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speed correlation for the CFD simulation of

hydrogen-enriched gasoline engines

Changwei Ji*, Xiaolong Liu, Shuofeng Wang, Binbin Gao, Jinxin Yang

College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China

article info

abstract

Article history:

In this paper, a laminar flame speed correlation was developed and validated for the

This correlation was derived through the tabulated data which was determined by a self-

26 November 2012

Wide ranges of hydrogen volume fractions (0e10%), equivalence ratios (0.6e1.5), unburned

gas temperatures (300e2500 K), pressures (1e50 bar) and residual gas mass fractions (0

e20%) were simultaneously considered in this correlation to cover the burning conditions

Keywords:

encountered in SI engines. The estimated values of the new correlation were found to be in

Hydrogen

satisfying agreement with the experimental data under normal burning conditions.

Gasoline

Moreover, the new correlation was implemented in the extended coherent flame model to

evaluate its suitability for CFD simulation. Satisfying agreement between the experimental

SI engines

and calculated results was observed under all examined hydrogen addition levels. This

CFD simulation

indicated that the new correlation was suitable for the CFD simulation of hydrogenenriched gasoline engines.

Copyright 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

reserved.

1.

Introduction

and more researches have been dedicated to explore alternative fuels for internal combustion (IC) engines. Because of

the attractive features of hydrogen as an energy carrier such

as potential for zero CO2 and ultra low emissions, hydrogen

has been widely considered as a promising alternative fuel for

future spark-ignited (SI) engines [1e3]. The addition of

hydrogen could heighten the thermal efficiency, reduce the

toxic emissions and ease the cyclic variation of tradition

gasoline engines [4e7]. Thus, the hydrogen-enriched gasoline

engines have been considered as a feasible and effective

approach for applying hydrogen to SI engines.

In recent years, the in-depth investigation and optimization of alternative fuel-powered engines are increasingly

performed using the CFD simulation. The predictive CFD

combustion models for hydrogen-gasoline blends could

greatly facilitate the development of hydrogen-enriched

gasoline engines. Laminar flame speed is one of the most

fundamental properties of combustive mixtures. Most of the

CFD combustion models, such as coherent flame model (CFM),

stress the importance of the laminar flame speed data at

engine-relevant conditions [8]. In these models, the determination of burning rate highly relies on the laminar flame speed

at instantaneous cylinder temperature, pressure, and mixture

composition. Therefore, it is of strong necessity to obtain the

accurate data of laminar flame speed at engine-relevant

E-mail address: chwji@bjut.edu.cn (C. Ji).

0360-3199/$ e see front matter Copyright 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2012.11.139

1998

i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n e n e r g y 3 8 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 1 9 9 7 e2 0 0 6

alternative fuels.

Since correlations can be more efficiently applied in CFD

codes than tabulated data, many studies have been concentrated on developing laminar flame speed correlations of

alternative fuels for CFD simulation. Verhelst et al. [9] derived

a hydrogen laminar flame speed correlation for use in engine

simulation through the one-dimensional chemical kinetic

calculations. Knop et al. [10] proposed a laminar flame speed

correlation of hydrogen-air mixture according to literature

data, accounting for the influences of equivalence ratio,

temperature, pressure and residual gas mass fraction. By

implementing this correlation in the extended coherent flame

model (ECFM), they found that the modified CFD model could

accurately capture the combustion behavior in the hydrogenfueled port fuel injection and direct injection engines. Rakopoulos et al. [11] evaluated two correlations of hydrogen

laminar flame speed reported in Refs. [12] and [13] for the use

in CFD simulation. The results showed that the correlation of

Gerke et al. [13] was preferred since it could more accurately

predict the heat release during the early stage of combustion.

Bougrine et al. [14] applied GRI 3.0 mechanism to derive the

laminar flame speed data of hydrogen-methane blends under

wide range of conditions. A correlation is then developed

accordingly through optimization algorithm. However, there

are still few available correlations that can be applied in the

CFD simulation of hydrogen-enriched gasoline engines.

In this paper, a new laminar flame speed correlation of

hydrogen-gasoline blends is developed for the CFD simulation

according to the flame temperature-based mixing rule [15,16].

