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1260 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO.

3, MARCH 2009

Three-Dimensional Modeling and Simulation of


Wideband MIMO Mobile-to-Mobile Channels
Alenka G. Zajić, Member, IEEE, and Gordon L. Stüber, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract—A three-dimensional (3-D) geometrical propagation first to propose a two-dimensional (2-D) reference model for
model for wideband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) single-input single-output (SISO) M-to-M Rayleigh fading
mobile-to-mobile (M-to-M) communications is proposed. Based channels. Methods for simulating SISO M-to-M channels have
on the geometrical model, a 3-D parametric reference model
for wideband MIMO M-to-M multipath fading channels is been proposed in [3]-[5]. Channel sounding measurements for
developed. From the reference model, the corresponding space- narrowband and wideband SISO M-to-M channels have been
time-frequency correlation function is derived for a 3-D non- reported in [6]-[8]. The 2-D reference and simulation models
isotropic scattering environment. It is shown that the time and for narrowband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) M-
frequency dispersion of a wide sense stationary uncorrelated to-M channels have been proposed in [9]-[12]. All these
scattering channel cannot be treated independently, contrary
to common practice. From the space-time-frequency correlation previously reported 2-D models assume that the field incident
function, the space-Doppler power spectral density and the on the Tx or the Rx antenna is composed of a number of
power space-delay spectrum are derived and compared with waves travelling only in the horizontal plane. This assumption
measured data. Finally, a new sum-of-sinusoids based simulation is accurate only for certain environments, e.g., rural areas. This
model for wideband MIMO M-to-M Ricean fading channels is assumption does not seem appropriate for an urban environ-
proposed. The statistics of the simulation model are verified by
simulation. The results show that the simulation model is a good ment where the Tx and Rx antenna arrays are often located
approximation of the reference model. in close proximity to and lower than surrounding buildings
and other objects. To overcome these shortcomings, we have
Index Terms—Mobile-to-mobile channels, wideband channels,
fading channel simulator, Ricean fading, sum-of-sinusoids. recently proposed a three-dimensional (3-D) reference model
for narrowband MIMO M-to-M multipath fading channels
[14]. However, to completely characterize MIMO M-to-M
I. I NTRODUCTION multipath fading channels, it is necessary to develop 3-D

M OBILE ad-hoc wireless networks, intelligent trans-


portation systems, and relay-based cellular networks all
use mobile-to-mobile (M-to-M) communication channels. M-
models for wideband MIMO M-to-M channels.
This paper introduces new 3-D reference and simulation
models for wideband MIMO M-to-M channels and shows that
to-M communication systems are equipped with low elevation these models can match the measured data in a variety of urban
antennas and have both the transmitter Tx and the receiver environments, which is a lacking feature of previously reported
Rx in motion. To successfully design M-to-M systems, it 2-D and 3-D M-to-M models. Here, we consider MIMO
is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the outdoor communication links between vehicles travelling on urban
multipath fading channel and its statistical properties. Early surface street (USS) and Interstate highway (IH) road surfaces.
studies of single-input single-output (SISO) M-to-M Rayleigh The previously reported 2-D and 3-D models do not always
fading channels have been reported by Akki and Haber in match the SISO measurements for vehicles travelling in a
[1] and [2]. They showed that the received envelope of M-to- convoy fashion [6]-[8], especially for IH environments. One
M channels is Rayleigh faded under non-line-of-sight (NLoS) possible reason for this mismatch is the presence of single-
conditions, but the statistical properties differ from conven- bounced rays, which are ignored in the previously proposed
tional fixed-to-mobile cellular radio channels. They were the models (i.e., only double-bounced rays are considered). Note
that the single-bounced rays, if present, bear more energy than
Manuscript received April 9, 2007; revised June 23, 2008; accepted
December 10, 2008. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paper
the double-bounced rays, and cannot be ignored. In this paper,
and approving it for publication was K. Sowerby. we propose a 3-D mathematical reference model for wideband
This work was prepared through collaborative participation in the Collab- MIMO M-to-M channels that accounts for line-of-sight (LoS),
orative Technology Alliance for Communications & Networks sponsored by
the U.S. Army Research Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DAAD19-
single-bounced at the transmit side (SBT), single-bounced at
01-2-0011. The U.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute the receive side (SBR), and double-bounced (DB) rays.
reprints for Government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation To describe our 3-D reference model, we first introduce a 3-
thereon. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of
the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, D geometrical model for wideband MIMO M-to-M channels,
either expressed or implied, of the Army Research Laboratory or the U. S. called the concentric-cylinders model. This model is extension
Government. of the two-cylinder model for narrowband M-to-M channels
A. G. Zajić was with the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA. She is now with proposed in [14]. Then, we propose a parametric reference
AlZaComm, Atlanta GA 30328. model that employs the concentric-cylinders geometry and
Gordon L. Stüber is with the School of Electrical and Computer Engi- constructs the input delay-spread function as a superposition
neering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA (e-mail:
stuber@ece.gatech.edu). of LoS, SBT, SBR, and DB rays. The parametric nature of the
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TWC.2009.070379 model makes it adaptable to a variety of propagation environ-
1536-1276/09$25.00 
c 2009 IEEE

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ZAJIĆ and STÜBER: THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING AND SIMULATION OF WIDEBAND MIMO MOBILE-TO-MOBILE CHANNELS 1261

z z′
ments, i.e., USS and IH environments. From the new reference
model, we derive the corresponding space-time-frequency cor-
Rr 2
relation function (STF-CF) for a 3-D non-isotropic scattering Rt 2
Rt(l ) Rr(k )
environment and show that the time and frequency dispersion Rt1 Rr1
of a wide sense stationary uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS) ST(m,l )
ε m,l ,n,k
ε p, m,l
channel cannot be treated independently. Furthermore, we ε p , n, k S R(n, k )
AT( p ) ε p, q ε m,l ,q
derive the space-Doppler power spectral density (sD-psd) and ε ~p ,m,l ε n ,k ,q
the power space-delay spectrum (psds) for the same scattering ε ~p ,n, k AR(q ) ε n ,k ,q~
dT
environment. Finally, we compare the SISO sD-psd and psds dR
ε m,l ,q~ (q~ )
with those obtained from SISO measurements in [6]-[8] to ~
AT( p )
AR
illustrate the importance of combining the LoS, SBT, SBR
and DB rays.
To fully validate our 3-D reference model, we need to x
compare the first- and second-order statistics of the proposed D
models with those obtained from the MIMO measurements.
Since the only measurements available in the open literature y
were for the SISO systems, we have conducted a MIMO M-
Fig. 1. The concentric-cylinders model with LoS , SBT, SBR, and DB rays
to-M channel-sounding experimental campaign along surface for a MIMO M-to-M channel with Lt = Lr = 2 antenna elements.
streets and on the Interstate highways in the Midtown Atlanta
metropolitan area. Details of the experimental equipment and
methodology, the method to process the data, the method to
extract model parameters from the measured data, and the and equipped with Lt transmit and Lr receive low elevated
validation of the proposed 3-D reference model in terms of omnidirectional antenna elements. The radio propagation in
the cumulative distribution functions (CDF), STF-CF, sD-psd, outdoor metropolitan environments is characterized by 3-D
psds, and level crossing rates (LCR) are presented in [15]. WSSUS with either LoS or NLoS conditions between the
Second-order statistics, such as LCR and average fade duration Tx and the Rx . The MIMO channel can be described by an
are non-trivial and are the subject of our work in [16]. In Lr × Lt matrix H(t, τ ) = [hij (t, τ )]Lr ×Lt of the input delay-
contrast, this paper focuses on the detailed derivations of spread functions.
the STF-CF, sD-psd and psds, and shows that the statistical Fig. 1 shows the concentric-cylinders model with LoS,
correlation functions are largely influenced by the relative SBT, SBR, and DB rays for a MIMO M-to-M channel with
power mixture of DB, SBT, SBR, and LoS ray components. Lt = Lr = 2 antenna elements. Vertical concentric cylinders
This paper goes further to present a sum-of-sinusoids based are chosen to model the scattering surfaces and diffracting
(SoS) simulation model. Since our reference model assumes edges because most of the structures in outdoor metropolitan
an infinite number of scatterers at the Tx and the Rx , environments (e.g., buildings, highway dividers, etc.) have
which prevents practical implementation, we propose a SoS straight vertical surfaces. The elementary 2×2 antenna config-
based simulation model for a 3-D non-isotropic scattering uration in Fig. 1 will be used later to construct uniform linear
environment that consists of a finite number of scatterers antenna arrays with an arbitrary number of omnidirectional
at the Tx and the Rx . We employ a concentric-cylinders antenna elements. The concentric-cylinders model defines four
model that combines LoS, SBT, SBR, and DB rays and where vertical cylinders, two around the Tx and another two around
the in-phase (I) and the quadrature (Q) components of the the Rx , as shown in Fig. 1. Around the transmitter, M fixed
time-variant transfer function are orthogonal functions. The omnidirectional scatterers occupy the volume between cylin-
statistical properties of our simulation model are verified by ders of radii Rt1 and Rt2 . It is assumed that the M scatterers
(l)
comparison with the corresponding statistical properties of the lie on L cylindric surfaces of radii Rt1 ≤ Rt ≤ Rt2 , where
reference model. The results show that the simulation model 1 ≤ l ≤ L. The lth cylindric surface contains M (l) fixed
is a good approximation of the reference model. omnidirectional scatterers, and the (m, l)th transmit scatterer
(m,l)
The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. Sec- is denoted by ST , where 1 ≤ m ≤ M (l) . Similarly,
tion II introduces the geometrical concentric-cylinders model around the receiver, N fixed omnidirectional scatterers occupy
and presents a 3-D reference model for wideband MIMO M- a volume between cylinders of radii Rr1 and Rr2 . It is
to-M channels. Section III derives the STF-CF, the sD-psd, and assumed that the N scatterers lie on F cylindric surfaces of
(k)
the psds for a 3-D non-isotropic scattering environment. Sec- radii Rr1 ≤ Rr ≤ Rr2 , where 1 ≤ k ≤ F . The kth cylindric
tion IV details the SoS simulation model. Finally, Section V surface contains N (k) fixed omnidirectional scatterers, and
(n,k)
provides some concluding remarks. the (n, k)th receive scatterer is denoted by SR , where
(k)
1 ≤ n ≤ N . The distance between the centers of the Tx
and Rx cylinders is D. It is assumed that the radii Rt2 and Rr2
II. A R EFERENCE M ODEL FOR W IDEBAND MIMO
are sufficiently smaller than the distance D (local scattering
M- TO -M C HANNELS
condition). Furthermore, it is assumed that the distance D
This paper considers a wideband MIMO communication is smaller than 4Rt1 Rr1 Lr /(λ(Lt − 1)(Lr − 1)) so that the
link between vehicles travelling on USS and IH road surfaces. channel does not experience keyhole behavior [17], where λ
It is assumed that both the Tx and the Rx are in motion denotes the carrier wavelength. The spacing between antenna

