
the
angle
an
OA,
line
commence,
is called
radius
the
fixed
OB,
if
but
call it i^ 0^.
of
we
if
the
always
write
regard
we
shall
OA
as
the
regard OJ?
ter
first the let
designating
initial line,we
as
the
should
initial line,
we
TRIGONOMETBT.
PLANE
18
distances, OM
These
tO'Ordinates
of the
and
Pi My
point Pi
; OM\a
lines of
F, M^ the ordinate.
The
called
abaciascLs
the
of
axes
called
the
the
and
rectangvlaf
abscisaa^ and
reference, XX'
TT\
and
ordinatesj
F, respectively. Their
and
called
are
the
or
intersection
are
of
aseea
is called
the
origin.
29.
It is
point*by
of
to^
x=ib
fact
y,
to
upon
the
abscissa
for
that
to b and
the
expressed
the
the
still
point (",a)
the axis
upon
; and
zero
question
avoid
; where
to refer
to the
abscissa, and
is
X, its ordinate
of
is true
same
Jf
P,^
P4 will have
this
adopted
conciselyby
more
of the abscissa
evidently
of
point
of Y.
axis
abscissas
above
Pg ^
the
same
ON=b,
P4 Jf
the
measured
to
the
line
XX
a,
the
the
points
to the
have
conventions
rigJUof 0
left, negative;
are
and
coordinates.
positive, and
measured
in
ordinate.
to the
term
perpendiculars Pi
To
the
its ordinate
point
30.
ordinate
and
respectively. Thus,
point is equal
be
may
point as
the
point lies
equal
been
and
parenthesis is understood
second
If
of
the
y^a.
referringto
the
abscissa
same
in the
letters
the
expressed by saying
and
The
denote
to
cnstomary
and
are
sidered
con
ordinates
considered
positive, and
points will
be
below, negative.
Thus
Note.
the
small
the coordinates
In
the
letters
algebraic sign.
figures of
denote
the
of the four
this
chapter, unless
lengthsof the
the
contrary is stated,
lines,without
regard
to their
THE
31.
We
Let
the
FUNCTIONS.
being
may
now
initial line be
the
taken
perpendicularon
to the initial
For
of
convenience
SINE
18
7%6
COSINE
The
between
in the
shaU
vertex
terminal
by drop
line,produced if
the
of the
metrical
trigono
X, the
constructed
designationwe
taken
19
for the
the axis of
as
line, and
ping
TRIGONOMETRICAL
sary.
neces
refer to that
assumed
point
point. Then^
of the
ordinate
to the distance.
is the ratio
of the
a:r^i"^jl
to ^Ae distance^
tangent
is the ratio
ordinate
to the
The
cotangent,
is the ratio
abscissa
to the ordinate.
The
secant
is the ratio
of the
of the
of the
distance
to the abscissa.
The
cosecant
is the ratio
of the
distance
to the ordinate.
The* above
for acute
angles in
the ratio
definitions
Arts.
are
and
to include
seen
The
10.
versed
sine, coversed
10,
sufl9ciently
generalto apply tp
are
33.
Let
us
angles XOB^,
figure:
sine, and
apply the
XOB^, XOB^,
now
""
""
"*
and
suversed
abscissa.
those
definitions
angles.
definitions
of Art.
XOB^
of
the
sine,given in Art.
all
and
given
in the
81
to
the
ibUowing
"0
PLANE
Let
P"
TRIGONOMETRY.
P4 be
0 JB4,respectively
; and
points
any
let their
in
OJB25 OJ^,
OA,
rectangularcoordinates
Ci,
OP2
Cj, 0
Pg
C3, and
secX0A
cot
2l
XOBi
oosecXOA
02
sinXOJBj
tance
dis
C4.
"i
cosXOBi
tanXOBi
OP4
the
have
sinXOJBi
Let
be
^
=
"2,
cosXOA
5,
C2
tanXO^
"2
cotXOJBj
62'
secXOBa
Si
cosecXO^a
"2
Os
"
sinX0B8
02
cosXOB8
^8
=
(k
tan X
0^3
cotX058
bs
sec
0^3
a
cosecX058
Pa
=
03
_"4
sinX0B4
^*
COSXOB4
C4
C4
04
tanX0JB4
J4_
cotX054
"4
"
secX054
the
multiple of
"
terminal
360"
the definitions
are
lines
of
coincident
that the
two
angles
(Art. 26),
^4
C4
cosecX054
"4
Since
a4
which
a^
differ
it is evident
trigonometricalfunctions
of two
^4
by
jQrom
such
TRIGONOMETRICAL
THE
identical.
angles are
It is
to
customary
trigonometricalfunctions
Again,
from
an
angle
function
of any
without
sin 830"=

34.
and
0 y,
OT
and
OF',
the terminal
When
call the
we
OX',
line of
the
second
that
the
the
hence, any
ftmction
same
illustrate,
360")
;
cos
j^r"^quadrant;
when
and
OX
between
OX'
between
OF'
between
220".
lies between
angle
an
subtracted
or
and
as
quadrant;
quadrant;
to
sin 110"
140" H
angle in
in the
in the third
To
=
cos
added
expressed
360".
than
identical.
by saying
flmctions
(830" 720")
sm
140")
cos(
be
may
be
may
positiveangle less
360"
alteringits
angle
fact
of
periodic.
are
multiple of
any
this
express
21
trigonometricalftinctions
the
Thus,
the
of
FUNCTIONS.
OX,
and
in
the
fourthquadrant.
To
360"
between
270"
and
450", etc., or
and
360",
or
450"
between
180"
and
In
and
270",
540", etc., or
or
general terms,
and
JL is
an
4m+^,
if
acute
in the
35.
We
so
is 0
any
540"
between
90",
or
between
etc., is in
90" and
180",
negativeangle between
and "630", etc., is in
on.
or
any
ger,
positiveor negative inte
(4m +
and
are
"720",
and
quadrant; and
the second
negative angle
any
630"
between
0" and
between
positive angle
illustrate,any
IT
l)+
(4m
(4m
IT
3)1+
2)+A
4,
fourth
quadrants, respectively.
relation
to
the
algebraic signs
in the different
quadrants
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
22
For
angle
any
in
the
the
aU
firstquadrant^
functions are
positive.
In
and
the second
the third
In
the
the
It is
tabular
To
as
find
secant
and
cosine,secant, and
form,
3a
the sine,
tive, and
and
cosecant
In
and
to
the
express
follows
and
negative.
are
cotangent
cosecant
secant
are
posU
are
negative.
are
cosecant
positive^
are
positive,
are
negative.
foregoing principlesin
the values
of
the
functions of 0**,90**,180**,
270**r
B
JP
Let
XOB
Let
the
XOB
be
any
coordinates
A.
angle,
of P
and
be
let P
be
(a?,y) ,
and
any
point in OB,
let OP
c,
and
FUNCTIONS.
TRIGONOMETRICAL
THE
sin^
tan4
sec^
28
c
'
CR
0084
cot4
Suppose
to revolve
(c,0)
at the
OB
point on
.
about
remaining
When
line
the
OB
to
pivot in
as
with
oj
c, and
of 0
the direction
distance
constant
positionOX,
the
from
start
4
OX,
at the distance
Thus,
coincides
OX
oosecud[=
0.
0"; and
0,
from
from
F,
the
and
point
as
is then
its coordinates
are
y =0.
sinO"=
tanO"=
cosO"=
OB
cosecO"=
"
comcides
with
00
cotO"=~=oo
When
secO"=~
^4
OTj
90%
aj
0, y
c.
Hence,
sin90**=
cos
90**=
"
tan90*=^=oo 8ec90'*=^=
cot90^=
When
Hence,
OB
cosec90^=
coincides
with
OX'j
=1
"
180", a?
c,
y =0.
PLANE
24
When
y
a=
OB
coincides
with
^4
OT,
270%
aj
0, and
Hence,
c.
"
TRIGONOMETRY.
^=1
sin270"="
cos
270"=
=0
c
270"=:=^
tan
cot 270"=
00
270"="
sec
cosec270"="
the
360"
the
same
as
values
Note.
without
37.
when
the
becomes
angle
0"
may
",
tan
be
0^
the
similar
90^
go
it merely
increases
cotangent
can
no
interpretationis to be
etc.
,
expressed
in
tabular
form
is
0,
or
the Amotions
any
positiveor
IT
TT
(4n+2)^,
2
as
preceding article
in general
negative integer,we
of
(4n+l),
4n"
same
literaUj;
its cotangent
indeflnitelj
equations cosec
terms, if
the
be taken
cannot
oo
in finite terms.
Expressing
shall have
decreases
foregoing results
follows
as
860",
270",
cot 0^
angle
expressed
to the
The
an
limit,and
longer be
given
equation
as
should
we
of
for
as
The
signifiesthat
Also,
for
should
as
90", etc.
90", 180",
of
same
values
same
"
"
Continuingthe revolution,we
of
"
=00
"
the functions
and
(4n
of
3),
2
270", respectively.
PLANE
26
Since
the
coBine
TRIGONOMETRY.
is
the
as
,
angle
varies
0^ to
fh"m
90",
the cosine
and
decreases
from
1 to 0 ;
from 90"
to
decreases
from
1 ; from
180"
negative,and
it increases
increases
from
to
from
0 to
"
1 to 0 ; and
"
180"
it is negative,
270"
to
270"
f^om
it is
to 360"
1.
y
Since
0 to
and
to
From
must
be
statement
from
270"
it is
90" it increases
from
increases
from
negative,and
it increases
from
negative, and
remaining
from
fliDCtions
0" to 360"
to
increases
qo
from
change
as
follows,
90",
from
the secant
increases
from
the cosecant
decreases
from
cotangent decreases
from
cotangent
to 0 ;
oo
1 to
to
oo
qo
1.
90" to 180",
0
to
oo
to
to
the secant
increases
from
the cosecant
increases
from
cotangent decreases
from
oo
the secant
decreases
from
the cosecant
increases
from
cotangent decreases
the secant
the cosecant
180"
270"
the
Note.
0" to
decreases
the
From
varies
0" to
the
From
to
360"
the
of
angle
the
From
ftom
0.
values
the
as
to
,
180" it is
180"
from
270"
from
The
90" to
0 ;
to
00
"
tangent is
; ftom
00
00
"
the
In
to
to
the
1 ;
"
oo.
270",
"
to
0 ;
to"
oo
oo
to
from
to
decreases
from
oo
to
decreases
from
"
1.
"
360",
foregoing results,wherever
interpretedaccording
to the
0 to X,
"
oo
"
simplj
means
note
from
"
the
of Art.
to
oo
"
1 ;
"
oo.
symbol
36.
Fo]\
oo
it
appears,
example,
the
without
limit.
THE
It is evident
39.
sine and
of the
"
1 ;
TRIGONOMETRICAL
the
of
cosine
of the secant
"1
and
of
preceding article
angle
an
cosecant, between
and
lie between
must
cotangent,
27
between
and
oo
1 and
oo,
or
and
oo
"
between
"00.
To
40.
terms
in
of A.
those
will
There
the
the
tangent and
and
of
from
FUNCTIONS.
be
four
consider, according
to
cases
as
isia
In
each
figure we
angle J.,
represent the
angle ("A).
and
hypothenuse
to the
Let
OP
OP'
Paf=P'Jkr=
Case
By
and
hypothenuse
equal, and
WJien
I.
the
.
sma
the
be
positiveangle XOP
and
a,
and
one
angle of
acute
an
the
0PM
have
is in the
6, and
the
other, they
OP=OP'=c.
firstquadrant.
definitions,
a
tanud[
a
2
sec4s=s
"
COSu(l=s~
c
COtutl =
the
equal respectively
PM=zP'M.
OJkr=
to
perpendicular to XX';
drawn
the
then, since
and
PP'
Let
the
suppose
cosec^=a
are
TRI60N0METBT.
PLANE
28
tan(^)=2
an(A)==
"
4)
cob("
^
8ec(^)
oot(" u(l)=
4)=
coBec("
"
Whence,
sin
("4)
tan(" u(l)
=
sec(" ud[)
=
Case
"
sin^
oofl("4)
"
tanudl
cot
oosec(" 4)s=
secudl
When
n.
(4)
"
is in the second
OOSudl
cot A
(10)
"
coBec4
quadrcmt*
Bee4
c
=
"
6
c
cosecudlssa
sec(" ud[)=
"
^
6
c
eosec(" ^)=s
a
Whence
we
obtain
the
equations (10) as
before.
THE
m.
Case
We
TRIGONOMETRICAL
FUNCTIONS.
quadrarvt.
When
is in the third
have
now
tan^
siiid =
a
=
cotA
siii(" 4)
cosecd=
Giving
Case
tan
(".4)=
a
"
see(^)=.^
b
cot
"
the
IY.
"
cos(" ^)
see4=
eosJL
29
("4)=:
equations (10) as
When
J7".
is in the
cosec("
before.
fourth quadrant.
J.)
TBI60K0METBT.
PLAIIE
so
To
find
of those of
the vcHiies
the
suppose
A,
the
and
OP
distances
drawn
are
Since
P'M'
OP'
OM
Jjet PM=
Case
positiveangle
OP^
and
are
perpendicular to
the
=
distinguishfour
may
is
OP
taken
and
terms
When
the
0PM
OM'
angle 90**+^.
equals and
are
PM
and
The
P'JT
and
OW'
to
PM.^ the
equal by Geomtetry;
and
0PM'
and
are
equal, and
0P==
OP'^c.
PM.
OM^P'M'^bj
is in the
figure
XX'.
right triangles0PM
and
In each
cases.
to
perpendicular to OP,
OM'^a,
I.
positiveangle XOP^
angles P^OM'
hence
90** {Ain
of the functions of
A,
Here, also, we
we
before,
as
and
firstqiLodrant.
r
jr
Y'
TRIGONOMETRICAL
THE
We
FUNCTIONS.
31
have
now
sec
c
=
cosec4
cos(90"+JL):
c
a
COt(90"+^):
oosec(90"Hul)
sec(90"H^)=
Whence,
Bin(90**+JL)=
tan
Bee
(90"+^)
(90"h^)
Case
We
n.
4
cot^
"
oosec^
"
WJien
cos
(90"H4)
cot
(90"^A)
(90"+A)=
cosec
is in the second
sin.4 ^
tan JL
sec
quadrant.
have
now
'
"
cos
smd.
tan^=
"
sec
coaA=
cot^
"
cosec
udl
a
(ll)
PLANE
82
TRIGONOMETRY.
sin(90*d)=
(90^+4)=
cos
cot(90"H4)=:^
tan(90"H4)=
sec
coflec(90*+^)
(90*+4)=
Giving
Case
the
m.
Giving
the
equations (U)
When
is
as
before.
in the third
equations (u)
as
qwadrani.
before.
PLANE
84
We
have
here
the
angles which
acute
43i
TRIGONOMETRl.
for all
proof
were
in Art.
proved
the formulse
for
13.
4 in
To
anglesof
of those of A.
terms
4 for A
Patting 90**"
(180"^)
tan
(180"^)
sec
(180*^)
cos
(180"^)
cot
(180"^)
(180"^)
Art.
by
sin
(180"^)
tan
(180*^)
sec
(180^*^)
These
(U),
sin
cosec
Whence,
in
"
of
an
41,
we
cos
(90"^)
cot
(90"^)
have
(90**^)
cosec
sin
(90"^)
tan
(90"^)
sec
(90*^)
42,
sin A
cos
(180"^)
cos^
tan^
cot
(180"4)
cot
sec4
angle
(180"" 4)
cosec
equations express
supplement
Art.
the values
in terms
cosecJL
of the functions
of the functions
J.
of the
of the
angle
itself.
44.
To
of those of A.
Putting 90"+^
sin
for A
(u),
(180"+^)
tan
(ISO^'+A)
sec
(180"!^)
cos
(180"+^)
cot
(180"!^)
eosec
(180"+^)
Art.
41,
we
cos
(90"+^)
cot
(90"h^)
cosec
have
(90"+^)
sin
(90"+^)
tan
(90"+^)
sec
(90"+^)
in terms
TRIGONOMETRICAL
THE
Whence,
sin
tan
(180"+^)=
sec(180'*H4)
=
To
85
by (ll),Art. 41,
(180*+^)=
45.
FUNCTIONS.
Bin^
cos
(180"+^)
tan J.
cot
(180"+^)=
sec^
"
(180"+^!)
eosec
.
the values
find
of the functionsof
2 70"
cos^
"
cot^
=
cosec
"
"
ul
in terms
of those of A,
Putting
180""^
tan
(270"^)
Bee
(270"^)
COB
(270"^)
cot
(270"ul)
(270"^)
Art.
by
(270"^)
tan(270"u4)=
sec
(270"" u4)
46.
To
(ll).Art. 41,
cosec
Bin
in
(270"ul)
Bin
Whence,
for A
"
we
cos
(180"^)
cot
(180"^)
have
(180"^)
cosec
sin
(180"4)
tan
(180"ul)
sec
(180"^)
43,
cos^
cos
(270"^)
cot^
cot
(270"^)=
cosec4
cosec
(270""^)
2 70"
==
tan^
=
180"
+u4 for A
sin
in
(ll).Art. 41,
(270"+^)
tan
(270"+^)
sec
(270"+^)
cos
(270"+^)
cot
(270"+^)
(270"+^)
cosec
we
cos
(180"+^)
cot
(180"+^)
cosec
(180"+^)
sin
(180"+^)
tan
(180"+^)
sec
(180"+^)
"
^Ain
^f those of A,
Patting
sin^l
have
sec^
terms
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
86
Whence,
Art.
by
8m(270"+4)
oo8^
tan
(270"+4)
sec
(270**!4)
44,
cot^
"
cosec^
47.
In
which
groups,
sin
tan
similar
(360"^)
(360"^)
"
cos
(360".+^)
cos^
cot
(360"+A)
cot^
(360"+^)
cosec
sec
(360"h^)
sec
cosec
truth
the
of
the
in the
of
the
of
so
40
450""
TT
integer, the
900""
results
4, or
The
on.
as
4, or,
4, where
in
and
41
J.
in another
360"+4
and
A
angles
differ
A,
and
Art.
by
tiple
mul
as
is 0,
angle in
for 180"
"
as
that
so
be
proved
is,by drawing
exercises
in Arts.
should
or
any
for
90"
the form
; and
also
may
proofs of
general, for
results
same
any
cosec
"
general principleof
to 47
operationsillustrated
extended
indefinitely
; we
J., 810""
(4wHl)
the
at first in the
proposed
are
42
Arts.
The
be
360""^
angles
cot.4
groups
angles which
two
considering A
method
49.
of
of Arts.
second, and
second
the
cos^
identical.
are
manner
figureand
last two
the
with
accordance
formulae
The
of
the functions
as
after
cosec
4ft
(360**"^)
ul
of 360"
tan
respectively,in
ing
follow
(360**^)
same
sec^
cot
(360"+A)
the
"
tan4
tan
will be
tan^
(360"ul)=.
sm4
way;
"
the two
proved
exercises
as
sec^
see
(270"+^)
cos
may
(270**+^)
be
may
left
(360**+^)
We
cot
sin^
sin ^
sec(360''"^)=
sin
(270**+^)=
cosec
manner
are
cos
on.
any
42
angle
(4n +
4;
for
2)^
"
this
ously
obvi
to 47 may
angles
in the form
positiveor
"
by
negative
540""
4, the
4,
same
THE
TRIGONOMETRICAL
The
50.
results
in the
the
of Arts.
miniis
odd
preceding
the formulae
from
of
FUNCTIONS.
40
or
pressed
ex
by inspection
to 47.
even
an
also be
article may
is derived
function of A;
is the same
37
and
A^
minus
or
function of
any
or
an
complementary
is the
function of A,
the
For
1.
the value
990"
Since
value
990""^
is
of
an
of
sec
apply the
quadrants
different
as
table
given
(990"" ul).
is cosec^.
result
the
third
if A
And
quadrant, in which
the
cosec4.
Ans,
sec(990"" 4)
Find
the value
180"
Since
lute
the rule the absois acute,
sign
of
is
of tan
result
is tan 4.
in
third
quadrant,
"
"
180"
+4).
even
an
of the
And
if A
in which
is acute,
the
sign of
absolute
"
value
180" [4is
the
tangent is
positive.
Hence,
tan
"
180"
+A)
tan^.
Ans.
EXAMPLES.
Find
the
negative.
Hence,
the
in the
multiple of 90", by
odd
is in the
is
2.
acute^ and
as
35.
Find
secant
algebraicsign^regard
the values
of the
following:
3.
cot
(540"^).
4.
sin
(270"+^).
10.
cosec(720"^).
5.
sec
(450"+^).
11.
sec
(630"+^).
6.
tan
(1260"^).
12.
sin
(180"^).
7.
cot
(90"^).
13.
tan(0"^).
8.
cosec(360"^).
14.
cos
9.
cos
(270"^).
(1080"^).
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
88
flinctions
The
of
terms
functions
the
of
whatever
certain
angle.
acute
16.
of sinSl?'" in terms
the value
Find
of
the ftmctions
of
angle.
acute
an
in
negative angle
positiyeor
any
expressed
be
may
of
We
sin317**=
sin
sin
or,
Express
the
(270"+ 47")
(360" 43")
following in
of
terms
cos47";
sin 43".
the
functions
of
acute
angles :
cos
17.
tan522".
Express
angles
22.
the
Arts.
31'.
to
sec
19.
cosec230".
45"
28.
may
proposed
as
(72").
terms
of
the
20.
cot](120").
21.
sin 865"
ftmctions
of
12'.
acute
following
The
40
18.
following in
less than
cot 163"
51.
are
45'.
152"
16.
exercises
sin 588"
be
24.
20'.
derived
from
results of Arts.
for the student.
sec
(307").
the formulae
17 and
18.
of
They
TRIGONOMETRICAL
THE
FUNCTIONS.
89
EXERCI8E8.
the valnes
Find
of the
following:
1.
cos495".
3.
co8ec(240").
6.
sin510".
2.
sec870^
4.
tan585".
6.
cot
52.
We
have
180"^,
H4,
general,that
n
is
0,
preceding articles
360"Hul, 540"^,
540""
"
in the
seen
OP
their sines
equal
angles
360"
to sin^
; or, in
where
n7rH(" 1)**4,
its sine
negative integer,has
positiveor
any
that the
180"^,
or
in the form
angle
every
etc.,
(120").
e(][ual'
to sin^.
and
required to
find
infinite number
of
are
be
an
let sin4
illustrate,
To
We
then
the
given
value
sin^,
of
solutions,each
from
know,
which
will
will be
in
"
18, that
Art.
Then
"
have
we
n7rH(" 1)**^.
the form
or
if
It
value
one
obtained
are
of 4 is 30"
by giving to
the
6
values
0,
or
any
negative integer in
positiveor
the
sion
expres
n7r(" 1)**"
6
Thus, ' if
if
solution
1, one
is
'
btr
TT
or
tt
6'
2, another
is
tt
K
or
expression n3r("1)*
The
of A
in the
sin4
equation
is called
The
"
"
"
"
^
6'
etc.
"
the
general value
general
value
in any
it
case
may
and
obtained
substitutingit in
In
All
sec^
be
similar
by findingany
the
we
manner
given by
2n7r
derive
may
angles corresponding
are
of the values
one
"
4.
to
the
given
of
4,
l)**4.
following:
value
of
cos
4
or
of
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
40
angles coirespondiiigto
All
cot^
given by
are
given by
value
of
tan^
given
value
of
cosec^
of
or
to
are
("l)*4.
n7r
given
+ A.
nw
angles corresponding
All
EXAMPLES.
1.
Find
Art.
By
51
that
see
we
Find
4=
cos
of A
general value
the
the
value
one
is 2n7r
value
general
sec^
when
"
2.
"
2ir
of
is 120
or
"
"
"
"
of
tan^
when
^3
and
"
"
By
18, if tan4=
Art.
\^3,one
of A
value
is 60**
or
and
,
isn7r
corresponding
to the
first condition
.
if co84=
And
"
Art.
by
,
value
of J. is 120"
corresponding to
this condition
51,
one
or
2.
"
and
2nir"
the
the
expressions
series of
same
value
and
of A
and
wttH
angles only
lower
the
general value
sign is
when
conditions
2n,r"
or
3. cosec4=
of the
followingfind
"
\/3.
6.
3^
6.
10.sio^
Hence,
"
the
general value
of A
1 and
the
sin4=i/2.
cot4
the
is either
7. cos4=
2^
4. tan^=l.
9. tan4
denote
each
"
in the second.
satisfyingboth
2nir"
is odd
taken
(2ml)7r +
In
is
"
"
Now,
general
"
sec4
^^3.
=
8. sec4
\/2.
"
iV3andcot^ iV3.
=
^2.
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
i2
In
and
the
let PM
be
and
OM=b,
Case
II.
OP
perpendicular to XX'.
drawn
Let
OF==c.
When
is in the second
quadrant.
By
the
definitions,tan JL
sin^
c
=
Case
in.
When
is in the third
quadrant.
a
c
Here,
tan^

008^
sin^
cos^
PM=
a,
THE
Case
FUNCTIONS.
TRIGONOMETRICAL
IV.
Aism^
WTien
43
fourth qmadrant.
S!'
a
c
Here,
b
4
cos
CtlTl
tan 4
formula
The
yi
thus
has
been
shown
hold
to
cos4
J
cot^=
since
universally; and,
for any
angle
whatever
tan.^
(Art. 53),
cot 4
have
we
for any
value
of 4.
sin^
55.
To prove
"m^A
H
Arts.
first
which
sec^4
1 +
tan
^4,cosec*4
1+
cot
*4,
and
21
; or, what
these
is the
formulaB
same
for
proved
were
angle
any
in the
quadrant.
If A
from
of A.
19
angle
acute
formtUce
value
for any
In
^4
cos
the
is in the second,
figuresof
the
may
be
the
written
third,
or
fourth
quadrant,
we
preceding article,
in the forms
^+^=1,
Ti=1+T?^
or
b'
a'
1 +
a'
have,
in either of the
But
is
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
44
oo8*4
tan"^
"
oot*^
"="
5
5
sin*A
+ co"^A
sec*4
,
the value
Art.
quantity
s^c*^
cosec*4
=4
=
"s
or
universally
Given
5"
to
have
we
of
square
or
"r
Hence,
the
have
always positive,we
sin"^
figures,since
tan*4, cosec'd
1 +
of
of
one
the
1 +
Junctions of
an
cot *A.
angle^
(Compare
16.)
1.
8in.^=
Given
find
values
the
of
the
remaining
functions.
3
By Art.
cosec4
53,
"
"
"
sm4
By"^ Art.
cos"^
55,
sin*^
cos^=
Or,
Taking
cos4=
"
iv^5,we
iv^5
have
*^5
^"""^""cos^IVs"
sm^
sec^
"
"
="
cos4
Taking
cos^
"
J ^^5,we
Thus
the
two
t\l^
have, in
tan^='
v^5
cotJ^=
^sjb
sec4=
solutions
"
1^5
similar
f v^5
to the
example
are.
manner,
TRIGONOMETRICAL
THE
sec
the
where
signs
upper
co"eoA
f v^5,
"
FUNCTIONS.
and
lower
the
46
signs
be
must
taken
together.
In
in
examples
like
general,have
which
valnes
two
will have
solutions.
two
above
the
but
The
is evident
value
one.
and
this
for
reason
there
is that
value
of Art.
of
equal
the
having
as
to 3 ;
its ordinate
there
and
equal
to
obviously two
are
in
function,
31.
regarded
will,
usually
are
ambiguity
given
the definitions
from
functions
tion,
each, except the reciprocalfunc
remaining
the
such
be
its distance
2, and
"
may
points ;
one
in
2.
cot A
Given
of the
remaining
ftmc
tions.
By"^ Art.
53,
Art.
55,
By
tan^
cot^
Or,
cosec^J.
cosec4
cot*^
1 +
Art.
54,
Whence,
cos4
sec^
the two
solutions
upper
'together.
signs
"
^^5
"
"^^5
"
"r
}i/5
V5
cos^="\/5,
and
tan.4
"
cosec^="\/5,
sec4="}^5,
the
^
are,
sin.4="^\/5,
inhere
y5
sin4cot4=
cos^
Thus
"
=
^
cosecul
By
^5
"
8in^=
Then,
1+4
the
lower
signs
must
be
taken
PLANE
46
TRIGONOMETRY.
EXAMPLES.
In each
3.
case
sm^=
7.
"
of
cos^=
the
11.
"
4.
fnnctions
remamiDg
oot4
"
13
cosec4="
8.
2.
cot4
12.

sinu4=
6.
taiiw4="
9.
1.
a1
co8ecJ.=sa;.
13.
sec^
A^"S.
=
6.
sec^
10.
.
cos4=.
x+l
14. *taii^zs
IV.
GENERAL
FORMULA.
"
S7""
To
of the
terms
Let
AOC
OC
to
OB
will
denote
Also
0J5.
pendicular to
Since
angles are
the
the
of
angle
(a;+ 2^)and
and
and
draw
BD
cos
(x fy)
in
y.
BOC
angle x\y.
perpendicular to OA,
the
From
and
angle
any
CB
y ; then
point C in
perpendicular
perpendicular to 0^
and
BE
per
4 C
the sides
to
cosines
sin
the
denote
CA
draw
and
of
of the
sides of
equal ;
that
angle
the
CE
are
angle AOB^
respectivelyperpendicular
by Geometry
CE
x.
these
GENERAL
We
then
FORMULA.
47
have
AG
"m{x\y)
^BD+CE
CE
^BD
DC
BD
GO
GG
GB
BD
But
GG
GG
sma?
^TTz
cosy
GG
GB
(12)
ODBE
OA
OD
BE
00
(13)
SBb
terms
Let
To
to
of
sin
(a? y)
cosines
GB
will
denote
denote
GA
draw
0^.
Also
to
Since
angles are
the
the
angle
of
"
amd
BD
draw
4 C
"
in
the
angley
any
GB
perpendicularto 04,
then
point O
in
perpendicular
and
BE
pendicular
per
produced.
of the
sides
equal ;
and
(a? y)
cos
y.
From
y.
perpendicular to 04,
the sides
to
the
and
"
AGO
OG
angle B GE
are
respectivelyperpendicular
of the
these
TRIGONOAiETRY.
PLANE
48
We
have
now
.AC
sine ^ 0/
v)
^^
"
OC
OC
00
OB
BD
CE
CE
BC
X
sin
Hence,
(a; y)
"
Afifain.
^
'
v)
^^
"
OA
=
00
OD
=
BE
formulae
that
show
90".
aj
and
To
prove
(14)
in Art.
We
acute, and
Since
sma;
"
"^
cos
V
^
sin
"'"'
y +
cos
sin
v
2f
sin y
a;
since
(is)
them
(15),
large
number
; and
it is necessary
proof of
taken
Art.
and
is not
57
of
other
to
angles, and
formulae
the
deduce
can
we
"
universally,we
the
58,
angles, and
have
we
taken
y.
true
are
general,since
acute
as
(15)
this result
60.
have
acute
as
and
from
that the
figure we
y "
cosoj
It is obvious
in the
00
derived
be
can
00
cos
great importance,
of
are
"
00
.
"
BO
fundamental
The
59.
(a? y)
cos
BE
.
BE^BO
00
Hence,
OD
=
00
"
"
OB
(14)
^OB
X
"
00
siny
00
But
v
^
sin
cosoj
"
OD+BE'
"
OD
T,
cosa?
00
sinos cosy
cosio;
^
"
BO
00
as
CE
and
and
BD
=
00
BD
"
BD^CE
=
of
general proof
and
y ; and
of
(12) and
that
from
(13)
62.
first prove
must
x
y "
(14)
and
(15)
when
",y.
a?, we
sin
{y
"
cos
(y
"
x)
a;)
=
sina?
sin y
cos
"
cosy
cos
a?
fsin y sin
cosy
and. y
are
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
50
6L
and
Art.
By
41, if
and
(14)
the formulse
y, for which
assigned
any
are
and
(15) are
values
of
true,
"
sin{90*'+(a
6){
"
{90*f(a
cos
6) }
cos(a6)
cos
"
But, by Arts.
(90"4 a)
sin
{b
90")
"
the
Hence,
and
41
sin
"
(a
sin
first of
sin b
(A)
b +
cos
cos
sin 6
50,
6,
cos
sin
6)
cosa,
=s
6 +
cos
sin
cos
(90"+ a)
cos
(b
90")
equations (A)
the
sin b
be
may
sin
"
in
written
sin{(90"+a)" "}=sin(90"+a)
sin{a(690")}
or,
And
the second
be written
may
and
we
and
(14)
with
assigned
values
when
true
Again, by
sin
is
of
90" 4
and
y, such
as
(15)
and
for
true
are
b, they
6) }
(a
cos
(a
"
cos
sin
(a
sin
6) I
also
are
cos
cos
6)
b
"
sin
sin b
" (B)
b)
b
cos
"
sin b
Since, by Arts.
41
sin
(a
90")
sin
(90" + 6)
"
any
50,
(a
in accordance
Art.
90"+
equations are
(14) and
cos
6+ sin
cos
That
90").
(15)
6 ;
(90"+a)
=:cos
or,
observe
(90"+ a) sin
cos
Binaco8(690")co8asin(6"
cos{ (90"+a)6}
cost"
"
and
50,
cos
cos
(a
90")
cos
cos
(90" + 6)
"
sin

sin 6
GENERAL
FORMULA.
equations (b)
be
may
51
written
in either of the
forms
sin
(a 90'')

(a
sin
90")cos
(a
cos
90")sin
b ;
or,
and
the second
of
(B)
cos{(a" 90")
6
"
cosa" (6+90") \
co8aco3(6+90")
all of which
That
of
y^ such
and
diminished,
But
of
and
In
values
or
(15)
as
(14) and
true
are
and
", they
(15)
for any
assigned values
also
are
true
when
y ;
general proof
The
Arts.
58
of
and
of
and
y ;
putting
(a?h y)
cos
(a?h y) =cosa;
aid of Art.
cos(
sin
cos
(a?+ y)
cosa?
cosy
y)
sin(
"
a?
sin( y)
"
cos
a?
sin y
we
"
the fraction
sina?
cos
cosa
cosy
sin
become
"^^^^^"y + ^^"^"^^^
tan(ajhy)=
^
these
of
term
y^
sina? sin y
"
cosacosy
each
cosaj
"
y) h
"
cosy
Dividing
y)
"
given.
40,
(a?f2/)^
+ y)
tan(a;
^
is
values
be
now
were
place of
cos(
sin
(15)
y in
"
sino;
sin
90".
by
b increased,
Reducing by
e^
with
sin(6+90"),
have
we
62.
in accordance
are
f sina
y
^
sinajsiny
by
cos
cosa:
cosa;
sin y
cosy
r^
.
cosa?
cos
cosy
smajsmy
cos
cos
cosy,
cosy
we
have
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
52
+ tany
tanac
(16)
In
Bimilar
tanastany
"
be derived
may
manner
tana?
obtain
we
cosy ^
cosa;
eot(aj+y)
Dividing each
(17)
tana;tant
tany
l+
64;
tanv
"
sina; sinv
"
;"
,
'
+ cos2;smy
sina;oosy
by
of the fraction
term
sin
.,
sm
oj cos
sin
a;
sin y
coty
cota?
cosa?
smy
sina;
siny
"
(18)
cotaj
coty +
in
similar
cota? coty
.,
y)
"
derive
we
manner
cot(aj
"
similar
left as
The
to
sin
(19)
"
cota?
"
following formulse
those employed in
exercises
+1
^r
coty
65.
have
:
__
And
we
"2
==
siny,
sina^siny
sin y
a;
a;
sina;siny
cosfl;cosy
cot(a;+y)
sin
may
be
dednced
Arts.
63
and
by
64, and
methods
they
are
(a?+
+ tany
tanaj
y
^
(20)
""
sin
tana?
(aj" y
cos(ajy
"
tany
"
tana;
tany
tana;
tany
cos(a?
(a?+
"
sin
1+
tana?
4
tany
_^
"
cos(aj
sin (x
"
"
1 +
tana;
tana;
"
tany
__
oos(aj+
"
tana;
(22)
tany
"
(21)
tany
(23)
FORMULA.
GENERAL
66.
rfin(ajfy) sin
sin* x(l
sin* X
sin*
a;
cos*
"
sin* y)
"
result may
jjos
similar
67.
sin* y +
"
sin*
"
Putting y
in
aj
sin 2
a?
cos*
cos* a?
(12)
sin
2 sin
a;
(Art. 19)
sin* y
2a;
cos
tan2a;
y)
(25)
following,
cos* y
sin* a;
"
a? cos
h
a;
a; cos
cos
aj
sin
(27)
(18), we
sin*
cos*
^i5B4.
"
a;
obtain
(28)
(29)
^
^
ltan*aj
cot*a5
a
cot 2a;
(26)
have
we
cos*
"
sin*y
"
19,
the
Similarly,from
(1
"
derived
are
(aj y)
a?
"
Art.
by
cos*
"
cos* y
manner
(x \y) cos
x) sin* y
(24)
sin*
"
also be written
"
In
(1
"
sin* y
"
An
sin* y
sin* x sin* y
"
obtain
we
y)
"
sin* X cos* y
This
(x
68
"
/"^\
(30)
^
^
2cota;
t
Art.
By
cos
or
68.
1 +
(31)
From
cos
Dividing
a;
cos
"
(32)
2 cos*
and
a;
"
2 sin*
and
"
by
2 sin* a;
=
lhcos2a;
2 cos*
forms
(31)
a;
(32)
have
we
of these
the second
1"
2cos*a;
a;
in either of the
be written
a;
cos
a;
2 sin*
(33)
the first,
tan*a;
(34)
PLANE
54
TRIGONOMETBT.
have
2Bina;co8a;
a;
sin 2
69.
and
In
"
"rz
_^._
cota;
^_v
(36)
2Bm'a;
(33),(34),(35),and (36),writing x
therefore
^x in place of
2 cos*
^05
1 h COS
we
Xy
2 sin' ^05=
place of 2x,
cos
"
(37)
a?
l+
tanix
in
obtain
x,
'
And,
2sin2;cosa;
=
oos2a;
"
/..v
(35)
2cos'a;
a;
"
tana;
lcoB2a;
and
co8a"
^^^
(39)
l +
cosa?
cos
"
a;
last two,
by invertingthe
taniaj
cosa;
"
(".)
,
sma?
14
^,
cot^a?
cosa?
/.x
!;
"
(42)
sina?
70.
By Art.
67,
Bin(a?f yf2)
sin{(aj4y)f"
sin
(a?+ y) cosz
(sina;
cosy
f
cosa?
f(cosa;cosy
=
sina? cosy
fcos
Similarly,from
Bos(a5+
y +
2;)
=
(13)
cosa;
cosy
"^
From
(16) we
we
obtain
sin
cosa?
X
sin y) cos
sina?
"
siny) sina?
siny
cosa;
y sin
cos
(a?+ y) smz
cos
2;
"
sin
cosa?
x
sin y sin
(43)
derive
cosa;
X
cos
"
sina;
y sin
2;
"
siny
cos
cos2
a;
GENERAL
^('"
^
FOEMUKffi.
taii(aj
+ v) +
65
tan2;
^"=l4nT/+T)ta".
\
+ y +
tanajtany
"
__
\1
tana?
"
tan y/
tanaj+tany+tanaj"
tan"
tanajtany
In
x
similar
manner
component
terms.
71.
In
sin 3a;
3
in terms
a;
sin
a? cos
2x
=3
cos
a; COS
tan
ox
sin
a;
sin
a;
3 sin
cos
2 cos*
4 cos*
a;
sin 3a;
cos
3a;
sin
"
tan
"
67,
(1
",
"
the
of
functions
we
a;
sin 2a?
a;
sin 2
any
of
its
have
then
a;
2 sin*
a;
4 sin*
"
tan
obtain
we
(2 cos^a;
2 sin^ x) fcos
"
"
a;
"
Art.
by
a;
Whence,
of
fcos
ftan
tan
the
a;
functions
and
,
of
tany
applicationsof (12)
obtain
may
whatever
(12) (13)
cos
we
tana;
functions
the
fact, by successive
(15),
compound
tans; tana;"
derive
we
in
z^ etc. ;
y +
"
tans;"
tany
"
__
3 cos
"
a;
(2 sin
(1
sin^
"
cos
x)
x)
(Art. 19)
(46)
1)
"
a;
cos
"
2 sin
"
"
sin
cos
a;
(2 sin
(1
"
cos
cos^
x)
x)
(Art. 19)
(47)
2 tana;
.
tana;H
,
r
tan^a;
1"
tan 3a;
/
1
2 tana;
tana;
"
Vltan^a;;
3 tan
1
These
and
three
a;
"
"
tan* a;
results may
(45) by putting y
,
(48)
3tan2a;
and
also be obtained
z
each
equal
to
from
x.
(43) (44)
,
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
and
Let
From
72.
a?
Then,
tion
obtain, by addi
we
2 sin
sin
(a?+ y) f
sin
(a? y)
sin
(" h y)
sin
(X'y)=:
coso?
sin y
cos
(a;+ y) h
cos
(a? y)
cosa;
cosy
cos
(a;+ y)
cos(a? y)
+ y
"
"
"
+COS"
cosa
and
y=
2sin
=s
2sin
"
(o
a;
cosy
siny
6).
"
(a + ") cos } (a
2cosi(a
2
cos6
"
y:==b.
"
sin"=
"
have
+ sin6
sina
cosa
"
(a + 6), and
aj=
Replacing
"
a, and
sina
cos
2 sin
"
by
and
a;
")sin }(a
6)
"
(a f 6) cos } (a
6)
"
} (a h 6) sin J (a
"
6)
obtain
we
y,
6)
"
sina; +
siny=
2 sin i
(49)
sina;
siny=
cos
(50)
cos
(51)
2 sin J
(52)
"
cosa?+cosy=
cosa?
cosy
"
"
""
"
"
"
have
sina; +
siny_2sinK^+y)co8K^
sinaj
siny
"
student
sin
a;
cosa?
tan
tan
K^
"
;
tan
"
!/
a;
"
sin y
^
+ cosy
v)
.1 \
(^^ 14)
_x
y)
"
following in
similar
^\
(53)
J (a;
the
prove
f sin y
^
y)
"
'
manner
'
tan
tan
J(aj+ y)
+ cosy
cosa;
sin
may
"
J(a;y)sin
J(a; y)
2cos
=
The
subtraction,
Substituting,we
73.
(15)
and
a/
K"
\
y)
^/
(54)
v
(55)
\
TRIGONOMETRy.
PLANE
58
7"
In
the values
Topid
(37), put
a;
45**.
have, by Art.
then
We
and
equation by 2,
each
17,
2cos"22}**=lf^
2sm*22i**=l^
Dividing
67}**.
extracting
the
square
root,
i^SZI
sin 22 J
AS^
eos22}*"=
positivesign
The
since
22}** is
the
radical
in the
first
of
angle
an
is taken
quadrant,
here, because,
all its flmctions
positive.
are
Putting
0?
45** in
tan'22}**=
(41)
(42) ,
and
Ill50i45:
have
we
l^i^2 2^
sin 45**
}v^2
v^2
cot22}**=i"^:5i^
i/2+l
=
sin
Then, by Art.
45
22,
sec22}**=Vl+
tan*22r
=rVl + 22^2
Vl
cosec22}**=
76.
If
find the
To
a;
==
values
a?,
22}**,we
2v^2
have
thus
a;
2sina;cosa;
cos
also
of 67}**.
sin 2
Dividing by
=V4
of
Whence,
V42v^2
+ cot^22i**
Since
+ l
2 sin
a;
of
3
3 a;, and
cos
4co8^aj
4 cos^
4~4sin*a?3
we
72**.
shall have
05
a;
"
"
3cosa;
(Art. 71)
(Axt. 19)
GENERAL
FORMUKffi.
69
ft
We
to solve
then
have
the
4 sin^oj+
quadraticequation
2 sina?
:s=
8inx=r:l"i^l"i=:::l"^
Thus.
Since
the upper
be
sign must
given
to the
positive; hence,
radical, and
have
we
Therefore,
cosl8"=Vlsmn8"
Jfl^tl^\
1/10 f 2 i/5\
\(,"
J=
16
And,
since
18" is the
^
sm72^=^^
.
VlO
Vl0f2i/5
4
complement
+i 2J5
3^"
"
and
of
72", we
\/5
"oo
oos72
To
find the
"
values
cos36"=:cos(2
of the
X
"
=i
77.
have
18")
16
and
sines
cosines
o/36"
l28in*18"
54".
(Art. 67)
16
and
Therefore,
=
since
sm54
36" is the
=J^
Lt^\
Y102\^5"^^VlO2\/5
='
And,
Jfl
Vl.cos^36"
sin36"=
^2"
"
and
54
co8
54", we
of
complement
J^"
=J^
78.
that
If
Ay By and
is, if 4 + JS+
have
C denote
(7=
the
180", to
angles of
prove
the
plane trianglci
relations,
PLANE
60
sin^
TRIGONOMETRY.
sin (7=
+ sin^f
4cos"
cos"
cos"
cos24
+ cos2J5fcos2(7=
J. + 5 40=
Since
"
2
4
"
180%
J^
cos
cos
(7
cos
have
we
J5+C=180**^
Now,
sin^
(49) ,
by (27) and
+
+ sin C
sin5
2sm
2cos
^
2
^
s=4cos
l
cos2^
"
"^
"
by (13) and
"
(15)
si
(51)
(7
2cosM
cos
(7
cos"
"
+ cos2 J5 + cos2
we
cos
5
cos
"
Hence,
2cos:^(^cos^hcos^Z:^
But, by (A)
^
o
+ 2cos"
cos"
cos2^
13,
~=
"
^
"
B\0
o
=
"
Art.
cosi
i"
h2sm
cos
"
(5
+
fO)
2cos(5+(7)cos(S
=
"
cos
J^
"
(7)
(Art. 43)
have
iC0S2B
=
+ cos2
(7
0)
l2cos^cos(5+C)2cos^cos(J5"
"
l2cos^[cos(5f(7)
"s
"
"
4cos4
cos
JB
cos
(7,
cos(5(7)]
by (13) and
(15)
GENERAL
FORMULiE.
61
EXERCISES.
79.
1
Prove
the
following relations
siny +
1.
/AKO
\
sm(45"hy)=;
2.
tan(60y)=
"^
^^
3.
'
eosec
a;
2.
"
^^7^^^.
l+V^Stany
} sec
cosv
^^
eoseca;.
c(MA
sin4
6.
sin 4 4
6.
cos
7.
sina?
8.
tana? +
4 sin 4
44
S sin*4
"
A,
cos
cos* 4 4 8 cos*^.
1"8
cos
(1 + tana?)+
(1 + cota?)
cosa?
seca?
coseca;.
cota?
sin
9.
"
rr
a;
(1 + tana?)*" (1 "tana?)'
\
iz
f:
"
"
8in2aj.
(l4tanaj)2+(ltana;)2
10.
sec
11.
cota?
12.
sec^a?cosec^a?
18.
1 H
cos
14.
cosy
16.
tan(30"+2/)tan(30"y)
a;
1 +
tana;
tana?
"
cos
tan 2a;.
2 cot 2
cos
a;.
sec^a? + cosec^a?.
a? sin^y+
(sin*
2^=2
(120**+y) +
cos* a?
(120"y)
cos
17.
cos
(a?f2/)
"
sin^sin(5C)
sin* a?
+
+
cos
0.
^ij^l.
+
1
2cos2y
16.
cos*y).
cos
(2 a; + y)
sinBsin(0^)
sinOsin(^JB)
0.
18.
sin
19.
4aina?sin(60"+a?)sin(60"a;)=ssin3".
(2a;
y)
"
2 sin
a; cos
(x + y\
siny.
PLANE
62
TRIGONOMETRY.
16 sin* a?.
20.
ein6x:=s5
21.
3sm3a;.
4sm"ajH4Bin"(120"Ha?)h4sm"(240"Ha?)
22.
cos
sina?
20sin*a" +
"
(^
H
(^
JB)cos
JB)+
(B
cos
C)
C)
(JB
cos
4)=cos2^hco82Pfco82C.
Hco8((7h4)coB((7"
or
23.
cosjr
Oil
24.
cosSa?
"
the
"
=tan2a;.
sino;
"
co8*(aj"
y)
"
followingrelations
26.
COS
C denote
A, jB,and
If
"
sin3fl;
25.
1/
"
^
4co8'
+ siny)*H(co8a5
fcosy)*
(sino;
(a" y)cos
the
a?
cosy
angles of
sin^a;fsin'y"1.
plane triangle,prove
cos4HcosjBcos(7=
+4:sin
sin
"
27.
tan^
28.
sin 4 fsin JB
"
sin (7
sin
"
29.
sin2^
30.
cos
sin2 JB +
hcos
sin2 (7=
cos
cos
sin JB
am
(7.
/'45"
H"
^^
") ^5" +
cos
MISCELLANEOUS
V.
"
"
4sinu4
"
"
cos
"
"
C.
tan JB tan
4 sin
sin
"
cos
("45"\