Extended burning conditions are considered in this correlation with the hydrogen volume fraction in the total intake gas

varying from 0% to 10%, equivalence ratio varying from 0.6 to

1.5, unburned gas temperature varying from 300 K to 2500 K,

pressure varying from 1 to 50 bar, and residual gas mass

fraction varying from 0% to 20%. The values of the new

correlation are compared with the literature data under

different burning conditions. Moreover, in order to evaluate

the new correlation for the use in CFD simulation, the new

correlation and the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17] are

respectively implemented in the ECFM to calculate the

combustion process of a hydrogen-enriched gasoline engine

at different hydrogen addition levels. The predictive accuracy

is then assessed by comparing the calculated engine

combustion parameters with the experimentally determined

data.

2.

Review of the literature data and feasible

approaches

2.1.

Literature data

available for hydrogen-gasoline blends. Through the experimental measurement, Mandilas et al. [18] observed that the

hydrogen addition could enhance the laminar flame speed of

iso-octane-air flames. Their investigation was performed at

the unburned gas temperature of 360 K and the initial pressure at 5 bar. The hydrogen addition level was fixed at

more data was provided under other burning conditions and

hydrogen addition levels. Tahtouh et al. [19] experimentally

measured the laminar flame speed of diluted hydrogen-isooctane-air flames. The burning condition was limited at the

unburned gas temperature of 300 K, the pressure of 1 bar, and

stoichiometric conditions. A correlation was developed

according to the experimental results, which could take

account for the effects of hydrogen addition level and dilution

on the laminar flame speed. However, since this correlation

was failed to cover elevated temperatures and pressures, it

cannot be applied in engine simulation. In this paper, the

correlation of Tahtouh et al. [19] is used as a reference to

assess the predictive accuracy of the laminar flame speed

correlation of hydrogen-gasoline blends at normal burning

conditions.

2.2.

Feasible approaches for estimating laminar flame

speed of hydrogen-gasoline blends

Since the combustion reaction process is highly nonlinear, the

laminar flame speed of binary fuel blends cannot be determined by linearly combining the laminar flame speed of each

individual fuel component. Aiming at efficiently estimating

the laminar flame speed of binary fuel blends with satisfying

accuracy, many researches have been dedicated to develop

predictive laminar flame speed models for binary fuel blends.

Law and coauthors [20,21] observed that the laminar flame

speed of hydrogen-hydrocarbon blends was increased almost

linearly with the increase of the hydrogen addition parameter

RH. A linear correlation was developed as follows:

SL F; RH SL F; 0 kF$RH

(1)

(F,RH) are the laminar flame speed of the pure hydrocarbon

fuel and that of the hydrogen-hydrocarbon blends at the

hydrogen addition parameter of RH, respectively. The coefficient k(F) is derived from linear fitting and varied with

hydrocarbon fuel type and equivalence ratio. However, concerning that it is difficult to determine the coefficient k(F) for

hydrogen-gasoline blends under engine-relevant burning

conditions, this linear correlation cannot be directly used in

the CFD code to provide the laminar flame speed data. Moreover, as it is found by Chen et al. [22], this linear correlation

gives accurate prediction only before RH exceeds 50% and it

cannot work for further elevated hydrogen addition levels.

Chen et al. [22] theoretically developed a squared model for

laminar flame speed of binary fuel blends:

m2 cY1;u m21 Y2;u m22 cY1;u Y2;u

(2)

In Eq. (2), mi ru,iSL,i with ru,i and SL,i being the density of the

unburned mixture and laminar flame speed of the ith fuel

component, respectively. Yi,u is the mass fraction of the ith

fuel component in the unburned mixture. The coefficient c is

a free parameter. The laminar flame speed of binary fuel

blends can be obtained as SL m/ru. The proposed model was

found to be predictive for hydrogen-methane and DMEmethane blends under normal burning conditions. However,

the squared model of Chen et al. [22] is not parameter free.

i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n e n e r g y 3 8 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 1 9 9 7 e2 0 0 6

1999

the laminar flame speed data at one selected blending ratio is

also required to determine the coefficient c. Thus, this model

also cannot be applied to estimate the laminar flame speed of

hydrogen-gasoline blends for CFD simulation.