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1262 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

z z′ TABLE I
D EFINITION OF THE PARAMETERS USED IN THE CONCENTRIC - CYLINDERS
GEOMETRICAL MODEL .
Rt(l ) Rr(k )
ST(m,l ) ε m,l ,n,k The distance between the centers of the Tx and Rx cylinders.
ε p, m,l D
S R(n, k )
AT( p ) Rt(l ) , Rr(k ) The radius of the l th Tx and k th Rx cylinder, respectively.
ψT βT( m,l ) AR(q ) ε n , k , q β ( n, k ) dT , d R The spacing between two adjacent antenna elements at the Tx and
R
βT( n,k ) Rx, respectively.
OT π − β R( m,l )ψ R θT , θ R The orientation of the Tx and Rx antenna array in the x-y plane
~
AT( p ) OR (relative to the x-axis), respectively.
hT (q~ ) ψT , ψ R The elevation of the Tx’s and Rx’s antenna array relative to the x-
AR y plane, respectively.
vT vR hR
S R(n,k )' vT , v R The velocities of the Tx and Rx, respectively.
ST(m,l )'
γ T (m,l ) ( n ,k ) γT , γ R The moving directions of the Tx and Rx, in the x-y plane (relative
αT γ R αR to the x-axis), respectively.
OT ' π − θT
LoS
αTp
LoS ( m, l )
αT(n ,k ) π − α Rq π − α R
OR ' π − θR x hT , hR ( ) ( )
The distances d OT , OT' and d OR , O R' , respectively.
Rt1 , Rt 2 , Rr1 , Rr 2 The min and max radii of the cylinders around the Tx and Rx,
D respectively.
α T( m, l ) , α T( n, k ) The azimuth angles of departure (AAoD) of the waves that
y impinge on the scatterers S T(m, l ) and S R(n, k ) , respectively.
α R( m, l ) , α R( n, k ) The azimuth angles of arrival (AAoA) of the waves scattered from
Fig. 2. The lth and kth cylinders from Fig. 1 with the detailed geometry of S T(m, l ) and S R(n, k ) , respectively.
the LoS , SBT, SBR, and DB rays. The elevation angles of departure (EAoD) of the waves that
β T( m, l ) , β T( n, k )
impinge on the scatterers S T(m, l ) and S R(n, k ) , respectively.
β R( m, l ) , β R( n, k ) The elevation angles of arrival (EAoA) of the waves scattered
elements at the Tx and the Rx is denoted by dT and dR , from S T(m, l ) and S R(n, k ) , respectively.
LoS LoS The AAoA and the AAoD of the LoS paths, respectively.
respectively. It is assumed that dT and dR are much smaller α Rq , α Tp
than the radii Rt1 and Rr1 . The symbols p,m,l , m,l,q , p,n,k , ε p , m , l , ε m, l , q , ( ) ( ) ( )
The distances d AT( p) , ST(m, l ) , d ST( m, l ) , AR( q ) , d AT( p) , S R(n, k ) ,
(p) (m,l)
n,k,q , m,l,n,k , and p,q denote distances AT –ST , ST –
(m,l) ε p , n, k , ε n , k , q ,
( ) d (S , A ),
d ST( m) , S R( n) , ( n, k )
R
(q)
R ( )
d ST(m, l ) , S R(n, k ) , and
d (A ), respectively.
(q) (p) (n,k) (n,k) (q) (m,l) (n,k) (p) (q) ε m, l , n, k and ε pq
AR , AT –SR , SR –AR , ST –SR , and AT –AR ( p ) ( q)
T , AR
respectively, as shown in Fig. 1. For ease of reference, Fig. 2
shows only one of the L cylindric surfaces around the Tx
and one of F cylindric surfaces around the Rx and details the can be written as a superposition of the LoS, SBT, SBR, and
geometry of the LoS , SBT, SBR, and DB rays. Angles θT DB rays, viz.
and θR in Fig. 2 describe the orientation of the Tx and Rx
antenna array in the x–y plane, respectively, relative to the hpq (t, τ ) = hSBT
pq (t, τ )+hpq
SBR
(t, τ )+hDB
pq (t, τ )+hpq (t, τ ).
LoS

x-axis. Similarly, angles ψT and ψR describe the elevation of (1)


the Tx ’s antenna array and the Rx ’s antenna array relative to
the x–y plane, respectively. The Tx and Rx are moving with The single-bounced components of the input delay-spread
speeds vT and vR in directions described by angles γT and function are, respectively,
γR in the x–y plane (relative to the x-axis), respectively. The
(m,l) (n,k)  (l)
symbols αT and αT are the azimuth angles of departures 1 
L M
ηT
(m,l) pq (t, τ )
hSBT = lim √ ξm,l gm,l (t)
(AAoD) of the waves that impinge on the scatterers ST K + 1 M→∞ M
(n,k) (m,l) (n,k)   l=1 m=1
and SR , respectively, whereas αR and αR are the   
(m,l) (m,l) (m,l) (m,l)
azimuth angles of arrivals (AAoA) of the waves scattered from × δ(τ − τm,l ) Gp αT , βT Gq αR , βR ,(2)
(m,l) (n,k) (m,l)
ST and SR , respectively. Similarly, the symbols βT
(n,k)
and βR denote the elevation angle of departure (EAoD) and
the elevation angle of arrival (EAoA), respectively. Finally, the  (k)
1 
F N
ηR
symbols αLoS Rq , αT p denote the AAoDs and AAoAs of the
LoS
pq (t, τ )
hSBR = lim √ ξn,k gn,k (t)
K + 1 N →∞ N
LoS paths. For ease of reference, the parameters defined in   k=1 n=1
Figs. 1 and 2 are summarized in Table I.   
(n,k) (n,k) (n,k) (n,k)
× δ(τ − τn,k ) Gp αT , βT Gq αR , βR ,(3)
Observe from the 3-D geometrical model in Fig. 1 that some
waves from the Tx antenna elements may traverse directly
to the Rx antenna elements (LoS rays) , while others are where Gp (·, ·) and Gq (·, ·) denote the antenna patterns of the
single-bounced at the Tx (i.e., the waves from the Tx antenna pth transmit and qth receive antenna element, respectively.
elements scatter from the scatterers located around the Tx Furthermore, ξm,l , ξn,k , denote the amplitudes and τm,l , and
before arriving at the Rx antenna elements), single-bounced τn,k denote the time delays of the multipath components.
at the Rx (i.e., the waves from the Tx antenna elements scatter Finally, functions gm,l (t) and gn,k (t) are defined as
from the scatterers located around the Rx before arriving at 2π
gm,l (t) = e−j λ (p,m,l +m,l,q )+jφm,l (4)
the Rx antenna elements), and/or double-bounced (i.e., the 
(m,l) (m,l) (m,l) (m,l)

j2πt fT max cos(αT −γT ) cos βT +fRmax cos(αR −γR ) cos βR
waves from the Tx antenna elements impinge on the scatterers e ,
located around the Tx and scatter from the scatterers located −j 2π
λ (p,n,k +n,k,q )+jφn,k
gn,k (t) = e (5)
around the Rx before arriving at the Rx antenna elements). 
(n,k) (n,k) (n,k) (n,k)

(p) (q) j2πt fT max cos(αT −γT ) cos βT +fRmax cos(αR −γR ) cos βR
Hence, the input delay-spread function of the link AT - AR e ,

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ZAJIĆ and STÜBER: THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING AND SIMULATION OF WIDEBAND MIMO MOBILE-TO-MOBILE CHANNELS 1263

where fT max = vT /λ and fRmax = vR /λ are the maximum The parameters ηT , ηR , and ηT R in (2), (3), and (10), respec-
Doppler frequencies associated with the Tx and Rx , respec- tively, specify how much the single- and double-bounced rays
tively. The amplitudes of the multipath components, ξm,l and contribute in the total power Ppq , i.e., these parameters satisfy
ξn,k , are defined as ηT + ηR + ηT R = 1. It is assumed that the angles of departure
 (m,l) (n,k) (m,l) (n,k)
  (αT , αT , βT , and βT ) and the angles of arrival
Ppq λ  
 −γ/2
(n,k) (m,l) (n,k) (m,l)
ξm,l = d OT , S (m,l) + d S (m,l) , OR (αR , αR , βR , and βR ) are random variables.