THEOREMS.
35
Sin
80l
To
find
the
"
limitingvalues of
the
and
fractions
a?
"
when
is
decreased,
indefinitely
.Note.
In
such
fractions
and
as
expressed
in
circular
measure
(Art.6).
is supposed
*^*^
to
be
MISCELLANEOUS
XOP
Let
describe
the
at P
arc
FXP'
TP
; draw
being taken
to a;, a;
centre, and
as
any
TP'
and
right trianglesOPT
the
radius
tangents
OP'
and
Also, PM^P^M,
PT=P'T.
have
eqnal
68
as
OX,
to this
and
Then
we
arc
be each
With
angle.
acute
an
P' OX
and
THEOJREMS.
equal, and
are
and
OX
is perpendicular
to PP\
By Geometry,
ArcPP'"
PP', and
chord
"PTP^
"
Hence,
ArcPX
"P3f
ArcPX
^PM
Therefore,
OP
Or
and
"PT
^PT
OP
OP
(Art. 5),
circular
of
measure
Representing
the
a?
sin
"
circular
a?
andJ
by
a;
simply,and
^tana;
";
"
or
sma;
sma;
That
a;
have
"
"1
(A)
tana?
"
of
measure
dividingthrough by sina;,we
^
and
cos
a;
sma;
is,
"
and
"cosa?.
But,
the
as
limit,we
decreases, cos
a;
approaches
have
sma;
=
1.
(Art.36), Hence,
at
PLANE
64
TRIGONOMETBT.
sin
tana?
A
Again,
o^ooBo;
coso;
indefinitely,
decreases
amx
=
As
a?
limit
the
approaches
1,
as
approaches
cos
Hence,
1.
at the
Urnit,
2D
have
we
tanfl5__
X
It is evident
of
small
very
these
from
tangents
approximatelyproportional to
angles are
the
angles themselves.
8L
To
find
limitingvalue of (cos
the
when
ia in^
increased.
definitely
(cos^y=(coe"?y=(lei
Expanding by
the
BinomialHieorem,
2 sm"5 + i^"
1
/"cos^Y^
2
W5
n)
n*/l
""
...
^
[2
"
obtain
we
1\
40?
"
1\
n
,
ny
V2
2
'
ny4"i"
n'
2nl
When
aX
'
2n
""
aX
^2
"
"J
n*
\2
is indefinitely
increased,
n)4.n^\x
is indefinitely
decreased,
sm
and
consequently
approaches
X
n
the limit 1
(Art.80)
PLANE
66
the
Substituting
TRIGONOMETRY.
values
of
and
tana?
11
y)=L4
tan(a:+
^^l
l^i
6
Hence,
value
one
of
have
tan 2^, we
a;4y is
(Art. 17);
that
is,
Is
one
^
11
value
tan^i + tan^i is
of
3.
Prove
"
that
of cos~^
value
one
".
"'"
fcos~^
\3
rcosaj=
^^""\q~*1
Let
j^
whence,
"
.i3ft/6
"
"
"
8fi/6
cos^:il3L.=yJ ^cosy
:Y^
=
Vl
Bina?=
Hence,
cos*a;=
"
k/1
7
5/2^^
siny=J^ll^^)
and
^3\^2^/3
6
Hence,
+
cos(a,
^
^^^ y)
j?
i"^6i
^^^i^iV?
"
\3
"/3
^8^2f 2v^33^2H\/3^3v/3^1
6"/3
Therefore,
of
cos^
value
one
Jl
4cos^
of
_l8+i/6
^"
""
"
3^ is 60** or
a;
6"/3
; that
^
^
is,one
value
TT
18
"
EXERCISES.
4.
From
6.
From
prove
the
the
formula
formula
sin 2
sin
a;
2 sin
f y)
(a;
sin
cos
a;
cos
y +
h^
1^
prove
cos
the relation
sm^a
sin16
sin''\a^1V
a').
the
sin y
THEOREMS.
MISCELLANEOUS
6.
the formula
From
tan 2
a;
7.
AJt.
From
the formula
;"
f oot
a?
eosec
that
one
^a
cosec^f
value
of
)"
"
"
tan""^ f 2 tan"^
Prove
that
one
value
of
cot~^
Prove
that
one
of sin"^ ^
value
is
eot"^3
"
"
"
10.
"
f oot~^
is
9.
(see Ex. 8,
the relation
79), prove
Prove
tan"^
tan
2 tan
8.
the relation
prove
r
tan*a?
1"
2 tan~^
6T
is
"
11.
Prove
that
one
value
of
cos"^
^
h cosec"^
",
"/82
12.
Piove
that
tan
SOLUTION
83.
OF
Solve
the
Art.
By
That
19,
(2 tan"^ a)
2eos^a?"
"
2 sin^a?
5eosa?"
2 oos^a: +
is,
tan"^
a*)
.
EQUATIONS.
TRIGONOMETRIC
equation
"
(tan"^a
2 tan
is
"
cos
a;
"
cos
a;
4=0.
"
0
2
"
^"^2516
Whence,
cosa?
5"3
1
"
"
or
The
result
the cosine
we
of
2 is
"
inapplicable,
as, by
angle
an
Art.
lie between
must
have
1 and
"
1.
of
Thus,
cosa;
One
value
of
is 120"
or
(Art. 51)
"
3
27r
aj"2w7r"
"
Ans^
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
68
2.
Solve
By Art.
equation
the
is
solution
value
of
la
a;
^"^,
67,
1
One
tan
tan*
"
evidently
x.
3 tana:.
a?
tana;
(Art. 52).
nir
6 tan
in
0;
this
the
Dividing by tana;,
general
have
we
In
following,find
the
3.
sin
4.
sina;=sin3aj.
6.
cosa;
6.
sin 2
a;
sin 2
a;.
cota: =1.
a?
cot
exponent
equal
sina;
base
is the
expressed
cos
8.
aj)
tan(45"" aj)fcot(45""
9.
sin
a;
2 sin
a;.
sin
logarithm of
(a a;) co8(a
=
sin
cos
(a;+ ^)
x.
x)
"
4.
"
to
to
qimntity
which
the
base
is
the
raised
to
given base
must
be
quantity.
Thus, if a'=m^
the
LOGARITHMS.
of the power
the
(Divide by
VI.
The
of
7.
x.
10.
84.
the values
must
be
logarithm
is the
raised
of
exponent
to
to
equal
the
of
the
base
the
power
quantity m
a;
which
to which
; that
is
is.
briefly
69
log9
logi
2,
Again,
1,
suppose
base
logi
=
2,
is 3,
logl
ss
0, log3
1,
etc.
10.
Then, since
10"
=1,
O^log^l
10^
=10,
logiolO
10*
=100,
logMl00
10*
=1000,
3=logMl000
10'=
l
log3o.l
2
logio.Ol
10"=TTAnr= 001,
3
logw.001
base
10'=
That
rb
1, Iogl00=2,
log.001=
86.
3,
"
The
=1"
tV
01,
logl000
of
the
only system
in
practicaluse
System
or
the eo^onent
of
for numerical
Briggs' System,
is 10.
quantity is
thai power
in which
logarithm
common
of
putations
com
10 which
eqtujia
quantity,
87.
It is
which
result
Art.
of
in
common
denotes
the
customary
Bubscript10,
the
3, log.l
0, log10
logl
l,
log.01=2,
etc.
is the Common
the base
is 10,
85
as
follows
logarithmsto
base; hence
:
we
omit
may
the
write
\
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
70
logl=0
log10
loglOO
log1000
The
second
in
preferable
8"
If
log.01
log.001
form
part of the
the solution of
is not
find from
we
the
decimal
with
that
column
is
of 10, its
power
common
1.113943.
the
In
13.
the mantissa
is .113943.
first colimin
of Art.
1 and
between
10
100 and
this
87 that
10 is
equal to 0
100 is equal to 1 plus
is equal to 2 plussome
and
1000
point is
10 ; of
and
some
some
decimal
"
"
"
point is 1 ;
the second
or
is
10 ; between
of Art. 87
between
equal to
between
two
the
.1 and
.01 and
1 and
plus some
.01
.001
we
is
.1
see
lies
decimal
equal to
is equal to
8
7
plus
plus
10 ; etc.
isjthe characteristic
zeros
column
number
any
10,
number
any
decimal
point is 0 ; with
with three figures
to
2 ; etc.
from
Similarly,
the logarithm of
no
10
table,
between
; between
figureto
between
with
one
That
; etc.
left of the
"
exact
number
90.
10
examples.
an
from
logarithmof any
decimal ;
plus some
That
It is evident
decimal
the
some
89.
etc.
logl3
case
910
Thus,
This
logarithmcan
decimal
number
log.l=l
between
of
the
the decimal
logarithmof
point
and
any decimal
first figurei"
LOGARITHMS.
9, with
after
"10
zero
between
the
mantissa
figureis 7,
9L
its
with
mantissa
and
90
I.
is
between
its
will be
based
are
the
on
one
10
after
"
point
and
first
; etc.
given
last
with
hereafter
portions
only
the
the characteristic
of
rules
for
Arts.
89
If
the number
less than
figure is 8, with
the mantissa
after
decimal
any
must
characteristic
first
zeros
which
reasons
of the
and
two
10
"
of
mantissa;
point
with
For
the
71
greater than
is
the number
point.
If the number
II.
is less than
by subtractingthe number
found
point and
between
zeros
first significant
figure from
9 ;
is
the decimal
writing
10
"
after
the mantissa.
For
example,
characteristic
of
log 906328.5
characteristic
of
log .00792
5 ;
7, with
10
"
it should
part
of
preciselythe
logarithm.
in
operations
tissa
man
for, and
the
as
it useful
to
it cannot
problems
some
allowed
be
will find
Beginners
and
should
same
10 after the
"
remembered,
logarithm, and
the
to
cases
be
the
of
rest
write
jected
subthe
it in
all
conveniently
be
omitted.
Many
Note.
of
writers,in dealing
less than
numbers
student
the
Thus,
will
instead
frequently find
characteristic
to
denote
of
of
using
numbers
The
the
characteristics
the
unity, combine
with
such
as
that
expression
an
minus
it alone
objection to
partly positiveand
is
as
before
7.603582
sign being
negative,
this notation
the
arithms
log
portions of the
negativecharacteristic
3.603582
two
of
"
10, the
written
the
the
over
mantissa
is the inconveU'
partly negative.
PLANE
72
TRIGONOMETRY.
PROPERTIES
"
In any
92.
In
any
a, for any
value
system whose
base
logarithm of zero
For
For
is minus
since, when
In
number
"
since, when
95.
of a, 0
zero.
log^l.
a"*
is
log^a.
greater than
unity^ the
=_
^
a
0,
"
oo
"
a*=
the
0,
oo
the
log.O.
0 is +
oo
log^O.
logarithm of
offactorsis eqvxd to
00
a"l,
system
any
of a, 1
infinity.
is less than
If the base
value
is
is unity.
system the logarithm of the hose itself
any
In
1, for any
For, since a^
94.
LOGARITHMS.
OF
the
product of any
sum
factors.
Assume
the
a"
equations
^
r
whence, by Art.
"
84,
That
a' X
the
np
values
.
"
logarithm
any
log""
"
log"l"
etc.
of
^log^mnp***
log"w + log^p +
this theorem
composite
of each
X"=mnp"'
of a, y, 2, etc.
log"m
applicationof
of
a'
y\^\
log^m
a'^^+'+'=mnp"'
Whence,
By
a* X
is,
Substitutingthe
Iog.m
V.
Multiplying,
"
a'=p
etc.
a;
number,
its factors.
we
may
provided
"
"
find
we
"
the
know
rithm
logathg
PLANE
74
TRIGONOMETRY.
EXAMPLES.
Given
log2
calculate
97.
is
0.301030, log3
0.477121, log 7=
0.845098,
1.
log 15.
4.
log175.
7.
log7f
2.
log 125.
6.
log3f
8.
log".
8.
log^.
6.
logllf
9.
log5f
In any
eqwxt
to
exponent of the
Assume
the
logarithm of
quantity
power.
equation
a*=
Raising both
the
of
whence,
m,
members
of the assumed
log^m
equation
the
to
p^h.
power,
a^^im'
whence,
px
Substitutingthe
value
Ic^.^'
of a;,
log,m'=j9log,m
Given
Example.
of
log 2 =.801030,
2*.
log 2*
I log2
X
.301030
.501717.
Ans.
EXAMPLES.
log2 =.301030,
Given
log 3
.477121, calculate
1.
log 3*.
8.
logl2".
6.
log 432*.
2.
log 2^.
4.
log 3*.
6.
logl296t.
LOGARITHMa
98.
is
In
of the
any
to the
equal
75
logarithm of
quantity
by
the index
root.
1
r
log,^m
For,
Given
Example.
(^2.
log^2
of
of
root
log,(m")
log 2
log,m
(Art. 9 7)
.301030,
log2=
.301030
Ans.
.060206.
EXAMPLES.
log2
Given
.301030, log3
log^3.
1.
.477121, calculate
3.
logv^648.
6.
logv^ll25.
4.
log"/75.
6.
logv^l6875.
'
logV24.
2.
In the
d9.
system, the
common
the
having
of all numbers
mantissoe
same
sequence
that
log3.053
of the logarithms
same.
example,
For
suppose
log 30.63
Then,
Iog30530
.484727
integralpower
the
same
logarithms will
to
be
+
a
of 10,
sequence
the
log 3.053
log 10000
4.484727.
log3.053
clear,then, that if
having
Or,
.484727
any
1.484727.
.484727+1
log .03053=
by
log3.053f log.lO
It is
.484727.
10
number
8.484727
be
10 ; etc.
multipliedor
thereby producing
of
log.01
figures,the
another
mantissse
ber
num
of their
same.
if log3.053
illustrate,
.484727, then
log30.53
1.484727
log.3053
9.484727
log305.3
2.484727
log .03053
8.484727
log3053
3.48472r
log .003053
7.484727
etc.
divided
etc.
10
10
10
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
76
We
now
may
only
the
mantissae
find the
to
are
mantissa
the
table, and
of
depending
we
the
rules
number,
of
figurescomposing
of
Art.
91,
wish
we
only
have
we
prefix the
then
for, if
to
find
it from
characteristic,
proper
point,in
ance
accord
91.
for numerical
constitutes
its
mon
com
all others
superiorityover
computations.
Given
to calculate
Us
Assume
the
the
logarithmof
logarithm to
quantity to
certain
hase^
other base.
any
equations
f
6"
From
any
system, and
100.
in the
sequence
can
the
on
with
the
table ;
given
in Art.
stated
wh}', as
reason
of
logarithm
the
This
the
see
'^}whence, I^^J^ga
m)
the assumed
ly
equations,
a"
6^,
a^
or
sslog^d,
Whence,
==
^
or
y=
log.6
y
the
Substituting
logi
values
of
a;
and
y,
log.6
That
is,if
we
its
logarithm
the
logarithm of
lOL
and
To
to
show
know
the
any
other
logarithm of
to
base, 6, is found
6 to the base
that
certain
base,
a,
by dividingby
a.
logab x log^a
1, for any
values
of
b.
Putting
log,a
^=ilog.b
Whence,
100,
log"6 X log^a
log^b
=
1.
(Art.93^
LOGARITHMS.
The
theorem
the
Assume
be
may
77
equation,
a*
6,
whence
log^b
log5a
Then,
Jf^a^
Therefore,
\ogJ)
whence
log^a
a?
102.
The
of Arts.
followingexamples
illustrate
the
98.
logf^y=^log2
1.
(logalog")
logV^^^V^^
log(v^aX
=
Reduce
the
(Art. 97)
do
\oJ
2.
76)
(Art. 96)
Xog^c
(Art. 96)
logv^aHlogy^6 log{/c
(Art. 95)
logc
(Art. 98)
"
loga
following to
logft
"
their
simplest forms
log5L^.
4.
log(yaxyxc^).6. logrf^.
6.
log?*. 7. logV^.
3.
8.
9.
OF
103.
THE
The
mantissse
calculated
of
to
log(^^(cd)^).
TABLE
first table
the
six
logV^6c*d"
\oc
USE
applications
OF
LOGARITHMS
(Appendix,
OF
pages
1 to
from
NUMBERS.
first page
10000,
of
the
PLANE
78
table
are
This
table
the
mantissae
To
logarithms of
is added
to be
are
the
find
TRIGONOMETRY.
the
simply
found
numbers
for
1 and
convenience,
in the other
logarithm of
between
the
as
same
number
any
100.
consistingof four
figures.
Find, in the column
given
will
number.
be
found
headed
Then
the mantissa
in the
horizontal
vertical column
which
at the
If
top.
found,
are
only
mantissa
consists
of six
of the
line
the fourth
has
corresponding, in
be
vertical
same
example,
log 140.8
2. 148603
log .05837
8.766190
3.930236
log8516
For
number
three
consistingof
table,which
of the
page
of
needs
corresponding in
log 94.6
To
104.
or
two
the mantissa
the
which
istic
character
proper
10
the first
figures,use
headed
the column
from
column,
explanation ;
no
in the column
figures,look
mantissa
one
the
ber
given num
obtained
For
the
figuresof
figures may
above, in the
required logarithm
figureof
last four
the
nearest
for
N, and
headed
0.
number
take
For
the
ple,
exam
=1.975891.
find
the
logarithm of
of
number
than
more
four
figures.
For
example,
From
the
That
increase
.78
decimal
of
increase
.000132
of
to find
3.517987
log3297
3.518119
one
in the
logarithm. Then,
in the number
will
in the
logarithm
.000103
place.
log 3296.78.
log 3296
unit
of .78
.000132
required
find
table, we
is, an
increase
let it be
produce
to
produces
an
an
evidently',
an
increase
the nearest
of
sixth
LOGARITHMS.
79
"
'
Therefore,
log 3296.78
log 3296
.000103
3.517987
.000103
Note.
The
foregoing
differences
of
logarithms
for
We
Mnd
the table
in
the
found
Fmd
the above
from
but
their
sufficiently
the mantissa
this and
headed
of the
each
on
point.
next
difference,
page
see
differenceby
with
decimal
the rest
of the figuresof
characteristic.
proper
logarithm
the
of .02243076.
Mantissa
Tabular
operation :
Prefix the
1.
of
in the column
given number,
Add
the
regard to
differences
below)
Note
that the
strictlycorrect,
the mantissa
between
difference
higher number
to be
following rule
the
figures,without
and
the
to
assumption
practicalpurposes.
derive
Find
is not
the
upon
proportional
are
which
corresponding numbers,
exact
is based
method
Ans.
3.518090.
difference
of 2243
350829
=194
15
"076
350844
1.164
13.58
Correction
=14.
744
nearly.
=15,
Ans.
To
Note.
figure of
the
find
whole
headed
.02243076, the
tabular
from
the mantissa
nearest
column
the
the
number
D
last
in
to
tabular
193, the
the
figure of
difference.
number
last
ending
difference
same
the
in
in
the
that
mantissa
13 leaves
mentally,
figureof
line.
subtract
For
10.
"
the
greater, and
the next
figure to
the
number
in
last
take
the
of 2243
4, and
column
8.350844
is 9, and
the nearest
headed
D,
is
of
number
194, the
the next
ending
proper
80
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
EXAMPLES.
Find
logarithms of
the
followingnumbers
the
2.
.053.
6.
33.6908.
10.
912.255.
3.
51.8.
7.
.0602851.
11.
.876092.
4.
.2956.
8.
65000.68.
12.
7308.078.
6.
1.0274.
9.
.001030741.
13.
.0436927.
14.
Given
log7.83
.89876,
log7.84
find
.89432;
1(^
78309.
16.
log .05230
Givenlog .05229=8.71841910,
=8.718502
"
16.
find
log315.09= 2.4984346;
log315.08 =2.4984208,
Given
log .003150823.
17.
Given
find
log.188527.
18.
find
log 9. 5338
Given
For
To
find
example,
logarithm is
Since
the number
let it be
point, and
in
We
the
of
increase
logarithm.
number
all of
one
table
the
is
the
the
whose
positionof
mantissa
ing,
correspond
number,
or
corresponding
mantissa
693815, of which
the mantissa
693903,
is 4942.
of 88 in the mantissa
in the mantissa
produces
an
corresponding. Hence,
will
produce
an
increase
the
of figures
sequence
number
4941, and
of 30
the
number
increase
unit in the
Number
affects
way
corresponding number
is, an
That
depends only on
obtain
can
find in the
corresponding
of which
find the
required to
no
only..
3.693845.
corresponding, we
correspondingto
the characteristic
decimal
of
log95.34071.
105.
the
=.9
4 '34
4941.34.
Ans.
of
crease
inan
ff
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
82
14.
Given
Given
log .08630
10 ; find number
"
16.
Given
17.
log 7.3488
find number
have
the
the
Multiplication,and
the
written
the
the
parts of
mantissa
characteristic
For
should
28.964316"30
Subtraction.
2.
a
less,or
the
by 10,
For
the
in
the
be
being
example,
minuend
should
the
be
from
than
to 8.964316
both
will make
as
10.
changed
form
have
as
in
"
form
the
10,
we
have
the
3.121468
12.503964
a
3.354802;
to
10
"
; etc.
should
mantissa
from
"
to
increased
be
compensate.
2.503964,
we
write
result 9.382496"10.
9.63532110
minuend
minuend
after
subtract
to
we
of
written
in the
subtract
this 9.635321
less
are
standing
9, subtract
mantissa
changed
etc.,
In
characteristic
"10
the
few
this 3.121468,
To
before
"30,
10
of
service.
of
characteristic
multiple of
13.35480210
example,
the
and
such
"20,
"10,
we
some
give
found
will be
is greater than
logarithm
the
peculiar,we
are
98,
As
logarithms.
sum,
mantissa,
Subtraction,
Addition,
of
with
arise
may
.8662401
Arts.
operations
If, in the
after
before
find
2.8662350.
solution, which
Addition.
1.
the
their
to
as
10.
Division
which
problems
hints
"
=.3160333;
7.739416"10.
applicationof
perform
to
log 2.0703
9.3160138
corresponding to
In
1=8.936061
Given
106.
ber
num
0.936049.
=.3160123,
corresponding to
18.
; find
log .0863
110,
corresponding to
corresponding to
Given
number
=8.93601
log 2.0702
find number
114=2.05690
1.05411.
corresponding to
16.
log
from
9.58342710,
19.583427^20;
as
we
write
subtractingfrom
result 9.948106
"
10.
LOGARITHMS.
Multiplication.
3.
result
the
To
Addition
of
hint
and
4.
both
parts
make
the
the
of
example,
to
by 6,
we
10
to
will
as
exactly divisible by
the
quotient.
7.402938
divide
have
cation.
Multipli
multiple of
"10
by 6,
to
force
the mantissa
the
as
reducing
the denominator.
by
such
logarithm
"10
equal
for
fraction,multiplyfirst by the
dividing a
quantity after
divisor,with
For
In
the result
divide
Division.
akeady given
applieswith
multiply a logarithm by
numerator,
both
The
83
as
"
we
add
50
to
ing
Divid
60.
result 9.567156"10,
EXAMPLES.
1.
Add
9.096004
10,
4.581726,
2.
Add
7.196070
10,
8.822209
3.
Subtract
0.659321
from
4.
Subtract
7.9Q1338
"10
from
1.009800.
5.
Subtract
9.156243
10
from
8.75040410.
6.
Multiply 9.10510710
7.
Divide
8.45263310
by
4.
8.
Divide
9.67039210
by
11.
9.
Multiply
SOLUTIONS
OF
8.447510
and
10,
10.
2.205683.
0.511490.
by
9.66831110
and
by
3.
?.
ARITHMETICAL
PROBLEMS
BY
LOGARITHMS.
107.
In
findingthe
logarithms,we
Art.
value
first find
102, by the
corresponding to
aid of
the
the
the result.
of
any
arithmetical
logarithm
table, and
of
the
then
quantity by
quantity,as
find
the
number
in
TEIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
84
1.
Find
the value
By
Art.
of .0631
.'.
2.
512.72)
8.80002910
log 7.208=
0.857815
log512.72=
2.709880
log of
An8.
corresponding to
Find
512.72.
log.0631=
12.367724
Number
7.208
log.0631+log7.2Q8+log512.72
Adding,
the value
of
10
(Art. 106, 1)
2.367724
2.367724
233.197.
Ana.
?5?":^.
7980.04
(Art. 106, 2)
log3368.52=13.52743910
log 7980.04=
Subtracting,..logof
Find
the value
of
9.625434"10
^ns.
=.422118.
corresponding
Number
3.
Ans.
3.902005
(.0980937)*.
1"^ (.0980937)*
=
log .0980937
5 X
log.0980937
8.991641
10
Multiplying,
..
log of
Ans.
Number
corresponding
4.
the value
Find
of
44.958205
50
4.95820510
Ans,
.0000090825.
V^^.
710
(Art. 87)
6770
(Art. 106, 4)
9.571429
log .001=
Dividing by 7,
Number
/.
log
of Ans.
corresponding
"
.87276.
10
Ana,
LOGARITHMS.
6.
Find
the value
86
of
3*
log^
log2
ilog5^flog3
3*
log 2
log 5
.698970
divide
by
.301030
.232990
.534020
log 3
.477121
Subtracting,
the
work
of the
6.
Ans.
See
Art.
=
.
"
1.36905.
will be
examples
lO's
1 3 64 1 9
omitted
being
Ans.
exhibited
after the
in
man
91.
the value
Fmd
.397601
two
next
tissae.
log of
*
.
corresponding
Number
The
multiply by 
of
V^.00003591.
log .00003591
5.555215
7)5.555215
log of
Note.
eyldent
A
from
the
definition
may
Find
9.365031
Ans.
.231756.
negative quantitj
computation, they
7.
Ans.
the value
be
of Art.
treated
86.
If
if
as
of
negative quantitiesoccur
thej
a//.032956\
7.96183
.032956
a/AO
=
log.032956
8.517934
log7.96183
0.901013
were
^n".=
(log.032956
9.205640
"
the
is
in
sign
work.
3)7.616921
Ans.
positive,and
logarithmic
96183
log of
logarithm, as
common
no
irrespectiveof the
\V
1
have
can
(Art. 106, 4)
.160661.
log 7.96183)
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
86
COMPLEMENT.
ARITHMETICAL
106.
Arithmetical
The
Complement
of
the
logarithm
of
For
the
example,
colog 4098
colog .06689
logi
log 1
3.612572
6.387428
log^
log 1
log 4098
10
log .06689
.OoDo9
following rule
The
illustrations
(8.825361 10)
0
will
10
from
The
cologarithm
by subtracting
others
from
quantity^ subtract
preceding
its
be
may
the
calculated
mentally
figure from
significant
last
logarithm
from
the
10, and
arithm
log
all the
9.
The
by logarithms in
compact form
more
illustrate,
suppose
To
the
10.
"
Note.
from
To
evident
be
1.174639
we
in certain
to calculate
are
of calculation
by logarithms.
"
cases.
^^(?$I)=*"K"''^''^''3
That
is
loga
H
log6
log
log a
f
logh
H
cologc
of four
of two
logarithms from
is,
exhibited
logarithms,instead
only applicableto
used
be
can
the
the
case
of
logf
cologd
in the form
tion
of the addi
of the subtraction
of two
sum
others.
fractions,and
The
the
of the
sum
principle
rule to be
L06ABITHMS.
AM
and
87
togetherthe logarithmsof
the
the
cologarithmsof
of
"
79.23
^r.07723
10.39
^613.8
numerator
denominator.
f
613.8
.07723
log79.23 +log
factors of the
the value
Find
Example.
^
factors of the
the
10.39
colog613.8
log 79.23=
1.898890
logl0.39=
1.016616
colog613.8=
oolog.07728=
log of
Ans.
Adding,
.*.
Number
corresponding
oolog.07723.
7.21197310
1.112214
=11.239693
=
4
10
1.239693
Ans.
17.3657.
EXAMPLES.
109.
Calculate
1. 9.23841
.00369822.
3.70963
286.512
values
by logarithms the
12.
of the
following:
("3)*
2* x