Di Sarli et al. [17] predicted the laminar flame speed of

hydrogen-methane blends through a Le Chateliers Rule-like

formula as follows:

blends with satisfying accuracy. Thus, a laminar flame

speed correlation of hydrogen-gasoline blends is developed

according to this mixing rule. The mixing rule, the calculation

step and laminar flame speed database, and the proposed

correlation are respectively introduced in the following

subsections.

1

SL;hydrogenmethane XH2 =SL;hydrogen 1 XH2 =SL;methane

3.1.

Flame temperature-based mixing rule for laminar

flame speed

(3)

the laminar flame speeds of hydrogen-methane blends, pure

hydrogen and pure methane, respectively. The XH2 means the

hydrogen mole fraction in the total fuel. Satisfying agreement

between the estimated data and the chemical kinetic calculation results was observed except for rich mixtures at high

hydrogen addition level. Unlike the linear correlation of Law

et al. [20,21] and the squared model proposed by Chen et al. [22],

the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17] is parameter free and

consequently can be directly used to calculate the laminar

flame speed of hydrogen-gasoline blends for CFD calculation.

However, the suitability of this formula for hydrogen-gasoline

blends at engine-relevant burning conditions needs to be

further examined.

Hirasawa et al. [15] proposed a semiempirical flame

temperature-based mixing rule for the laminar flame speed.

This mixing rule accurately predicted the laminar flame

speeds of binary fuel blends of ethylene, n-butane and

toluene. Ji et al. [16] experimentally and numerically investigated the laminar flame propagation of binary fuel blends of

n-dodecane, methylcyclohexane and toluene under an

extended range of equivalence ratios. The flame temperaturebased mixing rule was also confirmed to be predictive for the

considered fuel blends. This can be attributed to the fact that,

the laminar flame speed of the above fuel blends is mostly

sensitive to the flame temperature through its influence on

the main branching reaction H O2 / OH O, while the

kinetic couplings tend to have minor effect. Furthermore,

considering that the reaction H O2 / OH O is dominating

for the laminar flame speed of hydrogen-hydrocarbon-air

flames [14], this mixing rule tends to be also capable of estimating the laminar flame speeds of hydrogen-gasoline blends

with satisfying accuracy.

Thus, in this paper, a laminar flame speed correlation of

hydrogen-gasoline blends is developed according to the flame

temperature-based mixing rule [15,16]. The predictive accuracies of the new correlation and the Le Chateliers Rule-like

formula [17] are assessed through the comparison with the

experimentally derived correlation of Tahtouh et al. [19] under

normal burning conditions. Moreover, the suitability of

the new correlation for use in CFD simulation is then evaluated in comparison with that of the Le Chateliers Rule-like

formula [17].

hydrogen-gasoline blends is obtained through the flame

temperature-based mixing rule proposed by Hirasawa [15] and

Ji [16]:

"

SL;M exp

As it is analyzed in the above section, the flame temperaturebased mixing rule [15,16] is a potential way for effectively

si $ln SL;i

#

(4)

i1

fuel blends [cm/s]. SL,i symbolizes the laminar flame speed of

the ith neat fuel component in the fuel blends [cm/s]. si is

a dimensionless number that reflects the contribution of the

ith fuel component to the adiabatic flame temperature of the

fuel blends. si is defined as:

si

Xi $Ni

$

$Tad;i

Tad;m

Nm

1

(5)

P

the binary fuel mixture 2i1 Xi 1. Nm symbolizes the total

mole numbers of the combustion products when 1 mol binary

fuel mixture is combusted in the air [mol], while Ni represents

the total mole numbers of the combustion products of 1 mol

the ith neat fuel component [mol]. Tad,m and Tad,i are the

adiabatic flame temperatures of the binary fuel mixture and

its ith fuel component [K], respectively. Nm, Tad,i and Tad,m can

be determined as follows:

Nm

2

X

Xi $Ni

(6)

i1

Tad;i Tu

Tad;m

Qi

Ni $Cp

2

X

Xi $Ni

i1

Nm

(7)

$Tad;i

(8)

is the heat release per mole of the ith fuel component [J]. Cp

symbolizes the mean molar specific heat of the combustion

products [J/(mol K)].