(l) (k)
(l) Furthermore, it is assumed that the radii Rt and Rr are
γ Rt independent random variables. Finally, it is assumed that the
≈ Ωpq 1 − , (6)
2 D phases φm,l , φn,k , and φm,l,n,k are uniform random variables
on the interval [−π, π) that are independent from the angles of
  
Ppq λ  
 −γ/2
departure, the angles of arrival, and the radii of the cylinders.
ξn,k = d OT , S (n,k) + d S (n,k) , OR Using the assumptions introduced above and the Central

Limit Theorem, we can conclude that hSBT pq (t, τ ), hpq (t, τ ),
SBR
(k)
γ Rr
≈ Ωpq 1 − , (7) and hpq (t, τ ) are independent zero-mean complex Gaussian
DB
2 D random processes. Furthermore, note that double-bounced rays
(m,l) (m,l)
respectively, where Ppq is the power transmitted through have the angles of departure (αT and βT ) independent
(p) (q) (n,k) (n,k)
the subchannel AT –AR , K is the Rice factor (ratio of from the angles of arrival (αR and βR ) [17]. On the other
(m,l)
LoS to scatter received power), γ is the path loss exponent, hand, single-bounced rays have angles of arrival (αR and
(m,l) (m,l)
d(·, ·) 
denotes distance between two points, and Ωpq = βR ) that are dependent on the angles of departure (αT
D−γ/2 Ppq λ/4π. Finally, the time delays τm,l and τn,k are (m,l)
and βT ) and angles of departure (αT
(n,k) (n,k)
and βT ) that
the travel times of the waves scattered from the scatterers are dependent on the angles of arrival (αR
(n,k)
and βR ).
(n,k)
(m,l) (n,k)
ST and SR , i.e., Appendix
(m,l) (l)
A shows that αR  ≈ π − ΔT sin αT , βR
(m,l) (m,l)


(l) (m,l) (l) (m,l) (n,k) (k) (n,k)
D + Rt (1 − cos αT ) π − ΔT βT + ΔH /D , αT ≈ ΔR sin αR , and
τm,l = (m,l)
, (8) (n,k) (k) (n,k) (l) (l)
c0 cos βT βT ≈ ΔR βR − ΔH /D, where ΔT = Rt /D,
(k) (k)
D+
(k) (n,k)
Rr (1 + cos αR ) ΔR = Rr /D, and ΔH = hT − hR .
τn,k = (n,k)
, (9) The LoS component of the input delay-spread function is
c0 cos βR 
K
where c0 is the speed of light. The double-bounced component hpq (t, τ ) =
LoS
ξLoS gLoS (t)δ(τ − τLoS )
K +1
of the input delay-spread function is     
 (l) (k) × Gp αLoS LoS G
T p , βT p
LoS
q αRq , βRq
LoS ,(14)
ηT R 1  F,N
L,M 
hpq (t, τ ) = lim √ gm,l,n,k (t)(10)
K + 1 M,N →∞ M N where the LoS amplitude is ξLoS ≈ Ωpq , g LoS (t) =
l,m=1 k,n=1
LoS
ej2πtfT max cos(αT p −γT ) ej2πtfRmax cos(αLoS 2π
Rq −γR ) e−j λ p,q , and
(m,l) (m,l) (n,k) (n,k) 
ξm,l,n,k δ(τ − τm,l,n,k ) Gp (αT , βT )Gq (αR , βR ), the LoS time delay is τLoS = D2 + Δ2H /c0 .
The distances m,l,q , p,n,k , p,m,l , n,k,q , m,l,n,k , and p,q
where ξm,l,n,k and τm,l,n,k denote the amplitudes and time (m,l)
delays of the multipath components, respectively. Function can be expressed as functions of the random variables αT ,
(m,l) (n,k) (n,k) (l) (k)
gm,l,n,k (t) is defined as βT , αR , βR , αLoS Rq , Rt , and Rr as follows:
2π Lr + 1 − 2q
gm,l,n,k (t) = e−j λ (p,m,l +m,l,n,k +n,k,q )+jφm,l,n,k (11) m,l,q ≈ D− dR cos ψR

(m,l) (m,l) (n,k) (n,k)

 2 
j2πt fT max cos(αT −γT ) cos βT +fRmax cos(αR −γR ) cos βR (l) (m,l)
e . × ΔT sin θR sin αT − cos θR , (15)
The amplitude of the multipath component, ξm,l,n,k , is defined Lt + 1 − 2p
p,n,k ≈ D− dT cos ψT
as 2
  
Ppq λ   (m,l)   (m,l) (n,k) 
(k) (n,k)
× ΔR sin θT sin αR + cos θT , (16)
ξm,l,n,k = d OT , S + d S ,S
4π (l) Lt + 1 − 2p  (m,l) (m,l)

p,m,l ≈ Rt − dT x cos αT cos βT
  γ/2 (l) (k) 2
(n,k)  γ Rt + Rr (m,l) (m,l) (m,l) 
+ d S , OR ≈ Ωpq 1 − . (12) + dT y sin αT cos βT + dT z sin βT ,(17)
2 2D 
L + 1 − 2q (n,k) (n,k)
Rr(k) −
r
n,k,q ≈ dRx cos αR cos βR
Finally, the time delay τm,l,n,k is the travel time of the 2
(m,l) (n,k) (n,k) (n,k) 
wave impinged on the scatterer ST and scattered from the + dRy sin αR cos βR + dRz sin βR ,(18)
(n,k)
scatterer SR , i.e., m,l,n,k ≈ D, (19)
D
(l)
Rt (1
(m,l) (k)
− cos αT ) Rr (1 + cos αR )
(n,k) p,q ≈ D − 0.5(Lt + 1 − 2p)dT cos ψT cos θT − 0.5
τm,l,n,k = + + . × (Lr + 1 − 2q)dR cos ψR cos(αLoS
c0 (m,l)
c0 cos βT
(n,k)
c0 cos βR Rq − θR ), (20)

(13) where parameters p and q take values from the sets p ∈

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1264 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

{1, . . . , Lt } and q ∈ {1, . . . , Lr }, respectively, dT x = III. S PACE -T IME -F REQUENCY C ORRELATION F UNCTION ,
dT cos ψT cos θT , dT y = dT cos ψT sin θT , dT z = dT sin ψT , S PACE -D OPPLER P OWER S PECTRUM , AND P OWER D ELAY
dRx = dR cos ψR cos θR , dRy = dR cos ψR sin θR , dRz = S PECTRUM OF THE 3-D R EFERENCE M ODEL
dR sin ψR . The approximations in (15)–(20) are due to small Assuming a 3-D non-isotropic scattering environment, we
angle approximations (sin x ≈ x, cos x ≈ 1 for small x), first derive the STF-CF of the 3-D reference model and show
while the derivations are omitted for brevity. that the time and frequency dispersion of the WSSUS channel
To simplify further analysis, we use the time-variant transfer cannot be treated independently. From the STF-CF we derive
function instead of the input delay-spread function and we the corresponding sD-psd and psds. Finally, we present some
normalize the gain patterns of the antenna elements to unity analytical results for the sD-psd and psds and compare them
(i.e., we assume omnidirectional antennas), although other with measured data.
gain patterns can be accommodated at this point. The time-
variant transfer function is the Fourier transform of the input
delay-spread function [18] and can be written as A. STF-CF
The normalized STF-CF between two time-variant transfer
Tpq (t, f ) = Fτ {hpq (t, τ )} = Tpq
SBT
(t, f ) + Tpq
SBR
(t, f ) functions defined in (21), i.e., Tpq (t, f ) and Tp̃q̃ (t, f ), is
+ DB
Tpq (t, f ) + Tpq
LoS
(t, f ), (21) defined as
E [Tpq (t, f )∗ Tp̃q̃ (t + Δt, f + Δf )]
where Tpq SBT
(t, f ) is the SBT, Tpq SBR
(t, f ) is the SBR, Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ) =  , (24)
Tpq (t, f ) is the DB, and Tpq (t, f ) is the LoS compo-
DB LoS Var[Tpq (t, f )]Var[Tp̃q̃ (t, f )]
nent of the time-variant transfer function. The expressions where (·)∗ denotes complex conjugate operation, E[·] is
for Tpq
SBT
(t, f ), TpqSBR
(t, f ), Tpq
DB
(t, f ), and TpqLoS
(t, f ) are the statistical expectation operator, Var[·] is the statistical
derived in Appendix B. variance operator, p, p̃ ∈ {1, . . . , Lt }, q, q̃ ∈ {1, . . . , Lr }.
Several different scatterer distributions, such as uniform, Since TpqSBT
(t, f ), Tpq
SBR
(t, f ), and Tpq
DB
(t, f ) are indepen-
Gaussian, Laplacian, and von Mises, are used in prior work dent zero-mean complex Gaussian random processes, (24) can
(m,l)
to characterize the azimuth angles of departure αT and be simplified to
(n,k)
arrival αR . We use the von Mises probability density
Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ) = Rpq,
SBT
p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ) + Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf )
SBR
function (pdf) because it approximates many of the previously
mentioned distributions and admits closed-form solutions for + Rpq,
DB
p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ) + Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ), (25)
LoS

many useful situations. The von Mises pdf is defined as [19]


where Rpq, p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ), Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ), Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ), and
SBT SBR DB

p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ) denote the normalized STF-CFs of the SBT,