'
1633.72
13.
"
3,
(23.8464)".
4.
(. 000929687)^
6.
y/3.
^"^^^
14
_i_.
^
"^^ V^'
8.
16.
V^.0042937.
(1.05624)^.
11,
(.00200016)^,
5/
yCoooi.
18.
V
'"'"
/i5_\
VllSy
96829.586.
10.
V^723i9.812,
17.
9.
'
7y
000009506694.
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
88
/.0872635Y.
*"'
.132088
(.746892)*
(.234521)*
29.
"
11
V.00730007
SO.
(.682913)
V
5. 95463
31.
V^61.1998
V 298.5434
82.
J/3258.826Y
^'
'
9026137
16923.24
84.
X (.1)".
(18.9503)^""
86
V^3734.89 x .00001108184.
(.732465)^
86.
(2.63172)*
(.712719)*.
x
^429.0162
7
"
100
27.
28.
X.
.00776129
/z:?M?^A*
26
304.698
88.
\\^49309.8
.000596899)*.
(538.217 x
V^.000128883
V^. 00819323
37
\C000827606
.9834171
88.
EXPONENTIAL
We
110.
(.0628513)^'
LOGARITHMIC
AND
know
values
SERIES.
of
and
a?,
[(97('r
Expanding by
1
nx^
n
the Binomial
Theorem,
"(nl)l
obtain
I'
n(nl)(n2)l
[2_ n"^
""("a!l)
we
r"a;("a;l)(nx2)
n"
[3_
J
1
2_
n'
[3_
n*
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
go
1X3.
a
To
{H(al)f=l
a:(al)
of
x,
^^^^(al)"
taininga^,a^,etc.
(Art. Ill),
But
a'
As
1 4
the
values
two
the Theorem
(log"a)+
a;
of
a*
a;, and
1 +
=s
unless
; but
member
is
Art.
putting a?
a;,
obtain
we
calculate
to
Napierian logarithms
converges
obtain
more
Napierian logarithm of
By
used
small
very
or
"
slowly, and
very
second
hence
is
less
use
cases.
To
114.
be
might
divergent
is either
in most
the
formula
ajY+Y
This
therefore
log.(Haj)
Note.
coefficients of
"^
2
Putting a
of a;, by
equal ; hence,
(al)N
Coefficients the
expressions are
log,a
equal
are
of Undetermined
in the two
containingaf^a?^etc.
terms
number.
log.(Ha:)
113,
==
convenient
^ ^^f^+
aj
...
a?,
1
/I
0^
Q^
7^
of
Subtractmg,
log.(Ha^)log,(la?)=2aj
or,
by
Art.
96,
?^H^
...
^f
log/i"J^"2^"
""")
y
+
f
LOGARITHMa
91
1
Let
xss
2nHl
Then,
l+
x_
a?
"
2n+l_2n+l
2wHl
"
l_n
+ l
2n\l
f^^) loge(n
Substituting, log.
_o/
That
1)
log,n
111,
V2nfl 3(2n+l)'
5(2n
l)*
is.
L__+..
log.(n+l)=log."+2(^+^^^.+
calculate
To
Art.
then
formula
the
of
ha^v^e
^H
log.l+2/'"
log.2
""
since
log.1
log.2
^*
2/'i
+
\,3
From
find
"
81
i+i"
1215
.3465734
To
"
5(2 +1)"
15309
.0123457
+
"
.0008230
.0000005
...)
correct
to
we
may
calculate
log.3
; and
so
on.
"We
For
Art.
the
shall
2.302585.
colcutate the
logarithm of
common
number
Napierian logarithm.
By
^
.0000653
.693147,
f
1948617
177147
+
.6931468
1^
place.
log.2
=
3(2+1)'
0,
.0000056
2 X
log.lO
116.
==
^i"
\^2+l
(.3333333 +
decimal
sixth
r
""
its
in
n=l
114.
We
or,
log"2, put
100, changing h
instance, logio2
=
to
10, and
.4342945
to e,
.693147
we
obtain
.301030.
from
PLANE
92
multiplierby which
The
derived
that
TRIGONOMETRY.
the
from
Napierian system,
of
system
any
is called
are
the modulus
is the modulus
.4342945
Hence,
system.
logarithms
of the
of
common
S3'stem.
tables
As
of
tables of
than
logarithms
into
.4342945,
or
Napierian, a
Napierian
divide
either
may
logarithms
common
tiie
it
found
by
2.302585,
quently
fre
more
changing
common
convenient.
the
logarithm by
common
multiply
rule for
be
may
with
met
are
the
We
modulus
reciprocal of
.4342945.
Napierian logarithms
arithms, from
They
those
which
having
been
also
are
called
calculating logarithms.
in
used
originallyderived
natural
first in the
occur
computation,
called
sometimes
are
hyperbolic\ogfrom
the
logarithms,firom being
investigationof
method
Napierian logarithm'sare
but
frequently
occur
bola.
hyper
in
of
seldom
theoretical
investigations.
EXAMPLES.
MISCELLANEOUS
1.
117.
Find
log82187.
2.
Find
logs15625.
3.
Find
the
logarithm of
to the base
"
"
2.
64
4.
Find
the
5.
Find
the characteristic
of
log2l83.
6.
Find
the
characteristic
of
log34203.
7.
Given
log 2
.301030, how
many
digits are
there
Given
log 3
.477121,
how
many
digits are
there
logarithm of
to the base
"
8.
in 2^?
8.
in
3^?
9.
Find
100.)
TRIGONOMETRICAL
10.
FindloggieS.
11.
Find
12.
Using
TABLES.
93
l("2o411.
the table of
Ic^arithm of
logarithms,find
common
52.9381.
Find
the
Napierian logarithm of
1325.07.
14.
Find
the
Napierian logarithm of
.085623.
15.
Find
the
Napierian logarithm of
.342977.
OONSTRUOTION
AND
USE
NOMETRIOAL
NcUural
A
table of natural
values
of
intervals
from
10", and
the
the
table
the
0" to
the
decimal
natural
OF
CONSTRUCTION
Let
values
of the
(f
from
"We
For
the
to
is 1'
given
are
correct
or
to
gives
the
logarithms of
functions.
TABLE
NATURAL
OF
SINES
COSINES.
it be
required
sines
and
to
cosines
calculate
first to
determination
following theorem
Jf
functions
regular
at
calculate
of
the
angles
at
approximate
intervals
of 1'
90".
have
the
angles
ical
numer
places.
AND
119.
for
of
Functions,
logarithmic functions
corresponding
tables
As
90".
of
TRIQO
kinds
Logarithmic
principalfunctions
more
of
of two
are
of
functions
values
four, five,or
A
tables
Functions^ and
OP
TABLES.
TrigonometricalTables
118.
erian
Napi
(Art. 116.)
13.
VII.
the
is any
acute
of
the
the values
former
we
of
sinl' and
shall
make
cosl'.
use
of
angle expressed
sina? "
in circular
a?
"
measure^
then
TBIGONOMETRT.
PLANE
94
For, by Art.
67, writing
smsB
 in
2Bm~
place of
a;,
COS
Bin
sina?
Therefore,
 2tanf
(1 sin'f
)
oob^
"
"
cos
8ina;"2
"
is acute, tan".
f1
"
Hence,
"
8in",orBin""
sin
Hence,
Art.
By
120l
80,
119, 8ina;"aj
Art.
a?
x\\
"
(a),
"
if
a;
)
,
"a5
or
"
"
is acute, sina;"
a;
and
by
"
"
Put
equal
^
to the circular
of
measure
IT
1'=
since
1'
10800'
i"
is
of 180**
"
10800
to
correct
eight
decimal
measure
mal
(Art.6)
\
f
Taking^
for
ir
places, we
.00029088821,
the value
have
for
correct
3.14159265, '
the
circular
to eleven
deci
places.
Then,
sinl'"
"
.00029088821, and
.00029088821
^i:00029088821)f
4
The
approximate
places is
value
.00000000001.
sml'".
Hence, sinl'
of
to eleven
mal
deci
Thus,
00029088820.
.0002908882, correct
to ten
decimal
places.
TABLES.
TRIGONOMETRICAL
To
of
1^
cos
the fonnnla
take
we
96
cosl'=v/l8inn'
Vl"(0002908882)"
.9999999577
calculated
Haying
obtain
from
By
sines
the
cosines
and
1' to
30**
Art.
+ y)
72, sin(aj
as
follows
2sinaJC0sy
szs
a;
sin 2'
in
hy
1 and
cos(a;+l')
2co8a;cosl'"
in these
te
than
first,
"
sin(a5 y)
1'
of
"
cos
"
(x
y)
"
sin3'
the value
1'"
1', we
have
sin 0'
(.0002908882) (.9999999577)
(.0002908882)(1
.0000000428)
.0005817764
in the
; it
form
heing
.0000000423
multiply
cosl'"
hy
oos2'
Putting X
intervals
r=
multiplying
to
formuke
change
then
cosy
2sinaj
"
The
cosa?
sin(a;+l')
=
Note.
at
cosl', we
and
to
angles
Giving
all
of
of sinl'
(a?+ y)
cos
Putting
the values
it at
of
much
and
once
value
less work
2cosl'cosl'"
cos
1' is for
multiply
second
.9999998308
result
.0000000423)
have
2 sin2'
"
cos
1 '"
sin 1'
(.0005817764)(1 .0000000423)
.0002908882
0008726646
ience
conven
.0002908882
from
cos0'=s2cosl'cosl'"
(.9999999577)(1
2',we
to
the
subtract
of
by .9999999577.
".
the
1
1
the
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
96
cos8'
2oos2'oosl'"
.9999996193
cosl'*
(.9999998308)(1
By continuing in this
5', ""*, 29^59', we shall
cosines
of all angles at
calculate
To
72, sin
Art.
By
cos
Putting
a;
sin
cos
Putting y
which,
from
intervals
2sina; cosy
(x + y)
cos
(30"+ y)
cos
(30"
sin30" 1' =
cos
1'
cos30"l'
cos29"59'sinl'
the
of
to
of
an
already
we
In
obtained
"
siny
y)
become
y)
(61)
sin y
"
(62)
cos
29"
values
of
cosine
obtain
cosines
of all
angles
30" to 45".
45" to
of
respectivelythe
the
angle,
furnish
intervals
OF
calculatingthe
the results
are
calculated
angles at
values
METHODS
124.
(a? y)
previoualy calculated
y the
angle
complement
of all
for
have
angles from
For
values
cosines
(30"
sin
and
30^.
cosy
the
sines
to
and
2 sina;
"
the values
in succession
of
0"
3', 4',
obtained.
are
cosine
"
(30"+ y)
Similarly,giving
and
sin
"
(a? y)
=
the
follows
as
sinaj
of
sines
the
proceed
of
values
the
1' from
of
(x + y)
aid
by
to
values
the
the values
l',we
giving
have
80", whence
.9999999577
way,
45", we
30" to
angles from
.0000000423)
it will
us
of 1' from
be
seen
the
sines
and
that
and
sine
the
sines
co
45" to 90".
VERIFICATION.
sine and
correct
with
cosine
to ten
cosine
of
decimal
1' in Art.
120,
places ; and,
in
PLANE
98
in this fornmla
If to ^
and
sin 26**
calculated
values
satisfythis
relation
this
In
correctly.
table
calculated
For
cos
we
give any value, say 10*^,
we
sin 46^the
should
TRIGONOMETRY.
sin82**+ sin62**=
of
sines
the
manner
we
sinlO**
of
if the work
these
has
five
been
angles
performed
part of the
verifyany
may
have
of sines.
table of
verifyingthe
(86''+^)
(36**^)
cos
have
cosines, we
2 cosSe** cos^
^^__"l_cos4
2
cos
(72**+^) +
(72**^)
cos
72** cos^
^5lcos4
cos
(36"+^)
cos
(36**^)
cos
result is known
This
USE
THE
OF
"
cos
(72**+^)
"
cos
(72"^)
TABLE
table
LOOARITHMIG
OF
intervals
(Appendix,
of
18
pages
minute
one
equal
the
to
and
complement
of
angles between
functions
For
at
of
the top of
the
angle, it
45" and
between
the
and
the functions
the
top;
that
cotangents of
0" to 90".
cotangent of any
90"
0" and
page,
in the
is, sines
the
are
0" and
angles between
angles
from
61) gives
to
angle
Since
are
of
the
SINES,
ETC.
(64)
Legendre's Fonmda,
as
COSINES,
This
cos4
follows
to be
that
found
the
all
the
tively
respecof
tangent
the
functions
in the table
of
45".
minutes
columns
in the
in the
indicated
first
column,
lefthand
by
column,
the
at
names
cosines
in
the
TRIGONOMETRICAL
in the
functions
the
in the
in the
first
the
45"
between
the
90",
and
logarithm
increased
been
has
45"
and
45"
90", and
and
Thus,
values
To
unity, in
angles
all these
"10
cases
be
must
in the table.
27
9.79367310.
33
0.362735.
log cot
79"
9.28322510.
log cos
20" 54
9.97044210.
9.86444510.
log cos
89" 3 7
7.82545110.
log sin
89"
9.99994010.
log cot
12" 41'=
the
and
of
find
tangent of any
cotangents of
given
are
logtan36"12
128.
in the
0" and
cotangents of angles between
unity,the logarithms are not increased
the
their true
at
names
sines
column,
by 10,
The
the
angles^the tangents
the
less than
are
written
by 10,
45", and
by
column,
of all
cosines
0" and
between
angles
and
sines
be found
righthand
indicated
columns
the
99
and
at the
and
45"
angles between
For
TABLES.
0.647713.
logarithmicsine,cosine, tangent, or
co
angle.
acute
RULE.
Find
in
Art.
the
for
difference
minutes.
1"
If sine
T
L
and
)
^
cotangent
or
The
columns
"tangent,"
right hand
column
,,
this
correction.
.
cosine
of seconds.
the number
tangent add
or
Note
the
I. to
128.)
i^
subtract
to the
contain
right of
the
the columns
headed
respective differences
of differences
is also
to be
used
for
with
"
sine/'
"
one
sine,"
co
second;
the cohiimi
PLANE
100
"cotangent." It
headed
stand
the
on
same
When
the next.
next
below should
next
above.
IL
Note
The
will be obsenred
that
the
difference does
not
given above
rule
logarithmicfunctions
or
TRIGONOMETRY.
are
of the
assumes
of their
sponding
corre
very
near
Art.
131.
0"
EXAMPLES.
1.
Find
logtan
17^3'
51".
logtanl?^13'=
9.491180
10
.
379
D. 1"=
9.49lS5^ 10
7.44
=logtanl7'*13'51".Ans.
51
7.44
372.0
379.44
2.
Find
379, nearly.
66**33' 29".
logcos
log C0866**
33'=
9.599827
10
141
D. 1"=
4.85
9.599686
10.
Ans.
29
43.65
97.0
140.65
Find
the values
141, nearly.
3.
logco835M8'42".
7.
Iogtan82*0'5.2".
4.
logsin6r58'4".
8.
logsin55Ml'43.7".
5.
logcot
9.
Iogcos30"2'1.83".
6.
Iogcos0"47'38".
10.
Iogcot48"0'53".
TRIGONOMETRICAL
natural
The
obtained
fanctions
TABLES.
of
by finding the
if
angle,
an
numbers
101
be
reqaired, may
corresponding
to
the
rithmic
loga
functions.
in
Thus,
Ex.
9.491559
logarithm
is
10
"
corresponding
which
.310141,
is the
to
the
natural
Find
of the
followingnatural
cosl5"31'16".
11.
12. tan72"0'23".
To
find
the acute
functions
18.
cot 50"
14.
sin48"51'6.3".
12' 44.2".
angle correspondingto
given logarithmic
Find
gent,
logarithmicsine, cosine, tan
or
the
less
for
difference
Subtract
1".
the next
Divide
Note
(See
less from
the remainder
minutes
the
corresponding,and
I. to Art.
128.)
given logarithm.
rection
cor
in seconds.
sine
If
Note
paid
In
as
is greater
angle
Suppose
that
now
sine ; if
at
the
the
other
we
lefthand
from
three
Note
the
..
correction.
the
less than
in different
the
if
degrees
on
the
we
must
columns
be
ing
accord
45".
less
next
from
; but
the
column
are
found
logarithm, attention
are
colunm
less
next
logarithm
top of the
in the
and
page,
the
right. We
of
minutes
with
sine
**
"
and
the
proceed similarlywith
the
foot
the
rithmic
loga
headed
the
from
to
column
page,
functions.
It
IL
to
logarithm,
or
degrees
take
foot, we
minutes
we
find
the
take
"sine/* we
from
for the
searching
the
,,
\ this
cotangent subtract J
or
add
tangent
^
or
;'
If cosine
is often
convenient, in looking
logarithmic
subtract
correction.
from
cosine
it the
or
cotangent,
out
to
given logarithm,
the
angle
add
the
sponding
corre
greater
sponding
corre
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
102
"
EXAMPLES.
1.
Find
the
angle whose
log sin
9.959343
"10.
9.95934310
Next
log sin
less
9.959310
10 ;
angle cor.
65** 35'.
.95)33 (34.7,
nearly
D.l"=
285
450
380
700
the
Adding
2.
Find
correction,the angle
the
angle whose
logcot
cor.
Ana,
0.169602.
0.169602
Next
less
log cot
0.169379
angle
cor.
34* 6'.
4.53)223(49.2,
nearly.
D.l"=
1812
4180
4077
1030
angles corresponding in
the
8.
logtan
0.916351.
4.
logcos
9.923569"
6.
log sin
9.863011
natural
If the
10.
10.
Find
Since
logtan
the
log.2
=
is
function
9.301030
9.301030
10,
5' 10.8".
following:
6.
logcot
0.215386.
7.
logcos
9.227937"
8.
log sin
9.189118
given, we
Arts.
have
only
10.
10.
to find
its
above.
as
angle whose
=
the
=34"
tangent
"
which
10,
we
.2.
find
the
angle
Ana.
whose
TABLES.
TRIGONOMETRICAL
the
Find
ftmctions
10.
angles oorresponding
the
to
103
natural
following
tan=?.
12.
sin =.096923.
14.
sin
16.
tan=.l.
iv^7.
11.
13.
cot =2.
To
130.
acute
find
the
cos
^^5.
logarithmic secant
an^le.
Since
and
seoo^s
coseca?s=
sin
cosx
have
we
log sec
a?
colog cos
a?
log cosecfl;
and
That
cologsino?
)
r
To
of any
cosecant
or
_x
/^o\
(Art. 108)
is,
find
the
10"10;
from
logarithmicsecant
to
the
find
logarithmicsine from
stibtract the
^
logarithmiccosine
logarithmiccosecant
siibtract the
y
10 "10.
EXAMPLES.
1.
Findrogsec22"39'.
log cos
Subtracting from
the values
2.
22" 39'
of the
the
log sec
Note.
Since
3.
=
,
we
can
find the
log sec
the
5.
0.400314.
coir
Ans.
following:
angles corresponding to
=
10.
0.034857.
logcosec55"ll'43".
Find
4.
9.965143
10"10,
log sec
Find
22" 39'=
following:
log cosec
logarithmic cotangent
tSLUX
an
0.188783.
from
10"10.
of
13L
It
the differences
be
0", nor
the
with
of
angle
cotangent of
0", is
small
so
angle
the
figureof
to
the
produce
angle
an
and
gents
cotan
1' and
logarithmic sine
of
change
of
an
near
seconds
unit in the
one
of
angle
an
2' is
3' it is 2934.85.
2' and
between
between
logarithmiccosine
in
right hand
the
logarithmic cosine
same
logarithmiccosines
It
132.
depended
tangent,
decimal
as
upon
cotangent of
is true
same
very
in
t^hecase
of
of
in Art.
differ in
not
small
80, that
in
the
an
that
first six
be
cannot
angle
to
near
cotangent of
or
angle
an
to
near
90*^ ;
in
logarithmicfunction
very
being
reason
point.
accurate
cosine, tangent,
133.
do
; the
or
the
the
to
figuresfollowing the
any
with
case
the mantissa.
their actual
and
the
that it
Thus, according
5' have
angle
an
90", or
to
near
corresponding 'angles.
the
to
the difference
Again,
approximately
this is not
and
general
to 90^
Thus, according
5017.17, while for
are
logarithmiccosines, tangents,
angles near
sine, tangent, or
their
that
logarithmicsines,tangents,
the
to
the table
from
seen
of
in
n., that
logarithmicfunctions
of the
proportionalto
It may
128, Note
in Art.
stated
was
the differences
to
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
104
when
accurate
it is
method
to 0"
near
for
or
90".
findingthe
correction
the
the sines
and
approximately proportional to
tangents of small
the
angles
angles
themselves.
To
By
the
principlejust stated,
sin 3' 18'': sin3'=3'18":
3'=
198":
180"
are
TRIGOKOMETBT.
PLANE
106
EXAMPLES.
following:
of the
the values
Find
1.
logsin2'26".
8.
logeot4'13".
2.
logtan3'41.8".
4.
log cos
Find
6.
7.
134.
Art.
By
logcot
be
certain
angle.
acute
acute
angles
of
angle
an
expressed
to
serves
of any
7.427926
fanctions
50, the
negative,can
logsin =7.170808
6.
6.96821110.
logtan=
of
the
the values
of
of
of
functions
the functions
Art.
By
sin
=
And
the
from
Or,
we
of
an
15' 11"=
sin
function
angle
is
in the solution
negative, as,
90" and
between
sign of
the
and
XVI.
examples
function
the result
work.
of
being
Examples
as
(180"
if it
49")
were
for
(Art. 50)
example,
180", there
(See Note
in such
determined
of
7" 44'
function, properlyspeaking.
with
9.12968410.
cosine
11")
sin 172"
If the natural
82" 15'
cos
take
may
(90"+
table,
log cos
XV.
fanctions
the
of
For
But
angle,positive or
any
table
determine
10.
10.
of
in terms
the
Thus
following:
the
angles corresponding to
the
case,
is
no
to Art.
we
may
in the
logarithmic
107.)
ceed
pro
positive,the algebraic
irrespectiveof
this will be
found
in
the
logarithmic
Chapters
SOLUTIOlt
OF
SOLUTION
VIII.
TRIANGLES.
RIGHT
RIGHT
OP
107
TRIANGLES.
"
six
135i
elements:
three
three
known,
are
findingthe
unknown
of the
solution
elements
from
the
given
to the
is called
is
only
necessary
to
which
cases
the
hypothenuae and
2.
Given
an
angle and
its
3.
Given
an
angle and
4.
Cfiven the
5.
Given
the two
We
shall
sides about
base
the
the
proper
may
formula
coqB=
be foaad
different
of the
of formulae
tan^
by
elements
computing
the
side
either
following rule
tan5=
are
cases
for
be
side.
followingset
given
must
sinJ^s
two
arise
two
rightangle.
solutions
the
COS
another
If the
the
opposite side.
hypothenuse and
righttriangles
upon
of
angle.
acute
an
know
of which
can
Given
sin4
process
elements
1.
under
in
rightangle, one
will be five
There
137.
triangleis
side.
and
triangle.
in addition
side.
is
of them
one
righttrianglesit
For
136.
provided
sides
and
of the
angle, the
remaining sides
an
T^LANE
108
tJuU
Take
the
and
of
one
the
given parts
angles by
the
given elements,
the
given side
and
aid
of
either
first calculate
formula
side
remaining
the
should
sides, we
are
containing
then
may
be
the
found
rule.
the above
by
involves
side.
required
If both
TRIGONOMETRY.
EXAMPLES.
1.
130.
and
Given
203.762, B
Find
b.
In this
the formula
case
used
to be
8mB=*
and
are
co8B
Whence,
c"iaB
and
By logarithms,log b
log c
loga
and
logc
log sinB
2.309123
9.568174
5=
Given
We
have
now
logc
10
log cos
loga
75.3871
2.
ccosB
log sinB
1.877297
log6=
..
h
..
13, A
sin^
67** 7'.
:
"
and
loga
log b
log a
logsinJ.
=1.113943
=
logc=
..
c=
9.96440010
1.149543
14.1105
2.277158
189.303
c.
By logarithms, log c
loga
9.968035
tan^
sin^
and
a=
Whence,
2.309123
5 and
Find
tan4
and
"
"
log sin4
logtan
loga
logtan^
log6
.'.
1.113943
0.374612
0.739331
6s
5.48695
10
SOLUTION
'
3.
Given
We
have
.151213,
cos4
RIGHT
OF
Find
.308069.
logcos4
or
TRIANGLES.
log5
109
A
and
a.
logc.
"
log6
9.179589
logc
9.488648
9.690941
..4
sin4
logcos^
find a,
To
have
we
or
logc
h
,
8in.4.
Then,
loga
logc
9.488648
9.940142
9.428790
log sin^
lc^a
.268404
..a"
this
In
Note.
example
log sin A
the
lO's
"
omitted
are
as
explained
in
Art. 91.
139.
two
sides
first,and
trigonometricalsolution
the
In
given, it is
are
the
remaining
possible,however,
independently
necessary
to find
side
then
may
to determine
of the
the
angle, by
4."2=c2;
whence,
By logarithms,
From
the
data,
loga
+ 5=.
be
angles
calculated.
It is
side
459282,
9.66207910
log(c6)=
9.19550110
V(c h ") (c
"
a=
9.42879010
.268404,
as
"
6 =.156856
2)18.85758020
.'.
once,
methods.
il log (c h 6) + log (c
log(ch")=
loga=
at
have, by Greometry,
we
6^
where
*of the
one
Geometrical
^ c^
example
remaining
of any
before.
6)
6) }
110
But
formula
mic
tiie two
when
for
14(X
21.
eter
is
computation.
according to
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
"
sides
given
yc^+V^
In
which
such
Solve
the
1.
Given
2.
Given
8.
Given
4.
Given
^=72**
6.
Given
6.
Given
7.
are
and
is not
case
", the
adapted
it is shorter
to
Ic^arithproceed
137.
followingtriangles:
^
a
74** 0'
638.5,
22M4',
6=13.242.
6'
18",
51",
275.623.
c=
501.2,
83.4001.
275.316,
204.168.
340.06,
231.69.
Given
4
43**
=158.3.
8.
Given
6M2'
37205.62.
9.
Given
a=
24.6722,
33.0011.
10.
Given
5=
62** 55',
47.7.
11.
Given
3.465287,
6=1.436741.
12.
Given
18.
Given
14.
Given
5=10**
16.
Given
16.
Given
17.
Given
18.
Given
19.
Given
20.
Given
Find
32",
04792,
19",
51',
2M9'
34",
.02497.
200.048.
c=.7264,
=1875.321.
58** 39',
c=
10.10683,
17.30264.
37", 6
120.2162,
a=
22',
64** 0'
34** 14'
2.0008,
a=
52**
regularpentagon
is 24 inches.
to
resulting
41',
is inscribed
the
length of
35.73.
1.7087.
4247.
in
circle whose
its side.
diam*
OF
SOLUTION
22.
At
of
angle
it^
height.
The
diameter
24.
Find
of
side is 7.028
whose
25.
From
the
of
top of
The
27.
distance
top is 78.36
The
2^.
length of
observer
stand,
29.
the
From
of
30.
Find
A
the
Care
141.
are
to 0"
near
height of
the
visible from
surface
Find
the
be
in
90",or
or
out
the
will
feet
high
must
of the
an
top of
depression
of
line 1000
the
feet in
the
functions
rules
derive
21"
accurate
angles which
when
near
series of formulae
circle
its side.
more
of
the
of
length,
to be
about
length of
employ
findingthe
of
angle
tower.
to
logarithmiccosine
now
miles.
circles.
except
righttriangle,
angle corresponding to a logarithmicsine
a
of
is 20 inches.
tower, is observed
Find
taken
These
or
height
7912
as
elevation
of
sea,
buoy.
pole 80
the
to be
is circumscribed
inches.
can
We
above
circumscribed
base
the
133
circumstances.
90",
feet
regularoctagon
angle
of
must
of Art.
tower, the
foot
is 10
methods
ble
visi
height?
being taken
and
the
regular hexagon
diameter
whose
miles,
regular pentagon
distant.
horizontal
the
from
16' 37".
Find
10"?
the top of
extremity
measured
to
miles
the foot of
that
so
be
pole may
in
is observed
of the
the side of
far from
How
38".
the surface
miles
the earth's
Find
the
buoy
the
tower,
7912
as
point of
H
of
to be
taken
diagonal of
point of
remotest
mountain
top is observed
lighthouse 133
base
the
being
HI
inches.
angle of depression of
the
from
mountain
length
the
feet
of the remotest
the summit
from
TRIANGLES.
of the earth
is the distance
what
100
of its
of elevation
the
23.
distance
RIGHT
ilar
sim
case
which
in
looking
when
near
to 0".
for
righttriangles
aid of which
by
tion may
the
anglecarrespondii^ to
be determined
angle
An
of
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
112
0*^may
to
near
with
142.
Art.
By
11, cos^
avoided
be
90*^.
to
near
in the
the other
with
righttriangleby working
it is
when
accuracy
always
logarithmicfanc
sdliitMHi
angle.
acate
.
Hence
(Art.69),
^Il5
2sin"i^=loos4=l.
2cos"i^=r
and
oos4"l
1 +
=^^
h
sini^
Then,
From
J^,
co8i4
Ji"?
(65)
these, by division,
(")
6
b
we
Similarly,
may
prove
(67)
formnlaB
These
itself is
in
seconds
sufficient
To
to
near
may
involve
90**,its
the
halfangles; hence,
half is
in that
be
case
45", and
to
near
found
from
if the
angle
the connection
the
table
to solve
with
precision.
illustrate,
given
1.08261, 6
1.08249
the
triangle.
Here
is
near
to 0" and
by inspection.
the formulae
colate
of Art.
a, which
may
We
142.
be
is
near
to
90", as
may
shojildthen proceed
For
done
this purpose
as
in Art.
139.
we
be determined
to find B
must
by
first cal"
PLANE
114
FOR
FOBMXTL^
143.
Case
Letting K
TRIGONOMETRY.
THE
AREA
Given
I.
denote
the
OF
hypothenuse
the area,
and
have, by
we
TRIANGLE.
RIGHT
an
acute
angle.
Geometry,
2K=^ab
But
(Art. 12), a
c8in4, 6
coSw4
Substituting,2ir=c'sinw4
Whence,
4 ^=
Similarly,we
may
ccos^
}c'sin24
c* sin 2 4
(68)
prove
4ir=c*sin2B
Case
U.
Since
Given
tan J.
(Art. 67)
an
(69)
angle and
(Art. 11) ,
its
have
we
2ir=a.
oppositeside.
a*cot4
(70)
tan^l
Similarly,
Case
III.
Since
2 K=b^
Given
atan5
2K=a
Similarly,
an
(71)
cot B
angle and
(Art. 11),
'
at"nB
2^=6*tan4
its
adjacentside.
have
we
=i
a^tSLuB
(72)
(73)
SOLUTION
Case
IV.
Since
Given
\J{c
+
the
a)(c
hypothenuse and
Case
Y.
2K^h
Qiven
115
another
a) (Art. 139),
"
2 K=^
SimUaxly,
TRIANGLES.
RIGHT
OF
we
side.
have
"^{c+ a)(C'a)
(74)
V/(c+ 6)(c6)
(75)
the two
aides about
the
rightangle.
(76)
2K^ah
Here,
EXAMPLES.
1.
Given
By Case I.,
25
log (4 K)
1.015242
; find the
logc + logsin
21ogc
logsin
..
log (4^)
2.030484
9.700178
1.730662
K==
..
in each
of the
Find
the
2.
Given
4=
3.
Given
8=21"
4.
Given
=100.58,
6.
Given
2.887262,
6.
Given
43"
7.
Given
72" 8'
8.
Given
68" 48'
9.
Given
10.
Given
8
18" 16'
33'
28'
30"
=203.078.
51",
=.8210733.
16",
30'
following:
a
42",
=.62408,
=
13.4463
39",
3",
115.738.
5.110177.
11.229.
c=
.0272768.
729.344.
c=.
57",
2 B
..4^=53.7851
area
area.
(^B\n2B
4ir=
Hence,
logc
10.3572,
90983.
1.643829.
10
PLANE
116
IX.
TRIQONOMETRY.
GENERAL
144.
PROPERTIES
trianglethe
In any
sides
OF
proportional
are
ANGLES.
TRI
to the sines
will be two
There
all acute,
angles are
or
CD
That
h"inA
CD
each
figure
AB.
have, by Art.
and
5sin^
In
obtuse.
perpendicular\o
figurewe
is,
arise,according as the
can
them
of
one
be drawn
From
whieh
eases
12,
asinB
asinB
From
the
right hand
CD
But
sin CBD
Then,
as
6sin^
similar
manner
and
we
CD
(77)
12,
asin
sinB
CBD
(Art. 43)
sin ^
s=
sin^
may
sinB
Art.
(180" B)
sin^
figure,by
s=sin
before,
or,
In
"
sinB
prove
hi
sin^:
sinC
(78)
c:
aa=sin(7:
sin^
(79)
GENERAL
These
PROPERTIES
be
resalts any
a
OF
TRIANGLES.
escpresaedmore
"
: c
sinul
eompaedy
sin J3
117
as
follows
sin (7
or,
s\nA
In
14"
as
differenoe
is to the
By
trianglethe
any
ike
siaG
BinB
of any
sum
of
sum
sides is to ikevr
two
tke
oppositeangles
Art.
a:"=s8mul:8inJ3
144,
Whence, by
a
theory of proportion,
the
+ 6
: a
"
sin ul + sin J9
gf
6_sin^+sinB
'
"
sin^i
"
sin J[
"
sin B
sin^
+
"
sinB_tanKJ[
sin j8
tan i
Similarly,we
"
B)
(so)
prove
may
6c
c
a^tan"(g+^)
tan}(4 + B)
(80) may
tani(J50)
.^^ ^
tanJ(0J[)
ca
the result
(4
B)
_"__^__t
Hence,
Since
tan}(180**O)
tan
(90" J C7)
=
cot
JO
also be written
afb^
a6
cotiG
tan}(^B)
(33)
^
^
146L
sum
There
the cosine
will be
all acute,
drawn
or
two
one
of
any
them
side
is
sides^ minus
two
twice
In
each
the
as
the
AB*
figure,
righthand
figure,
BD=AD^c
Squaring,in
Adding
either case,
GJD^ to both
members,
But, by Geometry,
BD'
Also
\CJy=^ a\ B,ndA]y{Giy
AD
(Art. 12),
a*
Hence,
Case
II.
From
the
When
the included
righthand
bcosA
i!"*
+ c*
"
2 6ccos4
angle is
figureabove,
AD=^c\BD
obtuse.
angles
figure let CD
BD^cAD
From
their
acute.
according
obtuse.
eqttaito the
angle.
angle is
to consider
eases
perpendicular to
From
of
of their included
the included
When
I.
square
of the other
of the squares
Cabe
be
MaTigle the
In any
product into
are
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
118
GENERAL
PROPERTIES
CL^
Squaring,and adding
^Z"*tCZ"*
But,
Also
OF
to both
y, and52"2
cos
TRIANGLES.
119
members,
a"
C72)" =
(Art 43),
cosB
(180^ GBD)
cosOB2)
"
That
BD
is,
acosB
"
l^=^(?\a^
Hence,
We
2caooaB
"
have
then
the three
formulae,
a*=""+c2.26ceos^
""
c* =
147.
terms
By
To
c'
+a*2caeosB
(85)
a*4"*2a5co8C7
the
express
(84)
(86)
of the anglesof
cosines
trianglein
of the sides.
Art.
a" =
146,
Whence,
25c
or.
we
Similarly,
cos
25
6*4c*26ceosu4
cos4
i!"*
+ c*
cos^
^"^
26c
a'
"
(87)
^
148.
To
'
COS
'
Art.
trianglein
147,' cos4
(88)
^
^
=s
2ab
the sines^
express
halfanglesof
have,
2ca
By^
cosines^ and
tangents of th^
of the sides.
terms
^'fc'a'
^^
26c
Subtractingboth
1^,_4l
members
from
y +
unity,
Ca"_2"cyc'
2bo
2bc
a"
FLANS
120
That
(Art. 69)
gfllrfi^i"*"^^"^)*
fa,
+ bc){ab+c)
(^a
BinH^
or,
Let
+ h + che
of the sides of
snm
TBIGONOMBTBY.
+ 6
a6
"
c=ra
the
+ ft+c
c)
+ 6 +
2c"2"
"
2c
"
2(a
"
c26=:2"2"=2(8^)
toi^JSSSSS
or,
aini.B"
Similarly,
(",)
v/^~*')^'~")
(90)
injcJIiHiMiEIl
K
half
members
(M)
ao
of
(A)
unity,we
to
have
2bc
"*
26c
2eo^iA^(^"l^
Xlu^tia.
+
+
co8'i.^=(^
"y
"
or,
But,
6 +
"
aasft+c
or,
'^")
"Hc + aa2"
and
Hence,
(Art.69)
cos"*..!
=
"
2a
2(s
"
a)
^^(/""^)
Cos^^^Ap^S
11
oc
(92)
TBIGONOMETBY.
PLANE
122
FORMULiE
THE
FOR
OF
AREA
OBUQUE
AN
TRIANGLE.
ISOl
Case
I.
their induded
angle.
C
We
or
one
AB.
have
two
cases
CD
2K=cx
bsmA.
Hence,
2 K=
bcBiaA
(lOl)
Similarly,
2 jr=: casing
(102)
2jr==:a"sin(7
(103)
Case
n.
Given
By Case L,
But, by Art. 144,
angles.
22r=a6sin(7
h
asiUjB
bivlB
Substituting,
the
side and
one
IT
zK^^a
smA
or
sin^
asinB
."
"
"
"
sm
ri
^mA
a'sinBsinC
(104)
sin^
Similarly,
22r=
ysin(7sinJ"
(105)
siujB
22r=
c'sin^sin^
sin (7
(106)
Case
'
m.
Case
By
TRIANGLES.
128
Given
SiK=bcamA
I.,
But, by Art.
OF
PROPERTIES
GENERAL
149,
2
siaA
"
"\s(s'a)(s
b)(s
"
c)
"
be
2V" ("")("
Substituting,2ir=
Vs(s" a)("
K=
or,
mSORIBED,
To
151.
circle
of
find
circle.
(107)
c)
"
CIRCUMSORIBED
CIRCLES.
of the inscribed
an
"
Draw
and
6)("
"
triangle.
ABOhQ
Let
AND
ESCRIBED,
6) ("c)
the radii
join OA,
0 the
triangle,and
OD^
OF
OE^
of its inscribed
centre
the
to
points of
tact,
con
OC.
OB,
Since, by Greometry, OD
AC,
circle
and
by
OF
to
AB^
perpendicular to BO,
we
radius
OE
of
to
the
r.
Area
OBO==^ODx
AieB,OOA
Adding,
is
.'.
Area
OAB
Area
4B(7
BO^^^ra
CA
iOEx
^ 0P
ir(af6
of Arts.
148
AB
+
and
irb
irc
c)
150,
K=rs
JET
Hence,
ss
"
(3^)
TBIOONOMSTRY.
PLANE
124
of the inscribed
is,the radius
That
of the triangledivided
eirde
is
eqtud
ihearea
to
by its semdrperimeter,
"
153.
of
Tojind
expressions
of the escribed
circles
triangle.
Let AB
C be any
circle
touching
Draw
the
join OA^
the
radii
OD^
OB^
OC.
the
centre
and
AB
and
triangle,and
BO,
sides
OF
OE^
the
to
the
Denoting
AG
points
produced.
contact, and
of
of the
radius
eseribed
of the
circle
by
Area
0J50
ri,
have
we
Area
05(7
Area
OOAiOB
y^CAj^^rJ^
Area
OAB^^OF
i OD
"
But, Area4jB0=Area
00^
i("c
But,
a)
"
K^
Hence,
"
"
ina
AB^^^r^c
h Area
jK'"iri(t
Hence,
B0==
04i"
a)
"
(Art. 148)
ri("
"
a)
or
r^
(109)
Similarly,if
J.0,
circle
have
and
AB
r^ be
the
and
BG
touching AB^
radius
and
of the
produced,
AG
and
escribed
and
BG
r, the
"
circle
touching
radius
produced,
we
of
the
shall
t. To
find
scribed circle of
Let ABC
OF
FBOFBBTIES
GENERAL
eotypression
for the radms
an
of
the circum
of
its circumscribed
O the centre
and
triangle,
Draw
00,
OB,
the radii
B G.
to
and
the radius
Denoting
sinJB02"
of the circle
pendicular
per
by E,
^=:^
OB
^BOG"A.
Also, 52"
8in^
we
SimiBurly,
iJB(7=ia.
By
"
"
22
equal to
the
i?
"
(112)
^
^
"
2sinC7
hc^mA\
150, 2^=
substitutingin (ill),we
That
(ill)
prove
may
Art.
Hence,
or
2sinB'
154.
hence, J30Z"
i5t, 22^"^
i?=
is
OD
draw
have
we
"
126
triangle.
be any
circle.
TRIANGLES.
hence,
7^
have
55.
"L=:"^
2^
(113)
^
^
4ir
of the circumscribed
circle
of
by four
area,
EXERCISES.
155.
1.
Li
Prove
the
followingtheorems
any
righttriangle,cot"
for any
i^"
=
"
:
triangle
triangle
times
the
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
126
2.
aco8JB
"oos^
c.
cf
A
3.
acos^"
r*
"
oco84
4.
bfAnC
tan.B==
a
ocoaC
"
6.
6cco8^f
7.
ooti^=5""llf^(cotijBhcotiC).
caco8^Ha"coflC7=i(a*H"'lc").
2a
8.
(6 + cysln^A
9.
10.
(6
H
a".
(B"C).
cos
(b H c) cos^
c)*cos*i^
(c + a) cosB
h
(a+ b) cos
meter.
11.
aco8^
12
^=
"cosJ34ccos(7=2asmjB8in(7.
^^sin2B
+ ysm2J"
4
18.
2i?r
5L?[i.
=
"
ct
14.
(8
16.
rrir2r8
16.
8in*i^=
"
+ ^ +
a)tsLniA
=
r.
jK^.
^
6cr2r8
17.
1
=
Ti
1+1.
Ti
18.
sin^^
19.
sin
I^B
sin
1^(7
=
9
=
4i2
20.
rJ^^""^^^^^)^^""^^
(7=
the
peri*
SOLUTION
OF
SOLUTION
X.
In
four
of
144,
of the
By
the
two
any
values
any
angles.
5"l
is,
and
6 sin 4
J.
103"
?j^
smB
i5,
cosec
^
sm^
data, provided
180".
less than
180"
the
c.
(J.+ B)
144,
of
20.2367, B=19"21'6",
and
That
for
C7,a,
180"
Art.
side and
given angles is
Find
=
guish
distin
may
Given
Example.
35' 52".
TRIANGLES.
the other
triangle is possible
sum
OBLIQUE
127
Given
I.
first find
aid of Art.
the
TRIANGLES.
cases.
Case
We
OP
solution
the
OBLIQUE
6 sin (7 cosec
By logarithms,
log6=
62"
To
log6
"+"log sin C +
log cosec
i5
log6
log sin
l6gcosecB
.'.0
one
is known
and
the formulae
of
angle
of any
is known,
their
52", we
angle, use
take
145.
may
the rule
sides and
two
the
difference
Finally,we
may
1.306140
9.92384010
0.479693
1.709673
51.2475
either
13"
log cos
Cfiven
Art.
86'
103"
n.
logc=
log cosecant
Case
logsin (7=
Since
be found.
59.3588
find the
157.
log cosec
1.773485
In
or
log c
0.479693
I(^a=
9.98765210
logcosec5=
Note.
1.306140
log sin^=
..a
loga
Then
be
may
the
calculated
angles
the
130.
their included
of the other
sum
obtain
of Art.
two
by
themselves
remaining
side
angle.
angles
aid of
may
as
in
PLANE
128
Case
the
I.
The
TRIGONOMETBY.
of
yalues
any
given parts.
Given
Example.
Cy and b.
We
167,
"
98"* 14'.
82, B^
"
Find
Aj
have
A
By^
C=
Art.
180**
=81*
O)
"
40** 58'
tani(^(7)
a^e
^^^tan^ (A
tani {AC)^
or,
i^A
^i(^+0)
?"S
145,'
46' ; or,
h
C)
By logarithms,
C)
logtan^ (4
"
log(a
"a
"
c)+ ccicg (a + c)
logtani(u4"(7)
+
85
ae"
i (^
249
O)
40** 58'
h
1(^
col(^
logtan
logtani (ui
C)
7.603801
9.937376
9.470596
..^(^0)==
4
Hence,
i(u4"(7)"i(^ C7)
C=i(J.
For
the
5r
1.929419
(7)i(^C7)=24**25'10.3"
remaining side,
b
*=
^V^f
ooeecui
asin 5
(Art. 144)
sma
log"
or,
loga + logsin^
loga
log sin"
logoosec^
log6
.".5
15"
Ihe
In
obtaining
the
preceding article,three
2.222716
9.995501
0.074711
2.292928
196.804
remaining
new
logoosec^
side
by
logarithms are
the
metliod
required ;
of
bat
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
180
Case
159.
Given
m.
the
sides and
two
angle opposite to
of them.
one
It
determined
provided
the
when
given parts
elements
given,
are
only exceptions
occur
111.
61.2, J.
pletely
general com
following:
the
52.1, "
in
31"
26';
tofind
C.
B, and
By
The
of Case
those
its six
of
consider
a
triangleis
side.
are
us
Given
Example.
that
three
is
them
illustrate,let
To
c,
when
of
one
135
in Art.
stated
was
Art.
BinB
sin^
144,
"sin^
BmB
or,
That
log B\nB
is,
"
logb
cologa
log6
1.786751
cologa
8.283162
logsinu4
9.71*7259
logsinB
9.787172
..
B=z37"
46'
H
log sin^
37.9", from
the table.
to the
paid
of 37" 46'
supplement
values
^1 and
B2,
In every
be
can
be
must
be shown
The
cause
attempt
to
from
of
142"
have
the
will be
the
supplement
value
of B
13' 22.1".
CalUng
these
angle
other
the
its
another
37.9", or
retained
by
and
have
we
where
case
determined
values
Thus
37" 46'
Bi=
angle
an
(Art. 43).
sine
same
fact that
must
in the
of
ambiguity
is at
occurs,
unless
answer,
considerations
ambiguity
oblique trianglehas
an
to
be
once
the data.
one
to
and
both
of
them
inapplicable.
apparent when
we
SOLUTION
OF
TRIANGLES.
OBLIQUE
131
We
first
We
now
solutions.
it is evident,
and
supplements
of
arc
equal
equal
to
to
a,
circle,cuttingAD
triangles,AB^C
or
AB^C^
The
values
and
geometrically,that
of each
Case
under
example
an
angles GB^A
of the
magnitudes
why
reason
generallygives two
the
an
radius
draw
conditions.
the
see
and
centre
angle A
the
making
either of the
Then
given
satisfies the
as
length, and
in
units
61.2
describe
units, we
B^.
and
^1
at
(7
with
Then,
is, 52.1
that
6,
straightline AD^
the indefinite
31" 26'.
4 (7 or
lay off
of B
obtained
CB2A,
these
III.
are
respectively;
two
angles
are
other.
^
To
AC
and
solution,let
the
complete
and
C2, respectively,
B2 by Ci and
^i52 by
Ci and
(^HBi)=180"
(72 180"
(^+82)
sides
the
180"
(7.
asm
angles AOBi
the
Ci
asm
,
That
is,
asin(7iCOsec4,
log Ci
logcg
loga
and
C2
47' 22.1"
6" 20' 37.9"
62
(Art. 144)
or,
ABi
Then,
Cg.
(7, 180"=
denote
us
asin02Cosec4
loga
loga
f
4
1.716838
logsinOi
logcosec^
9.97076i
0.282741
log Ci=
1.970340
.. Ci=
93.3985
loga
logsin (72
logcosec^
1.716838
9.043343
0.282741
logcg
1.042922
..08=11.0388
opposite
to
of
one
when
determining
AD^
line
garded
in.
an
angle
of
means
will have
two
none.
falls to the
B^
points Bi
the
leftof
in
be
not
re*
liie
to
can
not
If either jBior ^
coincides with
given angle A.
the triangleswill, in that case, reduce
to a straight
the
contain
of
one
line,which
considered
is not
line AD
the
meets
arc
when
and
afford
Case
which
and
the
answering
as
will
under
and
one,
cases
sides
two
given,
are
example
only
of
If either
them
an
solutions, when
A^
different
the
plotting a triangle,when
in
arise
of
consideration
160.
the
TBIGONOMSTBT.
PLANE
182
in
shall
as
solution.
If the circular
one
to
have
gent
tan
will be
AD
at
which
cases
below.
enumerated
are
arise, and
can
pendicular OE^
By
If .^ is acute, and
there
is but
It A\b
but
solution
If .^ is
If ^
If ^
not
AD
meet
If ^
is
All
The
"^
the
per*
Then,
the
left of
A^ and
these
that
6, and
" sin^
"
a,
there
test
and
computation
may
the
is
"
and
be
relative
is,a righttriangle.
the circular
does
arc
one
the
or
"
6, neither
Bi
nor
triangleis impossible.
applied mentally
magnitudes
itself determines
B^ coincide
solution.
no
there is but
right of A,
of
is
obtuse, and
tests
th^re
B2 fall to the
Bi and
solution
left,and
right or
Bi and
"me
all,and
at
and
triangle.
"8in^=sa,
and
A^
solutions.
two
are
with
"sin^"a,
and
is but
to the
except the
falls to
isosceles
is, an
a"",
fall to the
of
length
5, B coincides
="
right or obtuse,
B2
can
there
is acute, a"
and
B2
and
there
If .^ is
A,
; that
is acute,
Ey and
at
acute, a"",
right of A^
12, the
a"",
corresponding results^
solution.
one
acute, and
one
Art.
C to AD^
from
the
this
to
tiie
of 6 sin ^
test
most
data,
and
a.
satisfac
OF
SOLUTION
b "mA
torily
; for, if
sin^, which
a,
TMANGLES.
OBLIQUE
less
equals
will be
188
greater than
or
respectivelyless than,
equal to,
wUl
be
In
greater than
or
negative, 0,
solving any
given parts
A
whether
consequently logsin
is acute,
Case
under
and
right, or
6,
m.,
solution.
one
solution.
If A
obtuse.
example
log sin
two
are
values
has
J3 has been
solutions, in which
to be
are
We
found
to be
never
either of
the two
6, when
there
"
or
", there
; if this is
or
none,
taken
as
both
case
first examine
the
"
is
is but
"
"
"
solutions,one,
two
value of J3 is
The
If .^ is acute, and
until
the
is acute, and
supposing the
should
we
positive.
or
example
^, a,
be
to
and
unity;
0,
putation
comor
+,
respectively.
obtuse
acute
unless
and
there
obtuse
retained.
will
ftirther
illustrate
the
subject by
few
examples.
1.
Given
We
have
3.39,
here
sin ^
7.42, 0=105**
=
^^15^
13'; findB.
(Art. 144)
or,
logsinB
log"
0.530200
cologc=
9.129596
^=9.644296
.".J5
there
being
2.
Given
We
have
but
here
26**9'30.5"
solution, since
one
.5,
.227643, A
c"
6.
sin 0=
a
or,
PLANE
134
TRIGONOMETRY.
logc=
cologa
log smJ.
9.698970
0.642746
9.658284
..
is but
there
Here
8.
Given
"We
have
solution
one
=.083,
; that
C=90^
is, a righttriangle.
5=61^47';
=.0715,
sin 4
here
(Art. 92), or
"
find^.
"
log sin^
or,
loga
colog6
loga
8.919078
1.145694
log sinB=
log sinJ.
Since
this is
colog" + logsinB
9.945058
0.009830
positive,sin^
1, and
"
the
triangleis impos^
sible.
Case
162.
angles might
The
; but
147
these
as
all of
compute
to
have
then
we
are
preferableto
it is
CHven
IV.
180".
adapted
formulfle
of
angles
found
The
least
the
data, provided
no
to
It is belter
148.
their
convenient,
If
the
but
is
tangent
four
angle
is to
triangle is possible
side
be
only
as
one
for
must
sum
calculated, the
be
most
are
Art.
since
required.
formulae
the
are
the
are
of
the work,
on
Art.
logarithmiccomputation,
to
angles by trigonometricalmethods,
logarithms
be
the
the
different
other
not
by
the formulae
will
work.
calculated
use
formulae
be
be
check
all the
If
for
greater than
any
the
sum
values
of
of
the
two.
If all the
angles are
used, it will be
follows
found
required, and
convenient
the
to
tangent formulae
change
their
forms
are
as
OF
SOLUTION
By
Art.
TRIANGLES.
OBLIQUE
135
148,
{8
tan}^
a) (s
"
"
"
"
=^
where
c)
"
6)(ac)
J(?^^)(a6)(
1
^
b) ("
"
"a) (s
6) (s
"
c)
"
^, and
Similarly, tanJ5="
8
1.
Ex.
By
Note.
Given
Here
2s
Hence,
2.5, b
aH5
"=3.81,
logr
Also,
+
"
is the radius
inscribed
of the
2.33
c=
a=1.31,
[log(8'a)
; find the
"
log (s
f
log (s
log tan iA
logr
logtan iB
logr
logtan i 0=
logr
"
"
"
1.02,
log (s
"
log ("
"
0.008600
log {s
log ("c)
0.170262
logtan iB"=
9.419075"10
2)9.715208l"0
9.857604
6)
0.008600
35^4^4"
J5=
..^=70"
9.85760410
logr
log (8 a)
0.117271
log tan M
9 740333
i^
..^
28*^48' 32.9"
Chedc, A+B
log (8 c)=
0.170262
logtanJC=
9.68734210
".
C==
28' 8"
9.85760410
i 0=25"
1.48
9.849004"
9.85760410
10
logr
"
6)
c)
"
"
log (s 6)
logr
"
c)+ oology]
log (s a)
0.117271
..logr
angles.
"
colog"
circle.
b)
"
a)
log(s~
7.62
c=
"
s"
2.79,
taii}C
"
179^
0=51^54'
59' 59.8".
57' 23"
46"
10
10
PLANE
136
2.
Given
7, 6
TRIGONOMETRY.
11,
148,
By Art
9.6; find ^.
J^SUB
J J5=
cos
log COS
or,
J B
[log"h log (s
2"
+ 6 +
have
We
ca
thus,
"
27.6,
"
6)
or
1.139879
0.447158
cologc
9.017729
cologa
=9.154902
13.8;
"=
2.8
log"=
log ("
"
2)9.759668
logoos}B=
TO
CALCULATE
163.
Example.
96" 30'
15";
By
Art.
9.879834
J5
40"41'11.4"
"".5
81*22'
THE
OF
AREA
Given
22.8"
TRIANGLE.
18.063, jB
35"
0' 13", A
find ^.
150,
ft
tt'sinJBsinO
rr
^"
2K=
"
a*sinB
"
r
"
t"
sin
/#
C
cosec
a
J.
sinul
or,
From
log (2^)
the
0=
data,
180"
(J.hB)
loga=
1.256790
180" 131"
loga
2.513580
log sin JB
9.758630
..
logsin (7=9.874404
logcosec^
0.002805
log(2jfir) 2.149419
=
2^=141.065
.".ir=
70.5325
30' 28"
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
188
26.
Given
641, 6
27.
Given
214.5637,
Find
the
28.
Given
116.082,
29.
Given
79.5, 6=94.4,
80.
Given
100,
81.
Given
31.235,
82.
Given
231, 6=197,
88.
Given
9.08072,
84.
Given
=8.024761,
J5
86.
Given
=.101
86.
Given
=.582,
87.
From
in each
area
6837,
is the distance
What
88.
From
base
of
and
from
the
100"
236
between
in
point
J5
5'
the
point 100
feet, 0D
length of
C=
=.1822451,
c=.427.
feet
be
two
boats
14"
and
line
with
in
sea
the
32", respectively.
horizontal
the
the boats
same
above
plane
with
the
is 52" 39' ;
of its top
it is 35" 16'.
Required
the tower.
sides
The
23", C=31"6'12".
lighthouse,200
to
252.
height of
89.
=
2", 4
3.2281,
6 =.601,
observed
are
13" 57'
15' 41".
u4 =118"
5', A
lighthouse
c=67.1.
40"
5
J5
following:
c=100,
(7=
702.
284.7906,
of the
top of
the
629,
of
field ABCD
252
line from
are
feet, and
4J5=
Z"^=105
4 to (7 is 311
155
feet, BC
feet, and
feet.
Find
the
the
of
area
the field.
40.
and
Wishing
B, I
length ;
and
measure
at the
found
to obtain
a
base
line CD
on
between
the
be
the distance
95" and
and
is the distance
two
buoys, A
shore, 150
and
CD
are
between
are
83" and
the
buoys?
feet
in
ured
meas
at
the
30", respectively.
41.
In
63, and
BD
42.
75 and
1000
feet
CA
observed
of the boat
If P
Note.
from
denote
PB
meeting
DAC
G
CA
DP
and
known,
Again,
sides
angle BAC
be
angle BAD,
the
angles BAC
and
included
the
PA
we
know
calculation
XI.
of P
always
21"
and
BC^
AB,
44"
and
and
ence
circumfer
mined.
deterthe
the
hence, also,
of
in
the
sides
and
their
calculate
may
and
two
determined.
the
angle ABD;
and
After
PA
and
PB
are
finally,
the
sides
found,
the
C is readily effected.
SOLUTION
We
shore, A^
the
side
difference
Then,
side
OP
OP
165.
and
two
we
be
can
and
therefore
and
DAC.
triangle ABP,"
PB
plain?
the
to
be
may
is the
angle, whence
and
angles
found;
which
in
the
the
triangle ABC,
the
the
"triangleBAD,
equal
side AD
known,
may
33', respectively.
and
P,
and
are
two
in
are
9"
A, respectively; hence,
the
and
observer, and
boat, describe
the
Geometry,
By
triangleADC
the
three
and
angles DP
are
Z".
at
area.
position of
the
and
depression of
the
north
due
37,
are
steeple.
each
passing through A^ C,
in
of
steepleson
bear
5870
are
angles
angles
church
to
the
of
east
height of
DA
diagonals AO
be
189
and
in line with
to
boat, three
(7, are
B, and
found
are
is the
From
the
bluff the
plain below,
apart,
What
43.
AB.BG,
the sides
top of
the
From
DEGREE.
42
posts in the
two
THIRD
rods, respectively;and
20
are
CD,
field AB
THE
OF
EQUATIONS
know,
be transformed
the square
THE
NUMERICAL
THIRD
by Algebra,
into
of the unknown
DEGREE.
that
another
TIONS
EQUA
cubic
in which
quantity are
equation
the terms
wanting.
can
taining
con
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
140
puttingaj==y
^,
"
0,
have
we
+^=0
"'+y(?f)+'"f
is in the
which
166.
Cardan's
in the
IS
required form.
form
a^h
negative and
"
case
Method
which
To
roots
involves
the
solve the
is positive^
b
Putting X
sss
my
real and
are
cube
cos'^
is,
This
is identical
w=cos4,
From
(B),
where
case
unequal, and
a
binomial
dan's
Car
surd,
ever,
by Algebra. It is possible,howby Trigonometrical methods.
equation
aa?
"
negative, and
positiveor
m'y""
4cosM
That
of
root
amy
3COS4
"
"
f cos4
with
^
"
"
"
m^
But,
tion
equa
obtained
aj?"
when
in the
0, except
cubic
any
167.
to solve
us
"
the three
be
cannot
h 6
aa?
27
In this
enables
Method
"
"
"
m^
co83u4
cos34
(Art. 71)
(A) provided
=
*^* =
9
^^^
^^
:
m^"
cos34
Jl^
(b)
(c)
THE
OF
EQUATIONS
DEGREE.
THIRD
the positivevalue
Substituting
of
141
(B)
in the third of
COS
a'
Since,by hypothesis,
the
taking
We
r"l.
ii"
be
value
one
3 A
of
(D) is
in
unity.
is
equal
and
z.
is
cosine
least
the
then
v/r"

is less than
and
inequality,
SA
of
1 ;
"
"
the
of
value
the
27
x
"
members
that
see
its cosine
possible,since
Let
thus
have
we
.
both
of
roots
square
"*
"*
"
"
to
are
\a"
(Art. 62),
given by the expression 2nir"z
any positiveor negative integer.
Then, by (B), y
the latter
But
other
and
q is
cosj {2nw
all values
"
"}
which
of
by giving to
to
the
cos
cosi \2n'7r" z\
{2 gTT
0 and
cosja;,cosJ(27r
=
COS,
my^
and
is
"),
"
kl
"
w' is 0
or
z]
the
among
"
and
; hence
results obtained
ferent
Thus, only three dif
1.
(Art. 40) ,
cosJ(27r")
the values
"
the
equation
"1,
(Art.49)
I"
given by
or
for,if n has
of
are
cosf+
1, and
cosf
cos(_
J_co8(),and
\
3/
V
V
3
where
1 ;
"
"
for y ; that is
be found
can
i (2n'7r" z)J
"
included
are
"
values
different
three
w')tt
cosj {2 (Sq
""}.
nir
0 and
values
values
coai\2
any
But
by giving
obtained
cos
where
[27
""2\'^*
__b
cosa;
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
142
If the
negatiye value
of
is taken
equation (C), we
in
co8i",
"
where
J (2 IT
"cos
denotes,
2),
"
and
as
coeineequauf^.
But
the
same
values for
co8i(2ir +"),
"
since
is
"
",w
^,
we
obtain
before.
as
EXAMPLES.
1.
Solve
Hereass4,
Or
the
equation
"=
(Art.48),
Thus,
1"^ cos
4a; +
"
Then,
"2.
cos
a^
(ir 2)