3.2.

3.

2

X

According to the flame-temperature-based mixing rule introduced above, a calculation program is specially developed to

calculate the laminar flame speeds of hydrogen-gasoline

blends at a wide range of burning conditions.

2000

i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n e n e r g y 3 8 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 1 9 9 7 e2 0 0 6

concentrations of the combustion reactants and products are

calculated for the hydrogen-air and gasoline-air mixtures. The

reactants species are composed of fuel (H2 or C7.76H13.10 [23]),

O2 and N2, while the species including O2, N2, H2O, CO2, CO and

H2 are treated as the main combustion products. For fuel-rich

mixtures, the water gas shift reaction is solved with the

species equilibrium constant for formation data as a function

of the adiabatic flame temperature. The parameter Ni is

deduced accordingly for different equivalence ratios and

adiabatic flame temperatures. Meanwhile, according to the

derived species concentrations in the combustion products,

the mean molar specific heat of the combustion products Cp is

calculated with the species molar specific heat data as

a function of the average of the unburned gas temperature

and the adiabatic flame temperature [24]. The heat release per

mole of fuel Qi is derived by calculating the difference between

the total enthalpies of the reactants and the products at the

unburned gas temperature. The total enthalpies of

the combustion reactants and products are determined by the

absolute enthalpy databases and the molar concentrations of

each species. Subsequently, an iterative calculation of the

adiabatic flame temperature is conducted with an initial value

of 2000 K. The convergence criterion is jTad;n Tad;n1 jh1K,

where the Tad,n means the calculated adiabatic flame

3 2

SL;0

a0

4 aT 5 4 b0

bp

c0

2

a1

b1

c1

totally contains 14,520 data points, which can cover the

burning conditions encountered in naturally aspirated SI

engines.

3.3.

CFD combustion models than the tabulated data, a new

laminar flame speed correlation for hydrogen-gasoline blends

is proposed according to the above database. The correlation

is in the following form, which is similar to that presented by

Metghalchi and Keck [27]:

SL;hydrogengasoline aH2 ; F; Tu ; p; Ydil

a

bp

Tu T

P

$

$1 2:1Ydil

SL;0 $

Pref

Tref

where the VH2 and Vair represent the volumes of hydrogen and

air in the intake charge [dm3], respectively. In the database,

the hydrogen volume fraction in the total intake gas is varied

from 0% to 10%. The equivalence ratio is varied from 0.6 to

1.5. The unburned gas temperature is varied from 300 to

(10)

blends SL,hydrogengasoline [cm/s] is treated as a multivariate

function of hydrogen volume fraction in the total intake gas aH2 ,

equivalence ratio F, unburned gas temperature Tu [K], pressure

p [bar], and residual gas mass fraction Ydil. The reference

temperature Tref and reference pressure pref are equal to 298 K

and 1 bar, respectively. The SL,0, aT and bp are functions of aH2

and F, which can be determined through Eq. (11):

3

.a8

T

.b8 5$ 1 F F2 aH2 a2H2 FaH2 F2 aH2 Fa2H2 F2 a2H2

.c8

condition and a given fuel blending ratio Xi, the dimensionless

number si is deduced by Eq. (5) with the calculated values of Ni

and Tad,i from the iteration. According to the calculated si and

SL,i, the laminar flame speeds of hydrogen-gasoline blends are

computed through Eq. (4) at different unburned gas temperatures, pressures, equivalence ratios and hydrogen volume

fractions in the total intake gas. In this program, the equilibrium constant for formation, molar specific heat and absolute

enthalpy databases for each species are derived from the

JANAF tables [25]. The laminar flame speeds of hydrogen-air

and gasoline-air mixtures are derived from the correlation

reported in Refs. [10] and [26], respectively.