LoS
f (θ) = exp [κ cos(θ − μ)]/2πI0 (κ), (22) Rpq,
SBR, DB, and LoS components, respectively, and are defined
where θ ∈ [−π, π), I0 (·) is the zeroth-order modified Bessel as
function of the first kind, μ ∈ [−π, π) is the mean angle  SBT 
E Tpq (t, f )∗ Tp̃q̃
SBT
(t + Δt, f + Δf )
at which the scatterers are distributed in the x–y plane, and Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ) =
SBT
,
κ controls the spread of scatterers around the mean. When Ωpq /(1 + K)
κ = 0, f (θ) = 1/(2π) is a uniform distribution yielding (26)
 SBR ∗ SBR

isotropic scattering in the horizontal plane. As κ increases, E T pq (t, f ) T p̃q̃ (t + Δt, f + Δf )
Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ) =
SBR
,
the scatterers become more clustered around mean angle μ and Ωpq /(1 + K)
the scattering becomes increasingly non-isotropic. Prior work (27)
 DB 
uses several different scatterer distributions, such as uniform, ∗ DB
E Tpq (t, f ) Tp̃q̃ (t + Δt, f + Δf )
p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ) =
DB
cosine, and Gaussian, to characterize the random elevation Rpq,
Ωpq /(1 + K)
,
(m,l) (n,k)
angles of departure and arrival, βT and βR . We use the
(28)
pdf [20]  LoS ∗ LoS

   E Tpq (t, f ) Tp̃q̃ (t + Δt, f + Δf )
Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ) =
LoS
.
π
cos π ϕ
, | ϕ |≤| ϕm |≤ π2 Ωpq /(K + 1)
f (ϕ) = 4|ϕ m | 2 ϕ m (23)
0 , otherwise (29)

where ϕm is the maximum elevation angle and lies in the Since the number of local scatterers in the reference model
(m,l)
range 0◦ ≤| ϕm |≤ 20◦ [21]. Such maximum elevation described in Section II is infinite, the discrete AAoDs, αT ,
(m,l) (n,k) (n,k) (l)
angles are typical for the “street-canyon” type of propaga- EAoDs, βT , AAoAs, αR , EAoAs, βR , and radii Rt
(k)
tion, which is prevalent in M-to-M communications where and Rr can be replaced with continuous random variables
both the Tx and Rx are in motion and equipped with low αT , βT , αR , βR , Rt , and Rr with probability density func-
elevation antennas (e.g., two vehicles driving along streets). tions (pdf) f (αT ), f (βT ), f (αR ), f (βR ), f (Rt ), and f (Rr ),
(l) (k)
Finally, the radii Rt and Rr are characterized using the respectively. To characterize the Tx and Rx azimuth angles,
2 2
pdf f (R) = 2R/(R2 − R1 ). Such a distribution implies that we use the von Mises pdf in (22) and denote these pdfs
the scatterers in the horizontal plane will have a uniform as f (αT ) = exp [kT cos(αT − μT )]/2πI0 (kT ) and f (αR ) =
density between the cylinders Rt1 and Rt2 at the transmitter exp [kR cos(αR − μR )]/2πI0 (kR ), respectively. To character-
and cylinders Rr1 and Rr2 at the receiver, if the scattering is ize the Tx and Rx elevation angles, we use the pdf in (23) and
isotropic in the horizontal plane. denote these pdfs as f (βT ) = π cos(πβT /(2βTm ))/(4|βTm |),

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and f (βR ) = π cos(πβR /(2βRm ))/(4|βRm |), respectively. wDB ≈ j(2π/λ)(q − q̃)dRy + j2πΔtfRmax sin γR
Finally, to characterize the radii Rt and Rr we use the pdfs + kR sin μR (40)
2
f (Rt ) = 2Rt /(Rt2 − Rt12
) and f (Rr ) = 2Rr /(Rr22 2
− Rr1 ),  2π 
ηT R cos λ βT m (p − p̃)dT z
respectively.
π Using trigonometric transformations,
√ the equal-
 ADB =  2 (41)
I0 (kT )I0 (kR ) 4βT m (p−p̃)dT z
ity −π exp {a sin(c) + b cos(c)}dc = 2πI0 a2 + b2 [13, 1− λ
eq. 3.338-4], and the results in [14], the STF-CFs of the SBT,  2π 
cos λ βRm (q − q̃)dRz −j2πΔf D/c0
e
SBR, and DB components can be closely approximated as ×  2 2 − R2 )(R2 − R2 ) .
(Rt2
1 − 4βRm (q−q̃)d
λ
Rz t1 r2 r1

 
ηT cos 2π Rq = αRq̃ ≈ π,
Using (76), (29) and the approximation αLoS LoS
λ βT m (p − p̃)dT z
p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ) ≈ (30)
SBT
Rpq,  2 the STF-CF of the LoS component can be approximated as
I0 (kT )
1 − 4βT m (p− λ
p̃)dT z

 Rt2  LoS
Rpq, p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ) ≈ Ke
j λ [(p−p̃)dT x −(q−q̃)dRx ]

× e−j λ (q−q̃)dRx −j2πΔtfRmax cos γR 1−γ
Rt


D2 +ΔH 2
D × ej2πΔt[fT max cos γT −fRmax cos γR ]− c0 Δf . (42)
 
Rt1
−j 2π
Δf (D+Rt ) 2R t
× e c0 I0 x2SBT + ySBT 2
2 − R2 dRt , Note that the STF-CFs for the SBT, SBR, and DB compo-
Rt2
 t1 
nents of the time-variant transfer function must be evaluated
ηR cos 2π λ βRm (q − q̃)dRz
Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ) ≈
SBR
 2 (31) numerically because the integrals in (30)–(32) do not have
I0 (kR )
1 − 4βRm (q−q̃)d
λ
Rz
closed-form solutions. However, if we assume that the time
 Rr2  and frequency dispersion are statistically independent, closed-
j 2π (p−p̃)dT x +j2πΔtfT max cos γT Rr form expressions for the STF-CFs of the SBT, SBR, and
×e λ 1−γ
D DB components can be obtained. In the literature, it is often
 Rr1

2π 2Rr assumed that the time dispersion (i.e., the time delays) and the
× e−j c0 Δf (D+Rr ) I0 x2SBR + ySBR 2
2 − R2 dRr ,
Rr2 r1
frequency dispersion (i.e., the Doppler spreads) are statistically
 Rt2   independent because the time delays depend on the relative

−j Δf R 2 2
Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ) ≈ 2e
DB c0 t
Rt I0 xDB + yDB dRt locations of the random scatterers (i.e., the angles of arrival,
 Rr2
Rt1
   the angles of departure, and the distances among the Tx , Rx ,
−j 2π
c0 Δf Rr 2 2 Rr and scatterers), whereas the Doppler spreads depend on the
×ADB e Rr I0 wDB + zDB 1 − γ dRr
Rr1 D motions of the Tx and Rx [22], [23]. However, the Doppler
 Rr2  
2π spread depends not only on the speeds of the Tx and Rx ,
+ADB 2e−j c0 Δf Rr Rr I0 2
wDB 2
+ zDB dRr but also on the angles of departure and the angles of arrival.
Rr1
 Rt2    Hence, both the time delays and the Doppler spreads depend
2π Rt
× e−j c0 Δf Rt Rt I0 x2DB + yDB 2 1−γ dRt , (32) on the relative location of the random scatterers, which implies
Rt1 D that they are not statistically independent. Since the angles
of departure and the angels of arrival cannot be neglected in
the Doppler spreads, another way to obtain the independence
where parameters xSBT , ySBT , xSBR , ySBR , xDB , yDB , between the time delays and the Doppler spreads is to assume
zDB , wDB , and ADB are that the waves scattered form the relatively closely spaced
scatterers have equal time delays. Then, the influence of the
angles of arrival and the angles of departure on the time delays
can be neglected, making the time delays and the Doppler
xSBT ≈ j(2π/λ)(p − p̃)dT x + j2πΔtfT max cos γT spreads statistically independent. The 2-D geometry-based
+ j2πΔf Rt /c0 + kT cos μT (33) statistical models often achieve the independence between the
ySBT ≈ j2π(p − p̃)dT y /λ + j2π(q − q̃)dRy ΔT /λ time delays and the Doppler spreads, assuming that all waves
scattered from the scatterers lying on the same circle have
+j2πΔt (fT max sin γT +fRmax ΔT sin γR )+kT sin μT (34) equal time delays [18]. These time delays are equal to the
xSBR ≈ j(2π/λ)(q − q̃)dRx + j2πΔtfRmax cos γR average of all time delays obtained from the scatterers lying
− j2πΔf Rr /c0 + kR cos μR (35) on the same circle. The equivalent assumption in our 3-D
 concentric cylinders model is that all waves scattered from
ySBR ≈ j2π (q − q̃)dRy /λ + (p − p̃)dT y ΔR /λ
 the scatterers lying on the same cylindric surface have equal
+ Δt (fRmax sin γR + fT max ΔR sin γT ) + kR sin μR (36) (averaged) time delays. Using this approach, the time delays
xDB ≈ j(2π/λ)(p − p̃)dT x + j2πΔtfT max cos γT in (8), (9), and (13) can be approximated as
+ j2πΔf Rt /c0 + kT cos μT (37) (l)
yDB ≈ j(2π/λ)(p − p̃)dT y + j2πΔtfT max sin γT τm,l ≈ τl = (D + Rt )/c0 (43)
+ kT sin μT (38)
zDB ≈ j(2π/λ)(q − q̃)dRx + j2πΔtfRmax cos γR τn,k ≈ τk = (D + Rr(k) )/c0 , (44)
(l)
− j2πΔf Rr /c0 + kR cos μR (39) τm,l,n,k ≈ τl,k = (D + Rt + Rr(k) )/c0 . (45)

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1266 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