0.
cosz:^
f v^3
"
log3=
.477121
ilog3=
.238560
..
9.09691010
l"^cos(7r2)
=9.812591"
130*30'
"
,
of
,^
4
cos
v'S
^cos/^"'\
=
\3
are
i
icos
V^3
18.9"
4
16
Also,
10
49*^29' 41.1"
^"=
.".2
3j
rcos76"29'53.7"
y/3
"
^cos/"^
163*
+ 5.W ^cos
V3
=.f^3,
colog8
\^3
J"
"
\S
30' 6.3"
3) )/3
=
"
1.sin
V3
MOIVRE'S
DE
THEOREM.
148
Now,
^^g 75
^^^^
ilogS
"
.602060
.363500
.238560
(1)
log cos
43" 30'
log cos
log sin
73" 30'
logarithms of
numbers
Solve
the
3.
aj*
6aj3
XII.
five
or
of
10
(3)
10
(4"
for
0.345241.
and
these
are
and
or
2.21432.
Ana.
"2.21432.
0.
4.
aj*6aj*aj 1
0.
6.
aj"3a^2a?
0.
+ l
0.
THEOREM,
MOIVRE'S
DE
have
APPLICATIONS.
For
Theorem.
Moivre's
any
value
of
w,
posU
negative,integralor fractionalj
I.
When
is
V"
We
(2)
.539189,
WITH
De
10
9.981741
followingequations
aj84a?l
168.
9.368241
.539189,
2.
"
corresponding to
=1.67513,
a?
9.860549
9.73174110,
1.67513,
Hence,
6.3"=
the values
0.224049,
The
6.3"
1 sin
nx
(114)
positive integer.
have
(cosa?+
^"
cos^aj
cos
"
a;
sino;)'
sin^a?+ 2
f
V^
y^" 1
sin 2 x,
sin
by
a? cosa?
Art.
67.
(A)
PLANE
144
TRIGONOMETEY.
Again,
f V
(coso;
Bina?)*
"
(cosa;f V
s=
(cos2 a;
sina;)'
(cosa?fy/" 1 sina?)
"
y^" 1 sin
soo82a;cosa;
2a;)(cosa;4
siii2a;8ina;
"
V1 (sin2
cos
a? cosa?
a?
sina;)
is thus
The
theorem
The
general proof
be obtained
as
n^2
when
S.
or
may
theorem
the
Suppose
for any
follows
hold
to
seen
hold
to
when
being
n=:r,
any
positiveinteger. Then,
""=
1 sin a;)
(cosa;h\/"
cos
IV~l
cosa;
raj
equation by
of this
members
Multiplying both
hVTsin
r a?
sina?
have
we
V~l
(cosajf
sina;)*""''^
(cos rx\^
l sin
"
cos
cosa?
rx
sin
"
fV
which
cos
(rx \x)\V
cos
(r\l)aj+
result is
That
of w, it holds
for
been
to hold
proved
when
is any
(sinrx
1 sin
value
cosa?
cos
x)
rx
sin
a;)
(rx 4 x)
with
holds
the theorem.
for any
positiveintegralvalue
greater by unity.
when
l sin
"
y/" 1 sin(rl)aj
to accord
seen
"
\y
sina?
rx
"
rx) (cosx
5 ; and
3, hence
so
on.
positiveinteger.
it has
But
it holds
Thus,
the
when
already
n
theorem
4 ;
is
PLANE
146
1G9.
Patting
TRIGONOMETRY.
for
"a?
in De
a?
or,
Art.
V"
"
is another
1 sin
form
in one,
be united
the
+^^
{nx)
COS
n"
y^" 1
"
of the theorem.
have
we
sin
(" wa?)
The
sin
(115)
na;
forms
two
may
a?)*= cos
1 sin
signs
upper
a?)*=cos
follows
as
(cosfl?"V"
where
Theorem,
40,
(cos X
which
Moiyre's
lower
the
or
V"
"
no?
1 sinno?
signs
(116)
be
must
taken
together.
It is to be
170.
P
to
P
cos
,
of the
that, when
is
fraction
equal
Of
observed
"
1 sin
a?
is
For, if A; is any
values
of the q different
only one
sin
")"".
positiveinteger,
+
{cos^(^+^^")4vCo:sin^"^
^^""}'
J? {x f
2kir) +
V^
cos
+5a;)+ V
cos(2j"A;ir
cos
^"
pa; H
sin
l sin
"
The
m..
values
different
g
"
1.
is any
of
obtained
the
Art.
/"
T
yTZi
right hand
in the
by giving to
{^pkir+px)
168,
we
that
see
05)*
COS
expression
fcir)
(Art. 49)
1"(^+^M 2A;^)
=:
p{x+
sin"a;
(coso;H V^" 1
sin
series
other
member
has
only
k the values
value, say mg
0, 1, 2,
pix + ^kir)
..^
sm
""",
g"
h
the
0, 1, 2,
A:',where
1, and
""",
A/
is any
cos
THEOREM.
MOIVRE'S
DE
p(x + 2k7r)
L
"
"LlL
+ 2kfr)
^
p(x
^^
1 sin
"
147
cos
j2mj?7r
^^^^
vCT
co8^^
ijy
sin
I2
""
1 sin^i^^
"
values
known
the
0, 1, 2,
for
is among
found
be
"
which
^^
J) TT +
""",
expressions obtained
1.
Thus
only q
g"
expression.
the
principleof Algebra
This
that
by giving
different
values
can
the
well
with
agrees
expression
an
to k the
has
gth
roots.
To
values
the three
illustrate,
cos
^"
^
"
^^
"
"
That
The
sina?)*
are

and
+ V^" 1
(cosa?
V^"l sinf 05
cosf 05
cos
of
\"l
^
sin
\"l
^
sm
^^
"
^
"
^"
^^
"
last
expression may
cos
also be written
by
Art.
49,
Cf+f)+v^^(^+")
PLANE
148
TRIGONOMETRY.
EXPANSIONS
171.
De
By
V"
the second
Expanding
COSINE.
AND
Theorem,
sinny
SINE
THE
Moivre's
h
cosny
we
OF
(cosy + y^"
member
by
the
(a)
siny)*
Binomial
Theorem,
have
oos*y +
V^"
cofl*"^y
siny
''^y^'^ ) cos*~'ysin'y
"
lA
^"
"cos*~^ysi
j
smy
n(n"
^
l)(ri
2)
"
^cos*
To
By Algebra,
members
cos
ny
of
real
the
cos*y
"
"
equal, and
be
must
we
'*ysm'y +
imaginary portions of
and
equation (A)
""
"""
the
two
have
^ cos*"*ysin*yH
^V^^"^
LI.
sinny =ncos'^^y8iny"
/q^^^ ^co8*~^y
sin'y+
"^""
"""
LI
That
cos
is,
ny
cos*y
1
j
^^^""^ tan^y
"
sin ny
cos*y
Putting ny
^Xj
"" n
"("l)("2)("")tan
tan
and
~'
)\^~~
"
consequently y
"
,
n
we
tan^y +""""
have
MOIVRE'S
DE
f cos
i508a;=
nj
1"
"
._
THEOREM.
^tan^
a^
I49
[2^
8ina"=('co8?Yntan?!il!ill)i"!iZ:^
+ ...
nJ
\
These
be
may
3
11
written,
tan'
cos
a?
=H)"{'('9^"
OB
71
tan*
^e(=)('9('3V'n*
tan^
tan.
^,
^.
"=H)"{^^(':)('9v^+That
cosou
is,
a?v2
=Hr{a('=)l
a;
tanV
E('=)('9('9h"
71
/tan\8
"
...
Let,
now,
be
tan
increased,
indefinitely
and
^
n
consequently
tan
indefinitelydiminished.
By
Art.
80,
approaches
X
n
the
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
160
limit
1, and
by
Art.
j approaches
81,  cos
"
at the
Hence,
the
etc., approaches
limit 1.
limit;
same
quantities1
of the
also,each
the
have
limit, we
(117)
cosaj=l^hg...
sina;=a;
h.
L"
[3
It U
Note.
r
must
be
expressed
in circular
By
OF
sin
cosa5V^l
Putting
THE
Art.
in this result
and
cos
just found,
measure.
VALUES
EXPONENTIAL
172.
eyident
(118)
^
^
"""
COSINE.
AND
SINE
for x,
(119)
(Art. 171.)
a?.
in
"x
place of
a;,
e^^=cos(a;) + V^sin(aj)
V^^ sina;
x
cos
=
173.
"
2co8aj=e"^'
Whence,
cos
Whence,
yTTlsin a:
from
sin
""
(120)
e*^
we
have
e"^
+
^
Subtracting (120)
and
(120)
(121)
(119) ,
we
have
e*^
"
f122)
DE
results
These
THEOREM.
called
are
sine
of the
values
MOIVRE'S
and
the
cosine
151
exponential^or
they
hyperbolic^
first obtained
were
by
Euler.
have
we
e""ri e"V=l
__
2V^
tanaj
"
"
\n
e*
J^
e.v3i
(123)
"
7=
SERIES
of
By
tan
THE
Series.
Gregory's
174.
ers
CALCULATING
FOR
To
VALUE
expand
in
OP
a
TT.
ofpow
senes
x.
Art.
173,
^^i^e"^^
^
^=
1 +
e'^^^
+
1+Vdtana?_
e"'^'^2e'^^
a.V=I
_
1
^v:^i+ e"V=i
Whence,
by logarithms,
log.(e^)=log,l"A^*2S2
1
or,
2avCT
"
1 tanou
yCIitana?)
log,(1 +
which, by Art.
"
is,
2^3
V3rtana:*^V3Tt!E!5
+
^
2^8
...
2V^{tana.~i55!"
t5!5^...
+
aj=tana?^^2^+ 5?5!2
Putting
in
tan"^y{Art. 82), we
(124)
175.
^a^^^)
113,
^
That
log,j;i~V^
Gregory's
Series
tan
y, whence
have
tair^y=y
...
(125)
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
152
"
Id
this,
expressed in
Put
or
circular
expressed in
circular
11
of
value
of
be
1 is
45^,
used
to
obtain
(126)
^
^
calculate
slowly
so
have
we
11+...
5
to
terms
great many
tangent is
measure,
it converges
but
TT,
be
might
series
This
must
measure.
y=l;
when
all similar
in
as
as
the
to
the
even
approximate
require the
use
ordinary approximation,
3.1416.
By
Series.
Euler's
176.
2, Art. 82,
Ex.
tan'l
+ tan^l
=
Whence
"
(Art. 175),
^
"
"
"
series which
far
converges
f.
...
"
"
3.2"^6.2*
3.3"
rapidlj'than
more
preceding article.
177.
Series.
Machin's
2 tan
By
Art.
67,
tan
a;
Putting
tan
a?
we
,
a;
"
tan'a;
have
tan2a;
and
tan
4a;
"
tan'^a?
"
j_
144
...
6.3*
that
(127l
^
of
the
TRIGONOMETRY.
PLANE
154
approximately,
Thas,
Let
179.
.0001)
3.1416.
f
J
tana
"
L whence,
70
99
tan'^70
16
tan6="
.0042
=.7854
.0042
.7854
239
5.57
.0027
.7896
ir
(.2
Hence,
3.5"
\p
tan'i=
99
Then,
tana
tan"
"
jv\
4.^^/^
(a
tan
0)
"
1 4tanatan"
11.
99^_
JO
""239
1^
6930
is,
That
"
tan"^
"
239
tan~^
Hence,
'
by
Whence,
177,
Art.
value
use
of
that
TT
4tanltani
=
in the
convenient
more
to
for
use
99
70

It is
tan~^"
tan~^
239
the
tan"^"",
239
series
as
for
in Axt.
calculation
tan"^"
178.
tan"
of
and
the
(130)
approximate
tan"^"
than
to,
Paet
SPHERICAL
II.
TRIGOIS^OMETRT.
GEOMETBIOAL
XIII.
DEFINITIONS
AND
PRINCIPLES.
with
formed
the
on
know
We
180.
The
called
sides,
the
is bounded
three
by
measured
are
well
as
expressed
in
side
found
of
terms
in
be
angle
it
sphere,
intercepts
great circles
of
arcs
the
by
result
the
as
angular
face
ratio
the
by
the
the
number
angles,
of
angles
the
of
unit
its
of
to
of
length
it may
360^, and
readily
plying
multi
circumference
the
of
length
the
is desired,
arc
angle
tri
spherical
If
measure.
linear
some
by finding
the
of
circle.
is, if A
That
the
of
centre
triedral
s^hervccU triangle^
triangle
are
great
if
that
angle.
Thus,
be
the
at
sides, which
its
triedral
any
its vertex
surface
ISL
Greometrj
by
radius
be
the
of
of
length
the
sphere,
degrees
of
the
side, and
in the
side
is
X2irR.
"
360
182.
of
angles
measured
in
game
diedral
The
each
of
point.
of
the
its
angle
faces,
between
and
triedral
the
spherical triangle
the
by
angles
two
and,
angle
called
are
by Geometry,
straight
perpendicular
to
lines
its
each
drawn,
edge
the
at
is
one
the
relations
between
is the
what
angle
in
altered
which
or,
and
diedral
diedral
angles
are
radius
of
sphere
the face
angles
interceptsit.
the
magnitude by varying
relations
consequently the
and
sphericaltriangle;
It is evident
IM.
of
thing,between
same
of the triedral
elements
the
trigonometrical
of the
SphericalTrigonometry treats
183.
of
TRIGONOMETRY.
SPHERICAL
156
between
the
and
sides
entirelyindependent
sphericaltriangleare
the
of
not
;
angles
length
the
of the radius.
We
185.
as
less
shall
of
of the
some
in the
great circle
The
proofs of
side of
of the other
(6). K
two
If two
the
be
isosceles
what
found
the
each
ment
ele
subject,especially
and
the
general
any
value
have
may
it
Geodesy,
is called
in
an}' treatise
Solid
on
The
them
are
equal
them
of
are
sphericaltriangle are
; and
the
sum
unequal, and
side ; and
it into two
the
the
unequal, the
conversely.
perpendicular from
divides
equal,
conversely.
spherical triangleare
the vertex
sphericaltrianglebisects
angle, and
less than
sphericaltriangle is
of
the
sides
sides
angles opposite
(d)
than
two.
angles opposite
.
is less
is
angle
(a) Any
(c)
each
is, where
Astronomy
element
an
spherical trianglesmay
Geometry
; that
angles
tri
such
to
360**.
0** and
186.
of
to consider
convenient
sphericaltriangle^where
between
side
higher applications of
general formulae
is sometimes
where
each
and
work
180^.
is less than
in
in this
Geometry,
in
right angles,
two
semicircumference
But
ourselves
considered
are
than
limit
the
base
to the base
and
the
of
an
vertical
symmetrical righttriangles.
PRINCIPLES.
GEOMETRICAL
(e). The
than
of
sum
sides
the
of
circumference
the
of
157
sphericaltriangleis
great circle
less
; that
360^
(/).
greater
greater
(g).
and
S^
The
than
than
the
of
sum
less
and
two
180"
is the
poles of
the
by
the
That
In two
six
the
is,if ^,
c',respectively,
is measured
one
of the other.
is,
5
^'=180"
a,
5'=180"6,
Either
difference
187.
of
correspondingside
a',
is,
ia the
of the
that
a', b',and
arcs
each angle
polar triangles,
supplement
that
right angles ;
540".
^==180"
(i)
spherical triangle is
If A'B'C
are
of
than
less than
and
then, conversely,ABO
(h)
angles
angle
between
of
180"
C=180"c',
C"=180"c.
the
sphericaltriangleis
tHrectangular,according
angles.
It is called
5',
=180"
sum
called
it has
as
quadrantal when
of the other
two
the
angles.
or
Tight,birectangular,
one,
it has
two,
one
or
side
three
equal
right
to
quadrant.
It is evident
a
from
Art.
rightsphericaltriangleis
quadrantal triangle.
SPHERICAL
168
TRIGONOMETRY.
FORMULA
GENERAL
XIV.
FOR
CAL
SPHERI
TRIANGLES.
In
18"
to the
equal
apJiericcd
trianglethe
any
prodv^ct of the
of the other
cosines
the cosine
continued
of either aide
cosine
is
sides,plus the
of their induded
angle.
example,
For
cosa
To
prove
which
Case
this
and
I.
we
he
c,
A'O
are
At
any
OA
in the
the
perpendiculars will
sufficiently
produced.
to the
angle A
In the
Since
of the
By
B'C""
AB.^
meet
Art.
the
in OA
OAB
AOB
the
edges
the
182
OB
and
+
A^B'C,
and
0(7'22
0jB'
f4'C7'"'2AB'
Art.
.
'
and
OC
is
146,
cos
are
acute,
OC'cosa
A'C
both
angle BA'C
by
and
OAC,
and
are
6,
a,
A^B*
b
by h3^pothesis
and
angles
sides
draw
the
of
centre
sphericaltriangle.
trianglesOB'C
jB'(7"=OJB'2
180**.
181, the
of
planes
of
90".
0 the
measures
each
0" and
between
point ^'
in
cases,
then, by Art.
the
cos
are
OC;
perpendicular to
less than
sphericaltriangle,and
respectively.
both
values
any
c
distinguishfive
may
b and
cos
have
may
When
ABC
Let
cos
it
equal
FORMULiB.
GENERAL
have
2 0jB'
OC*
0^'S
2 A'B'
co8a
169
A'O*
"
OA'C\
and
by Geometry,
OC'"^'C'"=
and
cos
OA'K
Hence, transposing,
2 0B'
OG'co"a==20A'^^2A'B^
'
OA'
OA'
OjB'
OC
OA'
'
OB'
A'C
OB'
OC'
04'
and
A'B'
OC
^A'B'
C,
we
have
^'C
'
A'C'co"A
'
'0(7'
0B'
Substituting,
cos
Case
cmd
II.
When
cos
cos
one
cos
is
A.
90".
"
In the
than
triangleABC^
90".
Complete
ABC'^
less than
are
the
side
90" ; that
90" ;
less than
cosJBC"
let b be
the
lune
AO
greater than
=180"
is, the
sides
two
cose
Then, in the
b, and
"
hence, by Case
cos4"7'
C\
CB
90", and
about
is
the
sine
less
gle
trian
consequently
angle
I.,
sin ^C
coSjB40'
BAC
SPHERICAL
160
TRIGONOMETRY.
But,
JBC"
180"
a, J[C"=
180*^
JB^(7'=
", and
180"
A,
Hence,
(180"
cos
a)
"
(180"
cos
6) cos c
(180" b) sine
4 sin
(180"
cos
A)
(Art. 43) ,
or
"
That
is,
cos
cos
cos
Similarly,we
90", and
Case
the
the
180"
angle
cos
But
cos
"
A=A\
cosa
cos
h is less
when
in
; that
90" ; hence,
by
fsin CA
co^BA
the
90".
than
triangleABC,
is,both sides
Case
sin ^^'
cos
(180" b) cos
about
I. ,
cos
4'
sin
(180" c)
cos5
6 sinccos^
is,
cosa
90".
greater
(Art. 43) ,
That
than
hence,
cosa
A)
cos
cos
be both
Then,
jB^'=180"
CA
sin 6 sin
("
and
less than
are
fsin 6 sin
theorem
are
ABAC,
lune
90".
b and
6, and
the
prove
When
h) cos
cos
"
triangleABC\e\,b
Complete
CA
may
greater than
III.
In the
or
"
cose
'
SPHERICAL
164
Whence,
TRIGONOMETRY.
j^^cosa
oosb
cmc
^^^
smosinc
Similarly,
cost
C08^=r"
cose
"
cosa
cose
COsC=j^
^^"
smcsina
/,^^v
(138)
raiio
same
sm^A
of the
sides
the sines
a^
of
sphericaltriangleare
in
cos* 4
"
;"
sinasino
TIhe sines
the
cosacosft
"
^
=
.^^
sin' 5 sin'c
(cosa
"
cose)*
cos
"
191)
sin"sinc
__
sill*6 sin*e
(1
coB*")(1
"
co8*e)
"
(cosg
"
cose)*
cos
"
__
8in*6 sin*c
1
cos*6
"
cos*e
"
"
cos*a k 2
"
cos
cos
cose
__
sin* ftsin*e
Hence,
\/ri" co8*a"
A
sm^=*""
cos*6"
co8*c+2cosacos6cosel
sm
The
A^ 6, and
for
0"
lie between
/"^\
(139)
sm
be taken
positivesign must
since
T^
"
:"
radical
the
180^,
and
here
their
sines
for,
are
positive.
Thus,
sin A
cos*a
\/[l
"
cos* 5
"
cos*e f2
"
cos
cos
c]
cos
sin
We
sin
should
obtain
the
sin b sin
same
sino
and
as
is
evident
from
the symmetry
of the result.
sme
sin
This
sinO
sinS
sin^
Hence,
result may
sin 4
sin^:
sin
sin b
also be
sin
^^^^
written
sin 5
in the
sin 6
sinjB:slu(/s=sina:
forms,
sin C
sin6:
sin
sine
(l4l)
(142)
FORMULAE.
GENERAL
The
Art.
independently of
Let
ABO
GO
A
At
he
Join
sphere.
"
follows
as
OA,
OBy and
in
00
and
B^O^,
and
and
Hence, the
angles
to the
the
By Geometry,
5'(7' to OB,
equal
are
perpendicular to
perpendicularto 04
DB^
and
O'B'D
of the
angles JBOCand
the
(7'Z"
draw
join A^O*
perpendicular to 04, and
angles O'A'D
O the centre
then
respectively,and
4'(7' is
proved
6, respectively.
and
DA^
Draw
00;
be
sphericaltriangle,and
point C
any
the
191
the sides
measure
plane AOB,
OB^
of
theorem
166
and
B,
sin ^
sin
sin ^'0
and
sin^=smO'5'i"
B'DO\
'
int*
B'O
BO'
sin 6
Bin
B^O'D
sin ^'00'
0''
B'O'
^O'D
AO'
A'O'^O'D
O'
B'O'
O O'
BO*
'
sin 6
BO'
0'
sin A
A'O'
sin B
___
sin
0 0'
A'O'OO'
sin
A'O''
8m^^C^l"
Whence
Henc",
A^DO\
O'D
sin O'^'D
and,
0A'0\
righttriangles0B'0\
sinb'
SPHERICAL
166
In
similar
above
TRIGONOMETRY.
it
manner
fractions
is
equal
to
be
can
that
proved
each
of the
"
"
sine
In the
A, and
should
have
On
arise.
proof
of Art.
which
has
is
192
been
192,
of
to hold
the
stnJB^
article,the
on
theorem
190
to
the formulae
of
sin C
_
sin a'
by
strating
demon
have
we
sin^'
or,
which
universally.
of Art.
method
depends
6,
sally,
univer
of
this
of
it
a,
possiblecases
method
preferable,since
proved
theorem
inconvenience
the
the
by
elements
the
the
all the
consider
to
cases
Applying
Art.
90" ; to prove
account
all these
of
each
supposed
JB to be less than
we
could
have
figurewe
sin b'
sin c'
186, (h),
Art.
sm(180"a)^sin(180"~6)^sin(180"c)
sin(180"JB)
8in(180*^^)
!"5L^ ^
Thatis,
Thus
19"
relations
new
no
Art.
By
cos
cos
(Art. 192)
iiE"
sin C
"
cos
(Art. 43)
C
sm
obtained
are
in this way.
cos
+ sin
cos^
sin
sina
cos
sin"
cos
(A)
(B)
?2Ajl5^
ll!L^,orsinc
(C)
sin B
Substitutingfrom
cos
sm
188,
cosc=:cosa
Also
sm
sin(180"C)
(B)
(cosa
sin B
and
cos
(C)
(A),
in
" fsin
sin "
cos
(7)
8in"sin(7
,
I
"
"
"
"
sin
^^"
cos
Bu
smB
=s
cos
b COS* a fsin
cos
f sin
sin b
cos
sin O
FORMULAE.
GENERAL
/.
cos
(1
b sin* a
cos
or,
sin
sin 6
(sinC
Q6tB
sin
sin b
(sinC
cot B
fcos
cos^a)
"
sin
Dividing through by
552_
5,
cot
167
cos
cos
C)
cos
C)
that
remembering
obtain
we
sin b
sin
cot 6
we
Similarly,
sin b cot
c
sin
cot
196.
cos
(144)
sin ^
cot A
cos
cos
J^
(145)
sin J3 cot
C fcos
cos
J3
(146)
cos
(147)
sin (7 cot A
cos
formulae
Art.
By
(143)
cos
(148)
cos^
cose
also be derived
may
from
the
first
190.
of Art.
the method
by
three
cot C +
cot 6
last three
cos
sin ^
sin b cot
The
cote
sine
cos
prove,
may
sin
sin C cot B f
191,
a
cos
4=1
cos
"
cos
"
cos
"
sin b sin
b
cos
h sin 5 sin
cos
"
cos
__
sin 6 sin
/"n\
^
(Art.69)
or
;^i
A
sur^d
2
,
(5
^
COS
=
c)
"
sm
But
COS
"
^.
sm
(Art. 72),
cos
cos
"
a?
sin
sin^(a;+ y)
J (a; y)
"
Hence,
+ (g^~c)jsinna(ft~c)(
og^2^j^2sinH"
sin"
2 1
sm^i4
.
or,
sin J
(a +L 6
il"
c) sin J (a
^
"
"
now
2s
a^b^c=
and
5 + c)
^^^
smc
smo
Then
"
Let
sine
afft
a
"
"
6 +
+ 6 +
a^6
"
"
2c
2"
26
2""
"
2c=2(sc)
2"=2("
"
6)
TRIGONOMETRY.
SPHERICAL
168
have
Substituting,we
sin 2
(8
sin
b) sin (s
"
c)
"
smosinc
(s
sm
"
Similarly,we
6)
"
(s
8in
c)
"
(149)
smosinc
prove
may
^
^Bin(ac)8in(.:H^
sini5=
smcsma
(150)
"
.
/sin (s
a) sin
"
(s
6)
"
sm
smasmo
y
197.
By
Art.
191,
1+008^
cos
1+
sin"
cosa
"
cos
"
sine
(cos6
"
cose
cose
sin 5
"
sine)
or,
cosa
91
cos^^A
(64c)
^
cos
"
.^
=
.
sm"sme
Hence,
as
in the
in Art.
proof
coqS^j^
si^i (6 +
196,
g) 8in^(5 4
a)
Letting
" +
6 +
e=25,
eg
have
we
"c
2a=s2(8
"
"
g)
Substituting,
,t
^
cos'i^
sins sin
=
:"
(5
h
g)^
"
smosme
or,
cos
we
Similarly,
"
sin(s
/sins
\
(151)
prove
may
1
g)
"
"
/sinssin
x"
cosJB=
V
11
(s
"
J^^
b)^
smesmg
"
sinssin(s
"
smg
smo
e)
J
(152)
FORMULJE.
GENERAL
19a
Arts:
By
197,
Isin(a" 6)sin(8" c)
sin i4
iA
tan
and
196
169
a)
8in8sm(8"
_^
__
cosi^
sinftsinc
si"(8
sin
__
b) sin {s
"
sin
sin
"
(*
sinftsinc
c)
"
(153)
a)
"
Similarly,
fshiO
s
J5
tan
c) sin (s
"
sin
sin
(s
g)
"
b)
"
(1S4)
"
sin(ga)sin(g6)
J (7=
tan
V
The
Note.
since
radicals
} 4,J 5,
199.
and
Art.
By
sin C
sin B
sin
sin
(s
c)
"
Arts.
positivein
taken
are
198,
angles.
acute
are
190,
cosa
cosa
cos^
f cos5
4 +
cos
or
cos
cos
(7
cos
sin (7
sin 5
Whence,
1
cos
COStt
"
f
sin ^
That
is
cos
(7
cos
"
sin (7
(Art. 69),
COS
"
"
2 1
ta
zsin
C +
COS
"
sin C
sinB
"
"
"
"
"
cos
"
sin^smG^
cos
(B+C)\
cos
sin 5
But, by Art.
cos
Hence,
sin (7
72,
y=2
\cos
cos
^"^^"^+^
siaHa
+ ^"
^l^"^^^^^
sin5sin(7
Letting ^f^
C=2/S^
+ C2^
j5+(7^=^+J5
Substituting,
.
cosS
cos(S
sin
sin^smC
"
A)
2(/S'u4)
^^
SPHERICAL
170
TRIGONOMETRY.
I
.
oobSco"(S
A)
"
(155)
or,
Similarly,we
may
sin} 6
prove
f
Bm}eX
B)
"
sin C sin ^
cos^VcosCiiS
^
C)1
"
(S
cos
(156)
coaS
sin^sin^
y
200.
the first
By
1+
008a
"25:^+^?^^
1+
cos^
cos
J3
C Isin J3 sin (7
cos
__
sin^sinC
2 cos" J a
or,
52iii+c^iBOi
=
sin^sinC
Whence, ooe'}a
"""n^
^'
Clcos^ ^(^Cl]
smBsinC
sinJSsinC
But
B'C=2(SC)y
and
A^B\C=2(SB)
co^ia^^^i^^zC^^mnJ^
Hence,
ainBamC
"oos(^B)co""Egl
coB}a=
Dr,
sin 5
(157)
sin C
Similarly,
N
sin (7 sin A
"
cos
ic
=4
COS
(S A)
(158)
(SB)
COS
sin^sinJS
J
201.
By
Arts.
cosja
and
199
200,
coa(S B)
COB
(SC)
'
TRIGONOMETRY.
SPHERICAL
172
ANALOGIES.
NAPIER'S
20a
Art.
By
198,
"
tsin^B
sin
sin
"
(s
a)
"
Isii^'(g ^
sin
(g
sin
(s
\ sin* (s
sins sin
a)
"
tanj^^f tanj^.B_
tan ^5
tan^^
"
65
this,by Arts.
sin(^^
a
sin
b)
"
a)
"
(g
"
sin
(s
"
and
ft)+ sin (^
6)
sin
"
"
"
"
By
sin^ (^
sin^ (A
4
"
Art.
"
a)
+ 6 +
"
"
"
"
g)]
a)]
6)
"
6)
"
"
"
ct)
"
73,
"
2"
(s
sin
sinj^(^ + ^) ^tan(28
tan^(a
sin^(4 ^)
20^
(s" 6)
Whence,
But,
c)8in(8 "a)
"
From
/8ip(8
8in(g" c)
l8in(86)
taiijA_
c;
hence,
tan^c
^)
(161)
"
5)
^ (a
tan
6)
"
198,
fsin(^c)sin(^a)
sin(8")sin(^^c)
tani^tani^=
sinssin(s
Isin^ (s "~c)
a)
"
sin
(s
sinssin("
c)
"
__
sin"
sin^s
Whence,
sin
^
(s
"
c)
sins
1"
tan^^tani^_
l+
sin(s
tan^^tanJrJg""i

"
c)
sins
sins
sin
sin
(g
fsin
(5
"
"
c)
"
c)
"
6)
From
65 and
this,by Arts.
173
FORMULffi.
GENERAL
73,
_tani [g (g c)]
cos(iA+iB)
tau^ [s + (sc)]
^^)
cos(^^
"
"
"
But,
"
a\ b +
cosi(^
i {A
cos
"
\b ; hence,
tanjc
J^)_
B)
"
tan
of Art.
the method
Proceeding according to
have, by Art.
(162)
(a + b)
190,
we
203,
sin^(4^+B')^
sin i
(^' J5')
tan^c^
"
(a' b')
tan
But,
J5') i(180"a+180"6)
J(J.'f
=
i(180"a180"+6)
ic'
i{a'b')
i(180"A180''+B)
i(^'B')
J(a
=90"
(180" C)
6)
6)
i C
i(A^B)
tan(90"iC)
siPri8Q"Ha+^)]
Hence,
180"i(a
sini("
Whence,
by
Arts.
sin
ta.ni
6)
("A^B)
cot^ C
j(g + ^)
_
sin^(a
"
smi{a
or,
ft)
"
Art.
204,
tsin^{AB)
have
we
C09i(A'+B')
^
tan
cosi(^'J5')
That
J5)
"
cotjC
b)^
smi(ab)
Similarly,from
tan^(^
"
tan^c^
i (a'+6')
is,
cos
Whence,
tan
(90" j0)
tan[180"i(^f
cotjO
g")
^
cos^(a
"
6)
"
tan^(^
^)
^)]
SPHERICAL
174
TRIGONOMETRY.
co6i{a + b)
or,
_coUO
r^^.
cosJ(a
206.
other
the
theorems
articles
three
be
The
formulae
of Art.
of Art.
in Arts.
as
last
will
elements
other
as
of
used.
triangleare
The
according
case,
the
there
Napier's Analogies;
as
in each
forms
results of
the
exemplifiedby
known
are
tani(^fB)
6)
"
205
203
have
might
been
proved independently,
204, by startingwith
and
the
results
201.
ANALOGIES.
DELAICBRE'S
Qmi(A"B)=:Bmf^"^\
207.
A^
sm
B
"
"
Arts.
Substitutingfrom
196
sm
cos
"
2
and
cos
"
"
2'
197,
sinJ(J["J5)=
\
Isin (g
sin"sinc

c) sin {s
{s
sin
h)"
"
Ising sin
a)
"
sincsina
sin
sincsina
{s
"
a)
sinftsinc
Isingsin (g
g)
"
{s
"
c)
__
Whence,
sini (A +
Arts.
by
B)
sin
sine
sin 6
197,
72 and
2sin^[g6+ga1costr^~6(ga)]^^^
sine
sine
But
also
2g
"
(Art. 67)
"
sin
,
"
+ 6 +
2 sin i c
"
cos
"
c;
J c.
Hence,
A
\
/
smi(ul
'
D\
B)
2 sin i
=
"
c cos
"
"7"
sm
ic
i (a
"
'^
cos
6)
^cosiC ^
^c
"2iii":=^cosJ(7
cosic
(165)
GENERAL
'
sin
/
(^
J1
T"\
B)
"
FORMULA.
} c sin }
(a
^^
COS
2 sin i
c cos
(a
b)
^
sin J
"
V"
175
6)^
"
} ^G
^
cos
Jc
^
^
G
J
cos
/,^^\
(1^)
smic
Since
20a
tion of Art.
tan i
205*
(^ + J5)
be
can
sm^^
cosJ(a
co8j(^
coaUA
B)
.sin i
6)
"
i (a
cos
Substitutingthe
+ .B)
(44 jB)
^^^iiHdl^tanJCsin}(l
+ B)
B)
^j^^ j^g^
written
^cosi(^
^PJ^cosj^(a4")
or,
^)
value
of sin i
Ha
cos
6)
"
(AiB)
6)
cos
(a
6)
"
207,
gCosHafe)^^^^ ^
tan
Art.
from
ic
cos
=22"ii^"^Bini(7
(167)
cosjc
Similarly,we
cos
may
prove
J5) ===5ELi_(5L"^sinja
(^
209.
The
there
articles
Analogies;
and
other
forms, according as
are
in each
sides
and
amples
excase
angles
employed.
are
The
formulae
as
manner
same
in
will be other
which
Delambre^s
called
are
of
theorems
(168)
ic
sin
still another
Certain
proved by
(a). If
in the
same
those
way,
of Art.
the results
210.
of Art.
208
might
of Art.
207
by applying
side
they
the
been
derived
in the
may
also be
proved
method
of Art.
190
to
207.
propertiesof sphericaltrianglesare
have
differsmore
quadrant
as
its
of this
readily
chapter.
side^ it is
SPHERICAL
176
For
in the
are
if
example,
To
differs
90"
from
more
than
6,
and
quadrant.
same
this, we
prove
TRIGONOMETRY.
have, by Art.
cos
4
cos
191,
6
cos
"
cose
sin 6 sine
Since
b and
since
positive; and,
numerically greater
hence,
the
cos
is
sign of
than
than
cos".
cos
But,
will be the
both
are
both
are
90"
from
more
numerically greater
4 and
and
less
differs
the fraction
hence, A
both
are
than
6,
than
cos
90",
sign of
cos
negative ;
greater than
both
or
Hence,
both
positive,or
is
unity;
cose.
the
as
are
cos
is less than
cose
same
less than
sine
90".
(6). If
it is ill the
For
To
if A
example,
in the
are
quadrant
same
differs
this,we
cos4
cos
and
show,
may
that
cos
4 is
as
in the
or
both
greater
(c).
The
as
the
For
than
as
B
cos
"
B^ A
than
case,
than
half sum
of
the
90", according
90".
C sin 5 sin C
cos
\cos
before,
and
cos
sin (7
sin 5
that
and
cos
and
than
be
must
sin (7
x)ositive,
are
(7; hence,
cosB
cos
both
less than
90",
90".
of
any
two
sides
is in the
quadrant
sam"
opposite angles.
example, ^ (a f 6)
greater than
190,
numericallygreater
previous
half sum
90"
from
more
sin 5
We
angle
opposite side.
have, by Art.
cos
Whence,
its
another
quadrant.
same
prove
as
90" than
from
angle differsmore
an
as
is less
^(4jB)
or
greater
or
To
this, we
prove
cos
TRIANGLES.
RIGHT
SPHERICAL
have, by Art.
204,
{A\B)
tan
177
^c
Since, Ay B^
90",
and
B)
"
i{a\b)
tan
each
less than
lies between
90" and
and
{A"B)
(A
cos
are
and
cos
"
90",
greater than
(d)
In
there
will be
either
of the others;
lie in the
In
sides
in
quadrant
an
either
as
which
their
as
quadrant
same
as
That
is,
90", both
than
is
equilateral)
or
90"
nearer
the half
sum
half
sum
the
equal
of the
than
sides
two
must
of
the
equal
of
the
equal
the
same
lies in
sides
opposite angle.
its
equilateraltriangle,by
the
quadrant
same
OP
SOLUTION
XV.
negative,
opposite angles.
triangle,by (c),
is, either
that
angles ;
isosceles
is not
side
one
Ic
to 90**.
quadrants
same
is in the
In
general
isosceles
an
equal
triangle(which
any
both
oo
tan
i(A\B)
cos
both
or
hence,
principlejust proved,
as
its
opposite angle.
SPHERICAL
RIGHT
TRIANGLES.
A
mined
sphericaltriangleis, in general,completely deter
when
the
a
case
three
any
where
the
of
right sphericaltrianglecan
besides
We
the
will
rightangle
now
chapter,
derive,
the
right triangles.
We
are
the
be
solved
given parts
are
from
are
three
when
known,
even
in
angles. Thus,
two
any
parts
given.
the
general
simpler forms
shall suppose
formulae
adapted
C the
to
the
of
the
solution
rightangle.
ceding
preof
SPHERICAL
178
From
Art.
cos
(7=
MaMng
TRIGONOMETRY.
188,
COS
=:
90", whence
sin ^
have
we
(3.G9)
192,
sin
sin .B
sin C
(7=
sin
sin
4.=
:
From
Making
Art.
cos
cos
J[
"^v
(170)
c
cos
A^sinO
sin 4
cos
cos
C + sin5
sin (7
cos
cos
6, and
Art.
andj
cos
sin^ x"
buiB
cos
cos
4
cos
/,,\
(171)
190,
"
cos
cos
J5 f sin ^
sin B
cos
cos
cos
sin A
sin 5
cos
^^^ ^
(7=90",
Hence,
216.
/,
"
become
these
cos
Making
COSjB
C=
:
sin
cos5
cos
cos
"
sin b
"
8mJ5 T"
andJ
have
we
B=ainA
sm^
From
1,
sin
190,
"
(7=90",
cos
whence,
sin (7=
"
sin
214.
sin O
90", whence
J
sin
sin 6
__
Making
cos
cos6
Art.
From
sin 5
0=0,
cos
coscscosa
213.
sin
6 +
COS
cos
From
cos
^QS
cos
sm
sin ^
Art.
214,
4
sin J5
212
whence, by Arts.
cos^
"
and
sin b
yi
cos
a,
cos
and
,
cos
^^^^^
sin A
cos
sin
cos
sin
cos
213,
sin
and
^^^ j^
cos
cosJB,,
NAPIER'S
formulae
In
RULES
of the
preceding
two
of
article.
elements
form,
A^
co.
J5, and
co.
6, and
and
c, which
A^ JB, and
the elements
abbreviated
an
all the
include
which
artificial rules
are
sphericalrighttriangle,the
PARTS.
dRCULAR
OF
These
complements
in
TRIGONOMETRY.
SPHERICAL
180
co.
written
are
called
are
c,
the
triangle,
in the
occur
the let*
in which
in the order
arranged
them
suppose
we
co.B
co.^
the
of
one
any
parts, and
cent
sine
The
the
remaining
Napier's rules
Then,
selected
immediately adjacent
the two
part;
be
five may
are
of the middle
two
called
and
then
are
the
the
called
middle
the
adjor
oppositeparts.
part
the
eqvMs
product of
the
gents
tan
of
of the middle
sine
The
oppositeparts.
These
),
be
may
parts in succession
results
agree
If
is the
and
as
middle
co.
tan
the formulae
with
and
CO.
sin
or
h tan
part, h
the
and
part, and
of Art.
the
are
opposite parts.
(co.B)
showing
which
agree
tan
b cot B
with
Arts.
217
and
sin
cos
sin
sin
213.
the
adjacent parts,
(Art. 13),
sin
that
218.
co.
of the circular
sin uil
RIGHT
SPHERICAL
If b is the
and
or,
and
CO.
middle
co.
the
tan
tan
sin b
tan
cot A
If
with
agree
CO.
parts, and
cos
or,
which
cos
or,
which
agree
CO.
parts, and
which
agree
of
of the
to
cos
212
Arts.
middle
B
and
part,
the
b tan
sin
(co.A)
cos
b cot
Arts.
middle
co.
co.
and
4
cos
and
co.
tan
(co.c)
sin
(co.B)
cos
cos
(co.^)
Arts.
on
216
cos
and
the
Trigonometry
forms
of
formulae
Plane
the
are
adjacent
" sin ^
cos
214.
differ
recollect
sin J5
Then,
opposite parts.
a
with
adjacent
214.
tan
cot
the
are
(co.c)
Then,
(co.B)
tan
cos
cos
sin
adjacent
(co.B)
tan
cos
part,
the
the
are
cos(co. J5)
216
sin 5
opposite parts.
tan
is the
Then,
and
with
sin
(co.B)
215.
(co.A)
tan
(co.c) cos
cos
sin
cos
co.
cos
highest authorities, it
218.
cot B
co.
Then,
opposite parts.
(co.c)
Napier's
analogous
and
sin
Writers
value
pait,co. A
cot ^
adjacent parts,
213.
tan(co.A)
and
b and
cos
or,
sin 6
(co.c)
is the
and
181
the
are
sin b
sin
217
b the
with
CO.
parts, and
If
agree
If
Arts.
and
co.
opposite parts.
middle
is the
and
(co.A)
sin b
which
Art.
part,
TRIANGLES.
seems
to
be
to
as
the
practical
regarded
by comparing
Trigonometry,
as
them
as
ble
preferawith
mentioned
the
in
222.
six
be
TBIGONOMETBY.
SPHERICAL
182
SOLUTION
OF
In the solution
of
which
cases
BIGHT
and
hypotlieniise
1.
Given
the
2.
Given
an
angle
and
its
opposite side,
3.
Given
an
angle and
its
adja^xnt side.
4.
Given
the
5.
Given
the two
sides
6.
Given
the two
angles A
the above
formiilsB of Art.
elements
when
the two
involves
which
all the
If
rule may
two
be found
cases
be solved
may
compute
are
given, the
given parts
elements
remaining
side.
B.
and
To
218.
any
another
6.
and
adjacent angle,
an
hypothenuse and
of
Any
will
sphericalright triangles,there
arise
can
TBL^NGLES.
in
convenient
either
aid of the
by
the
of
remaining
equation is tluit
proper
and
the
are
required part.
selectingthe
proper
tions
equa
In
formulae
to
the
or
cotangent of
algebraicsigns of
function
of
found
just above
Art.
229
; the
in accordance
'^determined
after the
first of
equation in which
looking
out
the
cosine, tangent,
or
the
angle
is less
the
angle
is less than
90",
must
and
be
the
or
to
being
put the
cotangent,
greater than
90"
in the
are
its
sign
90" ; that
each
ples
exam
then
being
minus.
tive.
nega
sign of
principlethat
signs produce
Art.
taken
first member
the
paid
cosine, tangent,
like
In
are
signs
the
omitted
amples
ex
in
positive.
angles corresponding, if
supplement
taken.
the
of
with
unlike
In
sign
90^
be
must
it,as illustrated
beneath
or
the
than
convenient
given parts.
attention
functions
the
angle greater
an
It will be
every
the computations,
making
the
involve
which
the function
determines
is
whether
is,if it is positive,
of the
angle
obtained
from
the tables
is
If tb# fonetion
the tables
from
the next
side
in the
are
By
the
acute
must
be
angle
obtained
regarded
be removed
by
the
tions,
solu
as
principles
angle and
an
aphertccUrighttriangle^
its opposite
quadrant.
same
218, sinJB
Art.
"^
supplement
angle is eqaal
an
articles.
two
In
both
ambiguity can
unless the
of
its
and
188
supplement,
sine of its
the
to
TRIAVGLEa
RIGHT
STBXBICAL
^^.
"
coso
sin B
l^oee
is
always positive,cos^
positiveor both
both less than 90^, or
and
"
in the
90'',the other
than
is less than
both
are
If
greater than
COS"'must
be of
b is less than
sides
both
90", or both
is
of
for
any
Art.
in
are
is
that
negative ;
90", and
the other
in the
which
found
particularexample
that
is
in Art.
may
new
any
229.
be
tlieformxda
If
cos"
are
both
cosa
and
of the sides
greater than
be done
and
is,a and
is,one
solution
may
that
cosa
to
have
in every
selected
and
cheek
check
from
on
out
with
case
logarithms.
The
90".
Take
sides
quadrants.
different
positive; hence
opposite sign ;
logarithmicwork,
the
it follows
It is coitve"ient
the
be
90^, cose
positiveor
less than
must
ooscscosacos^.
ByArt"218,
If
two
quadrant.
same
quadrant;
same
be
and
^^
is less than 90
If the hypotheniLse
are
must
90^.
greater than
equation 8in^=s
the
in the
are
both
cos
negative. Hence,
both
Similarly,from
and
ples
Examformula
the set in
:
Napier's
rules
are
used, the
following rule
wfll
SPHERICAL
184
elements
middle
and
TRIGONOMETRY.
element
required
any
regarded
the
as
part.
is to be
the middle
as
If they are
then
are
not
of the others
either
the others
and
party
adjacent, take
are
the middle
as
the middle
adja^centparts.
is not
adja/yent to
the others
party and
then
are
oppositeparts.
the check
For
formula^ proceed
above
as
with
the circular
Thas,
To
and
given, and
are
a, consider
find
sin
is
find
part, and
co.
a,
and
(co.A)
(co.c) cos
cos
by the circular
middle
the
now
parts
are
required
c, and
co.
co.
co.
are
A.
site
oppo
parts.
To
circular
the
by and
a,
parts
part, and
6,
are
h and
sine sin 4
co.
coA\
c, and
co.
c
4
co.
adjacent parts.
are
Then,
sin
To
CO.
(co.A)
(co.c)
For
^
parts
part, and
cos^
or
co.
JB, co.
co.
are
tan b cote
and
co.
e, and
co.
tan
(co.B)
cose
or
circular
the
formula,
middle
is the
; a
(co.A)
tan
check
the
parts.
adjacent
are
parts
b and
part, and
co.
cot4
a,
are
cot JB
are
by and
adjacent
Then,
sin
tan b tan
(co.B)
tan b cotB
EXAMPLES.
229.
1.
Using
the
218
Then,
parts.
CO.
middle
is the
sin
(co.c),
By the circular
find
tan b tan
Given
rule
70"
of Art.
18', A
100".
Find
formulae
a,
by and
from
are,
co84=
sin4==5iE?^
,
sme
"
",
tanc
cose
B.
Art
SPHERICAL
That
++sin
Hence,
+
sin^, t"nb
log sin
log sin
log tan
logtanc
logcos
log cot
Since
ambiguity
A
is
obtained
from
When
of
case
logtan A
be taken,
must
is determined
by
the
also be
must
as
from
principleof
also, the
element
of
cases
a,
in the
explained
its
Art.
the
sine, but
225
for,
90".
greater than
of
supplement
the
angle
be taken.
fiinctions
the
values
of
found
log sin c
log sin^
value
sina
used
6 and
volve
always be so written as to inin determining the required parts.
log cot JB may then be taken from
work, and
of
the
sum
should
9.97380710
9.993351
10
log tan c
log cos^
=9.967158"10
180"
9.527753
log tan4
0.753681
log tan
0.281434
log coti?=
180"JB=
5=
log sin a.
log cot
is here
cotB.
t"nb
log sin
Ic^ cos
in
0.446054
9.23967010
logtanft =9.68572410
below
should
logtan
or
formula
check
shown
as
formula
sin
The
first member,
B.
6, and
tan B
The
4
flogcos
c
the
minus
By
logsin
the
taken, it
the
element
greaterthan 90", a
in the
Thus,
tan A
cose
negative,the supplementaof
are
is removed
+
cos^, cotJB
tanc
the tables
from
The
224.
in Art.
cotJB
and
tan"
angles obtained
since
186
is,
4sin a
the
TRIANGLES.
RIGHT
180" 6=
9.4"
0'
"
7' 39.1"
CJiecJc.
10
27"36'46.9''
154"
log sin
9.68572410
0.281434
9.967158
10
TRI60N0METHT.
flPBEBKTAL
IM
2.
Giyen
By
Art.
6',b
132^
^,
"
tanBaa:
sin 6
log tan
coac
Bs3
log cose
or^
log tan
log sin
"
log tan
"
"
log tan
cot
formula
log Bind
*
log sina
logGos"
is
JB^ or oosctan^tanB=l
log tan
J. f
logtanBs=
log tan
9.990161
log sin
0.053878
logtan"
0.666967
9.870390
0.796577
Check.
9.826351
2"=
9.323194
log cos
9:i49545
log tan
^=0.053878
8r55'17.4"
logtan
logco6C
180*c
c=s98*
Given
27' 18.3"
^=131*
log cos
log cos
k)gl=
0.044039
180*^=
8.
(?sk^coaa
the check
cot^
ss
e.
coscsscosaooBft
"
log tana
s=
log COS
By Art. 227"
and
suia
log tao^
Hence,
A, B,
Find
are
"
tan4
and
77^ 51'.
formulae
the three
223
J5=
6' 42.6'^
146*
15'
19",
log 1==
9.149545
0^796577
0.000000
a"
Find
A, b^
c.
By
Art
cosa
That
are
tanc
sma
is,
"*
cos^ss
"*"
cosa
*"
sin
"
"T
JB, tan"s=sinatan^,
nr
tanc
tana
=
cos^
Hence,
log cos
log cosa
log tan
s=log
log tan
sina +
log tana
"
log sm
l(^tanJB
log cos JB
SPHERICAL
188
225
Arts.
its
and
TRIGONOMETRY.
226, both
or
supplement
the
be retained
must
log tan
log sin
b =9.555636
0.542981
21"
=9.794626
logsinB
9.645271
1.3"
or
Check.
log 8in4
9.982878
logsln"=
9.910365
log sine
=9.910365
logsin^
125"
or
It does
b must
than
90",
given
be
Art.
and
in the
same
b must
be
in the second
less than
in different
with
the values
Thus, the
the
of b and
33'
33.3",
6=
is
greater
Since
of
the
is
value
greater
90" must
greater than
90",
of b greater than
that with
the value
less than
solutions
two
54"26'26.7",
=125"
value
when
quadrants.
it follows
be taken
be combined
is less than
quadrant, and
quadrant,
90" must
90" ; and
c=
226, when
90", and
9.645271
not
and
9.555636
33' 33.3"
promiscuously ; for, by
log cos
9.439897
9.893243
c=
or,
J[
lojgsinc=
taken
log cos
tables
case.
logsin
than
the
from
in each
3' 58.7"
158*56'
or
obtained
=0.098617
logtana
of
angle
be
90".
are
158" 56'
21"
1.3", B
153" 46'
41.7";
3' 58.7", B=
"^'
The
figureshows,
solutions
in this
case.
in another
For,
way,
\i AB
the
why
and
should
there
^C
triangleAB
be
be two
produced
C has
to
the side
RIGHT
SPHERICAL
and
the
A
angle
angled
of the
(7.
at
And
sides
Solve
the
and
the
the
side
the
and
triangles are
both
right
c' and
it is evident
are
b and
and
189
equal, respectively,to
triangleABCy
angle CBA*
the
A*
angle
TRIANGLES.
b' and
of
supplements, respectively,
the
angle CBA.
followingtriangles:
6.
Given
6.
Given
J[=
7.
Given
8.
Given
5=
9.
Given
10.
Given
11.
Given
12.
Given
13.
Given
137*23', a=160^
50^ 21', ^=122^40^
160%
80**
a=
61**
a=
61*39
67*36'.
6=
81** 53
c=
38* 28'.
5=112*
3'.
5=123*38'.
5
,
6=144*12'.
,
^=
99M7
152*20
57'
111*
6=
15*
3'.
37*
4'.
14.
J[=
Given
62*59
5=
,
16.
Given
144*
54
16.
Given
144*
54
17.
Given
18.
Given
19.
Given
20.
Given
"=137*
Given
c=
47*34
6=
69*18',
21.
22.
230.
Since
OF
the
101*
14'.
161*
52'.
114*32
^=
=113*
7'.
73*
6=110*47'.
25
A=z
74*51'.
polar triangleof
84*27'.
c=
TRIANGLES.
QUADRANTAL
B
,
Given
SOLUTION
=131*
a=146*32'.
quadrantal triangleis
only
of the
to
solve
this
parts found
right
by
the
SPHERICAL
190
Example.
A., B, and
the
b^4gr6(f.
polar righttriangle
by AffC\
90% ^'=
Art.
By
a^^rW,
112*
22', B'=
131*
10'
; to
a'
"
cot4'
ooso'
is,
co8a'
"^\
co9Z"'=
Bm
52i4;"
coBc'
or.
the
cotJJ'
Bin
4
log coa
a'
logcos A^
logcos
6'
logCOB
log COB
c' =
"
^"
log sin
J.'
check.
cos
log cos
or,
log cos
^'
log sin
B^
c'esooeo'
e' B
oob6'
9.580892
loff cos
cos
log
9.876678
log
a' =9.703714
log cos
180*
a'
180*
=a
B'
sin A'
log cos
d'
9.818392
":
9.966033
9.852359
"
44**37' 6.2"
9.614359
9.941714
log COB
c'
9.556073
log cost's*
log cose'
log cos
Check.
a'
"
^=180*a'=
jBp=180*6'*
C=180*c'
59*38'
9.6"
44*87'
6.2"
=111*
9.703714
9.852359
=9.556073
and
a',6',and c'.
218,
cos
For
have, by
we
find
sin^=22S4',
"nji'^"2Lg,
ods c*
That
Find
(A),
186,
0'=
c^9(f,
C.
Denoting
Art.
Given
TRIGONOMETST.
5' 18.7"
SFHEBICAL
OF
SOLUTION
Art.
By
fco the
base
vertical
of
TBIAlfGLES.
RIGHT
ISOSCELES
191
TRIANGLES.
an
angle, and
trianglebisects
divides
By solving
it into two
of
one
these
the vertex
the base
and
the
angles.
symmetrical righttri
we
find
can
the
required
Example.
A^ B^
and
(7"
^IIS**, * s=115%
71* 48'.
Find
e.
to find the
then
are
?1E^'
sin^'=
J['= JC=35"54'
and
and
B^ in this
c' =
cos
triangle.
oot^'cotB'
(Art.218)
smc'