A laminar flame speed database of hydrogen-gasoline

blends is then generated from the above calculation

program. In order to facilitate the CFD simulation of

hydrogen-enriched gasoline engines, the hydrogen volume

fraction in the total intake gas aH2 is selected to represent the

hydrogen addition level, which is defined as:

(9)

aH2 VH2 = VH2 Vair

(11)

coefficients are obtained through the LevenbergeMarquardt

method [28,29]. Meanwhile, since there is no available data

on the laminar flame speeds of diluted hydrogen-gasolineair mixtures at elevated temperatures and pressures, the

part of (1e2.1Ydil), which has been widely used in the

previous correlations [23], is retained in the new correlation

to represent the influence of the residual gas. This correlation is suitable for extended burning conditions with

the hydrogen volume fraction in the total intake gas varying

from 0% to 10%, equivalence ratio varying from 0.6 to

1.5, unburned gas temperature varying from 300 K to 2500 K,

pressure varying from 1 to 50 bar, and residual gas

mass fraction varying from 0% to 20%, which could cover

the burning conditions encountered in traditional SI

engines.

Fig. 1 compares the laminar flame speeds predicted by

the correlation with those in the database for all the fitted

data points (14,520 in total). The relative error is less than

5% for all the data points, and more than 98.46% data

points are within the error limit of 2%. The coefficient of

determination R2 is shown to be 0.99984. A satisfying

agreement is observed, suggesting that the influences of aH2 ,

F, Tu and p on the laminar flame speed calculated from the

self-developed program are well reproduced in the new

correlation.

2001

Parameter

a0

a1

a2

a3

a4

a5

a6

a7

a8

Value

49.8508

133.9972

55.4971

157.4988

1516.7802

545.4127

241.5668

646.0548

10.4278

Parameter

b0

b1

b2

b3

b4

b5

b6

b7

b8

(F

(F

(F

(F

(F

(F

(F

(F

(F

4.

4.1.

1:0)

1:0)

1:0)

1:0)

1:0)

1:0)

1:0)

1:0)

1:0)

Value

2.9486

0.7494

0.0264

20.1404

13.3876

33.0797

15.6721

42.9936

28.0143

and the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17] are firstly

compared with the experimental data of Tahtouh et al. [19]

under different hydrogen volume fractions and residual gas

mass fractions at normal burning condition. Subsequently,

comparisons are conducted to analyze the difference of the

new correlation and the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17]

under engine-relevant conditions.

Fig. 2 illustrates the effects of hydrogen volume fraction

and residual gas mass fraction on the laminar flame speed

calculated from various correlations under normal burning

condition (Tu 300 K, p 1 bar, F 1.0). It can be found in

Fig. 2a that in comparison with the experimentally derived

correlation of Tahtouh et al. [19], the Le Chateliers Rule-like

formula [17] significantly overestimates the laminar flame

speed with hydrogen addition. Comparatively, the new

correlation tends to be maintained at satisfying accuracy

under high hydrogen addition levels. The relevant error of the

new correlation is less than 10% before the hydrogen volume

fraction exceeds 8%, while that of the Le Chateliers Rule-like

formula [17] researches 10% at the hydrogen volume fraction

by the new correlation with those in the database for all

the fitted data points.

Parameter

b0

b1

b2

b3

b4

b5

b6

b7

b8

(F > 1:0)

(F > 1:0)

(F > 1:0)

(F > 1:0)

(F > 1:0)

(F > 1:0)

(F > 1:0)

(F > 1:0)

(F > 1:0)

Value

Parameter

Value

2.9729

0.8017

0.0018

6.5013

12.5686

4.5552

0.7006

16.3882

5.5966

c0

c1

c2

c3

c4

c5

c6

c7

c8

0.3781

0.2096

0.0048

3.3960

1.7898

3.9679

1.3055

1.3144

0.1638

the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17] at the hydrogen

volume fraction of 10% are 13.7% and 167.3%, respectively.

Meanwhile, in Fig. 2b, the new correlation is also observed in

better agreement with the experimental data of Tahtouh et al.

[19] under different residual gas mass fractions, compared

with the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17]. When the

residual gas mass fraction is 5%, the errors of the new

laminar flame speed calculated from various correlations

under normal burning condition, b: Effect of residual gas

mass fraction on the laminar flame speed calculated from

various correlations under normal burning condition.

2002

laminar flame speed calculated from various correlations

under engine-relevant condition, b: Effect of pressure on

the laminar flame speed calculated from various

correlations under engine-relevant condition.