0.40 SBT SBT SBT


TABLE II
[Δt, Δf=0]) [Δt] R11,22 [Δf=0])
abs(R11,22 abs(R11,22
PARAMETERS USED IN F IGS . 3–10.
0.35 SBR
abs(R11,22 [Δt, Δf=0]) abs(R11,22
SBR
[Δt] R11,22
SBR
[Δf=0])
Space-time Correlation Functions
DB DB DB
abs(R11,22 [Δt, Δf=0]) abs(R11,22 [Δt] R11,22 [Δf=0])
0.30 Parameters Definition Fig.3 Fig.4 Fig.5 Fig.6 Fig.7 Fig.8 Fig.9 Fig.
10
0.25 D [m] The distance between the 500 500 500 300 300 300 300 200
Tx and Rx.
dT The spacing between two 0.5 λ 0 0.5 λ 0,1 λ 0,1 λ 0-4 λ 0-4 λ 0.5 λ
0.20
dR adjacent antenna
elements at the Tx and 0.5 λ 0 0.5 λ 0,1 λ 0,1 λ 0-4 λ 0-4 λ 0.5 λ
0.15 Rx, respectively.
The orientation of the Tx π π π 0o 90o 0o 0o π
0.10 θT and Rx antenna array in 4 4 4 4
the x-y plane (relative to π π π π
0.05 θR the x-axis), respectively. 0o 90o 0o 0o
4 4 4 4
The elevation of the Tx’s π π π 0o 0o 0o 0o π
0.00 ψT and Rx’s antenna array 6 6 6 3
relative to the x-y plane, π π π π
-0.05 ψR respectively. 0o 0o 0o 0o
6 6 6 3
-0.10 γT The moving directions of 40o 40o 40o 90o 0o 90o 90o 20o
γR the Tx and Rx, in the x-y
0 2 4 6 8 10 20o 20o 20o 90o 0o 90o 90o 20o
plane (relative to the x-
Normalized Time Delay [fTmaxΔt] axis), respectively.
The difference between 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Δ H [m] the Tx and Rx antenna
heights.
Fig. 3. Comparison of the normalized space-time correlation functions in λ [m] The wavelength 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.058 0.123 0.123 0.123 0.3
(30)–(32) and (83)–(85). f T max [Hz] The maximum Doppler 200 200 200 75 200 200 200 200
f R max [Hz] frequencies. 200 200 200 75 200 200 200 200

0.35 γ The path loss exponent 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4


abs(R11,22
SBT
(Δt=0,Δf)) abs(R11,22
SBT
(Δt=0)R11,22
SBT
(Δf)) K The Rice factor 0 0 0 4 1.5 0 0 2
SBR SBR SBR kT The spread of scatterers 2 2 2 5 4 9.1 9.4 1
(Δt=0,Δf)) (Δt=0)R11,22 (Δf))
Frequency Correlation Functions

0.30 abs(R11,22 abs(R11,22 around the mean; the 2 2 2 3.3 4 9.1 9.4 1
kR
DB
abs(R11,22 (Δt=0,Δf))
DB
abs(R11,22 (Δt=0)R11,22 (Δf))
DB
parameter in the von
0.25 Mises pdf.
μT The mean angle at which π π π 70o 0o π π 0
μR the scatterers are 2 2 2 2 2 π
0.20 distributed in the x-y 3π 3π 3π 3π 3π
plane; the parameter in 250o 180o
2 2 2 2 2
the von Mises pdf.
0.15
β Tm The maximum elevation 15o 15o 15o 20o 15o 15o 15o 15o
β Rm angles.
15o 15o 15o 20o 15o 15o 15o 15o
0.10
Rt1 [m] The min and max radii of 10 10 10 9 9.6 13 12 4
Rt 2 [m] the cylinders around the 100 100 100 90 96 130 120 40
0.05 Tx and Rx, respectively. 10 10 10 9 9.6 13 12 4
Rr1 [m] 100 100 100 90 96 130 120 40
Rr 2 [m]
0.00
ηT Specify how much the 1 1 1 Defi-
single- and double- 3 3 3 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.45 ned
-0.05 ηR bounced rays contribute 1 1 1 in
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 in the total averaged 3 3 3 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.45 the
power, i.e., 1 1 1
text
Frequency Separation Δf [MHz] ηTR ηT + η R + ηTR =1 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.1
3 3 3

Fig. 4. Comparison of the frequency correlation functions in (30)–(32) and


(83)–(85). 0.30
Space-time-frequency Correlation Functions

SBT SBT SBT


abs(R11,22 [Δt, Δf=1MHz]) abs(R11,22 [Δt] R11,22 [Δf=1MHz])
SBR SBR SBR
abs(R11,22 [Δt, Δf=1MHz]) abs(R11,22 [Δt] R11,22 [Δf=1MHz])
0.25
DB DB DB
abs(R11,22 [Δt, Δf=1MHz]) abs(R11,22 [Δt] R11,22 [Δf=1MHz])
Under these assumptions, the space-time-frequency correlation 0.20
function in (25) can be factored as [23]
0.15
Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf ) =
= Rpq,
SBT
p̃q̃ (Δt)Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δf ) + Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt)Rpq,p̃ q̃ (Δf )
SBT SBR SBR 0.10

+ DB
Rpq, p̃q̃ (Δt)Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δf )
DB
+ LoS
Rpq, p̃q̃ (Δt)Rpq,p̃ q̃ (Δf ),
LoS
(46) 0.05

where the closed-form expressions for correla- 0.00


tions Rpq,SBT
p̃q̃ (Δt), SBT
Rpq, p̃q̃ (Δf ), Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt),
SBR SBR
Rpq, p̃q̃ (Δf ),
Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt), and Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δf ) are derived in Appendix C, while
DB DB -0.05
0 2 4 6 8 10
the closed-form space-time-frequency correlation function of Normalized Time Delay [fTmaxΔt]
the LoS component, i.e., Rpq, p̃q̃ (Δt)Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δf ), remains the
LoS LoS

same as in (42). Fig. 5. Comparison of the normalized space-time-frequency correlation


To validate assumptions used to obtain the closed-form functions in (30)–(32) and (83)–(85).
space-time-frequency correlation functions in (83)–(85), we
compare these equations with the numerically obtained space-
time-frequency correlations in (30)–(32). Figs. 3–5 compare are set to zero in both the closed-form and numerically
the space-time correlation functions, the frequency correlation obtained space-time correlation functions. Fig. 4 shows rel-
functions, and the space-time-frequency correlation functions atively good agreement between the frequency correlation
in (30)–(32) and (83)–(85). The parameters used to obtain functions. Note that the frequency correlation functions are
curves in Figs. 3–5 are summarized in Columns III–V of obtained from the space-time-frequency correlation functions
Table II. Fig. 3 shows excellent agreement between the space- by eliminating the space and time components (i.e., by setting
time correlation functions. This is an expected result, because dT = dR = Δt = 0). Hence, this result shows that the
the approximations in (43)–(45) affect only time delays, which approximated and exact time delays have similar values, i.e.,

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verifies the approximations in (43)–(45). However, Fig. 5 − j2πpySBR qxSBR ) 1 − [(ν − fT max cos γT )/fRmax ]2 ,
shows that equations (83)–(85) underestimate the space-time-
frequency correlation functions. This discrepancy is due to ηT R IDB
p̃q̃ (ν) = FΔt {Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf = 0)} =
DB DB
Spq,
the fact that the time delays in the closed-form expressions I0 (kT )I0 (kR )
   2π 
are not functions of the angles of departure or the angles cos 2π λ βTm (p − p̃)dT z cos λ βRm (q − q̃)dRz
of arrival and do not affect the Bessel functions in (83)– ×  2  2 (50)
4βTm (p−p̃)dT z 4βRm (q−q̃)dRz
(85). On the other hand, the time delays in the numerically 1− λ 1 − λ
obtained expressions are functions of the angles of departure × ej(2πpxDB qxDB +2πpyDB qyDB −jkTcos(μT −γT ))ν/fT max
and the angles of arrival and affect the Bessel functions in 1
(30)–(32). Even small differences between the input values of ×  cosh (kT sin(μT − γT )
πfT max 1 − (ν/fT max )2
the Bessel functions in (30)–(32) and (83)–(85), respectively, 

can significantly change the final results. Hence, the influence + j2πpxDB qyDB − j2πpyDB qxDB ) 1 − (ν/fT max )2
of the angles of arrival and the angles of departure on the
time delays cannot be neglected and the numerically obtained  ej(2πpzDB qzDB +2πpwDB qwDB −jkRcos(μR −γR ))ν/fRmax
space-time-frequency correlation functions in (30)–(32) should 1
be used. Note that similar results are obtained for the 2-D ×  cosh (kR sin(μR − γR )
πfRmax 1 − (ν/fRmax )2
models (i.e., for βT m = βRm = 0◦ ). These results are not 

surprising because in the practice, the time delays and the + j2πpzDB qwDB − j2πpwDB qzDB ) 1 − (ν/fRmax )2 ,
Doppler spreads are not independent [24].
where F {·} denotes the Fourier transform, cosh(·) is the
hyperbolic cosine, δ(·) is the Dirac delta function,  de-
notes convolution, |ν + fRmax cos γR | ≤ fT max and |ν −
B. sD-psd fT max cos γT | ≤ fRmax for the single-bounced sD-psds, and
|ν| ≤ fT max + fRmax for the double-bounced sD-psd. Finally,
The sD-psd of the time-variant transfer function is the the parameters in (48) and (49) are defined in (89), the
2
Fourier transform of the space-time correlation function parameters in (50) are defined in (93), and IDB = (Rt2 −
2 2 3 2 3 2
Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf = 0). From (25), it follows that the sD-psd is Rt1 )(0.5Rr2 − γRr2 /(3D) − 0.5Rr1 + γRr1 /(3D)) + (Rr2 −
2 2 3 2 3
a summation of the sD-psd functions of the SBT, SBR, DB, Rr1 )(0.5Rt2 − γRt2 /(3D) − 0.5Rt1 + γRt1 /(3D)).
and LoS components. Appendix D shows that the sD-psds of Fig. 6 plots several SISO and MIMO sD-psds, assum-
the LoS, SBT, SBR and DB components are, respectively, ing 3-D non-isotropic scattering and the LoS conditions be-
tween the Tx and Rx . These sD-psds are typical of USS
2π environments. First, we compare our analytical SISO sD-
λ (p−p̃)dT x
p̃q̃ (ν) = FΔt {Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf = 0)} = Ke
LoS LoS j
Spq, psd with the measured SISO sD-psd in Fig. 8 (a) of [6].