sin a'
or,
sine'
9.957276
9.7681
logsinJl'ss
log sin
cot5'=
sin4',and
cose' tan^*
c'
log cos
7S
h
9.625948
logtan^'r^ 9.859666
B'
a'
9.725449
log cot
a'
32"6'8.7"
180^jB'=:
^'
9.485614
0'36.5"
A^B=B'=l0r
If the
given parts
36.5", and
are
a,
6, and
triangleis indeterminate,
90", the
given parts
If in
two
and
sides
one
to that of
or
two
other
an
are
2a'=
A^ and
since
each
a, and
The
each
is
equal
to
birectangular
any
conditions.
A^ By and
is
is true
same
equal
to 90".
isosceles
triaagle*
may
be at
onoe
reduced
SPHERICAL
192
TRIGONOMETRY.
.J^
For, if
a,
the
by completing
in
A
A^
if
Again,
180** 5,
A'B
ABA^C
6'
180""
given,and
are
form
we
180"
b,
"
triangleA* BC
that
a;
\" isosceles.
BC
lune
side
the
which
element
b, and another
A'BC
A;
the
that
element
given,
are
triangleA^BC,
A'
is,two
the
angles of
and
and
triangle
equal.
are
XVI.
in
then,
180""
another
JB, and
OP
SOLUTION
SPHERICAL
OBLIQUE
TRIANGLES.
In the solution of
distinguishsix
a
2.
CKven
two
8.
Given
4.
Given
the three
5.
Given
two
sides and
6.
Given
two
angles and
By
the
applicationof
solution
of
the
made
under
to
Cases
it is not
side and
"olutioa of
adjacent angles,
two
sides and
their included
depend
1,3, and
to
angle,
angles,
the
upon
angle oppositeto
the side
example
any
essential
may
Qiven
be
cases
sphericaloblique triangleswe
the
the
opposite to
under
Cases
solution
more
of them.
one
of them.
principlesof
of
and
5, respectively,
consider
one
than
sphericalobliquetriaiigles.
Art.
2, 4, and
another
vice
three
versa.
cases
186, (^),
6, may
example
Thus
in the
SPHERICAL
The
student
made
Art.
in
bear
must
regard
mind
carefully in
solution
the
to
198
of
the
marks
re
right trianglesin
224.
Case
Given
I.
Given
Example.
aide
70%
and
adjacent angles.
two
131"
18', c
116".
Find
C,
6, and
a,
TRIANGLES.
OBLIQUE
have
we
tanjc
sin^ (JBhA)
_
sin
i (B "4)
tan^ (b
oosj^(^+^)_
tan^c
co8^(JB" ^)
Whence,
or,
tan^ (6
tan^ (6
tan^(6
=
tsLTii
(6 4 a)^
^^
a)
"
^^^f)^"^/
tan^ (b{a)
From
the
tan
Jc
^
cosec^ (B +A)
4=
^.
cosi(JB^)
sin^ (B "A)
a)
sini(B^)
a)
a)
"
4
cos^(JB "A)
i^B^A)
sec
tan^c
tanJc
data,
i (JB^)
30"
39', i(JB4^)=100"39',
ic
58"
=9.707393
logcosi(JB^)
=9.934649
logcoseci(JB+4)=0.007546
logseci(iJ+^)
=0.733277
logtanl^c=0.204211
logtan^c
=0.204211
logtanJ(6 4a)
=0.872137
logsini(B^)
logtanJ(6a)
...
=9.919150
i{b'a)
=39"41f50.6"
180"i(6
..
Then,
i (6
^ (6 + a"
i (6 f.a) + i (6
a)
a)
a) =82"21'16.7"
^(64a)=97"38'43.3"
57" 56' 52.S"
1 37" 20' 33.8
"
TRI"k"KOM"TRT.
SPHERICAL
IM
To
C,
find
we
8in
sin i
S5
(6
o)
"
(" + a)
logsini(b
logcosec} (6
(6
coeec
a) tan } {B "4.)
"
a)=z 9.996122
"
a)
logtan 1 (B'A)
=:
0.194681
9.772745
kC00ti(7"
9.963548
10=4r*24'
..
valne
The
of
also be
may
6.1"
detennined
by
the
formnla
(Art.205),
cotJ0=^iii5"")tanJ(5+^)
ooBi("
a)
"
The
values
any
of the
given
elements.
f.
Given
Example.
JB, (7,and
Given
II.
Case
137*'
their included
aides and
two
20',
116%
cotjJ^
sin}(5 + c)_
tanJ(^C)*
8inJ(6c)
Whence,
tanHBa)
tani (J +
tan} (^
From
"
(7)
"
i(B+C)=s
the
(6
Find
have
g)
} (" + c)
cos
cos
c)
(o
tan
(JB+ C)
c)
sin
"^
ii? ^)cotM
cos
(6
coti^^
g4J^"cotM
+
sin J
cos
(6 + c)
J
(ft c) coeec
"
+
tan
^=70*.
a.
or,
angle.
(6
(6 + c) coti^i
+
J.
coti
i(jb+ c)

"
c)
sec
data,
c)
10*
SPHERICAL
196
TRIGONOMETRY.
logsin (a 6)
9.496919
c)
9.804886
a)
0.003934
logcosecs
0.384777
logsin ("
logcosec ("
"
"
2J 9.690516
log tan M
9.845258
M=35''0'
.".^=:
131*
18'
followingforms
found
convenient
Art.
70^0'
13.8"
find
we
Similarly,
The
6.9"
31.8", C
of the
equations of
all the
when
angles
Art.
198
will
be
required, (Compare
are
162.)
if*=^{s
sin
a) sin (a
"
sin
b) sin {a
"
c)
"
A;
then,
tan}^
sin
(s
a)
"
tanJB
7
sin (s
(8
sm
values
The
the
formulae
the
only
is
Arts.
of
four different
elements
(e) ;
the
or
198
of Art.
be
found
If all the
197.
logarithms are
formulae
also
may
are
the
required.
any
aid
by
angles
are
convenient,
most
are
but
to be
one
of
quired,
reas
angle
preferred,as
satisfythe
which
tliat is, if
sum
196
c)
"
197
involve
The
and
of Art.
formulae
required,the
they
4, JB,
of
b)
"
of the other
2^ +
two.
"
conditions
360", and
of
no
values
Ait,
of the
given
side is
greater than
SPHERICAL
Case
Find
Art.
By
Given
6, and
a,
Given
IV.
Example.
TRIANGLES.
OBLIQUE
the three
70%
197
angles.
=
131** 18',
94** 48'.
c.
201,
^
cos^
tania=.L
\
co8(/SJB)cos(/S'C)
cos^co8(^3)
tapi6=J
V
U
tan
Since
Note.
it has
negative signs in
From
(/S'(7) cos
cos
(/S^)
".fll^^^^^^I^HS
cos("S^)cos(/S'cos
{S A) cos (/S'
^)
been
proved
(6^~^)
cos
in Art.
always real,we
are
that
202
need
the
pay
ralues
no
of
attention
the
to
the formulae.
the data,
+5 + 0=296'*
2/S'=^
6',
/S'=148'*3'
or
Then,
/S'(7=53M5'
78^*3',/S'B=16M5',
"8'4=
log cos/S'=
9.928657
{S A)
9.316092
B)
log sec (/S'
0.018829
0.223063
log cos
(/S' C)
log sec
2)9.486641
=
9,743320
ia
28"58'33"
57^*57'
logtanJa
..
In
similar
h
If all the
the formulae
137** 20'
sides
are
of Art.
find
we
manner,
6"
25.8",
if^=^
cos(^ A)
may
"
be
used
COS/5
cos{S ^B)
cobISG)
of
values
The
formulae
four
involve
201
logarithms
formulae
of
If all the
are
the
are
required.
Art.
shown
must
be
satisfythe
be
to
"180'
trae
and
required,
are
If but
be
to
are
as
one
only
side
is
preferred, as
in Art.
of Art.
and
eadi
is, A+B
of
the
(7, must
"
given
That
202.
J.+J5
and
raiaes of the
for any
condition
"540'',
C+A"B^
+ C"Ay
sides
aid of the
convenient,
most
200
by
which
those
A)
'^
also be found
may
elements
180*
200.
or
Art.
of
required, the
The
199
of Arts.
different
they
", and
of a,
formulae
the
^K"xm{S
tuiia
then,
TSIOONOMETKY.
aPHBEICAL
198
+ C
quantities
lie between
180^
and
Ca'se Y.
240.
Given
the
8ide8 and
ttco
angle oppoail^
to
of them.
one
Example
Find
Given
1.
4, C7,and
By
Art
192,
554""E",
or
log sin
logcosec 6
log sin
To
find C and
18'.
2""^
smo
sin
=:
9.928183
0.169079
6 sin B
cosec
5=9.875793
logsm^
..
8in^
sm6
sin^
is,
21',B=131*
c.
sm^
That
67',6=137*
a"57*
J[
c,
we
9.973055
70"l'30.3",
or
have, by Arts.
and
205,
c."tjC=?iHii"")tani(^^)
sin
(6
"
a)
(A)
nbxh{BA)
'^
SPHERICAL
Or,
oot
J 0=B
sin }
tan
sin i {B+A)
(" f a)
Using
B+A
20r
TRIANGLES.
OBLIQUE
A^
of
19'
a)
cosec
cosec
i {B"A)
"
tan
}(S" ^4)
tan
i (6
a)
"
have
we
BA
30.3",
39' 45.15",
i(JB+J.)":10(y'
pr,
(6
199
(5^)
"
39*^ 42'
Also,
97^39',
J(6 + a)=
which
From
i ""
a)
obtain
we
O=94*50'8.8'S
116M'18.^
B+A
{B+A)
or,
29.7",
120*^ 38'
14.85'^
68",
25'
values
(A)
ic
is such
be
no
Case
After
the
90**.
may
be
{b+a) and
smi (B+A)
sarrie
and
tanic
given
be
1'18.2"
in the
tions
equa
iC
positive,since
tan
Thus
sometimes
of
} c negative,there
will
will sometimes
be
there
no
tan
solution
in
examples
correi^iidiDg"
readily determined
i
are
{B+A)
are
less than
are
both
and
but
tan
if
of
by inspection. For,
positive. Hence,
sign, cot i C
ic
been
have
triangle is possible;
cot i O
53",
article must
cot i C
values of A
the
V.
the
solutions
8.8", c=116**
i (7 and
cot
solution, and
one
under
have
94*50'
147** 25'
preceding
make
to
as
c
trianglecorresponding.
only
and
(7=
of
less than
are
since
of the
{B^A)
are
58' 29.7", (7
The
and
solutions
70** 1'30.3",
ul=109**
or,
B^A
have
we
the two
A=
haT"
we
241** 16'
0=147**
Thns,
A^
of
which
From
vahie
the second
Using
Jc
are
they
negative, and
180**,sini(6 + a)
ifB"A
both
have
and
"
positive,and
differentsigns,
there
is
no
triangle
SPHERICAL
200
That
TRIGONOMETRY.
vatuea
is,ordy those
of A
he retained
can
is
greater
To
values
both
242.
of
Example
A^ B^ and
Find
are
less than
2.
Given
J3, we
have
are
less thou 6.
b ;
a"
and,
snce
solutions.
two
57**56',
cs=116^
(7=94**48'.
b,
BiaA
sin
sin C
sin
Here,
sin
sm^
or,
or
which
sin C
BmC7 /v
.
sina
=r
9.928104
0.046840
oosecc
sine
log sin
log cosec
logsin (7=
9.998474
log sin^
9.972918
69*^58'31.2", or
..
Since
hence
but
have
we
of A
less than
be retained
can
corresponds
solution, which
one
IIOM'28.8''
to
the
of A,
first value
To
only values
a"c^
find B
and
b, we
cot}5
have, by Arts.
5!5i_(5Jl2)tan
sin i
(c
203
and
205,
(O^)
a)
"
tanJ6=S5iigt4)tan}(ca)
Using
(7 +
or,
of
A,
have
we
(7^
ui=164"46'31.2",
82" 23'
i(C+A)=
12" 24'44.4"
i(C^)=
15.6",
Also,
i{c
From
a)=^
which
5=
we
86" 58',
{c^a)
29"
2'
obtain
131"
16'
20",
137"
19' 13.8"
is
69"58'31.2", J5=131"16'20",
6=
137"
19' 13.8''
SPHERICAL
Example
A^
OBLIQUE
Given
8.
TRIANGLES.
126**,c=70**,
201
J5
56^
Find
a,
C.
and
2iE^=?"",
Here,
8inC=5iS""i"d?
or
sin^
sin 6
log sin
log cosec
sin 5
=9.972986
0.092042
log sin^=
9.918574
Since
than
both
5, it follows
If
of
the
first
the
no
244.
there
are
given parts
of
be
course
been
long
thought
and
of
TT
is less
to make
as
the
log sine
computation positive,the
in this
impossible;
case
also
there
given by
the
given
and
inconvenient
of
while
determine
the
elements
when
when
for
mining
deter
there
These
none.
application,and
them
give
to
authors
some
rules
it has
here.
In
of
solutions
number
are
not
practice it
by
the
241.
Given
VI.
angles and
two
the side
(oppositeto
them.
Example.
Find
the
one,
worth
of Art.
Case
one
such
in
been
have
preferable to
method
B^ while
solution.
no
are
or
solution.
Rules
very
is
obtained
13.6",
greater than
are
by inspection of
solutions,when
only
two
is
that
angle
triangle will
will be
of C
values
21'
(7=74**
..
a, c, and
Here,
J.
Given
109"
58', 5
18', 6 =137"
131**
20'.
C.
sin
_
sm"
sin 4
a
=
sin"sin^
or
_^,
sma
=
.
sinB
BinB
9.831058
logsin"=
log sin^
log cosec
log sin
..
9.973078
0.124207
=9.928343
57" 59'
0.8",
or
122" 0'59.2'
SPHERICAL
202
find (7 and
To
e,
T"IGOlfOMET"T.
have^ by Arto.
we
and
208
205,
(A)
Using
i(b +
or,
of a,
195M9'
97* 89'
a) "=
haye
we
0.8",
30.*",
J (ft
a*=
a)
Also,
i(J5f^)
From
which
the seoond
6 +
From
Thus, the
of a,
we
85" 11'
be
is
shown
YI.,
by
retained
greater
Also,
there
for
when
or
if the
will be
Rules
have
no
have
one,
0.8"
64"1'6.8"
aid of
in
which
and
64"
sometimes
241, that
none
of the
5.8"
two
and
it
preceding
or
1'
sometimes
are
equations (A)
greater
150^55'21"
1.4", 0=
Y., there
and
of
according as
B.
such
are
solution
been
the
are
less than
data
one,
Art.
12.8", c
85" 11'
in Case
as
only
as
24'
as
make
to
log sin
positive,
corresponding.
given
in this case,
determining by inspectionwhen
only
15" 19'
am
are
0'59.2", (7=
122"
article,exactly
can
1.4", "
0.8", 0=147"
solutions, sometimes
be
29.6",
solutions
two
In Case
may
55' 21^^
obtain
we
57" 59'
=
value
150"
J(6a)=
C=
or,
129" 40'
which
o"=
12.8",
"
10" 40'
"
a=259"20'59.2",
i (6 + a)
or,
24'
147"
i{B A)
38',
find
we
Using
120"
when
none
as
there
; bat
in
well
are
as
two
in Case
Y.,
solutions,
practicethe
method
TRIGONOMETRY.
SPHERICAL
204
; and
them
the
angles between
the
points
determine
the
this
arc
of
bearings
meridians
and
the
the
points
of
each
"om
other.
Thus, if Q
meridians,
from
Q, and
from
Q'.
Q'
and
possible to
and PQ' Q by
For, if EE'
the
the solution
angle QPQ'=
longitude of Q. Also,
and
known,
the
When
Note.
bearing
arc
be
la the
following examples
may
the
given, it
angles PQQ'
the
of
been
by
the
diameter
wich,
of Green
longitude of Q'
Q^
latitude
of
ma}'^ be
found
in
method
of
90"
latitude
Q'.
Thus
triangle PQQ'
the
elements
Q Qf has
of
are
the meridian
QPG^
angle
calculated
length
PG
PE
and
Q'
of
bearing
Q'
and
their
sphericaltriangle.
Q'= 90**+
remaining
the
miles
included
the
and
of
Q'PG^
E'
PE'+
PQ'=
sides
QQ'
arc
the
and
the
the
longitudes of Q
determine
is
Q,
and
determines
angle PQQ^
the angle PQ^ Q determines
and
PQ'
PQ
the
latitudes
If the
points and
the
are
two
are
calculated.
angular
explained
the
of
earth
measure,
its
in Art.
181 ;
is taken
as
7912
miles.
25.
and
Boston
the
latitude
shoitest distance
of each
26.
and
place from
Calcutta
28' 38"
is 51"
of Greenwich
in miles
21' 22"
between
the
N.
places,and
Findthe
the bearing
the other.
lat. 33"
Valparaiso Ues
1' 56"
SPHERICAL
shortest
the
Find
27.
48"
Sandy
19' W.
If the
latitude
declination
of
place of
of
the sun,
does
35"
great circle
the meridian
cross
is
hour
of
the
of
course
of 50" W.
the altitude
and
known,
solution
the
the
places,and
the other.
place
determine
to
serves
latitude
Queenstown
to
the
Queenstown
Hook
Sandy
206
between
lies in
what
In
in miles
place from
Hook
; and
W.
distance
of each
bearing
the
TRIANGLES.
OBLIQUE
and
sphericaltriangle
day
the
at
time
and
observation.
Z
E
Thus,
let
be
l^B^
the
the
observer's
celestial
north
pole;
Zthe
through
SM
Then
the
i"
Then,
90"
sun's
the
known,
If 24
have
meridian
.and
the
hours
be
the time
EP;
place of
declination
altitude ; and
That
the
horizon;
ing
pass
great circle
ing
pass
declination,SN
side
the
; SZ=
of
multipliedbj^the
hence,
if this
PMS3f
SN=^
the
the
90"
the
latitude
triangleSPZ
of
are
be calculated.
may
required for
altitude,and
90"
SP
ZN
PZ=^P^Z=
angle
its
observ^ation.
triangleSPZ,
the sun's
place.
celestial
meridian
ZSN
place ; and
sun's
of the
in the
HH}
equator;
the
S*
and
the latitude
EZ
we
sun's
the
through
position;
the
ratio of this
sun
time
is taken
to
be
in
angle
to
360",
from
S to
the
subtracted
from
12
move
thejnorning, or added,
ftFHERICAL
a06
taken
if
in
time
the
If
the
and
the
the
difference
is,
of
15',
to
28.
declination
its
13'
50"
is
find
noted
at
15**
sun's
N.
If
place.
in
mind
longitude
of
time
the
borne
that
longitude,
altitude
the
the
of
in
made
one
sun
47'
35''
N.,
its
of
vessel
taken
at
vessel?
the
o'clock
at
IS',
morning,
is
longitude
the
14^
the
the
observation
of
be
to
latitude
the
is
is
on
local
of
of
altitude
37"
lat.
observed
is
and
S.,
of
31.
22"
the
what
the
Melbourne,
In
hoar
is
day
p.m.
declination
being
30.
sun
be
the
15".
If
day.
time,
Francisco,
S.
3"
the
will
What
San
12"
of
of
the
be
360^
to
to
36'
should
observation
the
Greenwich
29.
18*
and
longitude
to
second
observes
and
hour
the
A.M.
in
corresponds
being
N.,
it
time
one
this
the
correspond
and
hour
observation
between
time
mariner
the
longitude,
to
of
hour
one
minate
time
hours
24
of
determines
above
the
obeervation.
time
reducing
that
of
obtain
we
Gi*eeDwieh
calculated
In
sfberaoon,
place
chronometer,
as
XBIGONOMETSr.
At
90".
48'
46'.
is
36"
If
S., the
the
in
made
altitude
sun's
the
of
declination
morning,
the
is
find
the
lat.
42"
iV
arc
^Z
day.
what
when
At
Note.
25"
be
obsei*vation
the
the
N.,
to
37"
lat.
will
hour
its
sunrise
declination
the
sun's
the
rise
sun
is
15"
altitude
in
N.
is
0,
Boston,
so
that
the
comes
be
TO
AIJfSWEES
EXAMPLES.
THE
Art.
4.
page
9.
28"
38'
52.4".
14.
114"
35'
29.6".
18.
42"
58'
18.6".
16.
100"
54'
5.1".
16.
40'
30"
Art.
52
33.8''.
41.
40,
pagea
11.
2n7rf3
12.
2n7r74
Art.
83
68.
page
..(fci).
7.
sin
8.
nir",.
6
V
9.
mr\'.
.4
8.
TT
n^
^ orn,r"^.
IT
tan"^/^smasin5
10.
Art.
\1
95
"
sinacosfty
73.
page
1.
1.681241.
5.
1.924279.
9.
2.702430.
2.
2.644438.
8.
2.753582.
10.
3.489536.
3.
1.748188.
7.
2.225309.
11.
4.191785.
4.
1.991226.
8.
3.848558.
12.
4.158543.
"
ANSWERS.
208
Art.
96
74.
; page
1.
1.176091,
4.
2.243038.
7.
0.853872.
2.
2.096910.
6.
0.522879.
8.
1.066947.
3.
0.154902.
6.
1.045758.
9.
0.735954.
Art.
97
74.
; page
1.
0.286273.
8.
4.60409510.
6.
0.878494.
2.
3.612360.
4.
9.89397310.
6.
4.81232710.
Art.
98:
75.
page
1.
0.068160.
3.
0.351447.
i.
1.017051.
2.
0.460070.
4.
0.937530.
6.
1.056811.
Art.
104
80.
; page
6.
0.011739.
12.
3.863506.
6.
1.527511.
18.
8.64040910.
7.
8.78021010.
14.
4.89381.
8.
4.812917.
16.
1.718451.
9.
7.01315010.
16.
7.498424010.
10.
2.960116.
17.
9.27537410.
11.
9.94255010.
18.
1.9792784.
Art
105;
pages
81, 82.
4.
6.61005.
9.
1000.06.
14.
11.327.
6.
55606.5.
10.
9.77667.
16.
8.63076.
6.
011089..
11.
.00130514.
16.
.2070207.
7.
186.334.
12.
.034277.
17.
.00548803.
8.
.223905.
13.
46.7929.
18.
734.9114.
Art
129
; pages
102, 103.
12.
4. 33^0'
13.
16.2".
10.
14.
11.
16.
210
ANSWERS.
Art
130;
2. 0.085603.
3. 0.765716.
6. 40" 21 '2.8".
133;
Art
1.
103.
page
6.84992810.
106.
page
3. 2.911304.
6. 3' 11.706''.
4.
8. 5' 5.6562".
2. 7.03153610.
7.06360810.
Art
1.
=264.952,
2. ^=51"
52'
3.
4.
=87.6355,
6. ^
6. ^=55"
pages
110, 111.
75.9488.
J5
38" 7'
5.41295.
26.9148.
50.3",
47" 51'
52.1",
JB
42"8'7.9",
43'
57.5",
J5
34"
167.593.
36987.4.
53" 13'
24.3918.
8.
6=4023.93,
9.7",
14.3056,
7.
9. ^
140;
230.535,
16'2.5",
36" 46'
53.5747,
11. ^
65" 30'
18.9", J5=24"29'41.1",
12.
58" 35'
43.8",
10.
56.7",
B
a
J5
31" 24'
410.254.
13.
0=456.429,
14.
=.713415.
16.
=1876.87,
6=76.1761.
18.
=30.5136,
6=18.5891.
17.
18.
c=
30" 17'
24.4",
213.637,
c=
19. ^
20.
.136736,
58" 39'
1.6",
7005.71,
B
a
J5
6
59" 42'
3.3",
811.715.
6=184.706.
c
411.487.
41.2042.
3.15341.
16.2", a
=.0409003.
35.6",
58.4",
6=
20.^382.
=176.603.
=
31" 20'
5571.62.
1.04093.
ANSWERS.
212
^
83M4'
87.2",
J5
12. ^
55** 55'
49",
5=
11.
13.
6=1.00425,
=
68** 48'
23'' 5'
16. ^
120"
16.
=447.366,
34.8",
52" 10'
18.
=342.602,
19. ^
49" 23'
67"8'
5=
112"51'
27.3",
59.6",
39'
12.2", (7
34.8",
31.1",
6.92084
25.2", a
2.91143.
32.7",
72" 53'
303.276.
58" 38'
59"
171" 4'
60.6656.
57',
18.9",
28.
J5=37"23'24.6",
(7=110"
24.
(7 =
J5
26.
Impossible.
26.
J.
60" 51'
3.4",
J5
27.
J.
67" 36'
57.6",
(7=
43'
16.4",
C=lll"56'50.6",
90",
or,
^=23"
28.
5112.25.
33.
29.
2624.07.
30.
.310864.
10'
8.6559.
c=
11.4", (7=71"57'49.2".
(7=
110.677,
1.06344.
o=
22.
44" 19'58.8^
4^5.664.
J5=
3.83539.
2.32217.
J5=
20. ^=90",
21. ^=2"
13.4", C=24"31'30.6",
17'
17. ^
a
25.2",
22.8",
79" 44'
c=
14. ^
or,
45" 9'
49.4",
49"59'39",
.0888837.
65.352.
6=127.316.
46" 7'
1.4",
(7=
68" 3'
9.4",
283.908
123.519.
38.
153.629
ft.
34. 46.17725.
39.
29799.8
sq.ft.
3506.815.
86.
.00181672.
40. 247.998
31.
135.3545.
86.
.117655.
41.
1569.952sq.rds.
32.
21595.4.
87.
482.089
42.
247.741ft.
43.
PA,
8347.42
12.7266.
ft. ; PB,
Art
167
ft.
7566.65
; page
ft ;
PC,
143.
2.
2.11491,
1,86081,
or
.254101.
3.
2.66907,
2.1451,
or
.523977.
4.
.47762,
6.1364,
or
.34129.
6.
3.49086,
.83424,
or
.343382.
ft.
5091.92
ft.
213
AKSWER"
Art
149^ 39'
229
; page
189.
35.8", 5=66'*41'51.3",
:40*^42'45.3", 6=134''30'30.6",
J5
:149"40'4.3",
:154"43'5.1",
=110"9'21",
=113"25'33.6",^=109n3'3".
:66n5'34.7",
=127n4'4.2",
:72"28'58.8",
5.3",
107"0'44.5".
140'*39'53.9",c
112"39'8.4".
152"57'42",
70" 15'
J5=27"2'18",
=
c=47"32'40.9".
=26"24'16.2",
:109"51'3.4",
B
10n5'36.2",
:70"8'56.6",
JB=78"44'23.8",
13.2";
120"51'19.7",5=34"0'7.1".
:4r5'37",
106"27'21.3".
:146"31'31.2", 6 =109"48'10.9",
c=73"35'5.9".
:101"48'49.6", 6=166"8'37.9",
c=50"18'25.7".
:60"31'5",
:112"2'35.4",
=147"31'53.8",
=
109" 12'
:41"6'44.4",
5 =26"
^
Art.
2. ^=142"
247;
=69"34'54.1",
32'
37.8",
b
B
6.8",
25' 11.
pages
54.4", 6 =149"11'40.8",
4.
=100"
50'
0.4",
or,a=114"43'24.9",
J5
135"2'40",
^=70"1'35.5''.
27"52'36",
34'
a=65"16'35.1",
c=81"53'36".
=120"30'31.5", O=50"30'2.6".
=144"
(7
143"50'6.6".
203206.
14"23'5.7",
9", ^=37"4'29.7".
3.
J.
=105"44'3.8",
:68"17'28.5",
6.
.^=27"3'38.3";
:156"30'31.4", ^
c
.
=69"50'39",
:25"19'53.5",
6. ^
122"5'51.4".
:154**40'6.5", i5
:25n6'54.9",
110'' 48'
1.
66"42'30.5",
97"26'56.4",
163"35'53.1",
(7=32"26'52.8".
c=4ri0'46.4".
(7
65"32'58.3".
38"43'48.2".
165"41'37.4";
=162"20'37",
=100"7'37.6",
C=126"40'40".
ANSWEBS.
214
7.
Impossible.
26.2",
8. JB =42^37'
C=160"l'41.4^
153"39'8.4";
or,JB=137"22'33.8",
(7 =50^9'
90^5' 12.2".
9.
^=35"30'54",
B=24"42'28",
^=60**16'21.5",
10.
11.
27'
6 =114"
1.7",
12.
Impossible.
13.
14.
0=90%
16.
a=89**25'36",
16.
Impossible.
134^51'45.1",
=82"33'3.6",
7",
1.8",
c=69"23'5.4".
c=120**10'2.7", jB=50M3'28".
B=113**38'46.3",
6 =85** 4' 2.8",
6 =114**
c
17.
c=90%
18.
6 =33** 58'
19.
a=100**0'8.4",
6 =49** 59'
aO.
jB=42**37'21.8",
a=153**38'48.6", ^
or,
B=137**22'38.2",
a=90**5'43",
21.
79"9'59.6".
53' 15.7".
72**l'5".
6=65**32'31.2", J5=62**51'42.6".
18.9",
c=64**6'3.7",
135**5'15.2", 0=50**
^=37**39'44".
56.4",
160**1'26.6";
29' 54.8",
a=69**34'45".
22. Impossible.
28.
=42**37'5.2",
6 =129**
or,
=137**
"=
24.
22'
54.8",
^=46**31'9.6",
N.
26.
19**58'
23.4",
miles
bearing of
; of
26.2";
JB=26**21'6.4".
J5=41**40'14.8", 0=125**
Boston
Greenwich
31' 51.8".
from
from
wich,
Green
Boston,
S.
E. ; of
Valparaiso
S. 54** 55' W.
49** 58' 8.2"
27.
Latitude
28.
29.
30.
h.,
31.
h., 3
h., 0
m.,
2 m.,
m.,
43
s.,
a.m.
s.,
a.m.
26 s.,
a.m.
44
N.
; Ion. 44** 49'
18" W.
from
paraiso,
Val
from
cutta,
Cal
TABLE
THX
OF
OF
L06AEITHM8
FROM
AlTD
THB
COSINES,
SINES,
LOGARITHMIC
10.000,
TO
OF
FOB
COTANGENTS,
AND
0** TO
FROM
LEACH,
BOSTON.
SHE
EVERY
90^
AND
WELL,
NEW
TANGENTS,
MINUTE
AND
DEGREE
NUMBEE8
YORK.
SANBORN.
CHICAGO.
OOPTRIGBV,
Br
WBBSTBR
1878,
WKUA
TABLE,
oosTAnmrQ
ths
LOGARITHMS
OF
FROM
TO
""""
NUMBERS
10,000,
LOOARITHMB
OP
NUMBBRS.
LOOAKITHMS
W. 6
53o 716003
1
a
8
6838
7671
I \
716087
6924
7764
8603
8686
9414
4i 9331
6 720169 720242
6
7
8
9
0986
1811
8634
3466
mm
716364716337
7088
7004
7171
7920
8003
7837
8761
8668
8834
9497
9680
9663
720326 720407 720490
1068
1893
3716
3638
1161
1976
1233
1316
2140
3068
3881
3703
2963
3784
724622
724604
2798
3620
9408
730217
716421
7264
8086
8917
9746
8678
9489
730398
8769
1106
1911
1024
1830
9670
730378
1186
_1991
716764
7687
7431
76041
8169
9000
8363
8336] 8419'
724686 734767
6320
7134
7948
EO
7338
9828
720673 720666
1398
1481
2222
3306
3046
3137
3948
3866
6603
7786
8697
T
B
7166041716688
716671
II
6423
6338
7063
7866
6340
6166
6972
NtTMfiB"S.
OP
6686
6401
7216
8029
8841
9661
730469
9166]
9083
9911
720738
9248
9994 720077
720821
0903
1663
1646
1728
2387
2662
2469
3209
4030
3291
4112
724849
6667
6483
7297
724931
8110
8922
8191
9732
730640
1347
1266
2162
2072
6748
6664
7579
83
83
83
83
83
83
82
82
S374j82
4194
82
725013
6830
82
82
82
81
6646
7400
8273
9084
9003
9813
9893
730621 730702
1428
1508
2233
2313
81
81
81
81
81
81
1640
732716
732796
732876
80
3618
3
3
3679
4480
6279
80
80
4320
6120
6918
6716
7611
8306
9097
3698
4400
6200
6998
6796
7690
8384
9177
9889
4
6
6
79
1646
2332
79
79
78
78
3118
3902
4684
78
6466
78
78
78
78
6246
7023
7800
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
76
76
756027
756103
756180
756256
6636
7396
6712
7472
6788
6864
6940
7548
7624
7700
8166
8306
8382
8458
8912
8230
8988
7016
7775
8533
9668
6 760422
9743
760498
9063
9819
9139
9894
i60573i760649
9214
9970
760724
1477
2228
2978
1
2
3
4
6
1176
1251
1326,
1928
2078
2679
2003
2764
14)2
2163
2829
29041
T.
I
U
EE
79
740757
80
80
80
79
79
79
9290
760045
0799
1552
2303
3053
1702
1778
1853
2378
2453
3203
2529
3278
2604
8353
3128
6
76
76
76
76
76
76
75
76
76
76
El
OF
NUMBERS.
13
TABLE
OF
SINES,
COSINES,
LOGARITHMIC
TANGENTS,
irOB
DEGBEE
AND
QUADRANT.
COTANGENTS.
AND
EVERT
MINUTE
OF
THE
LOOARITHHIC
SINES, COSINES,
20
LOGARITHMIC
SINES, COSINES,
20
Sine.
"cT
8.542819
.646422
.549995
.658589
.657054
.560540
.563999
.567481
.570836
.574214
.577566
1
a
8
4
6
6
7
8
9
10
D.
Cosine.
9.999785
.999781
.999726
.999722
.999717
.999713
.999708
.999704
60.04
59.55
59.06
58.58
68.11
67.65
67.19
66.74
56.30
55 87
.999699
.999694
.999689
55.44
8.680892
.684193
.687469
.590721
.698948
.597162
11
12
18
14
15
16
17
18
.600332
.603489
.606628
.609734
19
20
.999680
.999675
.999670
.999665
54.19
53.79
53.39
.999660
53.00
62.61
.999666
.999660
52.23
51.86
.999645
.999640
24
8.612828
.615891
.618937
.621962
25
.624965
26
.627948
.630911
.633854
.636776
.639680
27
28
29
80 i
33
8.642563
.646428
.648274
34
.651102
36
86
37
.653911
38
.662230
39
.664968
.667689
81
82
40
41
42
48
44
45
46
47
48
49
.656702
.669475
8.670393
.673080
.675751
.678406
.681043
.683665
.686272
.688863
.691438
60
.693998
51
8.696643
.699073
.701689
52
53
64
.704090
55
66
.706577
.709049
57
.711507
58
.713952
.716383
.718800
69
60
I Cosine.
.07
.07
.07
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.999629
.999624
.999619
.999614
.999608
.999603
.999597
48.71
.999592
48.39
48.06
.999586
9.999581
.999575
.999570
47.75
47.43
47.12
46.82
46.62
46.22
46.92
45.63
45.35
45.06
.999664
.999558
.999663
.999547
.999541
.999535
.999529
9.999524
44.79
44.51
44.24
43.97
43.70
43.44
43.18
42.92
42.67
42.42
.999518
.999512
.999506
.999500
.999493
.999487
'.999481
.999475
.999469
M
.09
.09
.999456
.999450
.999443
.999437
.999431
40.97
.999424
40.74
40.51
40.29
D.
.999418
.999411
.999404
Sine.
.546691
.650268
.668817
.667886
.660828
.564291
.667727
.671187
.674620
.677877
.684614
.687796
.691051
.694288
.597492
.600677
.608889
.606978
.610094
8.613189
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
9.999463
42 17
41.92
41.68
41.44
41.21
D.
.11
.11
.11
.11
.11
.11
.11
.11
.11
D.
870
.616262
.619313
.622343
.626352
.628840
.631308
.634256
.637184
.640093
8.642982
.646863
.648704
.661637
.654362
"667149
.669928
.662689
.665433
.668160
8.670870
"673663
.676239
.678900
.681644
.684172
.686784
.689381
.691968
.694629
8 697081
.699617
.702139
.704646
.707140
.709618
.712083
.714534
.716972
.719396
I Cotang.
I Cotang. 1
1.456916
60.12
59.62
59.14
58.66
58.19
67.73
67.27
56.82
56.38
55.95
55.52
8.681208
.08
.08
I .08
.08
.08
.08
.08
9.999636
51.12
60.76
50.41
50.06
49.72
49.38
49 04
Tang.
8.648084
9.999685
55.02
54.60
51.49
21
22
23
iiL
55.10
54.68
54.27
53.87
53.47
53.08
62.70
52.82
51.94
51.58
61.21
50.85
50.60
60.15
49.81
49.47
49.13
48.80
48.48
48.16
47.84
47.63
47.22
46.91
46.61
46.31
46.02
45.73
45.44
45.16
44.88
44.61
44.34
44.07
43.80
43.54
43.28
43.03
42.77
42.52
42.28
42.03
41.79
41.55
41.32
41.08
40.85
40.62
.453309
.449732
69
68
67
.446183
.442664
66
.439172
.435709
65
54
.432273
68
.428863
62
.426480
61
.422123
50
1.418792
.415486
48
49
.412205
47
.408949
.405717
.402508
46
45
44
.399323
43
42
.396161
.898022
.389906
41
40
1.386811
.383738
.380687
.877657
.374648
.371660
.868692
.865744
.862816
.859907
39
38
87
86
86
84
83
82
31
30
1.357018
.864147
.851296
.348463
.345648
29
28
27
26
25
.842851
24
.340072
.337811
.334667
23
.831840
20
1.329130
.326437
19
22
21
18
17
.323761
.321100
.818466
.815828
.813216
16
15
14
13
.810619
12
.308037
.305471
11
i;302919
.800383
.297861
.295354
.292860
10
9
7
6
6
.290382
.287917
.285465
40.40
.283028
.280604
1
0
D.
Tang.
I M.
TANGENTS,
21
COTAN"JENTS.
AND
3"
M.
Sine.
8.71bbOO
.721204
.723595
.725972
.728337
.730688
.733027
.735354
.737667
.739969
.742259
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
D.
Cosine.
9.999404
40.06
39.84
39.62
39.41
39.19
38.98
38.77
38.57
38.36
38.16
.999398
.999891
.999884
.999378
.999371
.999364
.999857
.999350
.999343
.999836
37.96
9.999329
8.744536
.746802
.749055
.751297
.753528
.755747
.757955
.760151
.762337
.764511
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
37.76
37.56
37.37
37.17
36.98
56.79
36.61
36.42
36 24
86.08
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
.801892
39
.803876
40
.805852
41
8.807819
.809777
.811726
.813667
42
43
44
45
.815599
46
.817522
47
.819436
48
.821343
.823240
49
.999294
.999279
.999272
.999265
.999250
.999242
.999235
.999227
.999220
.999212
.999205
.999197
.999189
9.999181
.999174
.999166
.999158
.999150
.999142
.999134
.999126
.999118
.999110
9.999102
32.63
32A'J
32.34
32.19
32.05
31.91
31.77
3163
31.49
31.35
.999094
.999086
.999077
.999069
.999061
.999053
.999044
.999036
.999027
9.999019
8.827011
51
59
.828884
,830749
.832607
.834456
.836297
.838130
.839956
.841774
60
.843585
.52
53
54
55
56
57
58
Cosine,
31.22
31.08
30.95
30.82
30.6i)
30.56
30.43
30.30
30.17
D.
12
D.
11
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
.999286
34.18
34.02
33.86
83.70
33.54
33.39
33.23
33.08
32.93
32.78
.825130
50
.999308
.999301
35.83
35.70
35.53
35.35
35.18
35.0 L
34.84
34.67
34.51
34.34
6.787736
.789787
,791828
.793859
.795881
,797894
.799897
31
.999315
9.999257
8.766675
.768828
.770970
.773101
.775223
.777333
.779434
.781524
.783605
.785675
21
.999322
.999010
.999002
:d98993
.998984
.998976
.998967
.998958
.998950
.998941
Sine.
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
8.767417
.769578
.771727
.773866
.775995
.778114
.780222
.782320
.784408
.786486
8.788554
.790613
792662
794701
.796731
.798752
.800763
.802765
.804758
.806742
13
^.8087
13
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
40.17
39.95
39.74
3.4.52
39.30
Sd.UJ
38 8^
38.68
38.48
38 2r
17
.810683
.812641
.814589
,816529
.818461
.820384
.822298
.824205
.826103
3r.8r
37.63
37.49
37.2a
37.10
36.92
36.73
36.55
36.33
38.18
33 00
35.83
35.65
35.48
35 31
35.14
34 97
34.80
34.64
34.47
14
14
14
14
14
15
15
15
 P.
MO
60
1.280604
.278194
.275796
59
58
.273412
57
1271041
.268683
.266337
56
.264004
63
.261683
62
.259374
61
.257078
50
1.254793
49
.252521
48
47
55
54
.250260
.248011
46
.246773
.243547
45
.241332
43
.239128
.236935
42
.234754
40
44
41
1.232583
39
.230422
38
.228273
37
.226134
36
.224005
35
.221886
.219778
.217680
83
.215592
81
.213514
30
34
82
29
1.211446
34.31
34.14
33.99
33.83
33.68
33.52
33.3r
33 22
33.07
32.92
32.77
32.62
32 48
32.33
32.19
32.05
31.91
31.77
31.63
.209387
.207338
28
.205299
26
27
.203269
25
.201248
.199237
.197235
.195242
.193258
24
23
22
21
20
19
1.191283
.189317
18
.187359
17
.185411
.183471
.181539
.179016
.177702
.175795
.173897
16
1.172008
.170126
.168252
.166387
15
14
13
12
11
10
31.50
8.827992
14
1 Cotang. )
39.or
8.746207
.747479
.749740
.751989
.754227
.756453
.758668
.760872
.763065
.765246
13
13
13
D.
Tang.
b.719396
.721806
.724204
.726588
.728959
.731317
.733663
.735996
.738317
,740626
.742022
.829874
.831748
.833613
.835471
.837321
.839163
.840998
.842825
.844644
Cotang.
31.3^
31.23
31.10
30.96
30.83
30.70
30 57
30.45
30.32
I".
.164529
.162679
.160837
.159002
.157175
.155356
1 Tang.
3
2
1
22
SINES, COSINES,
LOOARITHMIC
4P
M
Sine.
Casine.
D.
9.998941
30.05
29.92
2^.90
29.67
29.55
2J.43
2J31
29.19
29.07
28.96
.998932
.998923
.998914
.998905
.998896
.996887
.998878
.998869
.998860
.098851
28.84
28.73
28.61
28.50
28.39
28.28
28.17
23.06
27.95
27.83
2r.73
9.998841
.998832
.998823
.998813
.998804
.998796
.998785
.998776
.998766
998767
.15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
.998738
.998728
.998718
.998708
.998699
.998689
.998679
.998669
.998659
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
17
17
41
,913488
43
.915022
44
46
916550
918073
46
919691
47
921103
48
922610
49
924112
30
925609
51
8. 927100
52
928587
53
030068
54
931544
56
933015
56
934481
57
935942
58
937398
69
938850
60
940296
I Cosine.
.998629
.998619
.998609
.998509
.998589
.998578
.998568
.998558
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
25.66
23.56
25.47
25.38
25.29
25.20
25.12
25.03
24.94
24.86
.998537
.998527
.998516
.998506
.998474
.998464
998453
24.77
24.69
24.60
24.52
24.43
.998431
.998421
.998410
.998399
.998388
.998377
24.35
24.27
.998366
24.19
.998355
24.11
p.
17
17
18
18
9.998442
17
.998496
.998485
.D98344
Sine.
.851846
.863628
.865403
.857171
.868932
.660686
.862433
8.864173
.866906
.867632
.869351
.871064
.872770
.874469
.876162
.877849
.879529
.882869
.884530
.886185
.887833
.889476
.891112
.892742
.894366
.895984
.899203
.900803
.902398
.903987
.905570
.907147
.908719
.910285
.911846
8.913401
9.998548
8 911949
42
.998639
D.
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
D.
850
.914951
.916495
.918034
.919568
.921096
.922619
.924136
.925649
.927156
8928658
.930156
.031647
.933134
.934616
.936093
.937565
.939032
.040494
.041962
( Cotang. 
I Cotang.
1.155356
30.19
30.07
29.95
29.82
29.70
29.58
29.46
29.35
29.23
29.11
29.00
28.88
28.77
28.66
28 54
28.43
28.32
28.21
28.11
28.00
27.89
27.79
27.68
27.58
27.47
27.37
27.27
27.17
27.07
26.97
26.87
8.897596
9.998649
23.60
26.51
26.41
28 31
2o.22
26.12
2'3.03
25.93
25 84
2J.75
Inng.
8.844644
.846455
.848260
.850057
8.881202
9.998747
27.63
27.52
27.42
27.31
27.21
27.11
27.00
25.90
28.80
26.70
26.77
26.67
26.58
26.48
26.38
26.29
26.20
26.10
26.01
25.92
25.83
25.74
25.65
25.56
25.47
25.38
25.30
25.21
25.12
25.03
24.95
24.86
24.78
24.70
24.61
24.53
24.45
24.37
24.29
D.
60
59
.163545
.151740
.149943
58
67
.148154
56
.146372
.144597
.142829
.141068
55
54
53
52
.139314
61
.137567
50
1.135827
49
.134094
.132368
48
47
.130649
.128936
.127230
45
.125531
43
.123838
42
.122151
41
.120471
40
1.118798
.117131
.115470
.113815
.112167
39
35
.110524
84
.108888
.107258
82
.105634
31
46
44
38
87
36
83
.104016
30
1.102404
29
.100797
.099197
28
27
.097602
26
.096013
25
.094480
24
.092853
.091281
.089715
22
.088164
20
1.086599
19
.085049
18
17
.083505
23
21
.081966
.080432
.078904
.077381
16
.075664
12
.074351
.072844
11
1.071342
.069845
.068353
.066866
15
14
13
10
.065384
.063907
.062435
.060968
.059506
.068048
 Tang.
 M.
TANGENTS,
M.
Sine.
8.940296
.941738
.943174
.944606
.946034
5
6
.947456
.948874
.950287
.951696
.953100
10
.954499
11
8.955894
12
.957284
13
.958670
14
.960052
15
.961429
16
.962801
17
.964170
18
.965534
19
.966893
20
.968249
21
8.969600
23
24
25
26
27
28
24.0:i
23 94
23.87
23.79
23.71
23.63
23.55
23.48
23.40
23.32
23.25
.980259
80
.981573
.998322
.998311
.998300
.998289
.998277
.998266
.998255
.998243
.998232
23.17
23.10
23.02
22.95
22 88
22.80
22.73
22.06
2259
22.62
.998209
.998197
.998166
.998174
.998163
.998151
.998139
.998128
.998116
9.998104
22 44
22.38
22.31
22.24
22.17
22.10
22.03
2197
21.90
21.83
.998092
.998080
.998068
.998056
.998044
.998032
.996020
.996008
.997996
36
.984189
.985491
.986789
.988083
.989874
37
38
.991943
82
9.997985
83
84
85
21.77
21.70
21.63
21.57
21.50
21.44
2138
21.31
21.25
21.19
.990660
39
.993222
40
.994497
.997972
.997959
.997947
.997935
.997922
.997910
.997897
.997685
.997872
8.995768
41
43
.997036
.998299
44
.999560
45
9.000816
46
.002069
47
48
.003318
.004563
49
.005805
50
.007044
61
9.008278
42
52
53
.009510
.010737
54
.011962
55
.013182
56
.014400
57
.015013
58
.016824
59
.018031
60
.019235
Cosine,
9.997560
21.12
.997847
.997886
.997822
.997809
.997797
.997784
.997771
.997758
.997745
21.06
21.00
20.94
20.87
20.82
20.76
20.70
20.64
20.58
9.997732
.997719
.997706
.997693
.997680
20.52
20.46
20.40
20.:"4
20.29
.997667
20.23
.997654
20.17
20.12
20.06
P.
.997641
.997628
.997614
Sine.
23
COTANGENTS.
Tang.
D.
 Cotang. 
8.941952
.99833S3
8.982883
31
D.
Cosine.
9.998220
.978941
29
9.998344
.970947
.972289
.973628
.974962
.976293
.977619
22
D.
AND
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
.943404
.944852
.946295
.947734
.949168
.950597
.952021
.953441
.954856
.956267
24.21
24.13
24.05
23.97
23.90
23.82
23.74
23.66
23.58
23.51
21
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
 D.
84=
60
.056596
59
.055148
58
.053706
67
.052266
66
.050832
65
64
.049403
'.047979
63
.046659
.045144
.043733
52
61
50
23.44
8.957674
.959075
.960473
.961866
.963255
.964639
.960019
.967394
.968766
.970133
23.37
23.29
23.22
23.14
23.07
23.00
22.93
22.86
22.79
1.042326
49
.040925
48
47
.039527
.038134
.036745
.035361
46
45
44
.033981
43
.032606
42
.031234
41
.029867
40
22.71
8.971496
.972855
.974209
.975560
.976906
.978248
.979586
.980921
.982251
.983577
1.028504
22.65
22.57
22.51
22.44
22.37
22.30
22.23
22.17
22.10
22.04
8.984899
.986217
987532
.988842
.990149
.991451
.992750
.994045
.995337
.996624
21.97
21.91
21.84
21.78
21.71
21.65
21.58
21.52
21.46
21.40
8.997908
.999188
9.000465
.001738
.003007
.004272
.005534
.006792
.008047
.009298
21.34
21.27
21.21
21.15
21.09
21.03
20.97
20.91
20.85
20.80
.011790
.013031
.014268
.015502
.016732
.017959
.019183
.020403
.021020
Cotang. I
.027145
.025791
89
38
,
.024440
20.74
20.68
20.62
20.56
20.51
20.45
20.39
20.33
20.28
D^
37
86
.023094
85
.021752
.020414
.019079
.017749
84
83
32
81
.016423
SO
1.015101
29
.013783
.012468
.011158
.009851
28
27
26
25
.008549
24
.007250
23
.005955
22
.004663
21
.003376
20
1.002092
19
.000812
18
0.999535
17
.998262
16
.996993
15
.995728
14
.994466
13
.993208
12
.991953
.990702
11
10
0.989454
9.010546
21
1.05b048
.988210
.986969
.985732
.984498
.983268
.982041
.960817
.979597
.978380
 Tang.
7
6
3
2
1
M.
24
SINES, COSINES,
LOGARITHMIC
Sine.
.020435
.021632
.022826
.024016
.025203
.02638a
.027567
.028744
.029918
6
6
7
8
9
10
.031089
11
14
9.032257
.033421
.034582
.035741
16
.036896
16
.038048
.039197
12
18
17
18
.040342
19
.041485
20
.042625
21
9.043762
22
.044895
23
.046026
24
.047154
25
26
.048279
.049400
27
.050519
28
.051635
29
.052749
80
.053859
81
9.054966
32
.056071
33
.057172
34
.058271
35
.059367
86
.060460
37
.061551
38
.062639
39
.063724
40.
9.065885
42
.066962
48
.068036
44
.069107
i45
46
47
48
.072306
.073366
49
.074424
50
.075480
51
9.076533
53
.077583
.078631
54
.079676
55
.080719
56
.081759
57
.082797
58
.083832
59
.084864
60
.085894
Cosine,
Cosine.
9.997614
.997601
.997588
.997574
.997661
.997647
.997634
.997620
.997507
.997498
.997480
D.
19.36
19.30
19.25
19.20
19.15
19.10
19.05
18.99
18.94
18.8J
18.84
18.79
18.75
18.70
18.65
18.60
18.55
18.50
18.45
.997452
.997439
.997426
.997411
.997397
.997388
.997369
.997355
.997341
.22
."i
.23
.23
18.17
18.13
1808
18.04
17.99
17.90
17.86
17.81
17.77
17.72
17.68
17.63
17.59
17.55
.997242
.997228
.997214
.997199
.997170
.997156
.997141
.997127
.997112
.997098
.997083
.997068
.997053
.997024
.997009
.996994
.996979
.996964
.996949
.996934
.996910
.996904
9.996889
17.60
17.48
17.42
17.38
17.33
17.29
17.25
17.21
17.17
1).
.026251
.020456
.027656
.028852
.030046
.23
.23
.033609
19.85
19.79
19.74
19.69
9.034791
.23
.23
.23
.23
.23
.23
.2)
.23
.23
19.64
19.58
19.53
19.48
19.43
19.38
19.33
19.28
19.23
19.18
.035969
.037144
.088316
.039486
.040651
.041818
.042973
.044130
.045284
.23
9.997327
.997313
.997299
.997285
.997271
.997257
.996874
.996858
.996843
.996828
.996812
.996797
.996782
.996766
.996751
Sine.
D.
20.83
20.17
20.11
20.06
20.00
19.96
19.90
.024044
.'2i
.24
.24
.24
.2i
.24
.24
19.13
19.08
19.03
18.98
18.93
18.83
18.84
18.79
18 74
.047582
.048727
.049869
.051008
.052144
.053277
.054407
.055536
.066659
.24
.24
.24
.24
.24
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
18.65
18.60
18.55
1851
18.46
18 42
1837
18.33
18.28
18.24
.058900
.060016
.061130
.062240
.063348
.064453
.065556
.066656
.067752
9.068846
.069938
.071027
18.19
18.15
18.10
18.06
18.02
.072113
.073197
.074278
17.97
17.93
17.89
.075356
.076432
.077506
.078576
17.84
.25
.25
.25
.26
.26
.26
.26
p.
60
.977166
59
.976956
58
.974749
67
.973545
56
.972346
65
.971148
64
.969964
63
.968763
.967676
61
.966891
60
62
0.965209
.964031
.962856
.961684
46
49
48
47
.900615
45
.959349
.968187
.957027
44
.965870
.954716
41
43
42
40
89
.962418
88
.951273
87
.950131
.948992
.947856
86
85
84
.946723
83
.946593
82
.944465
81
.943341
80
0.942219
29
17.76
17.72
.080710
.081773
.082833
17.67
17.63
17.59
17.55
17.51
17.47
17.43
.083891
.084947
.086000
.087060
.088098
089144
I CoMng.
.939984
28
27
.938870
26
.937760
26
.936652
24
.935547
23
.934444
22
.933346
.932248
20
0.93U54
19
.930062
18
.941100
21
.928973
17
.927887
16
.926803
15
.925722
14
.924644
13
.923568
.922495
12
.921424
10
0.920356
11
17.80
9079644
.25
.2)
0.97b3bO
18.70
9 057781
.24
.24
I Cotang. 
0.953566
9.046434
.21
.24
.24
.21
9.997039
17.94
.022834
.031237
.032426
9.997186
18.41
18.36
18.U
18.27
18.22
Tang.
9.U21620
.22
.22
.22
.22
9.997466
19.41
.070176
.071242
52
20.00
19.95
19.89
19.84
19.78
19.73
19.67
19.62
19.57
19.51
19 47
.064806
41
D.
.919290
.918227
.917167
.916109
.915053
.914000
.912950
4
8
.911902
.910856
 Tang.
M.
'
TANGENTS,
AND
"^/S
COTANGENTS.
^t^
70
M.
Sine.
9.085894
.086922
.087947
.088970
.089990
.091008
.092024
.093037
.094047
.095056
7
8
9
10
.096062
11
9.097065
12
.098066
18
.099065
14
18
.100062
.101056
.102048
.103037
.104025
19
.105010
20
.105992
21
9.106978
D.
Cosine.
17.13
17.()9
17.04
17.00
.996735
.996720
.996704
.996688
.996673
.996657
16.96
16.92
16.88
16.84
16.80
16.76
.996641
.996625
.996610
.996594
16.72
15
16
17
23
.107951
.106927
24
.109901
25
26
.110873
.111842
27
.112809
28
29
.113774
.114737
30
.115698
22
31
33
.117613
.118567
34
.119519
35
36
.120469
.121417
37
.122362
38
.123306
39
.124248
40
.125187
16.6S
16.U5
16.61
16.57
16.53
16.49
16.45
16.41
16.38
16.34
.996562
.996546
.996530
.996514
.996498
.996482
.996465
.996449
.996433
.996400
.996384
.996368
.996351
.996335
.996818
.996302
.996285
.996269
.996235
15.90
.996219
'15.87
.996202
15.83
15.80
.996185
.996168
15.76
.996151
15.73
15.69
15.66
15.62
9.135387
.136303
58
.137216
54
.138128
55
.139037
56
.139944
57
58
.140850
.996134
.996117
.996100
.142655
.143565
60
Cosine.
D.
12*
T"ing. I
9.089144
.090187
.091228
.093302
.094336
.095367
.096395
.097422
.098446
.099468
.996049
.996032
.996015
.995998
.995980
.995963
.995946
.995928
.27
.27
.27
.27
.27
.27
.27
.27
.27
.27
,102519
.103532
.104542
,105550
.106556
.995859
.995841
.995823
.995806
.995788
.995771
.995763
Sine.
16.58
16.54
.111551
.112543
.113583
.114521
.116507
.116491
.117472
.118462
.119429
^
59
58
.905664
67
56
55
.904633
54
.903605
53
.902578
52
.901554
51
.900582
I 50
0.899518
49
."98496
48
47
.897481
16.65
16.61
.109559
16.50
16.46
16.43
16.39
16.36
16.32
16.29
16.25
.896468
46
.895458
45
.8C4450
44
.893444
.892441
.891440
43
.890441
40
42
41
0.S69444
39
.888449
38
.887457
.886467
.885479
.884493
37
34
.883509
83
.882528
.881548
.880571
81
86
85
82
80
9.120404
.28
.28
.28
.28
.28
.28
.28
.28
.28
.121377
122348
.123317
.124284
.125249
.126211
.127172
.128130
.129087
16.22
16.18
16.15
16.11
16.07
16.04
16.01
15.97
15.94
15.91
9.130041
.29
.29
.29
.29
.29
.29
.23
.29
.2:)
.130994
.131944
.132893
.133839
.134784
.135726
.136667
.137605
.138642
.23
.995876
16.72
16.69
.107559
.108560
60
.909813
.906698
16.95
16.91
16.87
16.84
16.80
16.76
.101504
U.9l0b56
.908772
.907784
^.110556
.27
.27
.27
.27
.27
.27
.27
.28
.28
.28
15.87
15.84
15.81
15.77
15 74
15.71
15.67
15.64
15.61
15.58
0.860524
9.139476
9.995911
.995894
I Cotjuipj.
9.100487
9.996083
.996066
1).
37.38
17.34
17.30
17.27
17.22
17.19
17.15
17.11
17.07
17 04
16.90
.092266
.28
15.25
16.22
15.19
15.16
15.12
15.09
15.06
15.03
15.00
.141754
59
.26
.26
.26
.26
9.996252
15.94
15.56
15.52
15.49
15.45
15.42
15.39
15.35
15.32
15.29
52
\26
9.996417
16.30
16.27
16.23
16.19
16.16
16.12
16.08
16.05
16.01
15.97
15.59
51
.26
.26
.26
.26
.26
.26
9.996578
9.116656
32
D.
9.996751
.23
.23
.29
.29
.29
.20
.29
.29
.29
.140409
.141340
.142269
.143196
.144121
.145044
.145966
.146885
.147e03
 D. \ Cotang.
812
15.55
15.51
15.48
15.45
15.42
15.39
15.35
15.32
15.29
D.
.859591
.858660
.867731
.856804
.855879
.864966
.854034
.853115
.862197
Tanor.
SINES, COSINES,
LOGARITHMIC
26
8"
Sine.
9.143555
.144453
.145349
.146243
.147136
0
1
2
8
4
5
.148026
6
7
.148915
.149802
.150686
.151569
10
.152451
11
9.153330
12
.154208
13
16
.155083
.155957
.156830
.157700
17
.158569
18
19
.159435
.160301
20
.161164
14
15
21
9.162025
22
.162885
23
24
.163743
.164600
25
.165454
26
.166307
27
28
.167159
.168008
.168856
.169702
29
30
31
32
83
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
9.170547
.171389
.172230
.173070
.173908
.174744
.175578
.176411
.177242
.178072
42
9.178900
.179726
43
.180551
41
44
.181374
45
.182196
46
.183016
47
.183834
48
.184651
49
.185466
50
.186280
51
9.187092
52
.187903
53
.188712
54
.189519
55
.190325
56
.191130
57
.191933
58
.192734
59
.193534
60
.194332
Cosine.
9.995753
14.96
14.93
14.90
14.87
14.84
14.81
14.78
.995735
.995717
.995699
.995664
.995646
.995628
14.75
14.72
.995610
.995591
14.G9
.995573
14.66
0.995555
.995537
14.63
14.60
.995519
14.57
14.54
14.51
14 48
14.45
14.42
14.39
14.36
14.33
14.30
14.27
14.24
14.22
14 19
14.16
14.13
14.10
14.07
.995501
.995482
.995464
.995446
.995427
.995409
.995390
0.995372
.995353
.995334
.995316
.995297
.995278
.995260
.995241
.995222
.995203
0.995184
14.05
14.02
13.99
13.96
13.94
13.91
13.88
13.86
13.83
13.80
.995165
.995146
.995127
.995108
.995089
.995070
.995051
.995032
.995013
0.994993
13.77
13.74
13.72
13.69
13.66
13.64
13.61
13.59
13.56
13.53
13.51
13.48
13.46
13.43
.994974
.994955
.994935
.994916
.994896
.994877
.994857
.994838
.994818
47803
48718
49632
50544
51454
.30
52363
.30
53269
.30
.30
54174
55077
55978
.30
.30
.30
56877
9. 57775
.30
.30
.30
.31
.31
58671
59565
60457
61347
62236
.31
63123
.31
.31
64008
64892
.31
65774
.31
9. 66654
67532
.31
.31
68409
.31
.31
.31
.31
.32
.32
.32
76224
77084
77942
.32
.32
78799
.32
79055
.32
.32
.32
.32
80508
81360
82211
83059
.32
.32
.32
.32
.32
.33
.33
.33
9. 83907
84752
85597
86439
87280
88120
88958
89794
.33
90629
.33
.33
91462
9
.33
.33
.33
13..38
.994660
.33
.994660
.33
.994640
.33
Sine.
D.
810
58
.846781
54
14.36
14.33
14.31
14 28
14.25
14.23
14.20
14.17
14.15
14.12
14.09
14 07
14 04
14.02
13.99
13.96
1.3.93
13.91
13.89
13.86
93124
13.84
13 81
93953
13^79
13.76
13.74
1.3.71
13.69
98074
13.66
13.64
98894
99713
i).
57
66
55
.845826
53
.844928
52
.844022
51
.843123
50
0.842225
49
.841329
48
.840485
47
.839543
46
.838653
45
.837764
.836877
44
.835992
42
.835108
41
.834226
40
0.833846
39
.832468
.831591
.830716
.829843
.828971
"
92294
Cotancr.
59
.850368
.849456
.848546
.847637
14.64
14.61
14.58
14.55
14.53
14.50
14.47
14.44
14.42
14.39
97253
60
.851282
14.93
1490
14.87
14.84
14.81
14.79
14.76
14.73
14.70
14.67
96430
.994620
0.852197
15.26
15.23
15.20
15.17
15.14
15.11
15.08
15.05
15.02
14.99
14.96
95606
,33
I CotHiig.
D.
94780
.33
.33
D.
75362
.994700
13.30
74499
.32
.32
13 41
13.33
69284
70157
71029
71899
72767
73634
.31
9.994798
.994779
.994759
.994739
.994719
13.36
ang.
.30
.30
.30
.30
.995681
'
D.
Coftine.
43
38
87
86
85
34
.828101
33
.827233
82
.826366
81
.825501
80
0.824638
.823776
29
.822916
27
.822058
26
.821201
25
.820345
24
.819492
23
.818640
.817789
.816941
22
0.816093
.815248
.814403
.813561
.812720
.811880
19
28
21
20
18
17
16
15
14
.811042
13
.810206
12
.609371
.808533
11
0.807706
.806876
.806047
10
9
8
.805220
7
^6
.804394
.803570
.802747
.801928
.801106
"00287
j Tang.
M.
28
LOGARITHMIC
M.
Sine.
1).
SINES, COSINES,
Cosine.
D.
9.9U3361
11.93
11.91
11.89
11.87
11.85
11.83
11.81
11.79
.37
.37
.37
.993307
.993285
.37
.993262
.37
.37
.38
.993240
.993217
.993196
.38
.993172
.38
.993149
11.76
11.73
.38
.993127
.247057
.247794
.248530
.249264
.249998
.250730
.251461
.252191
.252920
.253648
.38
9.993104
11.71
11.69
11.67
11.66
11.63
11.61
11.59
11.58
11.56
11.54
.38
.38
.38
.38
.38
.38
.38
.38
.38
.38
.993059
.993036
.993013
.992990
.992967
.992944
.992921
.992898
9.992875
.38
.38
.39
.39
.39
.39
.39
.39
.39
.39.
.992852
.992829
.992806
.992783
.992759
.992736
.992713
.992690
.992666
9.992643
11.33
11.31
11.30
11.28
11.26
11.24
11.22
11.20
11.19
11.17
.39
.992619
.39
.992596
.39
.992572
.39
.992549
.39
.992525
.39
.992501
.39
.40
.40
.40:
.992478
.992454
.992430
9.992406
11.15
11.13
11.11
11.10
11.08
.40
.40
.40
.40
.40
.40
.40
.40
.40
.40
.992382
.992359
.992335
.992311
.992287
11.06
11.05
11.03
11.01
10.99
9.254374
.993081
11.62
11.80
11.48
11.46
11.44
11.42
11.41
11.39
11.37
11.35
D.
9.246319
.993329
11.77
i Tang.
.992263
.992239
.992214
.992190
.255100
.255824
.256547
.257269
.257990
.258710
.259429
.260146
.260863
9.261578
.262292
.263005
.2637 1"
.264428
.265138
.265847
.266555
.267261
.267967
9.268671
.269376
.270077
.270779
.271479
.272178
.272876
.273673
.274269
.274964
9.275658
.276351
.277043
.2777*34
.278424
.279113
.279801
.280488
.281174
.281858
12.30
12.28
12.26
12.24
12.22
12.20
12.18
12.17
12.15
12.13
12.11
12.09
12.07
12.06
12.03
12.01
12.00
11.98
11.96
11.94
11.92
11.90
11.89
11.87
11.86
11.83
11.81
11.79
11.78
11.76
11.74
11.72
11.70
11.69
11.67
11.65
11.64
11.62
11.60
11.58
11.67
11.65
11.63
11.61
11.60
1148
11.47
11.46
11.43
11.41
11.40
 Cotang. 
0.753681
.752943
.752206
.751470
.750736
.750002
.749270
.748539
.747809
.747080
.746352
0.746626
.744900
.744176
.743453
.742731
.742010
.741290
.740571
.739854
.789137
0.738422
.737708
.736995
.736283
60
59
68
57
66
66
64
53
52
I 61
60
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
I 40
39
88
87
36
.735672
35
.734862
.734153
.733446
.732739
.732033
84
0.781329
33
32
81
SO
29
.730625
.729923
.729221
.728521
28
27
.727822
24
.727124
.726427
.725731
.725036
28
0 724342
19
.723649
.722957
.722266
.721576
.720887
.720199
.719512
.718826
.718142
18
17
26
25
22
21
20
16
16
14
13
12
11
10
9.992166
10.98
10.96
10.94
10.92
10.91
10.89
10.87
10.86
10.84
.992142
.992117
.992093
.992069
.992044
.992020
.991996
.991971
.40
.40
.41
.41
.41
.41
.41
.41
.41
Cosine.
D.
Sine.
.283225
.283907
.284588
.285268
.285947
.286624
.287301
.287977
11.38
11.36
11.35
11.33
11.31
11.30
11.28
11.26
11.25
.288652
.991947
9.282542
D.
70O
I Cotang. \
D.
0.717458
.716775
.716093
.715412
.714732
.714053
.713376
.712699
.712023
.711348
 Tang.
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
 M.
TANGENTS,
AND
20
COTANGENTS.
11"
M.
Sine.
D"
10.82
10.81
10.79
10.77
10.76
10.74
10.72
10.71
10.69
10.67
10.66
.991922
.991897
.991873
.991848
.991823
.991649
.991624
.991599
.991674
.991649
.991624
.991498
.991473
.991448
9.991422
.991397
.991372
.991346
.991321
.991295
.991270
.991244
10.37
.991218
10 36
10.34
.991193
.991141
.991115
.991090
.991064
.991038
10.26
.991012
10.23
.990986
10.22
"
.990960
10.20
10.19
.990934
.289326
.289999
.290671
.291342
.292013
.292682
.293360
.42
.294017
.294684
.42
.42
.42
.296349
9.296013
.42
.990882
.990855
.990829
.990803
.990777
.990760
.990724
.990697
"990671
.42
.42
.42
.42
.42
.42
.42
.42
.990618
.990591
.990666
.990638
.990511
.990485
.990468
.990431
.990404
Sine.
.298001
.298662
.299322
.299980
.300638
.301296
"
.301961
9.302607
.42
.42
.43
.43
.43
.43
.43
.43
.43
.43
.303261
.303914
.304567
.306218
.305869
.306619
.307168
.307815
.308463
9.309109
.43
.43
.43
.43
.43
.43
.43
.43
.43
.44
.309764
.310398
.311042
.811685
.312327
.312967
.313608
.314247
.314886
9.316523
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
9.990644
10.03
10.01
10 00
9.98
9.97
9.96
9.94
9.93
9.91
.296677
.297339
.42
9.990908
10.17
10.16
10.14
10.13
10.11
10.10
10.08
10.07
10.05
10.04
.41
.41
.41
.41
.41
.41
.41
9.991167
10.32
10.31
10.29
10.28
1026
.991799
.991774
.991749
.991724
.991699
10.48
10.46
10.45
10.43
10.42
10.40
10.39
D.
Tang. I
D.
\ Cotang.
11.23
11.22
11.20
11.18
0.711348
.710674
.710001
.709329
.708658
9.288662
9.991674
10.64
10.63
10.61
10.59
10.58
10.66
10.54
10.53
10.51
10.50
Coaine.
D.
Cosine.
9.991947
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.45
.45
.45
.45
 D.
7A^
u..
.816169
.316796
.817430
.318064
.318697
.819329
.319961
.320592
.321222
9.321851
.322479
.323106
.323733
.324358
.324983
.325607
.326231
.326853
.327476
 Cotang. 
11.17
11.15
11.14
11.12
11.11
11.09
11.07
11.06
11.04
11.03
11.01
11.00
10.98
10.96
10.96
10.93
10.92
10.90
10.89
10.87
10 86
10.84
10.83
10.81
10.80
10.78
10.77
10.76
10.74
10.73
10.71
10.70
10.68
10.67
10.65
10.64
10.62
10.61
10.60
10.58
10.57
10.55
10.54
10.53
10.51
10.50
10.48
10.47
10.45
10.44
10.43
10.41
10.40
16.39
10.37
10.36
D.
60
69
68
67
66
JQ79g7
66
7707818
64
.706660
.705983
.705316
63
61
.704661
60
62
0.703987
.703323
.702661
49
48
47
.701999
46
.701338
.700678
.700020
.699362
.698705
.698049
46
44
43
42
41
40
0.697398
.696739
89
38
87
.696086
.696433
36
.694782
86
.694131
84
.693481
33
.692832
82
.692186
81
.691637
30
0.690891
29
.690246
28
.689602
27
.688958
26
.688316
25
.687673
.687033
24
.686392
22
23
.686753
21
.686115
20
0.684477
19
.683841
18
.683205
17
.682570
16
.681936
16
.681303
14
.680671
13
.680039
12
.679408
.678778
11
0.678149
.677621
.676894
.676267
.675642
.675017
.674393
.673769
.673147
10
7
6
4
8
2
1
0
.672526
\ Tang.
M.
30
SINES, COSINES,
LOGARITHMIC
120
Sine.
M
0
9.317fe79
.318473
2
8
.311"066
.819658
.320249
.320840
6
8
.331480
.322019
.322607
.823194
10
.323780
11
9.3243")6
12
.324950
13
.325534
14
17
.326117
.826700
.827281
.327862
18
.828442
19
.829021
15
16
.990324
0.86
.990297
.990270
.990243
.990215
.990188
.990161
0.84
0.83
9.82
9.80
9.79
9.77
9.76
.342679
.343239
45
.343797
46
.344355
47
.344912
48
.345469
49
.346024
50
.346579
51
54
9.347134
.347687
.348240
.348792
55
.349343
56
.349893
57
.350443
52
53
58
.850992
59
.351540
60
.352088
Cosine.
.45
.45
.45
.45
.45
.46
.46
.46
.4}
.46
.46
.990079
.990052
.990025
.989997
.989970
.989942
.46
.9S9915
.46
.46
.46
.989887
.989860
.46
.46
.46
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.989804
.989777
.989749
.989721
.989693
.989665
.989637
.989609
.989582
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.989525
.989497
.989469
.989441
.989413
.989384
.989356
.989328
.989300
.47
.47
.47
.47
.47
.48
.48
.48
.48
.48
.989243
.989214
.989186
.989157
.989128
.989100
.989071
.989042
.989014
9.988985
.48
.48
.48
.48
.988956
.988927
.988898
.988869
.48
.988840
.48
.49
.49
.49
.988811
.988782
.988753
Sine.
.328715
.829334
.829953
.330570
.831187
.831803
.832418
.833038
.333646
.334871
.335482
.336093
.336702
.337311
.337919
.338527
.339133
.339739
.340948
.341552
.342155
.342757
.343358
.343958
.344558
.345157
.345755
.346949
.347545
.348141
.848735
.349329
.349922
.350514
.351106
.351697
9.352287
9.989271
.988724
P.
.328095
9 846353
9.989553
9.22
9.2L
9.20
9.19
9.17
9.16
9.15
9.14
9.13
9.340344
9.989833
9.35
9.34
9.32
9.31
9.30
9.29
9.27
9.26
9.2.5
9.24
j Tang.
9.334259
9.990107
.842119
44
.45
.45
.45
.45
.45
.45
.990134
9.75
9.73
9.72
9.70
9.69
9.68
9.66
9.65
9.64
9.62
9841558
43
P.
D.
I Cotang.
0.672526
9.327474
,
9.48
9.46
9.45
9.44
9.43
9.41
9.40
9.39
9.37
9.36
42
.990378
.990351
9.61
9.60
9.58
9.57
9.56
9.54
0.53
9.52
9.50
9.49
41
Cosine.
9.99U4U4
9.90
0.88
9.87
.829599
20
D.
J).
770
.352876
.853465
.354053
.854640
.355227
.355813
.356398
.356982
.357566
0 858149
.358731
.359313
.359893
.360474
.361053
.361632
.862210
.362787
10.35
10.33
10.32
10.30
10.2i^
10.28
10.26
10.25
10.24
10 23
10.21
10.20
10.19
10.17
10.16
10.15
10.13
10 12
10.11
10.10
10.08
1007
10.06
10.04
10.03
10.02
10.00
9.99
9.98
9 97
9.96
9.82
9.81
980
9.79
9.77
9.76
9.76
9.74
9.73
9.71
9.70
9.69
9.68
9.67
9.66
9.65
9.63
9.62
9.61
.363364
\ Cotang. 
D.
59
.671285
58
.670666
67
.670047
56
.669430
65
.668813
64
.668197
.667582
.666967
53
.666354
60
0.665741
49
62
51
.665129
48
.664518
.663907
.663298
.662689
.662081
.661473
.660867
.660261
47
40
0.659656
89
.659052
88
87
46
45
44
43
42
41
.658448
.657845
.657243
86
85
84
.656642
"
9.94
9.93
9.92
9.91
9.90
9.88
9.87
9.86
9.85
9.83
60
.671905
.656042
83
.655442
82
.654843
81
.654245
30
0.653647
29
.653051
28
.652455
27
.651859
26
.651265
25
.650671
.650078
.649486
24
.648894
21
.648303
20
23
22
0.647713
19
18
.647124
.646535
17
.645947
.645360
.644773
.644187
.643602
.643018
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
.642434
0.641851
.641269
.640687
.640107
9
8
7
6
.639526
.638947
.638368
.637790
.637213
.636636
 Tang.
8
2
4