Engine type

Number of valves

Bore

Stroke

Compression ratio

Displacement

Connecting rod

length

Intake valve

opening

Intake valve

closure

Exhaust valve

opening

Exhaust valve

closure

naturally aspirated, port fuel injection

4 per cylinder

77.4 mm

85.0 mm

10.0:1

1.599 L

141 mm

45 CA BTDC

135 CA BTDC

135 CA ATDC

45 CA ATDC

calculated MFB traces using different laminar flame speed

correlations at the hydrogen volume fraction of 0%, b:

Comparison of the experimental determined and

calculated MFB traces using different laminar flame speed

correlations at the hydrogen volume fraction of 3%, c:

Comparison of the experimental determined and

calculated MFB traces using different laminar flame speed

correlations at the hydrogen volume fraction of 6%.

2003

comparison with the experimental data of Tahtouh et al. [19]

are 2.3 cm/s and 28.6 cm/s at the hydrogen volume fraction

of 3%, respectively, while those at the hydrogen volume

fraction of 10% are 6.6 cm/s and 70.4 cm/s, respectively.

Moreover, at the hydrogen volume fraction of 10%, when the

residual gas mass fraction is elevated from 0% to 20%, the

laminar flame speeds calculated from the correlation of Tahtouh et al. [19] and the new correlation are decreased by 21.5%

and 22.1%, respectively. This means that before the residual

gas mass fraction exceeds 20%, the effect of dilution on

reducing the laminar flame speed of hydrogen-gasoline

blends can be well reproduced in the new correlation.

Therefore, it can be concluded from Fig. 2 that, the new

correlation is able to reproduce the effects of hydrogen addition level and dilution on the laminar flame speed of

hydrogen-gasoline blends with satisfying accuracy at the

normal burning conditions. However, the values calculated

from the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17] are significantly

overestimated, especially at high hydrogen addition levels.

Fig. 3 compares the laminar flame speed calculated from

the new correlation and the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula

[17] under engine-relevant burning conditions. The selected

temperatures and pressures are in the ranges which are

similar to those encountered in an SI engine. The residual gas

mass fraction of 5% is chosen since it is a representative value

for the hydrogen-enriched gasoline engine without external

EGR. As it is seen in Fig. 3, compared with the new correlation,

the laminar flame speed is significantly overestimated by the

Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17] under engine-relevant

burning conditions. The difference is more pronounced at

high hydrogen addition levels than at low hydrogen addition

levels. In Fig. 3a, when the unburned gas temperature is

elevated from 1500 to 2000 K, the laminar flame speed at

hydrogen volume fraction of 3% estimated from the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17] rises from 1017.1 cm/s to

1702.2 cm/s, whereas those calculated from the new correlation increases from 640.5 cm/s to 1168.4 cm/s. Moreover, more

significant difference is observed at the hydrogen volume

fraction of 10%. At the unburned gas temperature of 2000 K,

the laminar flame speed estimated from the Le Chateliers

Rule-like formula [17] is 740.5 cm/s higher than that calculated

from the new correlation. Meanwhile, it can be found in Fig. 3b

also can be observed under different pressures. Under the

pressure of 20 bar, the laminar flame speeds calculated from

the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17] is 389.8 and 691.1 cm/s

higher than those estimated by the new correlation at the

hydrogen volume fractions of 3% and 10%, respectively. Thus,

at the engine-relevant burning conditions considered in Fig. 3,

the values calculated from the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula

[17] are significantly higher than those estimated from the

new correlation, especially at high hydrogen addition levels.

4.2.

CFD results

the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17] for use in CFD simulation, the two correlations are respectively implemented in

the ECFM to calculate the combustion process of a hydrogenenriched gasoline engine at different hydrogen addition

levels. In this section, the CFD model and calculation results in

comparison with experimental data are introduced.

4.2.1.

CFD model

The calculations are performed using the CFD code AVL FIRE.

The k-z-f model [30] is applied to take account of the turbulence effect. The combustion is described by the ECFM [31,32].

The spherical model [31] is used to capture the flame kernel

formation. The flame thickness is determined through the

Blint correlation [33]. Meanwhile, the near-wall treatment

follows the description proposed by Popovac et al. [34].