e−j λ (q−q̃)dRx
δ(ν + fT max cos γT − fRmax cos γR ), (47) The measurements in [6] were performed in the USS area,
at 5.2 GHz, and the maximum Doppler frequencies were
p̃q̃ (ν)
= FΔt {Rpq, p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf = 0)} (48)
SBT SBT
Spq,
 2π  fT max = fRmax = 75 Hz. Both, the Tx and Rx were equipped
ηT cos λ βTm (p − p̃)dT z with one omnidirectional antenna. The distance between the
=  2
I0 (kT ) 4βTm (p−p̃)dT z Tx and Rx was approximately D = 300 m. The moving
1− λ
2 2
directions were γT = γR = 90◦ , the antenna orientations were
(3 − 2γRt2 /D)Rt2 − (3 − 2γRt1 /D)Rt1 θT = θR = ψT = ψR = 0◦ , ΔH = 0. The same parameters
× 2 − R2 )
3(Rt2 t1 are used to obtain all analytical results in Fig. 6. The rest of
exp {j2π(ν + fRmax cos γR )ASBT − j2πpxSBR } the parameters in the reference model, i.e., K = 4, μT = 70◦ ,
× 
πfT max 1 − [(ν + fRmax cos γR )/fT max ]2 kT = 5, βTm = 20◦ , Rt1 = Rr1 = 9 m, Rt2 = Rr2 = 90 m,
 μR = 250◦, kR = 3.3, βRm = 20◦ , ηT = ηR = 0.1, and
× cosh (kT sin(μT − γT ) + j2πpxSBT qySBT ηT R = 0.8, are manually estimated to fit the SISO sD-psd
 reported in [6], and summarized in Column VI of Table II.

2
− j2πpySBT qxSBT ) 1 − [(ν + fRmax cos γR )/fT max ] , This approach was necessary since we did not have access to
the actual channel measurement data used in [6]. A detailed
p̃q̃ (ν) = FΔt {Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt, Δf = 0)} (49)
SBR SBR
Spq, discussion on how to jointly estimate these parameters from
 2π 
ηR cos λ βRm (q − q̃)dRz channel measurement data, if available, is presented in [15].
=  2 In any case, Fig. 6 shows the close agreement between the
I0 (kR ) 4βRm (q−q̃)dRz
1− λ theoretical and empirical SISO sD-psds. Furthermore, we note
exp {j2π(ν − fT max cos γT )ASBR + j2πpxSBT } that the M-to-M sD-psd in an urban area differs from the U-
×  shaped sD-psd of cellular channels. This is because the DB
πfRmax 1 − [(ν − fT max cos γT )/fRmax ]2
rays are more dominant than the SBT and SBR rays (i.e.,
2 2
(3 − 2γRr2 /D)Rr2 − (3 − 2γRr1 /D)Rr1 ηT = ηR = 0.1, and ηT R = 0.8) in an USS area, whereas
× 2 − R2 )
3(Rr2 cellular channels have only SBR and LoS rays (i.e, ηT = 0,
 r1
ηR = 1, ηT R = 0). To illustrate the importance of combining
× cosh (kR sin(μR − γR ) + j2πpxSBR qySBR
the DB, SBT, and SBR rays, Fig. 6 also plots the SISO sD-

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1268 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

5 10
3-D SISO sD-psd, all rays 3-D SISO sD-psd, DB+LoS rays
Normalized Space-Doppler Spectrum [dB]

Normalized Space-Doppler Spectrum [dB]


3-D SISO sD-psd, all rays 3-D SISO sD-psd, DB+LoS rays
0 3-D MIMO sD-psd, dT=dR=1λ, all rays 2-D SISO sD-psd, all rays 3-D MIMO sD-psd, dT=dR=1 λ, all rays 2-D SISO sD-psd, all rays
Measured SISO sD-psd [6] 3-D SISO sD-psd for cellular channel Measured SISO sD-psd 3-D SISO sD-psd for cellular channel
0
-5

-10
-10
-15

-20 -20

-25
-30
-30

-35
-40
-40

-45 -50
-150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400
Doppler Frequency f [Hz] Doppler Frequency f [Hz]

Fig. 6. The normalized theoretical and measured sD-psd in an USS Fig. 7. The normalized theoretical and measured sD-psd in an IH environ-
environment. ment.

psd with only DB and LoS rays. The results show that for the antenna elements separation of dT = d = R = 1λ and
higher frequencies, the model with only DB and LoS rays again shows that the sD-psd decreases with increased antenna
overestimates the sD-psd. Furthermore, Fig. 6 shows that the element separation. Recently, we conducted the MIMO M-
2-D model (i.e, βTm = βRm = 0◦ ) underestimates the sD- to-M channel-sounding experimental campaign along surface
psd. Finally, Fig. 6 plots the MIMO sD-psd, S11,22 (ν), with streets and on the Interstate highways in the Midtown Atlanta
dT = dR = 1λ. The results show that the sD-psd decreases metropolitan area. The experimental campaign and the detailed
with increased antenna element separation. verification of the reference model in terms of the CDF, STF-
CFs, sD-psds, psds, and LCR are presented in [15]. The results
Fig. 7 plots several SISO and MIMO sD-psds that can be
in [15] along with those in Figs. 6 and 7 validate the utility
found in the IH environments. First, we compare our analytical
of our 3-D parametric reference model.
SISO sD-psd with the measured SISO sD-psd in Fig. 4(d) of
[7]. The measurements in [7] were performed on the highway,
at 2.4 GHz, and the maximum Doppler frequencies were
C. psds
fT max = fRmax = 200 Hz. The vehicles were driven in the
rightmost lane and very close to the sound blockers on the The psds of the time-variant transfer function is the inverse
edge of the highway. Both, the Tx and Rx were equipped Fourier transform of the space-frequency correlation function
with one omnidirectional antenna. The distance between the Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt = 0, Δf ). From (25), it follows that the psds is a
Tx and Rx was approximately D = 300 m. The moving summation of the psds functions of the SBT, SBR, DB, and
directions were γT = γR = 0◦ , the antenna orientations were LoS components. Appendix E shows that the psds of the LoS,
θT = θR = 90◦ , ψT = ψR = 0◦ , ΔH = 0. The same SBT, SBR and DB components are, respectively,
parameters are used for all analytical results in Fig. 7. The
−1
rest of the parameters in the reference model, i.e, K = 1.5, p̃q̃ (τrel ) = FΔf {Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt = 0, Δf )}
LoS LoS
Ppq,
μT = 0◦ , kT = 4, βTm = 15◦ , Rt1 = Rr1 = 9.6 m,

Rt2 = Rr2 = 96 m, μR = 180◦ , kR = 4, βRm = 15◦ , = Kej λ [(p−p̃)dT x −(q−q̃)dRx ] δ(τ − (D2 + Δ2H )/c20 ),(51)
ηT = ηR = 0.3, and ηT R = 0.4, are manually estimated −1 ηT
p̃q̃ (τrel ) = FΔf {Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt = 0, Δf )} =
SBT SBT
Ppq,
to match the SISO sD-psd in Fig. 4(d) of [7], and are I0 (kT )
 
summarized in Column VII of Table II. Fig. 7 shows the cos 2π β
λ Tm (p − p̃)d Tz 2π
−j (q−q̃)dRx 2
close agreement between the theoretical and empirical SISO ×  2 e λ 2 2
4βTm (p−p̃)dT z Rt2 − Rt1
sD-psds. Furthermore, we can observe that this spectrum is 1− λ
similar to the U-shaped spectrum of cellular channels. This  Rtb  
Rt 2π

is not surprising result because the SBT and SBR rays are × 1−γ Rt ej c0 Rt BSBT (c0 τrel /Rt −1)
Rta D
prevalent (i.e., ηT = ηR = 0.3, and ηT R = 0.4) when the    
vehicles are driven very close to the sound blockers on the cosh 2jCSBT c0 τrel
1 − 2Rt
c0 τrel
2Rt
edge of the highway. To illustrate the importance of combining ×  dRt , (52)
 
the DB, SBT, and SBR rays, Fig. 7 also plots the SISO sD-psd 2π
R
c0 t
c0 τrel
2Rt 1 − c0 τrel
2Rt
with only DB and LoS rays. The results show that the model
with only DB and LoS rays has a sD-psd with a significantly −1 ηR
p̃q̃ (τrel ) = FΔf {Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt = 0, Δf )} =
SBR SBR
Ppq,
different shape as compared to the model with SBT, SBR, I0 (kR )
 
DB, and LoS rays. Furthermore, Fig. 7 shows that the 2- cos 2π β (q − q̃)d j 2π (p−p̃)dT x 2
λ Rm Rz
D model (i.e, βTm = βRm = 0◦ ) underestimates the sD- ×  2 e λ 2 − R2
4βRm (q−q̃)dRz Rr2
psd. Finally, Fig. 7 plots the MIMO sD-psd, S11,22 (ν), for 1− λ
r1