TANGENTS,
31
COTANGENTS.
AND
13"
M.
Sine.
9.352088
.352635
.353181
^53726
.354271
^54815
.355358
.355901
.356443
.356984
.857624
3
4
10
11
9.358064
12
.358603
13
.359141
14
.359678
15
^60215
16
17
18
.360752
.361287
19
.362856
.361822
20
.362889
21
9.363422
22
.363954
23
.364485
24
.365016
25
.865546
26
.366075
27
.366604
28
29
.367131
.367659
80
.368185
31
9.368711
32
.369236
33
.369761
.870286
.370808
.371380
34
35
36
37
88
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
.371852
.872373
.372894
.373414
.374452
.374970
.375487
.376003
.376519
.877035
.377549
.378063
.878677
52
53
.880113
54
56
.380624
.881134
.381643
57
.382152
55
58
59
60
D.
Cosine.
.382661
.383168
.383675
Codine.
9.988724
9.11
9.10
9.09
9.08
9.07
9.05
9.04
9.03
9.02
9.01
8.99
.988666
.988636
.988607
.988578
.988548
.988519
.988489
.988460
.49
.988430
.988812
.50
.988282
.988252
.988223
.988193
.988163
.988133
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
9.988103
.988073
.988043
.988013
.987983
.987953
.987922
.987892
8.85
8.84
8.83
8.82
8.81
8.80
8.79
8.77
8.76
.50
.50
.50
.50
50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.51
.967662
.987832
9.987801
8.75
8.74
8.73
8.72
8.71
.98V771
.987740
.987710
.987679
.987649
.987618
.987588
.987557
.987526
8.70
8.69
8.87
8.66
8.65
9.987496
.987465
.087434
.987403
.987372
.987341
.987310
.987279
.987248
.987217
8.64
8.63
8.62
8.61
8.60
8.59
8 58
8.57
8.56
8.54
9.987186
.987155
.987124
.987092
.987061
.987030
8.53
8.52
8.51
8.50
8.49
8.48
8.47
8.46
8.45
D.
.49
.49
.49
.988371
.988342
8.87
.986998
.986967
.986936
.986904
Sine.
Tang. I
.61
.51
.61
.51
.51
.51
.51
.51
.61
.51
.52
.52
.52
.52
.52
.52
.52
.52
.62
.864515
.865090
.865664
.866237
.866810
.867382
.867953
.868524
.369094
9.869663
.370232
.370799
.871367
9.48
9.46
9.45
9.44
9.43
9.42
9.41
9.40
9.39
9.38
.871933
.372499
.873064
.878629
.874193
.874756
9.875319
.375881
.876442
.877003
.877563
.878122
.878681
.879239
.879797
.880354
9.380910
9.37
9.35
9.34
9.33
9.32
9.31
9.30
9.29
9.28
9.27
.381466
.382020
.382575
.883129
.383682
.384234
.884786
.385337
.385888
.386987
.387536
.888084
.888631
.889178
.889724
.890270
.890815
.891360
9.391903
.392447
.892989
.393531
.394073
.394614
.895154
.895694
.896233
.396771
0.636636
60
.636060
59
.635485
58
.634910
57
.634336
56
.633763
55
.633190
54
.632618
.632047
.631476
.630906
53
0.630337
.629768
49
.629201
47
.628633
.628067
.627501
.626936
.626371
.625807
.625244
46
40
0.624681
39
.624119
38
52
51
50
48
45
44
43
42
41
37
.623558
.622997
.622437
.621878
86
35
84
33
.621319
'
I D. '.Cotang. 
7(r"
Cotang.
9.60
9.59
9.58
9.57
9.55
9.54
9.53
9.52
9.51
9.60
9.49
.863940
9.386488
.51
.51
.51
.52
.52
.52
.52
.52
.62
.52
D.
9.863364
.49
9.988401
8.98
8.97
8.96
8 95
8.93
8.92
8.91
8.90
8.89
8 88
D.
.49
.49
.49
.49
.49
.49
.49
.49
.49
.988695
9.373933
9.379089
.379601
51
9.26
9.25
9.24
9.23
9.22
9.21
9.20
.620761
32
.620203
31
.619646
30
0.619090
29
.618534
28
27
.617980
.617425
.616871
.616318
.615766
9.19
9.18
9.17
26
25
24
23
.615214
22
.614663
.614112
20
21
19
0.613562
9.15
9.14
913
9.12
9.11
9.10
9.09
9.08
9.07
9.06
9.05
9.04
9.03
9.02
9 01
9.00
8.99
8.98
8.97
D.
18
.613013
.612464
.611916
16
.611369
15
.610822
14
.610276
.609730
.609185
.608640
13
1.608097
.607563
.607011
9
8
.606469
.605927
.605386
.604846
.604306
.603767
.603229
Tang.
12
11
10
4
8
2
1
32
LOGARITHMIC
SINES,
COSINES,
14"
Sine.
M.
9.383676
.884182
.884687
0
1
2
.885192
.886697
8
4
.886201
.886704
.887207
.387709
.888210
10
.888711
11
12
9.889211
.389711
13
.390210
14
.390708
15
.891206
16
.391703
.892199
6
6
17
18
.892695
19
.893191
20
.393685
21
9.894179
22
.394673
23
.395166
24
.895658
25
.896150
26
.896641
27
.897132
28
.897621
29
.398111
30
.898600
Cosine.
9.986904
.986878
8.44
8.48
8.42
8.41
8.40
8.39
8.38
.986841
.986809
.986778
.986746
.986714
.986688
8.37
8.36
8.35
8.34
.986651
.986619
.986687
.986528
8.32
8.31
8.30
8.28
8.27
8.26
825
8.24
8.23
.986491
.986469
.986427
.986396
.986363
.986331
.986299
.986266
32
.399576
33
.400062
34
.400549
35
.401035
86
37
.401520
.402005
88
.402489
39
.402972
40
.403455
41
9.403938
42
.404420
43
44
.404901
.405382
45
.405862
46
.406341
47
.406820
48
.407299
.407777
49
50
.408254
61
52
9.408731
.409207
53
.409682
54
.410157
55
.410632
56
.411106
57
.411579
58
.412052
59
.412524
60
.412996
Cosine.
.53
.53
.58
.53
.53
.986202
.986169
.986187
.986104
.986072
.986089
.986007
.985974
.985942
.985876
.985843
.985811
.985778
.985745
.985712
.985679
.985646
.985613
.985547
8.02
8.01
8.00
7.99
7.98
.985514
.985480
,985447
.985414
.985380
7.97
7.96
7.95
7.94
.986347
.985314
.985280
9.985247
7.94
.985213
7.93
7.92
7.91
7.90
7.89
7.88
7.87
7.86
D.
.985180
.985146
.985113
.985079
.985045
.985011
.984978
.984944
Sine.
.898383
.898919
.53
.53
.400624
.53
.53
.58
D.
.401068
.401691
.402124
8.96
8.96
8.95
8.94
8.93
8.93
8.92
8.90
8.89
8 88
8.87
9.402656
.53
.53
.63
.53
.53
.53
.54
.54
.54
.54
.403187
.403718
.404249
.404778
.405308
.405886
.406864
.406892
.407419
8 86
8.85
8 84
8.83
8.82
8 81
8.80
8.79
8.78
8.77
9.407946
.54
.54
.54
.54
.54
.54
.54
.54
.54
.54
.55
.65
.55
.55
.55
.55
.55
.55
.55
.55
9.985580
8.03
.897846
.63
9.985909
8.13
8.12
8.11
8.10
8.09
8.08
8.07
8.06
8.05
8.04
.897809
.899455
.899990
9.986234
8.22
8.21
8.20
8.19
8.18
8.17
8.17
8.16
8.15
8.14
Tang,
9.396771
9.986565
8.33
9399088
31
J_D.
.55
.55
.55
.55
.55
.56
.56
.56
.56
.56
.408471
.408997
.409521
.410045
.410669
.411092
.411615
.412137
.412658
9413179
.413699
.414219
.414738
.415257
.415775
.416293
.416810
.417326
.417842
9.418358
.418873
.419387
.419901
.56
.56
.56
.56
.56
D.
8.67
8.66
8.65
8.64
8.64
8.63
8.62
8.61
8.60
8.59
8.58
8.57
8.56
8.55
.420415
.420927
.421440
.421952
.422468
.422974
9.423484
.56
.56
.56
.56
8.76
8.75
8.74
8.74
8.73
8.72
8.71
8.70
8.69
8.68
.423993
.424503
.425011
.425519
.426027
.426634
.427041
.427547
8.55
8.54
8.53
8.52
8.51
850
8.49
8.48
8.48
8.47
8.46
8.45
8.44
8.43
8.43
.428052
I Cotftng.I
D.
 Cotang. 
0.603229
60
.602691
69
.602154
68
.601617
67
.601081
66
.600646
55
.600010
64
.699476
.698942
.598409
.697876
63
62
61
60
0.597344
49
.596813
.696282
.695761
48
.695222
46
47
46
.694692
44
.694164
43
.593636
42
.593108
41
.692681
40
0 592056
39
.591529
88
.691003
87
.690479
.589955
85
.589431
34
86
.688908
33
.688386
82
.587863
.587342
81
9.686821
29
80
.586301
28
.686781
.685262
.684743
.584225
.583707
.583190
.582674
.682158
27
0.681642
.581127
.680613
.680099
.679585
.579073
.678560
.678048
.677537
.677026
26
26
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
0.676516
.676007
.575497
9
8
.674989
.574481
.678973
7
6
4
.573466
.572959
.572453
.571948
I Tang.
 M.
TANGENTS,
AND
83
COTANGENTS.
15"
M.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sine.
D.
Cosine.
9.412996
7.85
7.84
7.83
7.83
7.82
7.81
7.80
7.79
7.78
7.77
7.76
.4iai67
.413938
.414408
.414878
.415347
.415816
.416283
.416751
.417217
.417684
.984910
.984876
.984842
.984808
.984774
.984740
.984706
.984672
.984637
.984603
.984535
.984500
.984466
.984432
.984397
.984363
.984328
.984294
.984259
9.984224
.984190
7.67
7.66
7.65
7.64
7.63
7.62
7.61
7.60
7.60
7.59
.984155
.984120
.984085
.984050
.984015
.983981
.983946
.983911
9.983875
7.58
7.67
7.56
7.55
7.54
7.53
7.52
7.62
7.61
7.50
43
9.431879
.432329
.432778
44
.433226
45
.433675
.434122
42
46
47
48
.435462
.435908
51
52
55
.438129
56
.438572
57
58
.439456
59
60
.983558
9.983523
.988487
.083452
.983416
.983381
.983345
.983309
.983273
.983238
.983202
.983130
.983094
.983058
7.39
.983022
7.38
7.37
7.36
7.36
7.36
.439897
.440388
D.
13
.982986
.982950
.982914
.982878
.982842
Sine.
Tang.
 Cotang. 
D.
9.428052
.57
.57
.67
.67
.428557
.429062
.429566
.87
.430070
.430573
.57
.57
.67
.67
.67
.67
.431075
.431577
.432079
.432580
.433080
.67
.67
.67
.67
.68
.58
.58
.68
.68
.68
9.433580
.434080
.434579
.435078
.435576
.436073
.436570
.437067
.437563
.438059
9.438554
.68
.58
.58
.58
.68
.68
.68
.58
.58
.68
.68
.69
.69
.59
.69
.59
.69
.59
.69
.69
.59
.59
.59
.69
.59
.69
.69
.60
.60
.60
9.983166
7.40
.439014
Cosine.
.983594
7.41
7.40
.436798
.437242
.437686
53
.983629
7.46
7.45
7.44
7.44
7.43
7.42
9.436353
54
.983805
.983770
.983735
.983700
.983664
7.47
.435016
49
.983840
7.49
7.49
7.48
.434569
50
D.
9.984569
7.75
7.74
7.73
7.73
7.72
7.71
7.70
7.69
7.68
7.67
41
9.984944
.60
.60
.60
.60
.60
.60
.60
.60
.60
 D.
74"
.439048
.439543
.440036
.440529
.441022
.441514
.442006
.442497
.442988
9.443479
.443968
.444458
.444947
.445435
.445923
.446411
.446898
.447384
.447870
9.448356
.448841
.449326
.449810
.450294
.450777
.451260
.451743
.452225
.452706
9.453187
.453668
.454148
.454628
.455107
.455586
.456064
.456542
.457019
.457496
Cotang. I
8.42
8.41
8.40
8.39
8.38
8.38
8.37
8.36
8.35
8.34
8.33
8.32
8.32
8.3L
8.30
8.29
8.28
8.28
827
8.26
8.25
8.24
8.23
8.23
8.22
8.21
8.20
8.19
8.19
8.18
8.17
8.16
8.16
8.15
8.14
8.13
8.12
8.12
8.11
8.10
8.09
8.09
8.08
8.07
8.06
8.06
8.05
8.04
8.03
8.02
8.02
8.01
8.00
7.99
7.99
7.98
7.97
7.96
7.96
7.96
D.
 Tang.
II
SINES, COSINES,
LOGARITHMIC
84
16"
Sine.
iM
D.
9.982842
9.440338
.440778
.441218
.441658
0
1
2
8
4
.442096
.442535
.442973
.443410
.443847
.444284
.444720
7
8
0
10
11
12
13
14
19
.449054
17
18
21
.449915
23
.450345
24
.450775
25
.451204
26
.451632
27
28
.452060
.452488
29
.452915
81
9.453768
82
.454194
83
.454619
34
.455044
35
.456739
39
.457162
.457584
40
45
9.458006
.458427
.458848
.459268
.459688
46
.460108
47
.460527
48
.460946
51
.462616
53
.463032
54
.493448
55
.463864
.464279
56
57
.465108
59
.465522
60
.465935
Cosine.
.982551
.982514
.982477
9.982441
.982404
.982367
.982331
.982294
.982257
.982220
.982183
.982146
.982109
.982035
.981998
.981961
.981924
.981886
.981849
.981812
.981774
.981737
9.981699
7.10
7.09
7.08
7.07
7.07
7.06
7.05
7.04
7.04
7.03
.981662
.981625
.981587
.981549
.981512
.981474
.981436
.981399
.981361
.60
.60
.61
.61
.61
.01
.61
.61
.61
.61
.61
.61
.61
.61
.61
.61
.61
.62
.62
.62
.62
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.63
.64
.64
.64
.64
.64
.981171
.981133
.981095
.981057
.981019
.980981
9.980942
.980866
.980827
.980789
.980750
.980712
D.
.64
.980673
.64
.64
.980635
6.89
.64
.64
.64
.64
.64
.64
.980904
6.90
.980596
Sine.
.458449
.458925
.459400
.459875
.460349
.460823
.461297
.461770
.462242
9.462714
.463186
.463658
.464129
.464599
.465069
.465539
.466008
.466476
.466945
.467880
.468347
.468814
.469280
.469746
.470211
.470676
.471141
.471605
9.472068
.981209
6.93
6.92
6.91
6.90
.457973
9.467413
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.981247
6.93
9.457496
.981285
6.95
6.94
j Tang.
D.
9.981323
7.02
7.01
7.01
7.00
6.99
6.98
6.98
6.97
6.96
6.95
.464694
58
.982587
7.16
7.16
7.15
7.14
7.13
7.13
7.12
7.11
7.10
9.462199
52
.982624
9.982072
.461782
50
.982660
7.17
.461364
49
.982696
7.23
7.22
7.21
7.20
7.20
7.19
7.18
.456316
88
.982805
.982769
.982738
7.23
.455893
37
44
7.24
.455469
36
43
7.25
.453342
30
42
7.26
9.449486
22
41
7.33
7.32
7.31
7.31
7.30
7.29
7.28
7.27
7.27
.446459
20
16
7.34
9.445155
.445590
.446025
.446893
.447326
.447759
.448191
.448623
15
Cosine.
D.
730
.472532
.472995
.473457
.473919
.474381
.474842
.475303
.475763
.476223
9.476683
.477142
.477601
.478059
.478517
.478975
.479432
.479889
.480345
.480801
9.481257
.481712
.482167
.482621
.463075
.483529
.483982
.484435
.484887
.485339
 Cotang. 
I Cotang. 
D.
0.542504
7.94
7.93
7.93
7.92
7.91
7.90
7.90
7.89
7.88
7.88
7.87
7.86
7.85
7.86
7.84
7.83
7.83
7.82
7.81
7.80
7.80
7.79
7.78
7.78
7.77
7.76
7.75
7.76
7.74
7.73
60
.542027
59
.!f41551
58
.541075
.540600
57
56
.540125
55
.539e51
.539177
.638703
.538230
.637758
64
63
62
61
60
0.537286
49
.536814
48
.536342
.635871
47
.535401
45
.634931
.634461
.633992
44
.533524
41
46
43
42
.533055
40
0.532587
.532120
38
.531653
37
39
.631186
36
.530720
35
.530254
34
.529789
33
.529324
32
.628859
31
.628395
80
7.73
7.72
7.71
7.71
7.70
7.69
7.69
7.68
7.67
7.67
7.66
7.65
7.65
7.64
7.63
7.63
7.62
7.61
7.61
7.60
7.69
7.59
7.68
7.57
7.57
7.56
7.56
7.65
7.54
7.53
D.
0.627932
29
.527468
.527005
28
.526543
26
.526081
25
.525619
24
27
.525158
23
.524697
.524237
.523777
22
0.523317
.522858
19
21
20.
18
.622399
17
.521941
.621483
.621025
.520568
.520111
.519655
.519199
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
0.518743
.518288
.617833
.517379
.516925
.516471
.616018
.515565
.515113
.514661
 Tang.
M.
7
6
8
1
0
86
SINBS, COSINES,
LOGABITHMIC
D.
Cosine.
D.
9:978206
6.48
6.48
6.47
6.46
6.46
6.45
6.44
6.44
6.43
6.42
6.42
8.37
6.36
6.36
.978124
.978083
.978042
.978001
.977959
.977918
.977877
68
68
69
.612636
69
.518921
69
69
69
69
69
69
.614349
6.20
6.20
6.19
6.19
6.18
6.18
70
70
70
70
71
71
71
71
71
71
71
71
71
Sine.
.614777
.615204
.515631
.616057
.516910
.617336
.517761
.618185
.618610
.619034
.619468
.519882
.520305
.521151
.521573
.521996
.622417
.522838
.623259
.623680
.624100
.624520
9.624939
.625359
.625778
.526197
.626615
.627033
.627461
.627868
.628286
.528702
9.529119
71
71
71
71
71
71
72
72
72
72
.529536
.629950
.530366
.630781
.531196
.631611
.582025
.632439
.632863
9.583266
9.976060
.976017
.975974
.975930
.975887
.975844
.975800
.975757
.975714
.975670
6.17
6.16
6.16
6.15
6.16
6.14
6.13
6.13
6.12
.613498
9.520728
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
9.976489
.976446
.976404
.976361
.976318
.976275
.976232
.976189
.976146
.976103
6.23
6 22
6.22
6 21
.513064
9 516484
69
69
60
69
69
70
70
70
70
70
9.976914
.976872
.976830
.976787
.976746
.976702
.976660
.976617
.976574
.976532
6.29
6.28
6.28
6.27
6.26
6.26
6.25
6.25
6.24
6.23
D.
.612206
9.977335
.977293
.977251
.977209
.977167
.977126
.977083
.977041
.976999
.976957
6.35
6.34
6.34
6.33
6.32
6.32
6.31
6.31
6.30
6.29
68
9.977752
.977711
.977669
.977628
.977586
.977644
.977503
.977461
.977419
.977377
6.37
Cosine.
.978166
.977836
.977794
6.41
6.41
6.40
6.39
6.39
6.38
Tang.
D.
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
.533679
.634092
.634604
.634916
.636328
.635739
.686150
.536561
7.16
7.16
7.16
7.14
7.14
7.13
7.13
7.12
7.12
7.11
7.10
D.
710
Cotang.
.487794
.487365
.486936
.486507
.486079
7.09
7.09
7.08
7.08
7.07
7.06
7.06
7.05
7.06
7.04
7.03
7.03
7.03
7.02
7.02
7.01
7.01
7.00
6.99
6.99
6.98
6.98
6.97
6.97
6.96
6.96
6.96
6.96
6.94
6.93
6.93
6.98
6.92
6.91
6.91
6.90
6.90
6.89
6.89
6.88
6.88
6.87
6.87
6.86
6.86
6.85
6.85
6.84
D.
60
59
68
57
56
65
.485651
.485223
.484796
52
.484369
.483943
50
0.483516
7.10
.536972
j Cotang.
0.488224
9.611776
.483090
.482665
.482239
.481816
.481390
54
53
51
49
48
47
46
45
44
.480966
43
.480542
42
.480118
41
.479695
40
0.479272
39
.478849
.478427
.478005
.477583
.477162
.476741
.476320
.475900
.475480
88
87
0.475061
.474641
.474222
.473803
.473386
.472967
.472549
.472132
.471716
.471298
86
85
84
83
82
31
30
29
28
27
26
26
24
23
22
21
20
0.470881
.470466
.470050
.469634
.469219
.468804
.468389
.467975
.467561
.467147
19
0.466734
.466321
.466908
.466496
.465084
.464672
.464261
.463850
.463489
.463028
Tang.
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
8
7
6
6
4
8
2
1
0
M.
TANGENTS,
37
COTANGENTS.
AND
19""
rM. i
D.
Sine.
6.12
6.U
6.11
6.10
6.09
6.09
6.08
6.08
6.07
6.07
6.06
.975496
.976462
.976408
.975365
.976321
.975277
.976233
9.975189
.976145
.975101
.975057
.975013
.974969
.974925
.974880
.974836
6.05
6.05
6.04
6.04
6.03
6.03
6.02
6.01
6.01
6.00
.974792
9.974748
.974703
.974659
.974614
.974570
.974525
.974481
.974436
.974391
.974347
6.00
5.99
5.99
5.98
5.98
5.97
5.96
5.96
5.95
5.95
9.974802
.974257
.974212
.974167
.974122
.974077
.974032
.973987
.973942
.973897
5.94
5.94
.5.93
5.93
6.92
6.91
5.91
5.90
5.90
6.89
9.973852
.973807
.973761
.973716
.973671
.973625
.973580
.973535
.973489
.973444
5.89
6.88
5.88
5.87
5.87
5.86
5.86
5.85
5.85
5.84
9.973398
5.84
5.83
5.82
5.82
6.81
5.81
5.80
5.80
5.79
Coftine.
D.
18"
Cosine.
9.975670
.976627
.976683
.975539
.973352
.973307
.973261
.973215
.973169
.973124
.973078
.973032
.972986
Sine.
D.
Tang,
D.
 Cotang. 
9.536972
.73
.73
.73
.73
.73
73
73
.73
'73
.73
73
.537382
.537792
.538202
.638611
.639020
.539429
.539837
.540246
.540653
.541061
9.541468
.641875
.642281
.542688
.73
.73
.73
.73
.73
.74
.74
.74
.74
.74
.543094
.543499
.543905
.544310
.544715
.645119
6.84
6.83
6.83
6.82
6.82
6.81
6.81
6.80
6.80
6.79
6.79
6.78
6.78
6.77
6.77
6.76
6.76
6.76
6.75
6.74
6.74
9.545524
.74
.74
.74
.74
.545928
.546331
.546735
.547138
.547540
.647943
.548345
.548747
.74
.74
.74
.74
.74
.75
.549149
9.549560
.549951
.76
.75
.76
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.550352
.550752
.551152
.551552
.551952
.552351
.552750
.553149
9.553548
.75
.75
.75
.76
.76
.76
.76
.76
.76
.76
.553946
.554344
.554741
.555139
.555636
.555933
.556329
.656725
.557121
9.557517
.557913
.558308
.558702
.559097
.559491
.559885
.560279
.560673
.76
.76
.76
.76
.76
.76
.76
.76
.77
6.73
6.73
6.72
6.72
6.71
6.71
6.70
6.70
6.69
6.69
6.68
6.68
6.67
6.67
6.66
6.66
6.65
6.65
6.65
6.64
6.64
6.63
6.63
6.62
6.62
6.61
6.61
6.60
6.60
6.59
6.59
6.59
6.58
6.58
6.57
6.57
6.56
6.56
6.55
.661066
p.
I Cotang.
70^
D.
Tang,
M.
Sine.
I
0
SINES, COSINES,
LOGARITHMIC
S8