The modeled engine is a 1.6L four-cylinder SI engine

manufactured by Beijing Hyundai Motors. The detailed engine

specifications are listed in Table 2. The original engine is

modified so that the hydrogen and gasoline can be simultaneously injected in the intake manifolds and mixed with air at

the end of the intake stroke. The calculations are conducted at

an engine speed of 1400 rpm and a MAP of 61.5 kPa, which

could represent one of the typical city driving conditions. The

global equivalence ratio of hydrogen-gasoline-air mixtures is

fixed at 0.8 and the spark timing is kept at 22 CA ATDC for all

the test cases. Three hydrogen volume fractions in the total

intake gas of 0%, 3% and 6% are selected to explore the

combustion process in the hydrogen-enriched gasoline

engine. The corresponding experimental results have been

aH2 0% (experiment)

aH2 0% (CFD, Le Chateliers Rule-like

formula [17])

aH2 0% (CFD, new correlation)

aH2 3% (experiment)

aH2 3% (CFD, Le Chateliers Rule-like

formula [17])

aH2 3% (CFD, new correlation)

aH2 6% (experiment)

aH2 6% (CFD, Le Chateliers Rule-like

formula [17])

aH2 6% (CFD, new correlation)

16.96

16.61

23.1

21.7

e

2.06

27.4

28.0

e

2.19

38.8

37.8

e

2.58

23.2

22.2

16.87

25.20

36.09

21.8

17.2

6.5

0.53

e

43.21

27.7

23.0

15.5

1.09

e

32.61

36.7

21.6

12.2

5.41

e

43.52

21.7

10.6

0.2

25.62

31.58

37.94

17.1

12.5

5.5

1.67

e

20.14

22.6

18.2

14.0

1.74

e

23.08

21.0

16.7

11.8

2.78

e

29.34

10.9

5.6

2.1

31.56

12.2

0.06

19.2

5.49

17.0

1.80

5.6

2004

used in the CFD calculation are specified according to the

experimental measurements as well as the reliable estimations. The calculations begin at the time of intake valve

closure (IVC) and end at the time of exhaust valve opening

(EVO). The time step is kept at 0.5 CA before the spark

discharge at 22 CA ATDC and then further decreased to

0.1 CA afterwards to track the combustion period.

During the calculation, the new correlation and the Le

Chateliers Rule-like formula [17] are respectively implemented in the CFD code to calculate the laminar flame speed

data for each computational cell according to the local

burning condition and hydrogen addition level. The predictive

accuracy is examined without case-specific parameter tuning.

For all the test cases, the stretch factor and consumption

factor in the ECFM are kept at 1.2 and 1.0, respectively. The

CFD code AVL FIRE is executed in parallel on an 8-core server.

The calculation consumes about 54 h for each test case.

4.2.2.

correlation and the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17] are

respectively compared with the experimental data under

various hydrogen addition levels. The uncertainties of all the

equipments in the experimental system have been listed in

Ref. [6] in detail.

Fig. 4 shows the experimentally determined and calculated

mass fraction burned (MFB) traces using different laminar

flame speed correlations under the hydrogen volume fractions of 0%, 3% and 6%. It can be observed that the calculated

MFB traces using the new correlation are approximately

constant with the experimental results under all hydrogen

addition levels, while those calculated using the Le Chateliers

Rule-like formula [17] is significantly advanced and shortened

at hydrogen volume fractions of 3% and 6%. The relevant error

on the flame propagation period (CA10-90) is 5.41%, 2.78% and

1.80% at hydrogen volume fractions of 0%, 3% and 6% when

the new correlation is used in CFD calculation. However, with

the implementation of the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula

[17], the CFD results of flame propagation period (CA10-90) are

2.58%, 43.52%, and 29.34% shorter than the experimental data

(as it is seen in Table 3). This can be explained by the fact that,

in ECFM, the laminar flame speed not only directly influences

the reaction rate, but also affects the flame surface production

through its influence on the flame thickness. Since the

laminar flame speed of hydrogen-gasoline blends is overestimated by the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17] at

engine-relevant burning conditions (as it is demonstrated in

Fig. 3), the degree of flame wrinkling and local combustion

reaction rate are both enhanced. This leads to the advanced

and shortened heat release when the Le Chateliers Rule-like

formula [17] is used in CFD calculation.