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ZAJIĆ and STÜBER: THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING AND SIMULATION OF WIDEBAND MIMO MOBILE-TO-MOBILE CHANNELS 1269

 
Rrb  0
Rr 2π
Rr ej c0 Rr BSBR (c0 τrel /Rr −1)

Relative Power Space-delay Spectrum [dB]


× 1−γ SISO PSDS
Measured SISO PSDS
Rra D -4
   
MIMO PSDS dT=dR=1 λ
MIMO PSDS dT=dR=2 λ

cosh 2jCSBR 2Rr 1 − 2Rr


c0 τrel c0 τrel -8 MIMO PSDS dT=dR=4 λ

×    dRr , (53) -12



R
c0 r
c0 τrel
2Rr 1 − c0 τrel
2Rr -16
−1 ηT R
p̃q̃ (τrel )
= FΔf {Rpq, p̃q̃ (Δt = 0, Δf )} =
DB DB
Ppq, -20
I0 (kT )I0 (kR )
   2π 
cos 2π λ βTm (p − p̃)dT z cos λ βRm (q − q̃)dRz
-24
×  2  2
4βTm (p−p̃)dT z 4βRm (q−q̃)dRz
1− λ 1− λ
-28

  Rtb
2 j 2π
c0 τrel
c0 Rt BDB ( Rt −1)
-32
× 2 − R2 )(R2 − R2 ) R t e 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
(Rt2 Rta Delay [μs]
 t1 r2  r1 
cosh 2jCDB 2Rt 1− 2Rt
c0 τrel c0 τrel
 Rrb  Fig. 8. The theoretical and measured psds in the rightmost lane of an
Rr Interstate highway without sound blockers.
×    dR t  1−γ Rr
2π Rra D
c0 Rt
c0 τrel
2Rt 1 − 2Rtc0 τrel
0
  

Relative Power Space-Delay Spectrum [dB]



SISO PSDS
c0 τrel Measured SISO PSDS
j 2π
c0 Rr DDB ( Rr −1)
e cosh 2jEDB 2Rr c0 τrel
1− c0 τrel
2Rr
-4 MIMO PSDS dT=dR=1 λ
MIMO PSDS dT=dR=2 λ
×    dRr -8 MIMO PSDS dT=dR=4 λ

c0 rR c0 τrel
2Rr 1 − c0 τrel
2Rr -12
   
 Rtb  cosh 2jCDB c2R 0 τrel
1 − c0 τrel
2Rt
-16
Rt t
+ 1−γ Rt    -20
Rta D 2π
c0 R t
c0 τrel
2Rt 1 − c0 τrel
2Rt -24

c0 τrel
 R rb c0 τrel
2π 2π
× ej c0 Rt BDB ( Rt −1) dRt  Rr ej c0 Rr DDB ( Rr −1)
-28

Rra
    -32
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
cosh 2jEDB c2R 0 τrel
1 − c0 τrel
2Rr
 Delay [μs]
r
×    dR r , (54)
2π Fig. 9. The theoretical and measured psds in the rightmost lane of an
c0 Rr
c0 τrel
2Rr 1 − 2Rr
c0 τrel
Interstate highway with sound blockers.

where cosh(·) is the hyperbolic cosine,  denotes convolution,


δ(·) denotes the Dirac delta function, and τrel = τ − D/c0 . Tx and Rx was approximately D = 300 m. The moving
The integrals in (52)–(54) need to be numerically evaluated directions were γT = γR = 90◦ , the antenna orientations
over the range of possible radii Rt and Rr . For the range were θT = θR = ψT = ψR = 0◦ , and the antenna elevations
0 ≤ τrel ≤ 2Rt1 /c0 , the integration limits are Rta = Rt1 , were ΔH = 0. The same parameters are used to obtain all
Rtb = Rt2 , Rra = Rr1 , and Rrb = Rr2 . On the other hand, analytical results in Figs. 8 and 9. The measured SISO psds
when 2Rt1 /c0 ≤ τrel ≤ 2Rt2 /c0 , the integration limits are in Fig. 8 is obtained on the part of the highway without sound
Rta = c0 τrel /2, Rtb = Rt2 , Rra = c0 τrel /2, and Rrb = Rr2 . blockers. The estimated parameters in Fig. 8 summarized in
Finally, the parameters in (52) and (53) are defined in (96), Column VIII of Table II. Fig. 8 shows the close agreement
whereas the parameters in (54) are defined in (99). Note that between the theoretical and empirical SISO psds. The results
existing power delay spectra derived assuming “one-circular- show that DB rays are prevalent on the part of the highway
ring” model [25], are special cases of (53). For example, the without sound blockers (i.e., ηT = ηR = 0.2, and ηT R = 0.6).
2-D non-isotropic power delay spectrum in [25] is obtained In this case, the psds closely follows the one-sided exponential
for βRm = 0, ψR = 0, and dT = dR = 0. function dies out after 0.8 μs.
Figs. 8 and 9 show several SISO and MIMO psds that can The measured SISO psds in Fig. 9 is obtained on the part of
be found in highway environments and compares them with the highway with sound blockers. The estimated parameters in
the measured SISO psds in [8]. The measurements in [8] were Fig. 9 are summarized in Column IX of Table II. Fig. 9 shows
performed on the highway, at 2.4 GHz, and the maximum the close agreement between the theoretical and empirical
Doppler frequencies were fT max = fRmax = 200 Hz. The SISO psds. The results show that SBT and SBR rays are
vehicles were driven in the rightmost lane of the highway prevalent on the part of the highway with sound blockers (i.e.,
and the sound blockers on the edge of the highway were ηT = ηR = 0.45, and ηT R = 0.1). We can observe that
periodically present. Both, the Tx and Rx were equipped this psds does not follow the one-sided exponential function,
with one omnidirectional antenna. The distance between the which is characteristic for F-to-M cellular channels. The M-

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1270 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

   
(l) (m,l) (l) (i,l)
to-M psds has two distinct slopes and dies out after 0.6 μs. +2πtfRmax cos γR − ΔT sin γR sin αT cos ΔT βT
Figs. 8 and 9 also show several MIMO psds, P11,22 (τrel ),

 ρ F,NA,NE
(k) (k)

2π   (k)
with dT = dR = {1λ, 2λ, 4λ}. The results show that the psds (l) (m,l) SBR γ Rr
decreases with increased antenna element separation. Again, − f D+Rt 1−cos αT + √ 1−
c0 N k,n,g=1 2 D
the results in [15] and Figs. 8 and 9 confirm the utility of the   
proposed wideband model. × sin Kp DTSBR +Kq DR SBR
+2πtfRmaxcos αR −γR
(n,k)

 
(g,k) (k) (n,k)
× cos βR +φn,g,k +2πtfT max ΔR sin γT sin αR +cos γT
IV. W IDEBAND MIMO M OBILE - TO -M OBILE S IMULATION   2π   
(k) (g,k) (n,k)
× cos ΔR βR − f D+Rr(k) 1 + cos αR
M ODEL c0
L,MA ,ME F,NA ,NE

(l) (l) (k) (k)

ρDB   (l)
γ Rt + Rr
(k)
The reference model for wideband MIMO M-to-M channel + √ 1− sin Kp DTDB
described in Section II assumes an infinite number of scatter- M N 2 2D
l,m,i=1 k,n,g=1
 
ers, which prevents practical implementation. It is desirable to (m,l) (i,l)
+Kq DR +2πtfT max cos αT −γT cos βT +2πtfRmax
DB
design simulation model with a finite (preferably small) num- 
   
ber of scatterers, while still matching the statistical properties (n,k) (g,k) 2π (l) (m,l)
× cos αR −γR cos βR − f D+Rt 1−cos αT
of the reference model. c0
  
Assuming 3-D non-isotropic scattering and using the ref- (k) (n,k)
+Rr 1 + cos αR + φm,i,l,n,g,k + ρLoS
erence model described in Section II, and using the results

in [14], we propose the following function as a time-variant  LoS  2π
transfer function: Tpq (t, f ) = Tpq (t, f ) + jTpq (t, f ) where × sin 2πt fT + fR
(I) (Q) LoS
− f D2 + ΔH 2 + Kp dT x
c0

L,MA ,ME

(l) (l)  +K d
q R cos ψ R cos(α LoS
Rq − θ R ,) (56)
ρ  γ R
(l)
(I) SBT
Tpq (t, f ) = √ 1− t
cos Kp DTSBT
M l,m,i=1 2 D are the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) components L of
  the time-variant transfer function, M = M (l)
=
+Kq DR SBT (m,l)
+2πtfT max cos αT −γT cos βT +φm,i,l
(i,l) L (l) (l) F (k)
F l=1 (k) (k)
M A EM , N = N  = N N E ,
    l=1 k=1 k=1 A
(l)
+2πtfRmax cos γR − ΔT sin γR sin αT
(m,l)
cos ΔT βT
(l) (i,l) ρ
SBT = η T /(K + 1), ρ
SBR = η R /(K + 1), ρ DB =
ηT R /(K + 1), ρLoS = K/(1 + K), Kp = π(Lt + 1 −


 ρ F,NA,NE (m,l)
(k) (k)