.634746
.635092
.635488
.635788
.636129
.636474
.536818
4
6
6
7
6
.587163
.687607
10
D.
5.78
.972940
6.77
6.77
6.77
6.76
6.76
6.75
6.74
6.74
6.78
6.78
.972894
.972848
.972802
.n
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.972751
4)72709
i)72668
.972617
.972570
.972524
.972131
".72
6.71
.972386
.972338
.972291
6.71
6.70
6.70
.972245
.972198
.972151
6.69
6.69
6.68
6.68
.972105
.972058
.77
.78
.78
.78
.78
.78
.78
.78
.78
.78
5.62
5.62
5.61
5.61
5.60
5.60
5.69
5.59
558
5.68
9.548024
41
42
.548359
43
.548693
44
.649027
45
.549360
46
.549693
47
.550026
^50359
48
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
"651024
9.561356
.651687
.552018
.553670
.554000
.654329
j Cosine.
.78
.78
.78
.78
.78
.79
.79
.79
.971208
.971161
.971113
9.971066
.971018
.970970
.970922
,970874
.970827
.970779
.970731
.970683
.970635
9.970586
.970588
.80
.80
.80
.80
.81
.81
.81
.81
.970490
.970442
.970394
.970345
.970297
.970249
.970200
Sine.
D.
.565763
.666153
.666542
.666932
^67320
.667709
.668098
.668486
.668878
.669648
.670035
.670422
.670809
.671195
.571581
^71967
.672352
.672788
.581149
.581528
.581907
.582286
.582665
.583043
.683422
.583800
D.
 Cotang. 
 Cotong. j
0.438984
6.55
6.54
6.54
C.53
6.68
6.68
6.6i
6.58
6.51
6.51
6.50
6.50
6.49
6.49
6.49
6.48
6.48
6.47
"47
6.46
6.46
6.45
6.46
6.45
6.44
6.44
6.43
6.43
6.42
6.42
6.48
6.41
6.41
6.40
6.40
6.39
6.39
6.39
6.38
6.38
6.37
6.37
6.36
6.36
6.36
6.35
6.35
6.34
6.34
6.34
6.33
6.33
6.32
6.32
6.32
6.81
6.31
6.30
6.30
6.29
.684177
.970152
D.
.664983
9.578123
.79
.673507
.79
.678892
.79
.574276
.79
.574660
.79
.575044
.79 j
.675427
.79
.575810
.79
.676193
.79
.676576
.79
9.576958
.80
.577341
.80
.677723
.80
.578104
.80
.578486
.80
.678867
.80
.679248
.80
.579629
.80
.580009
.80
.580389
.80
9.580769
.80
9.971540
.971493
.971446
.971398
.971351
.971303
.971256
5.49
.663419
.663811
.664202
.564592
.79
5.52
5.52
6.52
5.51
6.51
5.60
6.60
5.49
.552349
.552680
.553010
.553341
.78
.971964
.971917
.971870
.971828
.971776
.971729
.971682
.971685
.971588
5.57
5.57
6.56
5.56
5.56
5.56
5.54
6.54
5.53
5.53
.650692
49
.561459
.561861
.562244
^62686
.668028
8.669261
9.972011
6.67
6.67
6.66
6.66
6.66
5.65
6.64
5.64
5.68
5.63
9 565373
9.972478
5.72
Tang,
9.661066
9.9729b6
9.534052
.634399
Cosine,
P.
P.
60
.438541
69
.438149
.437756
.437364
.436972
.436581
.436189
.435798
.435408
.485017
58
0.484627
.434237
.483847
.433458
.483068
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
.432680
44
.482291
43
.431902
42
.431514
41
.431127
40
0.430789
89
.480352
88
.429965
37
.429578
86
.429191
86
.428806
.428419
.428033
.427648
.427262
84
0.426877
.426493
.426108
.425724
29
26
.425340
25
.424956
24
83
82
81
80
28
27
.424578
23
.424190
22
.423807
21
.423424
20
0.423041
19
.422659
.422277
18
17
.421896
16
.421614
15
.421133
14
.420752
13
.420371
12
.419991
11
.419611
10
0.419231
.418851
.418472
9
8
.418093
.417714
.417335
.416957
.416578
5
8
.416200
.415823
Tang.
I M.
TANGENTS,
39
COTANGENTS.
AND
210
M.
Sine.
9.554329
.554658
.554987
.555315
.555643
.555971
.556299
.566626
.556963
9
10
.557280
.557606
11
9.56T932
12
0
1
2
3
4
6
6
19
.558268
.568683
.558909
.559234
.559558
.559883
.560207
.560531
20
.560855
21
22
9.561178
.561601
23
.561824
24
26
.562146
.562468
.562790
27
.563112
13
14
15
16
17
18
25
28
.663433
29
.563755
30
.564075
D.
5.48
5.48
5.47
6.47
5.43
6.43
5.45
5.45
5.44
5.44
bAi
33
.565036
34
.566366
36
.565676
36
.566996
37
38
.666314
89
.566961
.567269
41
9.567587
42
.567904
43
.568222
44
.568639
45
.568866
46
.569172
47
48
.569488
.569804
.570120
.570435
49
50
.970006
.969957
.969909
.969860
.969811
.969762
.969714
.969665
.969469
.969420
.969370
.969321
.969272
.969223
.969173
9.969124
.969076
53
54
55
56
57
58
.968926
.968877
.968827
.968777
.968728
.968678
9.968628
6.34
.968479
5 32
.968429
5.32
.968379
6.3 L
5.3 L
5.3L
5.3a
5.30
.968329
.968278
.968228
.968178
9.968128
52)
59
60
Cosine
6.28
5.28
5.23
5.27
6.27
6.26
5.2a
9.967624
.967573
.967622
.967471
.967421
.967370
.967319
.967268
.967217
.967166
5.25
6.24
5.24
5.23
5.23
6.23
5.22
5.22
5.21
D.
.84
.84
.84
.84
.84
.84
.84
.84
.84
.84
.908078
.968027
.967977
.967927
.967876
.967826
.967776
.967725
.967674
5.2)
.572636
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.84
.84
.966578
.968628
5.33
5.3{
.572950
.573263
.573575
.82
.82
.82
.82
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.96b976
5.35
Sine.
Tang.
D.
 Cotang. 
0.415623
6.29
6.20
6.28
6.28
6.27
6.27
6.2r
6.26
626
6.25
6.25
.584565
.584932
.585309
.585686
.586062
.586439
.686815
.587190
.587566
.587941
9.688316
.688691
60
.416446
.415068
.414691
.414814
.413938
.413561
.413185
.412810
.412434
.412069
59
58
67
66
55
54
53
52
61
50
6.25
6.24
6.24
6.23
6.23
.689066
.589440
.689814
.590188
.590662
.590985
.691308
.691681
6.23
6.22
6.22
6.22
6.21
9.692054
.969025
525
52
.82
.82
.82
.82
.82
.82
.82
.82
.82
.82
.969667
.969518
5.38
5.38
5.37
5.37
5.33
6.36
5.36
5.35
9.570751
.571066
.571380
.571695
.572009
.572323
51
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
9.969616
.566632
40
D.
9.584177
.970065
5.41
5.4i
5.42
5.42
5.41
5.41
5.4)
5.40
5.3J
5.3J
9.564396
.564716
31
.970103
5.34
82
Cosine.
9.970152
.84
.84
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
6.21
6.20
6.20
6.19
6.19
6.18
6.18
6.18
6.17
6.17
.692426
.692798
.698170
.693642
.693914
.594286
.694666
.696027
.696398
9.596768
.696138
.696608
.696878
.697247
.597616
.697985
0.404232
6.17
6.16
6.16
6.16
6.15
6.15
6.15
6.14
6.14
6.13
.598354
.698722
.599091
9.599459
6.13
6.13
6.12
6.12
6.11
6.11
6.11
6.10
6.10
6.10
.699827
.600194
.600662
.600929
.601296
.601662
.602029
.602395
.602761
9.603127
.603493
.603868
.604223
.604688
.604963
.606317
.605682
.606046
6.09
6.09
6.09
6.08
6.08
6.07
6 07
6.07
6.06
29
.403862
.403492
.403122
.402763
.402384
28
27
26
26
24
.402015
23
.401646
22
.401278
.400909
20
21
0.400641
19
.400173
.899806
.899438
.899071
.898704
.898338
.897971
.897605
.397239
18
17
0.396873
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
'
.606410
D.
63^
 Cotang. 
D.
j Tang.
M.
sines, cosines,
looabithmk:
40
Sine.
M.
9.578575
.678888
1
a
X74200
.574512
.574824
.575186
.575447
.675768
.576069
4
6
6
7
8
.576379
0
10
.576689
11
12
9.676999
.577809
.577618
.577927
.578236
.578545
.578858
.579162
.579470
.579777
18
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
23
9.680085
.580392
.580699
24
.581005
25
.581812
.581618
.581924
.582229
.582535
.582840
21
22
26
27
28
29
SO
81
82
83
34
85
86
37
88
89
40
41
42
48
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
61
52
58
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
9.583145
.583449
.583754
.584058
.584861
.584665
.584968
.585272
.585574
.585877
9.586179
.586482
.586788
.587085
.587386
.587688
.587989
.588289
.588590
.588890
9.589190
.589489
.589789
.590088
.590387
.590686
.590984
.591282
.591580
Cosine.
D.
6.21
6.20
6.20
6.19
6.19
6.19
5.18
6.18
6.17
5.17
5.16
9.967166
.967115
.967064
.967013
.066961
.906910
.966859
^66808
.966756
.966705
.966653
9.966002
5.16
6 16
5.15
6.15
5.14
.966650
.966499
.966447
.966396
.966344
5.U
.966292
5.13
5.13
5.13
5.12
.966240
.966188
.966136
9.966085
5.12
6.11
5.11
5.11
5.10
6.10
5.09
5.09
5.09
5.08
5.08
5.07
6.07
5.06
5.06
5.06
5.05
5.05
5.04
.966033
.965981
.965928
.965876
.963824
.965772
.965720
.965668
.965615
9.965568
.965511
.965458
.965406
.965358
.965301
.965248
.965195
.965143
.965090
5.04
5.03
5.03
5.03
5.02
5.02
5.01
5.01
6.01
5.00
Tang.
D.
9.6U6410
.606778
.607137
.607500
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.607863
.608225
.608588
.85
.85
.86
.86
.608950
.609312
.609674
.610036
.86
9.965087
.964984
.964981
.964879
.964826
.964773
.964719
.964666
.964613
.964560
5.00
9.064507
.964454
.964400
.964847
4.99
4.99
4.99
4.98
4.98
4.97
4.97
4.97
4.96
.964294
.964240
.964187
.964133
.964080
9.610397
.86
.86
.86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
.610759
.611120
.611480
.611841
.612201
.612561
.612921
.618281
.613641
 Cotang. 
0!3"3d90 60
D.
6.06
6.06
6.06
6.0"
6.04
6.04
6.04
6.03
6.03
6 03
6.02
6.(^
6.01
6.01
6.01
6.00
6.00
6.00
5.99
5.99
9.614000
87
87
87
87
87
67
87
87
87
87
87
87
87
87
88
88
88
88
88
88
.614359
.614718
.615077
.615435
.615793
.616151
.616509
.616867
.617224
9.617582
.617939
.618295
.618652
.619008
.619364
.619721
.620076
.620432
.620787
9.621142
88
88
88
88
88
88
88
89
89
89
89
89
89
89
89
89
89
89
89
.393227
59
.892863
58
57
.892500
.892137
.391775
56
.391412
54
55
.891050
53
.890688
52
.890326
51
.889964
50
0.889603
49
6.02
'
.964026
.591878
I Cosine.
.621497
.621852
.622207
.622561
.622915
.623269
.62362a
.923976
.624380
9.624688
.625086
.625888
.625741
.626093
.626445
.626797
.627149
.627501
.627852
5.98
5.98
5.98
6.97
5.97
6.97
5.96
".96
5.96
".95
5.95
5.95
5.94
5.94
5.94
5.93
5.93
5.93
5.92
5.92
5.92
5.91
5.91
5.90
5.90
5.90
5.89
5.89
5.89
5.88
5.88
5.88
6.87
5.87
5.87
5.86
5.86
6.86
5.85
.889241
.388880
.388520
.888159
48
.387799
44
.387439
.387079
.386719
43
.386359
40
0.386000
89
.385641
88
.385282
.384923
.384565
.384207
.383849
.888491
.383183
87
47
46
45
42
41
86
35
84
33
82
31
80
.382776
0.382418
.382061
.881705
.381348
.380992
.380636
.880279
29
U28
27
26
25
24
23
.879924
.379568
22
.879213
20
0.878858
19
.878503
.878148
.877793
.877439
.877085
.876731
.376877
.376024
.875670
18
21
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
0.875317
.874964
.874612
.874259
.873907
.878555
.373203
.872851
.372499
.872148
6
8
2
'
P.
Sine.
I p. i Cotany. 
67"
D.
 Tang.
TANGENTS,
AND
41
COTANGENTS.
230
M.
Sine.
9.591878
.592176
.592473
0
1
2
10
.692770
.593067
.593363
.593659
.593955
.594251
.594547
.594842
11
9.595187
12
.595432
13
20
.595727
.596021
.596315
.596609
.596903
.597196
.597490
.597783
21
9.598075
3
4
5
6
7
8
0
14
15
16
17
18
19
22
.598868
23
.598660
24
.598952
25
.599244
20
.509536
27
.599827
28
.600118
.600409
.600700
29
30
81
9.61)0990
82
.601280
.601570
.601860
.602150
33
84
85
36
.602439
37
38
89
40
.602728
.603017
41
4.96
4.95
4.95
4.96
4.94
4.94
4.93
4.93
4.93
4.92
4.92
43
44
.604745
45
.605032
46
47
48
.605319
53
64
66
66
67
58
69
60
.963811
.963757
.963704
.903650
.963596
.963542
.963488
.963379
.963325
.963271
.963217
.963163
.963108
.063054
.962999
.962945
.962836
.902781
.962727
.962672
.962617
.962562
.962508
.062453
.962398
9.962343
.962288
.962233
.962178
4.84
4.83
4.83
4.82
4.82
4.82
4.81
4.81
4.81
4.80
.962123
.962067
.962012
.961957
.961902
.961846
9.961791
.961735
4.80
4.79
4.79
4.79
4.78
4.78
4.78
4.77
4.77
4.76
9.606751
.607086
.607322
.607607
.607892
.608177
62
.963865
.961680
.901624
.961569
.961513
.961458
.961402
.961346
.961290
9.961235
.961179
4.76
4.76
4.76
4.75
.961123
.961067
.961011
.960955
.960899
.960843
.960786
.960730
4.74
4.74
.608461
.608746
4.74
4.73
4.73
.609029
.609818
Coeine.
D.
Sine.
Tang.
D.
9.627852
.89
.89
.89
.90
.90
.90
.90
.90
.90
.90
.90
.628208
.628554
.628905
.629255
.629606
.629956
.630306
.630656
.631005
.631356
6.85
6.85
5..85
6..84
5..84
6..83
6..83
6..83
5..83
6.82
682
.91
.91
.91
.91
.91
.91
.91
.91
.91
.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.92
.93'
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.94
.94
.632053
.632401
.632750
.633098
.633447
.633705
.634143
.634490
.634838
tt6"
f 60
59
58
67
56
55
54
.369694
53
.869844
52
.868995
.868645
51
50
49
6 82
.867947
48
581
.867599
.867250
47
.866902
.866553
.866205
.865857
45
5.81
581
5.80
6.80
6.80
6.79
5.79
46
44
48
42
.866510
41
.866162
40
0.864815
.364468
.364121
.863774
.863428
.363081
.362735
.362389
89
.362044
81
5.79
9.635185
.635532
.635879
.636226
.636572
.636919
.637265
.637611
.637956
.638302
9.638647
.638992
.639337
.639682
.640027
.640371
.640716
.641060
.641404
.641747
9.642091
.642434
.642777
.643120
.643463
.643806
.644148
.644490
.644832
.645174
9.645516
.645857
.646199
.646540
.646881
.647222
.647562
.647903
.648243
5.78
578
6.78
6.77
5.77
5.77
5.77
5.76
6.76
6.76
5.75
5.75
5.75
5.74
6.74
5.74
5.73
5.78
5.73
5.72
5.72
5.72
5.72
5.71
5.71
5.71
5.70
5.70
5.70
5.69
5.69
6.69
6.69
5.68
6.68
5.68
5.67
5.67
6.67
.648583
\ D
Cotang. {
0.872148
.871797
.871446
.8710"5
870746
.870894
.870044
0.868296
9.681704
.90
.90
.90
.90
.90
.90
.91
.91
.91
.91
9.962890
.606179
.606466
61
.963919
4.87
4.87
4.87
4.86
4.86
4.85
4.85
4.85
4.84
4.84
.605892
50
P.
9.963434
.605606
49
.963972
4.91
4.91
4.91
4.90
4.90
4.89
4.89
4.89
4.88
4.88
.603594
9.603882
.604170
.604457
Cosine.
9.964026
.603305
42
D.
 Cotang. 
D.
88
87
86
85
84
88
32
.361698
80
0.861858
.361008
.360668
.360318
.859973
.859629
.359284
.358940
.858596
.358258
29
0.857909
19
.857566
.857223
.856880
.856537
.856194
.855852
.855510
.355168
.854826
0.854484
.854148
.858801
.853460
.853119
.852778
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9^
8
7
6
5
4
.852438
.852097
.361757
.851417
 Tang.
M
42
BINES, COSINES,
LOGARITHMIC
2io
Sine,
P.
Cosine.
1 Tang,
D.
D
 Cotang. 
_
(".6ouai3
.609597
.6098h0
.610164
.610447
.610729
.611012
.611294
.611576
.611858
8
4
6
10
11
12
.612140
.612983
14
.613264
15
.613545
.613825
.614105
.614385
.614665
17
18
19
20
.614944
21
9.615223
22
.615502
23
.615781
24
.616060
23
.616338
26
.616616
27
28
.616894
29
.617172
.617450
30
.617727
81
34
9.618004
.618281
.618558
.618834
82
33
33
.619110
86
.619386
37
.619662
38
.619938
39
.620213
40
.620418
41
9.6207G3
42
.621038
43
.621313
44
.621517
45
.621861
46
.622135
47
.622409
48
.622682
49
.622956
50
.623229
51
9 623502
53
.623774
.624047
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
4.09
4.68
4.68
4.67
4.67
4.67
4.66
4.66
4.66
4.65
.612702
4.65
4.65
4.64
4.64
464
4.63
4.63
4.62
4.02
4.62
4.61
4.61
4.61
4.60
4.60
4.60
4.59
4.59
4.59
4.58
4.58
4.57
4.57
4.57
4.56
4.56
4.56
4.55
4.55
4.55
4.54
4.54
4.54
4.53
4.53
4.53
4.52
4.52
4.52
.624319
.624591
.624863
.625135
.625406
.625677
.625948
I Cosine.
.94
.94
.960448
.960392
.960335
.960279
.060222
.960165
.
.960052
.959995
.959938
.059882
.959825
.950708
.059711
.959654
.959596
9.959539
.959482
.959425
.959368
.959310
.959253
,959195
.059138
.9590S1
.959023
9.958965
.958008
.958850
.958792
.958734
.958677
.958619
.058561
.958503
.958445
9.958387
.958329
.958271
.958213
.958154
.958096
.958038
.957979
.957921
.957863
9.957804
.957746
.957687
.957628
.957570
.957511
.957452
.957393
.957335
D.
Sine.
.649263
.649602
.94
.94
.94
.94
.94
.04
.94
.94
.649942
.650281
.650620
.650959
.651297
.651686
i351974
9 652312
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.06
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.97
.07
.97
.97
.97
.97
.97
.97
.97
.97
.97
.97
.97
.98
.98
.98
.08
.98
.98
.98
.98
.652650
.652988
.653326
.653663
.654000
.654337
.654674
.655011
.655348
.
9.655684
.656020
.656356
.656692
.657028
.657364
.657699
.658034
.658369
.658704,
9.659039
.659373
.659708
.660042
.660370
.660710
.661043
.661377
.661710
.662043
9.602376
.662709
.663042
.663375
.663707
.664039
.664371
.664703
.965035
.665366
9.665697
.666029
.666360
.666691
.667021
.667352
.667682
.668013
.668343
6*66
6.66
6.66
5.66
5.05
5.66
506
5.64
5.64
5.04
6.63
6.63
5.63
6.63
6.62
6.62
5.62
6.61
6.61
6.61
5.61
.60
.60
.60
69
59
59
59
58
68
5.58
5.68
5.57
5.57
5.57
5.57
6.56
5.66
6.50
5.55
555
5.55
5 54
5.54
5.54
5.54
5.53
5.63
6.53
5.63
5.52
5.52
5.62
561
5.51
6.61
5.61
5.50
5.50
6.50
.668672
.957276
.648923
.94
.960505
9.960109
9612421
13
16
4.73
4.72
4.72
472
4.71
4.71
4.70
4.70
4.70
4.69
4.69
9.6485bd
9."o0/d0
.960674
.960618
.960561
D.
66""
Cotang. 
D.
0.351417
.851077
.350737
60
59
68
.350398
57
.350058
.849719
56
55
.349380
64
.849041
.848703
62
53
.848364
.848026
61
0.347688
.847350
.847012
.346674
.846337
.346000
49
.845663
60
48
47
46
45
44
43
.845326
42
.844969
41
.844652
40
0.344316
89
.843080
88
.843644
87
.843308
86
.842972
35
.842636
84
.842301
83
.341966
82
.341631
81
.841296
80
0.340961
.340027
28
29
.840292
27
.839958
26
.839624
25
.839290
24
.838957
23
.838623
22
.838290
21
.837957
20
0.337624
.837291
19
18
.836958
17
.336625
16
.336293
15
.335961
14
.835629
13'
.885297
.334965
11
.834634
10
C.33480B
.333971
.833640
12
9
8
.333309
.832979
.832648
.832318
.331987
.331657
.831328
Tang.
M.
44
LOGARITHMIC
SINES, COSINES,
26""
M.
0
1
3
8
4
6
6
7
8
9
10
11
la
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
80
81
Sine.
9.641842
.642101
.642860
.642618
.642877
.643185
.643393
.643650
.643908
.644165
.644428
9.644680
.644936
.645198
.645450
.645706
.645962
.646218
.646474
.646729
.646984
9.647240
.647494
.647749
.648004
.648258
.648512
.648766
.649020
.649274
.649527
83
9.649781
.650034
.650287
84
.650539
32
33
.650792
86
87
88
.651044
89
.651800
.652052
40
41
.651297
.651549
9.652304
42
.652555
43
45
.652806
.653057
.653308
46
.653558
47
.653808
48
.654059
49
.654309
44
50
.654558
51
9.654808
52
.655058
53
.655307
54
.655556
55
.655805
56
67
.656054
.656302
58
.656551
59
.656799
.657047
60
Cosine.
P.
Cosine.
D.
9.953660
4.31
4.81
4 31
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.29
4.29
4.29
4.28
.953599
.953537
.953475
.953413
.053352
.963290
.053228
.953166
.953104
.953042
9.952980
4.28
4.28
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.26
4.20
4.26
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.24
4.24
4.24
4.24
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.22
4.22
4.22
422
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.20
4.20
420
4.19
4.19
4.19
4.18
4.18
4.18
4.18
4.17
4.17
4.17
4.16
4.16
4.16
4.16
4.15
4.16
4.16
4.14
4.14
4.14
4.13
.952918
.962855
.952793
.962781
.952669
.952606
.952544
.952481
.952419
0.952356
.952294
.952231
.952168
.952106
.952043
.951980
.951917
.951854
.951791
9.951728
.951665
.951602
.951539
.951476
.961412
.051349
.951286
.951222
.951159
9.951096
.951032
.950968
.950905
.950841
.950778
.950714
.950650
.950586
.950522
0.050458
.950394
.950330
.950266
.950202
.950138
.950074
.950010
.949945
Sine.
D.
 Cotang. j
9.688182
1.03
1.03
].0:"
1.03
1.03
1.03
1.03
1.03
1.03
1.03
1.03
1.04
1.04
104
1.04
1.04
1.04
1.04
1.04
1.04
1.04
J.04
1.04
1.04
1.06
1.05
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.05
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.00
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.00
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.07
1.07
1.07
1.07
1.07
1.07
1.07
1.07
1.07
1.07
.949881
"dT"
Tang.
""dT
630
.688502
.688823
.689143
.689463
.689783
.690103
.690423
.690742
.691062
.691381
9 691700
.692019
.692338
.692656
.692975
.693293
.693612
.693930
.694248
.694566
6.34
6.34
6.34
6.33
6.33
6.33
6.33
5.33
6.32
6.d2
5.32
6.31
5.31
5.31
5.31
5.31
5.30
6.30
6.30
5.30
5.29
9.694883
.695201
.695518
.695836
.696153
.696470
.696787
.697103
.697420
.697736
9.698053
.698369
.698685
.699001
.699316
.699632
.699947
.700263
.700678
.700893
9.701208
.701523
.701837
.702152
.702466
.702760
.703095
.703409
.703723
.704036
9.704350
.704663
.704977
.705290
.705603
.705916
.706228
.706541
.706864
.707166
Cotang.
5.eo
5.20
6.29
6.29
5.28
6.28
6.28
5.28
6.27
6.27
6.27
6.27
5.26
6.20
6.26
6.2G
5.26
6.25
6.25
6 25
6.24
6.24
5.24
6.24
6.24
6.23
5.23
6.23
5.23
6.22
6.22
6.22
5.22
6.22
5.21
6.21
5.21
5.21
6.21
"dT"
0.298792
.298477
.298163
19
18
17
.297848
.297534
.297220
16
.296905
13
15
14
.296591
12
.296277
11
.295964
10
0.295650
.295387
9
8
.295023
.294710
.294397
.294084
.293772
.293459
.293146
.292834
Tang.
M.
M.
I
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0
10
Sine.
U.657047
.657295
.657542
.657790
.658037
.658284
.658531
.658778
D.
.659025
.659271
.659517
1.07
1.07
.949616
.949752
.949688
.949628
.949558
1.07
1.08
1.08
.949494
.949429
.949364
.949300
.049235
1.08
1.08
1.08.
1.08
1.08
1.08
9.949170
4.10
4.09
4.09
4.09
.949105
.949040
.948975
.948910
.948845
.948780
.948715
.948650
.948584
4.03
4.08
4.08
4.08
4.07
4.07
4.04
4.04
4.03
4.03
403
4.02
4.02
4 02
4.02
4.01
9.667065
.667305
.667546
.667786
.668027
.668267
.668506
4.01
4.01
4.01
4.00
4.00
4.00
3.99
3.99
3.99
3.99
.668746
.668986
.669225
9.669404
'.669703
.660942
.670181
.670419
.670658
.670896
.671134
.671372
.671009
Cosine
.948454
.948388
.948323
.948257
.948192
.948126
.948060
.947995
.947029
9.947863
.947797
.947731
.947665
.947600
.947533
.947467
.947401
.947335
.947269
a.947203
.947136
.947070
.947004
.946937
.946871
.946804
.946738
.946671
.946604
9.946538
3.98
3.98
3.98
3.97
3.97
3.97
3.97
3.96
3.96
D.
14
.709349
.709660
.709971
.710282
.946471
.946404
.946337
.946270
.946203
.946136
.946069
.946002
J11836
.712140
.712456
.712766
.713076
.713386
9.716785
1.10
I.IO
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
l.lf)
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.11
1.11
1.11
l.ll
1.11
l.ll
1.11
1.11
1.11
1.11
1.11
1.11
1.11
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
Sine.
D.
4J2o
60
292522
59
.292210
58
.29U98
.291u"6
67
56
.291274
55
.290963
54
.290651
53
.290340
52
.290029
51
.289718
50
5.18
5.18
5.18
6.17
5.17
6.17
5.17
5.16
5.16
5.16
9.713696
.714005
.714314
.714624
.714933
.715242
.715551
.715860
.7161G8
.716477
1.09
1.03
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
l.OD
1.10
1.10
.945935
0/2uIil34
5"20
6.20
5.20
5.20
5.19
5.19
5.19
5.19
5.19
5.18
5.18
d.7 10593
.710904
.711215
.711525
1.08
1.08
1.08
1.08
1.08
1.08
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
9.948519
4.07
4.07
4.08
4.03
4.0(1
4.05
4.0d
4.05
4.05
4.04
.707478
.707790
.708102
.708414
.708726
.709037
\ Cotang. I
D.
i".707106
9.949bbl
Tang.
\ D.
Cosine.
4.13
4.13
4.12
4.12
4.12
4.J2
4.11
4.11
4.11
4.10
4.10
4.")
COTANGENTS.
AND
270
TANGENTS,
.717093
.717401
.717709
.718017
.718325
.718633
.718940
.719248
.719565
9.719862
.720169
.720476
.720783
.721089
.721396
.721702
.722009
.722315
.722621
5.1G
5.16
5.15
5.15
5.15
5.15
6.14
6.14
5.14
5.U
5.14
5.13
5.13
6.13
5 13
5.13
6.12
6.12
5.12
6.12
5.12
6.11
6.11
6.11
6.11
6.11
6.10
5.10
9.722927
.723232
.723538
.723844
.724149
.724454
.724759
.726065
.725369
5.10
.278911
.278604
.278298
.277991
.277685
.277379
5.10
6.08
0.277073
.276768
.276462
.276156
.275851
.275546
.275241
.274935
.274631
.274326
D.
j Tang.
6.10
6.09
6.09
6.09
6.09
6.09
6.08
5.08
.725674
Cotang. I
0.280138
.279831
.279524
.279217
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
6
4
8
2
1
0
 M.
46
SINES, COSINES,
LOGARITHMIC
280
Sine.
9.67 10U9
.671847
.672084
.672321
.672558
.672795
.673032
.673268
.673505
.673741
.673977
9.674213
.674448
.674684
.674919
.675155
.675390
.675624
.675859
.676094
.676328
9.676562
.676796
.677030
.677264
.677498
.677731
.677964
.678197
.678430
.678663
9.678805
.679128
.679360
.679592
.679824
.680056
.680288
.680519
.680750
.680982
9.681213
.681443
.681674
.681905
.682135
.682365
.682595
.682825
.683055
.683284
9.6835U
.683743
.683972
.684201
.684430
.684658
.684887
.685115
.685343
.685571
Cosine.
D.
Cosine.
D,
.945868
.945800
.945733
3.95
3.95
3.95
.945666
3.95
3.94
3.94
3 04
3.5*4
3.93
3.93
.945598
.945531
.945464
.945396
.945328
.945261
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.13
1.13
1.13
.725979
.726284
.726588
.726892
.727197
.727501
.727805
.728109
.728412
.728716
1.13
9 729020
9.945193
3.03
ZM2
3.92
3.92
3.12
3.91
3.01
3.91
3.91
3.90
.945U5
.945058
.944990
.944922
.044854
.944786
.944718
.944650
.944582
9.944514
3.90
3.90
3.90
3.89
3.89
3.89
3.88
3.88
3.88
3.88
.944446
.944377
.944309
.944241
.944172
.944104
.944036
.943967
.943899
9.943830
3.87
3.87
3.87
3.87
3.86
3.86
3.86
3.85
3.85
3.85
.943761
.943693
.943624
.943555
.943486
.943417
.943348
.943279
.943210
1.13
1.13
1.13
1.13
1.13
1.13
1.13
1.13
1.13
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.14
.729323
.729626
.729929
.730233
.730535
.730838
.731141
.731444
.731746
9.732048
.732351
.732653
.732955
.733257
.733558
.733860
.734162
.734463
.734764
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.15
1.15
1.15
1.15
1.15
1.15
1.15
9.735066
.735367
.735668
.735969
.736269
.736570
.736871
.737171
.737471
.737771
1.15
9.738071
9.943141
3.85
3.84
3.84
3.84
3.84
3.83
3.83
.943072
.943003
.942934
.942864
.942795
.942726
.942656
3.83
.942587
3.83
3.82
.942517
9.942448
3.82
3.82
3.82
3.81
3.81
3.81
3.80
3.80
3.80
D.
.942378
.942308
.942239
.042169
.942099
.942029
.941959
.941889
.941819
Sine.
D.
9.725674
9.945935
3.d6
\ Tang,
1.15
1.15
1.15
1.15
1.15
1.16
I.IG
1.16
1.16
l.!6
1.16
1.16
1.16
1.16
1.16
1.16
1.16
1.16
1.17
D.
610
.738371
.738671
.738971
.739271
.739570
.739870
.740169
.740468
.740767
9.741066
.741365
.741664
.741962
.742261
.742559
.742858
.743156
.743454
.743752
I Cotang. 
I Cotang. I
0.274326
5.08
5.08
5.07
5.07
5.07
5.07
5.07
5.06
5.06
5.06
5.06
5.06
5.05
5.05
5.05
5.06
5.05
5.04
5.04
5.04
5.04
5.04
5.03
5.03
5.03
5.03
5.03
5.02
5.02
5.02
5.02
5.02
5.02
6.01
5.01
5.01
5.01
5.01
5.00
5.00
5.O0
5.00
5.00
4.99
4.99
4.99
4.99
4.99
499
4.98
4.98
4.98
4.98
4.98
4.97
4.97
4.97
4.97
4.97
4.97
D.
.274021
.273716
.273412
.273108
.272803
.272499
.272195
.271891
.271588
.271284
0.270980
.270677
.270374
.270071
.269767
.269465
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
.269162
43
.268859
42
.268556
.2 J8254
41
40
0.287952
89
.267649
38
.267347
.267045
.266743
37
.266442
34
36
85
.266140
33
.265838
.265537
32
81
.265236
30
0.264934
29
.264633
28
.264332
27
.264031
26
.263731
25
.263430
24
.263129
23
.262829
22
.262529
21
.262229
20
0.261929
19
.261629
.261329
18
17
.^61029
16
.260729
15
.260430
14
.260130
13
.259831
12
.259532
11
.259233
10
0.258934
.258635
.258336
.258038
.257739
.257441
.257142
.256844
.256546
.256248
 Tnng.
M.
TANGENTS,
AND
COTANGENTS.
48
LOGABITHMIC
SINES, COSINES,
80O
M.
Sine.
9.698970
.699189
.699407
.699626
.699844
.700062
.700280
.700498
.700716
.700933
.701151
0
1
6
6
7
8
9
10
13
9.701368
.701585
.701802
14
.702019
15
.702236
.702452
.702669
.702885
.703101
.703317
11
12
16
17
18
19
20
24
9.703533
.703749
.703964
.704179
25
.704395
26
29
.704610
.704825
.705040
.705254
SO
.705469
21
22
23
27
28
32
9.705683
.705898
33
.706112
34
.706326
35
.706539
36
.706753
37
.706967
38
.707180
.707393
.707606
81
39
40
8.64
3.64
a.64
3.64
3.63
3.63
3.63
3.63
3.63
3.62
3.62
3.62
3.62
3.61
3.61
3.61
3.61
3.60
3.60
3.60
8.60
3.59
3.59
3.59
3.59
3.59
3.58
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
3.55
3.55
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
Cosine.
.986872
.936799
9.936725
1.22
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
.936652
.936578
.036505
.936431
.036357
.936284
.936210
.936136
.936062
9.935988
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.24
1.21
1;24
1.24
1.24
1.24
1.24
.935914
.935840
.935766
.935692
.935618
.935543
.935395
9.935246
1.24
1.24
1.24
1.24
1.24
1.24
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
.935171
.935097
.935022
.934948
.934873
.934798
.934723
.934649
.934574
0.934499
3.55
3.54
3.54
3.54
3.54
3.53
3.53
3.53
3.53
3.53
3.52
3.52
3.52
3.52
3 51
3.51
3.51
3.51
3.50
.711629
.711839
60
1.21
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.22
.936946
.935320
3.55
P.
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.26
1.26
.934424
.934349
.934274
.934199
.934123
.934048
.933973
.933898
.933822
9.933747
.933671
1.2fi
1.26
1.26
1.26
1.26
1.26
1.26
1.26
1.26
.933596
.933520
.933445
.933369
.933293
.933217
.933141
.933066
D.
Sine.
Tang.
9.761488
.037019
3.58
3.57
3.56
8.56
3.56
9.937531
.987458
.987385
.987312
.987238
.937165
.987092
.935469
3.56
9.709941
.710153
.710364
.710575
.710786
.710997
.711208
.711419
51
Cosine.
3.58
3.58
3.57
3.67
3.57
9.707819
.708032
.708245
.708458
.708670
.708882
.709094
.709306
.709518
.709730
41
D.
D.
"".
.761731
.762023
.762314
.762606
.762897
.768188
.768479
.763770
.764061
.764852
0.764643
.764933
.765224
.765514
.765805
.766095
.766385
.766676
.766965
.767255
9.767545
.767834
.768124
.768413
.768703
.768992
.769281
.769570
.769860
.770148
0.770487
.770726
.771016
.771303
.771592
.771880
.772168
.772457
.772745
.778033
0.773821
.773608
.773896
.774184
.774471
.774759
.775046
.775388
.775621
775908
0.776195
.776482
.776769
.777056
.777342
.777628
.777915
.778201
.778487
.778774
I Co"nng. 
D.
4.86
4.86
4.86
4.86
4.85
4.85
4.85
4.85
4.85
4.85
4.84
4.84
4 84
4.84
4.84
4.84
4.84
4.83
4.83
4.83
4.83
4.83
4.83
4.82
4.82
4.82
4.82
4.82
4.82
4.81
4.81
4.81
4.81
4.81
4.81
4.81
4.80
4.80
4.80
4.80
4.80
4.80
4.79
4.79
4.79
4.79
4.79
4.79
4.79
4.78
4.78
4.78
4.78
4.78
4.78
4.78
4.77
4.77
4.77
4.77
D.
Cotang. I
0.238561
60
.238269
59
.237977
.237686
.237394
.287103
.236812
58
.286521
58
.236230
62
57
56
55
64
.235939
51
.235648
50
0.235357
49
.235067
48
.234776
.234486
47
.234195
45
.233905
44
46
.233615
43
.233325
42
.233035
41
.282745
40
0.232455
89
.232166
88
.281876
.281587
.231297
.231008
.230719
87
85
.280430
82
.230140
.229852
81
0.229563
86
84
83
30
29
.229274
.228985
.228697
27
.228408
25
.228120
.227832
.227548
24
.227255
21
28
26
23
22
.226967
20
0.226679
19
.226392
18
.226104
17
.225816
16
.225529
15
.225241
14
.224954
13
.224667
.224379
.224092
11
0.223805
.223518
.228281
.222945
.222658
.222372
.222085
.221799
IJ
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
.221512
.221226
 Tnng.
 M.
TANGENTS
M.
9.711839
0
1
.712050
.712260
.712469
.712679
.712889
.713098
.713308
.713517
.713726
.713935
5
G
7
8
9
10
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
9.716224
.716432
.716639
.716846
.717063
.717259
.717466
.717673
.717879
.718085
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
83
34
85
86
37
38
89
40
41
43
.72075^
44
.720958
.721162
.721366
45
46
48
.721978
.722181
49
50
9.722385
51
52
.722688
53
.722791
.722994
54
56
.723603
57
58
.723805
.724007
.724210
59
60
Cosine.
.932633
1.,27
.932380
1,,27
1.27
.932304
9.932228
1.27
1.27
1.28
1.28
1.28
1.28
1.28
1.28
1.28
1.28
.932151
.932075
.931998
.931921
.931845
.931768
.931691
.931614
.931537
9.d31460
1.28
.931383
1.28
.931306
1.28
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
.931229
.931152
.931075
.930998
.930921
.930843
.930766
9.930688
1.29
.930611
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
.930533
.930466
.930378
.930300
.930223
.930145
.930067
.929989
9.929911
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.30
1.31
1.31
1.31
.929833
.929755
.929677
.929699
.929521
.929442
.929364
.929286
.929207
9.929129
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
.929050
.928972
.928893
.928815
.928736
.928657
.928578
.928499
.928420
D.
14
Sine.
D.
1.27
.932457
3.39
3.39
3.38
3.38
3.38
3.38
3.37
3.37
3.37
.723197
.723400
55
.932609
3.41
3.41
3.40
3.40
3.40
3.40
3.40
3.39
3.39
3.39
.721670
.721774
47
.982838
.932762
.932686
49
COTANGENTS.
Ttiiig.j
1.26
1.27
1.27
1.27
1.27
1.,27
1..27
.932914
3.43
3.43
3.43
3.43
3.42
3.42
3.42
3.42
3.41
3.41
9.7203^5
.720549
42
.932990'
3.45
3.45
3.45
3.45
3.45
3.44
3.44
3.44
3.44
3.43
9.718291
.718497
.718703
.718909
.719114
.719320
.719525
.719730
.719935
.720140
82
AND
9.933066
3.48
3.47
8.47
3.47
3.47
3,47
3.46
3.46
3.46
3.46
.715602
.715809
.716017
20
Cosine.
8.50
3.50
3.50
3.49
3.49
3.49
3.49
3.49
3.48
3.48
3.48
9.714144
.714352
.714561
.714769
.714978
.715186
.715394
11
D.
Sine.
D.
58^
9.77b774
.779060
.779346
.779632
,779918
.780203
.780489
.780775
.761060
.781346
.781631
9.781916
.782201
.782486
.782771
.783066
.783341
.783626
.783910
.784195
.784479
9.784704
.785048
.786332
.785616
.786900
.786164
.786468
.786752
.787036
.787319
9787603
.787886
.788170
.788453
.788736
.789019
.789302
.789685
.789808
.790151
9.790433
.790716
.790999
.791281
.791663
.791846
.792128
.792410
.792692
.792974
9.793256
.793538
.793819
.794101
.794383
.794604
.794945
.795227
.796608
.795789
 Cotang. 
D.
4.n
4.77
4.76
4.76
4.76
4.76
476
4.7G
4.76
4 75
4.75
{ Cotang. 
0.221226
60
.220940
69
.220664
68
.220368
57
.220082
66
.219797
56
.219511
64
.219225
63
.218940
62
.218654
51
.218369
60
4.76
4.75
4.76
4.75
4.76
4.76
4.74
4.74
4.74
4.74
4.74
4.74
4.73
4 73
4.73
4.73
4.73
4.73
4.73
4.72
4.72
4.72
4.72
4 72
4.72
4.72
4.71
4.71
4.71
4.71
4.71
4.71
4.71
4.71
4.70
4.70
4.70
4.70
4.70
4.70
4.70
4.69
4.69
4 69
4.69
4.69
4.69
4.69
4.68
D.
0.209667
19
.209264
18
.209001
17
.208719
.208437
16
.208164
14
.207872
13
.207590
12
15
.207308
11
.207026
10
0.206744
.206462
.206181
.206899
.205617
.206336
.205055
.204773
.204492
.204211
 Tang.
LOGAIUTHUIC
SINES, COSINES,
I
D
1 Tung.
D.
I Cotttng.]
.724113
.724014
.734UB
.72GOI7
.SIS 104
.TJ62i9
.Ti5420
.7Z:iGJl
.927046
.M7S8T
.7iJS23
.937787
.917708
.72ej"E
.937628
B 7le4!S
.726029
,7IC8J7
9.B37G49
.037470
.027300
.017310
.027231
.OZTIJI
.027071
B.B287fil
.926671
.926591
.926^11
.8D2e"13
.E02T93
,803073
G0335I
.803630
.Tsooie
.803908
.730216
.804187
9.730416
.804466
.804745
.731009
,805303
.731206
.731404
.73160]
.73I7BS
.03o3B4
.731996
.025^03
.733193
9.7323B0
.i32i67
.920222
g.oasui
.935000
.024070
.024697
.024816
.924736
.924654
.924073
.924491
.924409
0.934328
.934240
.024164
.924033
.924001
.023919
.923637
.923755
.923073
.oas..oi
ig. 1
p.
I Tang
I M.
62
SINES, COSINES,
LOCAKITHMIC
340
Sine.
9.7475tii
.747749
"
.747936
.748123
.748310
.748497
.748688
.748870
.749056
.749243
.749429
4
6
6
7
8
9
10
11
20
9.749615
.749801
.749987
.750172
.760358
.750543
.750729
.750914
.751099
.751284
21
0.751469
22
.751654
23
30
.751839
.752023
.752208
.752392
.752576
.752760
.752944
.753128
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
24
25
26
27
28
29
31
9.753312
32
.753495
33
39
.753679
.753862
.754046
.754229
.754412
.754595
.754778
40
.754960
34
33
36
37
38
41
9 755143
42
.755326
43
.755508
44
.755690
.755872
.756054
.756236
.756418
.756600
.756782
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
 Cwtiie.
D.
9.918574
I)
8.12
3.12
:M2
.918404
3.11
.018233
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.42
1.43
.918489
.918318
3.11
3.11
3.11
.918147
.918062
.917976
.917891
.917805
.917719
3.11
3.10
3.10
3.10
1.43
1.43
1.43
9.917634
.917548
3.10
3.10
3.09
3.09
3.09
3.09
3.09
3.08
3.08
3.08
1.43
1.43
.917462
1.43
1.43
1.43
.917376
.917290
.917204
1.43
.917118
1.44
.917032
1.44
1.44
1.44
.916946
.916859
9.916773
.916687
3.08
3.08
3.08
3.07
3.07
3.07
3.07
3.07
3.06
3.06
1.44
1.44
1.44
1.44
1.44
1.44
1.44
1.45
1.45
1.45
.916600
.916514
.916427
.916341
.916254
.916167
.916081
.915994
9.915907
3.06
3.06
3.06
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.04
3.04
1.45
1.45
1.45
.915820
.915733
.915646
1.45
.915559
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.46
.915472
.915385
.915297
.915210
.915123
9.915033
3.04
3.04
3.04
3.04
3.03
3.03
3.03
3.03
3.03
3.02
9.756963
.757144
.757326
.757507
.757688
.757869
.758050
.758230
.758411
.758591
3.02
3.02
302
3.02
3.01
3.01
3.01
3.01
3.01