Fig. 5 compares the measured and calculated mean incylinder pressure traces using different laminar flame speed

correlations at the hydrogen volume fractions of 0%, 3% and

6%. It is found that the in-cylinder pressure trace calculated

using the new correlation is in good agreement with the

experimental results. However, with the implementation of

the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17], the peak pressure

(Pmax) is overestimated and the relevant crank angle for the

mean in-cylinder pressure traces using different laminar

flame speed correlations at the hydrogen volume fraction

of 0%, b: Comparison of the measured and calculated mean

in-cylinder pressure traces using different laminar flame

speed correlations at the hydrogen volume fraction of 3%,

c: Comparison of the measured and calculated mean incylinder pressure traces using different laminar flame

speed correlations at the hydrogen volume fraction of 6%.

peak pressure (qPmax) is advanced compared with the experimental data at the hydrogen volume fractions of 3% and 6%.

When the CFD calculation is conducted using the new correlation, the relevant error on the peak pressure (pmax) is 0.53%,

1.67% and 0.06% at the hydrogen volume fractions of 0%, 3%

and 6%. The error on the relevant crank angle for the peak

pressure at the hydrogen volume fractions of 3% and 6% is

only 0.1 and 0.3 CA, respectively. Comparatively, with the

implementation of the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17],

the pmax is 2.06%, 43.21% and 20.14% at the hydrogen volume

fractions of 0%, 3% and 6%. Moreover, the error on the relevant

crank angle for the peak pressure is 10.7 and 7.0 CA at the

hydrogen volume fractions of 3% and 6%, respectively. This is

because the overestimated laminar flame speed of the Le

Chateliers Rule-like formula [17] leads to the advanced and

shortened heat release of the CFD calculation, which results in

the disagreement with the experimental results after the

addition of hydrogen.

The detailed comparison data is listed in Table 3, including

the peak in-cyinder pressure (Pmax), relevant crank angle for

the peak pressure (qPmax), relevant error on the peak pressure

(pmax), flame development period (CA0-10), relevant error on

the flame development period (CA0-10), flame propagation

period (CA10-90), relevant error on the flame propagation

period (CA10-90), and relevant crank angle for 50% mass fraction burned (CA50). The calculated results at hydrogen volume

fraction of 0% are in good agreement with the experimental

data for both correlations. For the high hydrogen addition

levels, the CFD results using the new correlation are much

closer to the experimental data than those calculated using

the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17]. This indicates that

the new correlation is more suitable for the CFD calculation on

the combustion process in hydrogen-enriched gasoline

engines.

5.

Conclusions

correlation for use in CFD simulation of hydrogen-enriched

gasoline engines. The influences of hydrogen volume fractions, equivalence ratios, unburned gas temperatures, pressures and residual gas mass fractions on the laminar flame

speed of hydrogen-gasoline blends are simultaneously

considered in this correlation. The estimated values of the

new correlation are found to be in satisfying agreement with

the experimental data reported in Ref. [19] under normal

burning conditions. Moreover, in order to evaluate the suitability of the new correlation for use in CFD simulation, the

new correlation and the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17]

are respectively implemented in ECFM to calculate the

combustion process of a hydrogen-enriched gasoline engine

at different hydrogen addition levels. With the implementation of the new correlation, satisfying agreement between the

experimental and calculated results is observed at all the

examined hydrogen addition levels. Comparatively, the CFD

model using the Le Chateliers Rule-like formula [17] is failed

to capture the combustion characteristics after the addition of

hydrogen. Therefore, the new correlation is preferred to be

applied in the CFD simulation.

2005

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Program on Key Basic

Research Project (973 Program) (Grant No.2013CB228403), Key

Program of Sci & Tech Project of Beijing Municipal Commission of Education (Grant No.KZ201210005002), Ph.D. Programs

Foundation of Ministry of Education of China (Grant

No.20111103110010) and Beijing Municipal Natural Science

Foundation (Grant No. 3122006). The authors would also like

to express their gratitude towards the technical support

received from Dr. P. Priesching and Mr. M. Suffa in AVL List

GmbH, Graz, Austria.

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