jllosine.
D.
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.47
.914948
.914860
.914773
.914685
.914598
.914510
.914422
.914334
.914246
9.914158
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47
.914070
.913982
.913894
.913806
.913718
.913630
.913541
.913453
Sine.
0.828987
.829260
.829582
.829805
.830077
.830349
.880621
.830893
.831165
.831437
.831709
D.
4.53
4.53
4.53
4.53
4 53
4.53
9.831981
.832253
.832525
.832796
.833068
.833339
.833611
.833882
.834154
.834425
9.834696
.834967
.835238
.835509
.835780
.836051
.836322
.836593
.836864
.837134
9.837405
.837675
.837946
.838216
.838487
.838757
.839027
.839297
.839568
.839838
9.840108
.840378
.840647
.840917
.841187
.841457
.841726
.841996
.842266
842535
9.842805
.843074
.843343
.843612
.843882
.844151
.844420
.844689
.844958
D.
550
 Cotnn":. 
\ Cotang. 
0.171013
4.54
4.54
4.54
4.54
4.54
4.53
4.53
4.53
4.53
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.51
4.51
4.51
4 51
4.51
4.51
451
4.51
4.51
4.51
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.60
4.50
4.50
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.49
4.48
4.48
4.48
4.48
4.48
.845227
.913365
 Tang.
D.
.170740
.170468
60
59
58
.170195
67
.169928
.169651
56
65
.169379
54
.169107
.168835
53
.168563
51
.168291
0.168019
52
50
49
.167747
.167475
.167204
46
.166932
45
.166661
44
48
47
.166389
43
.166118
42
.165846
41
.165575
40
0.165304
39
.165033
38
.164762
37
.164491
86
.164220
36
.163949
34
.163678
83
.168407
32
.163136
31
.1^2866
30
0.162595
29
.162325
28
.162054
27
.161784
26
.161513
25
.161243
24
.160973
.160703
.160432
23
.160102
20
22
21
0.159892
19
.159622
18
.159353
17
.159083
16
.158813
.158543
.158274
15
14
13
.158004
12
.157734
.157465
11
0.157195
.156926
.156657
.156388
.156118
.155849
.155580
.156311
10
7
6
5
4
.155042
.154773
 Tang.
M.
TANGENTS,
53
COTANGENTS.
AND
36"
M.
D.
Sine.
9.758591
.768772
.758952
.759132
.759312
.759492
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
.759672
.759852
.760031
.760211
.760390
9
10
8.01
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2 99
2.99
2.99
2.99
2.99
9.760569
.760748
.760927
.761106
.761285
.761464
.761642
.761821
.761999
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
SO
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
.765544
40
.765720
41
50
9.765896
.766072
.766247
.766423
.766598
.766774
.766949
.767124
.767300
.767475
51
9.767649
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
53
.767824
.767999
54
.768173
55
.768348
.768522
.768697
.768871
.769045
.769219
52
56
57
58
59
60
Cosine.
.912922
.912833
.912744
.912655
.912566
.912477
9.912388
"912121
.912031
.911942
.911853
.911763
.911674
.911584
9.911495
2.97
2.96
2.96
2.96
2.96
2.96
.911315
.911226
.911136
.911046
.910956
.910866
.910776
.910686
2.95
2.95
2.95
9.910596
2.95
.910415
.910325
.910235
.910144
.910054
.909963
.909873
.909782
9.909691
2.93
2.93
2.93
2.93
2.92
2.92
2.92
2.92
2.92
2.91
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
.909601
.909510
.909419
.909328
.909237
.909146
.909055
.908964
.908873
9.908781
2.91
2.91
2.91
2.91
2.90
2.90
2.90
2.90
2.90
41
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
1.51
.910506
2.95
2.94
2.94
2.94
2.94
2.94
2.94
2.93
2.93
D.
1.49
1.49
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
.911405
2.96
1.48
1.49
1.49
1.49
1.49
1.49
1.49
1.49
1.49
1.49
.912299
.912210
2.98
2.98
2.97
2.97
2.97
2.97
9.764131
.764308
.764486
.764662
.764838
.765015
.765191
.765367
81
.913010
2.98
298
2.98
0.762356
.762534
.762712
.762889
.763067
.763246
.763422
.763600
.763777
.763954
21
147
1.47
1.48
1.48
148
1.48
1.48
1.48
1.48
1.48
1.48
.913099
2.98
.762177
20
D.
Cosine.
9.918365
.913276
.913187
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.53
1.53
1.53
1.53
1.53
.908690
.908599
.908507
.908416
.908324
.908233
.908141
.908049
.907958
Sine.
Tang.
9.845227
.845496
.845764
.846083
.846302
.846570
.846889
.847107
.847376
.847644
.847913
9.848181
.848449
.848717
.848986
.849254
.849522
.849790
.850058
.850325
.850593
9.850861
.851129
.851396
.851664
.851931
.852199
.852466
.852733
.853001
.853268
9.853535
.853802
.854069
.854336
.854603
.854670
.855137
.855404
.855671
.855938
9.856204
.856471
.856737
.857004
.857270
.857537
.857803
.858069
.858336
.858602
9.858868
.859134
.859400
.859666
.859932
.860198
.860464
.860r30
.860995
]X
4.48
4.48
4.48
4.48
4.48
4.47
4.47
4.47
4.47
4.47
4.47
4.47
4.47
4.47
4.47
4.47
4.47
4.46
4.46
4.46
4.46
4.46
4.46
4.46
4.46
4 46
4.46
4.46
4.45
4.45
4.45
4.45
4.45
4.45
4.45
4.45
4.45
4.45
4.45
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.44
4.43
4.43
4.43
4.43
4.43
4.43
4.43
4.43
4.43
4.43
.861261
D.
nAo
54
Cotang. I
D.
I Cotang. I
0.154773
60
.154504
59
.154236
68
.153967
.153698
56
.153430
66
.153161
.162898
64
.152624
62
.152356
.152087
60
57
53
61
0.151819
49
.161551
.161283
48
47
46
.161014
.160746
.150478
46
.150210
43
.149942
.149676
41
.149407
40
0.149139
44
42
89
.148871
.148604
.148336
88
.148069
35
.147801
.147534
.147267
34
.146999
87
36
S3
82
,81
.146732
30
0.146466
.146198
.145931
29
.145664
26
.145397
'.145130
28
27
25
24
.144863
23
.144596
22
.144329
21
.144062
20
0.143796
19
.143529
18
.143263
17
.142996
10
.142730
15
.142463
14
.142197
13
.141931
12
.141664
11
.141398
10
0.141132
.140806
.140600
.140334
.140068
.139802
.139536
.139270
.139005
.138739
 Tang.
3
2
0
54
SINES, COSINES,
LOGAUITHMIC
36"
Sine.
9.709219
.769393
.769566
.769740
.769913
.770087
8
4
5
.770260
.770433
.770606
.770779
.770952
7
8
9
10
9.771125
.771298
.771470
11
12
18
.771648
.771815
.771987
14
15
16
.772159
.772331
.772503
.772675
17
18
19
20
9.772847
.773018
.773190
.773361
21
22
23
24
.773533
.773704
.773875
.774046
.774217
.774388
25
26
27
28
29
30
0.774558
.774729
.774899
.775070
.775240
.775410
.775580
81
32
33
84
85
86
87
38
.775750
.775920
89
40
.776090
41
9.776259
.776429
.776598
.776768
42
43
44
.776937
.777106
.777275
.777444
.777613
.777781
45
46
47
48
49
50
59
9.777960
.778119
.778287
.778455
.778624
.778792
.778960
.779128
.779295
CO
.779463
51
52
53
54
55
56
67
58
Cosine.
P.
Cosine.
D"
.907866
.907774
.907682
.907590
.907498
.907406
.907314
.907222
.907129
^07037
1.63
1.63
1.63
.861527
.861792
1.53
.862323
.862589
.862854
.863119
.863385
1.63
1.63
1.63
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
.906852
.906760
.906667
.906576
.906482
.906389
.906296
.906204
.906111
9.906018
2.86
2.86
2.86
2 85
2.85
2.85
2.85
2.85
2.85
2.84
.905925
.905832
.905739
.905645
.905552
.905459
.905366
.905272
.905179
0.905085
2.84
2.84
2.84
2.84
284
2.83
2.83
2.83
2.83
2.83
.904992
.904898
.904804
.904711
.904617
.904523
.904429
.904335
.904241
9.904147
2.83
2.82
2.82
2.82
.904053
.903959
.903864
.903770
.903676
2.82
2.82
.903581
2.81
2.81
2.81
2.81
.903487
.903392
.903298
9.903203
2 81
2.8L
2 80
.903108
.903014
.902919
2.80
.902824
2 80
2.80
2.80
2.80
2.79
.902729
.902634
.902539
.902444
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
Sine.
.863650
.868015
.864446
.864710
.864976
.865240
.865505
.865770
.866035
.866300
.866564
9.866829
1.65
1.66
1.66
1.56
1.56
1.66
1.66
1.56
1.66
.867094
.867358
.867623
.867887
.868152
.868416
.868660
.868945
.869209
1.66
166
1.66
1.66
1.56
1.66
1.66
1.56
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.57
1.57
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.57
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.58
158
1.58
1.58
1.58
1.59
1.69
.902349
D.
.862058
9.864180
9.906945
2.88
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.86
2.86
2.86
1".
9.861261
9.907958
9.90
2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89
2.89
2.88
2.88
2.88
2.88
2.88
Tang.
I).
9.869473
.869737
.870001
.870265
.870529
.870793
.871057
.871321
.871585
.871849
9.872112
.872376
.872640
.872903
.873167
.873430
.873694
.873957
.874220
874484
9.874747
.875010
.875278
.875636
.875800
.8760G3
.876326
.876589
.876851
4.43
4.43
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.42
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.40
4.39
4.39
4.39
4.39
4.39
A 33
4.39
4.39
4.39
4.:i9
4.39
4.39
4.39
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.38
.877114
\ Cotang. I
D.
Tang.
I M.
TANGENTS,
AND
65
COTANGENTS.
37"
iM. 1
Sine.
D.
Cosine,
9.779463
0
2
2.79
2.79
2.79
2.79
2.79
2.78
2.78
2 78
2.78
2.78
2.78
J79966
.780133
.780300
.780467
.780634
.780801
.780968
.781134
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
9.781301
.781468
.781634
.781800
.781966
.782132
.782298
.782464
.782630
.782796
11
12
13
U
15
16
17
18
19
20
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
42
43
44
45
/ 46
47
48
49
50
51
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Cosine
.901490
.901394
0.901298
.901202
.901106
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.61
.901010
.900914
.900818
.900722
.900626
.900529
.900433
9.900337
1.61
1.61
1.61
1.61
1.61
1.61
1.61
1.61
1.61
1.62
.^00240
.900144
.900047
.899951
.899854
2.75
.899757
.899660
.899564
2.75
2.75
2.74
2 74
.899467
9.899370
2 74
2 74
2.74
2 74
2.73
273
2.73
2.73
2 73
2.73
.899176
.899078
.898981
.898884
.898787
.898689
.898592
.898494
9.898397
.898299
1.63
1.63
1.63
.898202
.898104
1.63
.898006
1.63
1.63
1.63
1.63
1.63
1.63
.897908
.897810
.897712
.897614
.897516
2.71
9.897418
.897320
.897222
.897123
2.71
2.71
2.71
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
P.
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
.897025
.896926
.896828
.896729
.896631
1.64
1.64
1.64
.896532
Sine.
Tang.
9.877114
.877877
.877640
.877908
.878165
.878428
.878691
.878953
.879216
.879478
.879741
9.880003
.880265
.880528
.880790
.881052
.881314
.881576
.881839
.882101
.882863
9.882625
.882887
.883148
.888410
.883672
.888934
.884196
.884457
.884719
.884980
D.
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.37
4.37
4.37
4.37
4.37
4.37
4.3T
4.37
.4.37
4.37
4.37
4.37
4.37
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
9.885242
1.62
1.62
1.62
1.62
1.62
1.62
1.62
1.62
1.62
1.63
.899273
2.72
2.72
2.72
272
2.72
2.72
2.71
2.71
2.71
9.787883
.788045
.788208
.788370
.788532
.788694
.788856
.789018
.789180
.789342
52
.902063
.901967
.901872
.901776
.901681
.901585
2.76
2.76
2.75
2.75
2.75
9.786252
.786416
.7S6579
.786742
.786906
.787069
.787232
.787395
.787557
.787720
41
.902158
2.76
9.784612
.784776
.784941
.785105
.785269
.785433
.785597
.785761
.785925
.780089
31
32
1.69
1.69
1.69
1.69
1.59
1.59
1.59
1.59
1.59
1.59
1.60
.902253
2.77
2.77
2.77
2.77
2.77
2.77
2.76
2.76
2.76
9.782961
.783127
.783292
.783458
.783628
.783788
.783953
.784118
.784282
.784447
21
D.
9.902349
.779631
.779798
D.
62^
.885503
.885765
.886026
.886288
.886549
.886810
.887072
.887333
.887594
9.887855
.888116
.888377
.888639
.888900
.889160
.889421
.889682
.889943
.890204
9.890465
.890725
.890986
.891247
.891507
.891768
.892028
.892289
.892549
.892810
 Cotang. 
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.36
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.35
4.34
Cotang. I
0.122886
.122628
.122860
.122097
.121885
.121572
60
59
58
67
66
56
.121809
64
.121047
.120784
58
.120622
51
.120259
60
62
0.119S97
49
.119736
.119472
48
47
.119210
46
.118948
45
.118686
44
.118424
43
.118161
.117899
.117637
42
41
40
0.117375
.117113
88
.116852
87
89
.116590
86
.116828
85
.116066
84
.115804
83
.115543
82
.115281
81
.115020
30
0.114758
.114497
.114235
.113974
.113712
25
.113451
24
29
28
27
26
.113190
23
.112928
.112667
22
.112406
20
0.112145
.111884
21
19
18
.111623
17
.111361
16
.111100
15
.110840
14
.110579
13
.110318
.110057
11
.109796
10
12
0.109535
4.34
4.34
4.34
4.34
4.34
4.34
4.34
4.34
4.34
D.
9
8
.109275
.109014
.108753
.108493
.108232
.107972
.107711
4
8
2
1
.107451
.107190
t Tnng.
M
56
LOGARITHMIC
SINES,
COSINES,
38"
M
0
1
2
8
D.
Sine.
9.789342
.789504
.789065
.789827
4
5
.789988
.790310
.790471
2.69
2.69
2.69
2.69
2.69
2.69
.790149
2.68.
.790632
.790793
.790054
2.68
2.68
2.68
2.68
13
0.791115
.791276
.791436
2.08
2.67
14
.791596
8
9
10
11
12
15
.791767
16
17
.791917
.792077
.792237
.792397
792557
18
19
20
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.66
2.66
2.66
9.792716
.792876
.793035
.793195
.793354
.793514
.793673
.793832
.793991
.794150
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
80
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.65
2 05
2.65
2.65
2.65
2.65
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
3")
40
2.64
2.64
2.64
2.64
2.64
2.64
2.63
2.63
2.63
2.63
9.795891
.796049
.796206
.796364
.796521
.796679
.796836
.796993
.797150
.797307
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
60
2.63
2.63
2.63
2.62
2.62
2.62
262
2.62
2.61
a.6i
9.797464
.797621
.797777
.797934
.798091
.798247
.798403
.798560
.798716
.798872
61
62
53
54
55
56
57
58
69
60
Cosine.
9.896532
.896433
.896335
.896236
.806187
.896038
.895930
.895840
.896741
.895641
.895542
9.895443
.895343
.895244
.896145
.895045
.894945
.894846
.894746
.894646
.894546
2.61
2.61
2.61
2.61
2 61
2.61
2.60
2.60
2.60
.894346
.894246
.894146
.894046
.893946
.893846
.893746
.893645
.893544
9.893444'
.893343
.893243
.893142
.893041
.892940
.892839
.892739
.892638
.892536
9.892435
.892334
.892233
.892132
.892030
.891929
.891827
.891726
.891624
.891523
9.891421
.891319
.891217
.891115
.891013
.890911
.890809
.890707
.890605
.890503
D.
 D.
Sine.
Tang.
D.
1.64
1.65
1.65
1.65
1.65
1.05
1.65
1.65
1.65
1.65
1.65
.898070
.893331
.898591
.893851
.894111
.894371
.894682
.894892
.895152
.895412
60
.106930
59
4.84
.106669
58
4.84
.106409
57
4.34
4.34
4.34
4.34
4.33
4.33
4.33
4.33
.106149
56
.105889
55
4.84
9.895672
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
.896032
.896192
.896452
.896712
.896971
.897231
.897491
.897751
.898010
9.898270
.898580
.898789
.899049
.899308
.899568
.899827
.900086
.900346
.900605
9.900864
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.69
1.69
1.69
1.69
1.69
1.69
1.69
1.69
1.69
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
D.
510
.901124
.901383
.901642
.901901
.902160
.902419
.902679
.902938
.903197
9.903455
.903714
.903973
.904232
.904491
.904750
.905008
.905267
.905526
.905784
0.906043
.906302
.906560
.906819
.907077
.907336
.907594
.901852
.908111
.908369
Cotan^. I
Cotang. I
0.107190
9.892810
9.894446
2.64
9.794308
.794467
.794626
.794784
.794942
.795101
.795259
.795417
.795575
.795733
81
I Coaine.
4.33
4.33
4.33
4.33
4.33
4.33
4.33
4.33
4.33
4.33
.105629
54
.105368
.105108
.104848
.104588
53
0.104328'
4.32
4.32
4.32
4.32
4.32
4.32
4.32
4.32
4.32
4.31
4.81
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.30
D.
49
45
.103029
44
.102769
.102509
42
48
47
46
43
.102249
41
.101990
40
89
.101470
38
.101211
37
.100951
36
.100692
85
.100432
34
.100173
33
.099914
32
.099654
31
.099395
30
0.009136
.098876
.098617
.098358
29
28
27
26
.098099
25
.097840
.097581
.097321
.097062
24
.096803
20
0.096545
19
23
22
21
.096286
.096027
.095768
18
17
.095509
15
16
.095250
14
.094992
13
.094733
.094474
11
.094216
10
0.093967
4.31
4.31
4.31
4.31
51
50
.104068
.103808
.103548
.103288
0.101730
4.33
4.33
4.33
4.32
4.32
4.32
4.32
4 32
4.32
4.32
52
.093698
12
9
8
.093440
.093181
.092923
.092664
.092406
.092148
.091889
.091631
Tang.
M.
TANGENTS,
57
COTANGENTS.
AND
39^
M.
Sine.
D.
9.890503
.890400
.890298
.890195
.890093
.889990
.889888
.889785
.889682
.889579
.889477
2.60
2.60
2.60
2.59
2.59
2.59
2.59
2.59
2.59
2.58
2.58
D.
Cosine.
2.58
1.71
1.71
1.71
1.71
1.71
1.71
1.71
1.71
1.71
1.71
1.72
1.72
1.72
1.72
1.72
1.72
1.72
1.72
1.72
1.73
.889168
2 58
2 58
2.58
257
2.57
2 57
2.57
2.57
.889064
.888961
.888858
.888755
.888651
.888548
.888444
9.888341
.888237
.888134
2.57
2.56
2.56
2.56
2.56
2.56
2.56
2.56
2.55
2.55
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.74
.888030
.887926
.887822
.887718
.887614
.887510
,887406
9.887302*
2.55
2.55
2.55
2.55
2.54
2.54
2.54
2.54
2.54
2.54
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.76
.887198
.887093
.886989
.886885
.886780
.886676
.886571
.886466
.886362
9.886257
.886152
.886047
.885942
.885837
.885732
.385627
.885522
2.54
2.53
2.53
2.53
2.53
2.53
2.53
2.53
2.52
2.52
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.76
.885416
.885311
.908628
.908886
.909144
.909402
.909660
.909918
.910177
.910435
.910698
.910951
9.911209
.911467
.911724
.911982
.912240
.912498
.912756
.913014
.913^71
.913529
9.918787
.914044
.914302
.914560
.914817
.915075
.915332
.915590
.915847
.916104
9.916362
.916619
.916877
.917134
.917391
.917648
.917905
.918163
.918420
.918677
9.918934
Cotaiig.I
D.
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.80
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.30
4.29
4.29
4.29
4.29
4..29
4..29
4..29
4 29
4..27
4 29
4..2J
4.23
4.2J
4.29
4.23
4.23
4.29
4.23
4.29
4.23
4.28
4.28
4.28
.919191
4.28
4.28
.919448
.919705
4.28
.919962
.920219
.920476
.920733
.920990
.921247
9.921503
9.885205"
Cosine.
4.28
4.28
4.28
4.28
4.28
4.28
4.28
"
2.52
2.52
2.52
2.52
2.52
2.5L
2.51
2.51
2.51
Tang.
9.908369
1.70
9.889874
.889271
2.58
Ao
1.7fi
.884994
1.76
.884889
1.7H
1.76
1.76
1.76
1.76
.884783
.884077
.884572
.884466
.884360
1.76
.884254
D.
1.76
.885100
Sine.
D.
50"
.921760
.922017
.922274
.922530
.922787
.923044
.923300
.923557
4.28
4.28
4.28
4.28
4.28
4 28
4.28
4.28
4.27
.923813
Cotang.
D.
Tanp.
58
SINES, COSINES,
LOOABITHMIC
40"
M
U
1
2
8
4
5
6
7
8
9
Sine.
9.bUb067
.808218
.808368
.808519
.808669
.808819
.808969
.809119
.809269
.809419
10
.809569
11
18
9.809718
.809868
.810017
.810167
.810316
.810465
.810614
.810763
19
.810912
20
.811061
12
13
14
15
16
17
21
9.811210
27
28
.811358
.811507
.811655
.811804
.811952
.812100
.812248
29
.812396
30
.812544
22
23
24
25
26
31
9.812692
32
.812840
33
39
.812988
.813135
.813283
.813430
.813578
.813725
.813872
40
.814019
34
35
36
37
38
41
9.814166
42
.814313
43
.814460
44
48
.814607
.814753
.814900
.815046
.815193
49
.815339
45
46
47
50
.815485
51
9.815631
52
.815778
53
.815924
54
.816069
55
.816215
56
59
.816361
.816507
.816652
.816798
60
.816943
67
58
Cosine.
D.
Cosine.
D.
9.884254
2.51
2.51
2.51
250
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.49
2.49
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.78
.78
.863617
.883510
.888404
.883297
.883191
9.888084
.882977
.882871
.882764
.882657
2.49
2.49
2.49
2.49
2.48
2.48
2.48
2.48
2.48
2.48
.78
.78
.78
.78
.78
.78
.78
.79
.79
.79
.882550
.882443
.882336
.682229
.882121
9.882014
2.48
2.47
2.47
2.47
2.47
2.47
2.47
2.47
2.46
246
.79
.79
.79
.79
.79
.79
.79
.80
.80
.80
.881907
.881799
.881692
.881584
.881477
.881369
.881261
.881153
.881046
9.880938
2.46
2.46
2.46
2.46
2.46
2.45
2.45
2.45
2.45
2.45
.80
.80
.80
.80
.80
.80
.81
.81
.81
.81
.880830
.880722
.880613
.880503
.880397
.880289
.880180
.880072
.879963
9.879855
.879746
.879637
.879529
.879420
.879311
.879202
.879093
.878984
.878875
2.45
2.45
2.44
244
2.44
2 44
2.44
2.44
2.44
2.43
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.82
.82
.82
.82
9.878766
.878666
.878547
.878438
.878328
.878219
.878109
.877999
.877890
.877780
2.43
2.43
2.43
2.43
2.43
2.43
2.42
2.42
2.42
D.
.77
.884148
.884042
.888936
.883829
.883728
Sine.
.82
.82
.82
.82
.82
.83
.83
.83
.83
Tang.
9.923818
.924070
.924827
.924583
.924840
.925096
.925352
.925609
.925865
.926122
.926378
9.926634
.926890
.927147
.927403
.927659
.927915
.928171
.928427
.928683
.928940
9.929196
.929452
.929708
.929964
.920220
.930475
.930731
.930967
.931243
.931499
9.931755
.932010
.932266
.932522
.932778
.933033
.933289
.933545
.933800
.934056
9.934311
.934567
.934823
.935078
.935333
.935589
.935844
.936100
.936355
.936610
9.936866
.937121
.937376
.937632
.937887
.938142
.938398
.938663
.938908
D.
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
427
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.27
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
.939163
D.
4::o
Cotang. I
D.
Cotang. I
0.076187
60
.075930
59
.075678
.075417
.075160
.074904
.074648
.074391
.074135
.073878
.073622
58
67
56
55
54
53
52
51
60
{ 0.073366
49
.073110
.072863
.072597
.072341
.072085
.071829
.071673
.071317
48
41
.071060
40
0.070804
.070548
.070292
.070036
89
47
46
45
44
43
42
38
37
36
.069780
35
.069525
34
.069269
33
.069013
32
.068757
31
.068501
30
0.068245
29
.067990
28
.067734
.067478
.067222
.066967
.066711
27
26
25
24
23
.066455
22
.066200
21
.065944
20
0.065689
.065177
19
18
17
.064922
16
.064667
15
.065433
.064411
14
.064166
13
.063900
12
.063645
11
.063390
10
0.063134
.062879
.062624
.062368
.062113
.061858
.061602
.061347
.061092
.060837
Tang.
5
4
1
0
M.
SINES, COSINES,
LOGABITHMIC
60
420
Sine.
M.
9.826511
.825651
.825791
.825931
.826071
1
2
8
4
.826211
.826351
.826491
"826681
.826770
.826910
7
8
9
10
9.827049
.827189
.827828
.827467
.827606
.827745
.827884
.828023
.828162
.828301
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
9.8^8439
22
.828578
.828716
.828855
.828993
.829181
.829269
.829407
.829545
.829683
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
80
40
9.829821
.829959
.880097
.880234
.830372
.880509
.830646
.830784
.880921
.881058
41
9.831195
42
.881332
43
46
.831469
.831606
.831742
.831879
47
.832015
48
.832152
49
.832288
.882425
81
32
38
84
35
86
37
38
39
44
45
50
51
52
58
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
D.
Cosine.
9.871078
.870960
.870846
.870732
.870618
.870504
.870390
.870276
.870161
.870047
2.34
2.83
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.33
2 33
2.33
2.32
2.32
.869933
1.90
.954945
1.90
1.00
1.90
1.90
1.90
1.90
1.90
1.91
1.91
.955200
9.869818
2.32
2.32
2.32
2.32
2.:i2
2.32
2.31
2.31
2.31
2.31
2.31
2.31
2.31
2 30
2.30
2.30
2 30
2.30
2.30
2.30
.869704
.869589
.869474
.869360
.869245
.869130
.869015
.868900
.868785
2.28
2.28
2 28
2.28
2.28
2.28
2.27
2.27
2.27
2.27
9.832561
.882697
.832833
.832969
.833105
.833241
.833877
.883512
.883648
.883783
2.27
I Cosine.
D.
2.27
2.27
2.26
2.26
2 26
2.26
2.26
2.26
9.868670
.868555
.808440
.868324
.868209
.868093
.867978
.867862
.867747
.867681
.867399
.867283
.867167
.867051
.866935
.866819
.866703
.866586
.866470
9.866353
.866237
.866120
.866004
.865887
.866770
.865653
.865586
.865419
.865802
9.865185
.865068
.864950
.864888
.864716
.864598
.864481
.864368
.864245
.864127
Sine,
.955454
.955961
.956215
.956469
.956728
.956977
9.957231
.957465
.957789
.957993
.958246
.958500
.958754
.959008
.959262
.959516
58
.044039
4.23
4.23
4.23
423
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
.960023
.960277
.960531
.960784
.961038
.961291
.961545
.961799
.962052
.962560
.962818
.963067
.968320
.968574
.968827
.964081
.964335
.964588
9.964842
1.94
1.94
1.94
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
69
.045055
.044800
.044546
.044293
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
9.962806
1.93
1.93
1.93
1.93
1.93
1.94
1.94
1.94
1.94
1.94
60
.045809
4.23
9^959769
1.92
1.92
1.92
1.92
1.92
1.92
1.93
1.93
1.93
1.93
0.0466($3
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
.955707
1.91
1.91
1.91
1.91
1.91
1.91
1.91
1.92
1.92
1.92
9.867515
2.29
2.29
2.29
2.29
2.29
2.29
2.29
2.29
2.28
2.28
9.954437
.954691
1.90
I
Ck"tang.
D.
Tang.
D.
.965095
.965349
.965602
.965855
.966105
.966362
.966616
.966869
.967128
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.23
4.22
53
.048023
60
0.042760
49
.042515
48
47
52
51
46
45
.041500
44
.041246
48
.040992
.040738
.040484
42
0.040281'
.089977
89
.089723
87
.039469
86
.039216
.088962
.038709
.038455
.088201
.087948
85
41
40
0.087694
.037440
.037187
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
D.
 Cotang.
D.
88
84
83
82
81
80
29
28
27
.036983
26
.036680
.086426
.086173
25
.035919
22
.035665
.035412
21
0.035158
9.967376
.967629
.967888
.968186
.968889
.968643
.968896
.969149
.969403
.969656
470
.048785
.048681
.048277
.042261
.042007
.041764
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.96
1.96
1.96
1.96
1.96
1.96
57
56
55
54
.034905
.084651
.084898
.084145
.038891
.083688
.088384
.038181
.082877
24
28
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
18
12
11
10
0.032624
.032871
.082117
.031864
.081611
.031357
.081104
.080851
8
7
5
.080597
.030344
TANGENTS,
AND
61
COTANGENTS.
430
M.
Sine.
9.833783
.833919
.884054
.834189
.834825
.834460
.834595
.834780
3
4
5
6
7
8
.834865
.834999
.835184
10
11
13
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
2"
26
27
28
29
80
31
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
40
41
9.836611
47
48
49
60
61
62
5354
65
56
57
68
69
60
.862946
9.862827
.862709
.862590
.662471
.862353
.862234
.862115
.861996
.861877
.861758
I).
.861519
.861400
.861280
.861161
.861041
.860922
2.22
2.22
2.22
2.22
2.22
.838078
.838211
.888344
.888477
.838610
.888742
.888876
.839007
.839140
9.839272
.860802
.860682
.860562
9.860442
2.22
2.2L
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.2L
220
.860322
.860202
.860082
.859062
.859842
.859721
.859601
.859480
.859360
9.859239
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
.859119
.858998
.858877
.858756
.858635
2.20
2.19
2.19
2.19
2.19
9.840591
.840722
.840864
.840985
.841116
.841247
.841378
.841509
.841640
.841771
.858514
.858393
.858272
.858151
9.858029
.867908
.857786
.867665
.857543
.857422
.857300
.857178
.857056
.856934
2.19
2.19
2.19
2.1P
2.18
2.18
2.18
2.18
2.18
D.
Sine.
Tnng.
9.969656
1.96
1.96
1.97
1.97
1.97
1.97
1.97
1.97
1.97
1.97
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.99
9.861638
2.22
9.837945*'
I Cosine
.863183
.863064
2.23
2.23
2.23
2.22
.836745
.836678
.837012
.837146
.837279
.837412
.887646
.837679
.837812
.889932
.840064
.840196
.840328
.840459
.863538
.863419
.863301
2.23
2.23
2.23
.836343
.886477
.839800
.863892
.863774
.863656
2.2(3
.886209
46
Cosine.
.864010
2.24
2.24
2.24
2.24
2.24
2.24
.835941
.836075
45
2.26
2.25
2.25
2.25
225
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.24
2.24
.835403
.835538
.835672
.835807
44
43
D.
9.864127
9.835269
.839404
.889536
.839668
42
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
1.99
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.iK)
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.01
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.03
2.03
2.03
2.03
2.03
2.03
.969909
.970162
.970416
.970669
.970922
.971175
.971429
.971682
.971935
.972188
9.972441
.972694
.972948
.978201
.973464
.978707
.973960
.974213
.974466
.974719
9.974973
.975226
.976479
.975732
.975985
.976238
.976491
.976744
.976997
.977250
9.977503
.977756
.978009
.978262
.978515
.978768
.979021
.979274
.979627
.979780
9.980083
.980286
.980538
.980791
.981044
.981297
.981560
.981803
.982056
.982309
9.982662
.982814
.983067
.983320
.983673
.983826
.984079
.984331
.984584
.984837
 J).  Cotang. 
46^
1".
Cotang.
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.22
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
D.
 Tang.  Mf
62
LOGARITHMIC
U9
M
Sine,
4^.541771
.841902
.842033
.842168
.642294
D
2.18
2.18
2.18
2.17
2.17
.842424
.842555
.842686
.842816
.842946
.843076
2.17
2.17
2.17
2.17
2.17
2.17
8.843206
.843336
.848466
.843695
.843726
.843855
.843984
.844114
.844243
.844372
2.16
2.16
2.16
2.16
2.16
2.16
2.1$
2.15
2.16
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
D.
2.08
2.03
2.04
2.04
2.04
2.04
2.04
2.04
2.04
2.04
2.05
.856812
.866690
.866568
.866446
.866328
.666201
.866078
.866956
.866833
.856711
9.866588
2.05
2.05
2.05
2.05
2.05
2.05
2.05
2.06
2.06
2.06
.855466
.855342
.866219
.866096
.864973
.864850
.864727
.854603
.864480
2.16
25
9.844502
.844631
.844760
.844889
.845018
26
.845147
27
28
.845276
21
22
23
24
,846405
29
.845533
30
.845662
31
8.846790
32
.845919
33
.846047
.846175
.846304
.846433
.846660
.846688
.846816
.846944
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
45
46
.847709
47
48
.847836
.847964
49
.848091
43
44
9.864356
2.1S
2.U
2.15
2.15
2.15
2.15
2.U
2.14
2.14
2.14
2.U
2.14
2.14
2.14
2.14
2.13
2.13
2.13
2.13
2.13
9.847071
.847199
.847327
.847454
.847582
42
2.13
2.13
2.13
2.12
2.12
2.12
2.12
2.12
2.12
2.12
50
.848218
51
9.848346
.848472
.848599
.848726
.848852
.848979
.849106
.849232
.849359
.849485
2.12
2.11
2.11
2.11
2.11
2.11
2.11
2.11
2.11
Cosine.
D.
52
53
64
55
56
67
68
59
60
I Tang.
D.
".b56934
Cosine.
2.06
.864233
2.06
2.06
2.06
2.06
2.06
2.07
2.07
2.07
2.07
.854109
.853986
.853862
.863738
.853614
.853490
.663366
.853242
9.863118
.862994
.862869
.862745
2.07
2.07
2.07
2.07
2.07
2.08
2.08
2.08
2.08
2.08
.852620
.852496
.852371
.862247
.852122
.851997
9.851872
.851747
.851622
.851497
.861372
.851246
.851121
.850996
.850870
.850746
9.850619
.850493
.850368
.850242
.850116
.849990
.849864
.849738
.849611
.849486
Sine.
.986090
.985343
.885596
.986848
.986101
.986354
.986607
'
.986860
.987112
.987365
9.987618
.987671
.988123
.988376
.988629
.988882
.989134
.989387
.989640
.989^93
9.990146
.990398
.990651
.990903
.991156
.991409
.991662
.991914
.992167
.992420
9992672
.992926
.993178
.993430
.993683
.993936
.994189
.994441
.994694
.994947
2.08
2.08
2.08
2.09
2.09
2.09
2.09
2.09
2.09
2.09
9.996199
2.09
2.10
2.10
2.10
2.10
2.10
2.10
2.10
2.10
9.997726
.995452
.995706
.995957
.996210
.996463
.996716
.996968
.997221
.997473
.997979
.998231
.998484
.998737
.998989
.999242
.999496
.999748
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.2L
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.2 L
D.
4""
 Cotang. 
0.015163
60
.014910
69
.014657
68
.014404
57
.014152
66
.013899
65
.013646
54
.013393
53
.013140
62
.0128"8
51
.012635
50
0.012882
49
.012129
48
.011677
.011624
.011371
.011118
.010866
47
45
.010613
42
46
44
43
.010360
41
.010107
40
0.009865
89
.009602
38
.009349
87
.009097
86
.008844
86
.008691
84
.008338
83
.008086
82
.007833
.007680
81
80
0.007328
.007076
28
29
.006822
27
.006570
.006317
26
.006064
24
.005811
23
.005559
22
.005306
21
.005053
20
25
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
0.004801
19
.004548
.004295
18
17
4.21
4.21
0.002274
.004043
16
.003790
.003537
15
.003286
13
14
.003032
12
.002779
.002527
11
10
9
8
.002021
.001769
4.21
.001516
4.21
.001263
4.21
4.21
4.21
4.21
.001011
.000758
4.21
0 000000
 Cotang. 
.000505
.000253
0 000000
D.
Tang.
4
2
1
0
I M.