2π   2p)/λ, Kq = π(Lr + 1 − 2q)/λ, DTSBT = dT x cos αT +


(k)
(l) (m,l) SBR γ Rr
− f D+Rt 1−cos αT + √ 1− d sin α
(m,l)
+ d sin β
(i,l)
, D SBT
= d Δ
(l)
sin α
(m,l)

c0 Nk,n,g=1 2 D T y T T z T
(n,k)
R Ry
(n,k)
T T
(g,k)
   d Rx , D SBR
R = d Rx cos α R +d Ry sin α R +d Rz sin β R ,
(k) (n,k) (m,l)
× cos Kp DT +Kq DR +2πtfRmaxcos αR −γR
SBR SBR (n,k) DT SBR
= dT y ΔR sin αR + dT x , DT = dT x cos αT DB
+
(m,l) (i,l) (n,k)
  d T y sin α T + d T z sin β T , D DB
R = d Rx cos α R +
(g,k) (k) (n,k) (n,k) (g,k)
× cos βR +φn,g,k +2πtfT max ΔR sin γT sin αR +cos γT dRy sin αR +dRz sin βR , fTLoS = fT max cos(π −αLoS Rq −
  2π    γT ), and fR LoS
= fRmax cos(αRq − γR ). Note that the
LoS
(k) (g,k) (n,k)
× cos ΔR βR − f D+Rr(k) 1 + cos αR input delay-spread function can be obtained as the inverse
c0
Fourier transform of the time-variant transfer function, i.e.,
L,MA ,ME F,NA ,NE

(l) (l) (k) (k)

ρDB   (l)
γ Rt + Rr
(k) hpq (t, τ ) = Ff−1 {Tpq (t, f )}.
+√ 1− cos Kp DT DB
(m,l) (n,k)
M N l,m,i=1 k,n,g=1 2 2D The AAoDs, αT , and the AAoAs, αR , are modelled
  using the von Mises pdf in (22) and are generated as follows:
(m,l) (i,l)
+Kq DR DB
+2πtfT max cos αT − γT cos βT +2πtfRmax

     (m,l) m − 0.5
(n,k) (g,k) 2π (l) (m,l) αT = F −1 , (57)
× cos αR −γR cos βR − f D+Rt 1−cos αT MA
(l)
c0

  
n − 0.5
(k) (n,k) (n,k) −1
+Rr 1 + cos αR + φm,i,l,n,g,k + ρLoS αR = F (k)
, (58)
 NA
  2π
× cos 2πt fTLoS + fRLoS − f D2 + ΔH 2 (l) (k)
c0 for m = 1, . . . , MA , n = 1, . . . , NA , where F (·)−1 denotes
 the inverse cumulative von Mises distribution function and is
+Kp dT x + Kq dR cos ψR cos(αLoS Rq − θR ) , (55) evaluated using method in [?]. The EAoDs, β (i,l) , and the
T
(g,k)
(l) (l) 

EAoAs, βR , are modelled using the pdf in (23) and are
ρSBT 
L,MA ,ME (l)
(Q) γ Rt generated as follows:
Tpq (t, f ) = √ 1− sin Kp DTSBT
M l,m,i=1 2 D

  (i,l) 2βTm 2i − 1
(m,l) (i,l) βT = arcsin −1 , (59)
+Kq DR SBT
+2πtfT max cos αT −γT cos βT +φm,i,l π M
(l)
E

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ZAJIĆ and STÜBER: THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING AND SIMULATION OF WIDEBAND MIMO MOBILE-TO-MOBILE CHANNELS 1271

0.80
Space-time-frequency Correlation Function abs(R11,22(Δt, 100 Hz)) of the sim. model in urban area for a 3-D non-isotropic scattering environment. It was shown
abs(R11,22(Δt, 100 Hz)) of the ref. model in urban area that the time and frequency dispersion of the WSSUS channel
abs(R11,22(Δt, 100 Hz)) of the sim. model on a highway
0.75 abs(R11,22(Δt, 100 Hz)) of the ref. model on a highway cannot be treated independently. Furthermore, the sD-psd and
the psds were derived and compared with measured data. The
close agreement between the theoretical and empirical curves
0.70 confirms the utility of the proposed wideband model. Finally,
a new SoS based simulation model for wideband MIMO M-
to-M Ricean fading channels was proposed. The statistics of
0.65 the simulation models have been verified by simulation. The
results show that the simulation model closely approximates
the reference model.
0.60
0 2 4 6 8 10 ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Normalized Time Delay [fTmaxτ]
The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers
Fig. 10. The simulated and theoretical STF-CFs in the USS and IH whose feedback helped improve the quality of this paper.
environments.
A PPENDIX A


A NGLES OF A RRIVAL AND A NGLES OF D EPARTURE FOR
(g,k) 2βRm 2g − 1
βR = arcsin (k)
−1 , (60) S INGLE - BOUNCED R AYS
π NE (m) 
Applying the sine law to the triangles OT ST OR and
(l) (k) (l) (k) (n) 
for i = 1, . . . , ME , g = 1, . . . , NE . The radii Rt and Rr OT SR OR , respectively, we obtain following identities
2 2
are modelled using the pdfs f (Rt ) = 2Rt /(Rt2 − Rt1 ) and (l)
2 2
f (Rr ) = 2Rr /(Rr2 − Rr1 ), respectively, and are generated D R
   =  t  ,(63)
(m,l) (m,l) (m,l)
as follows: sin π − αT − π − αR sin π − αR

(l − 0.5)(Rt2 2 − R2 ) (k)
(l) 2 , D Rr
Rt = t1
+ Rt1 (61)    = . (64)
 L (n,k) (n,k) (n,k)
2 − R2 ) sin π − αT − π − αR sin αT
(k − 0.5)(Rr2
Rr(k) = r1 2 ,
+ Rr1 (62) (m,l) (l)
F From Fig. 2, we observe that π − αR ≤ arcsin(Rt /D)
for l = 1, . . . , L, k = 1, . . . , F . The phases φm,i,l , φn,g,k , (n,k) (k)
and αT ≤ arcsin(Rr /D). Based on the assumption
and φm,i,l,n,g,k are generated as independent uniform random min{Rt2 , Rr2 }
D, we conclude that arcsin(Rt /D) ≈
(l)
variables on the interval [−π, π). (l) (l) (k) (k)
Rt /D = ΔT and arcsin(Rr /D) ≈ Rr /D = ΔR , and
(k)
For M, N → ∞, our simulation model has the same STF- (m,l) (n,k)
consequently π − αR and αT are small angles. Using
CF as that of the reference model in (25). The derivations
(63) and (64), and the approximations sin x ≈ x and cos x ≈ 1
are omitted for brevity. Fig. 10 compares the simulated STF-
for small x, we derive the following approximations for the
CF obtained using (55) and (56) and the STF-CF of the
azimuth angles of arrival and departure, respectively,
reference model in (25), assuming the 3-D non-isotropic radio
(m,l) (l) (m,l)
propagation (kT = kR = 2, βTm = βRm = 15◦ ) in the αR ≈ π − ΔT sin αT , (65)
urban and highway environments. In the urban environment, (n,k) (k) (n,k)
αT ≈ ΔR sin αR . (66)
the double-bounced rays bear more energy than the single-
bounced rays (ηT = ηR = 0.1, ηT R = 0.8), whereas, on the Furthermore, using (65) and (66), we obtain the following
highways, the single-bounced rays are prevalent (ηT = ηR = approximations
0.45, ηT R = 0.1). In all simulations, we use a normalized  
(m,l) (l) (m,l)
cos αR − γR ≈ − cos γR + ΔT sin γR sin αT , (67)
sampling period fT Ts = 0.01 (fT max = fRmax ), assume  
(l) (l) (k)
Lt = Lr = 2 antennas, use MA = 44, ME = 9, NA = 44, cos αT
(n,k) (k) (n,k)
− γT ≈ cos γT + ΔR sin γT sin αR . (68)
(k)
and NE = 9 scatterers and six tap-delays (L = 3 and
K = 3). All parameters used to obtain the curves in Fig. 10 Finally, observing Fig. 2, we obtain the following identities
 
are summarized in the last column of Table II. Results show (n,k)
Rr(k) tan βR − ΔH = D + Rr(k) tan βT ,
(n,k)
(69)
that the STF-CF of the simulation model closely matches that    
of the reference model in the range of normalized time delays, (l) (m,l) (l) (m,l)
Rt tan βT + ΔH = D − Rt tan π − βR ,(70)
0 ≤ fT max Ts ≤ 6.
where ΔH = hT − hR . Using (69) and (70), the assumption
V. C ONCLUSIONS min{Rt2 , Rr2 }
D, and approximations sin x ≈ x and
cos x ≈ 1 for small x, we derive the following approximations
This paper proposed a three-dimensional geometrical prop-
for the elevation angles of arrival and departure, respectively,
agation model for wideband MIMO M-to-M multipath fading  
(m,l) (l) (m,l)
channels. Based on the geometrical model, a parametric refer- βR ≈ π − ΔT βT + ΔH /D , (71)
ence model was proposed for MIMO M-to-M Ricean fading (n,k) (k) (n,k)
channels. From the reference model, the STF-CF was derived βT ≈ ΔR βR − ΔH /D. (72)

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1272 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

2π (n,k) (n,k)
λ (0.5Lr +0.5−q)dRx cos αR cos βR
A PPENDIX B q,n,k ≈ e
bSBR j
 
T HE SBT, SBR, DB, AND L O S C OMPONENTS OF THE j 2π
(n,k) (n,k) (n,k)
λ (0.5Lr +0.5−q) dRy sin αR cos βR +dRz sin βR
T IME -VARIANT T RANSFER F UNCTION ×e ,(80)
(m,l) (m,l)
j 2π
λ (0.5Lt +0.5−p)dT x cos αT cos βT
aDB
p,m,l ≈e
 
(m,l) (m,l) (m,l)
j 2π (0.5L +0.5−p) dT y sin αT cos βT +dT z sin βT
× e λ  t 
Using (1) - (20), the SBT, SBR, DB, and LoS components −j 2π D/2+Rt
(l)

of the time-variant transfer function in (21) can be written as ×e λ


, (81)
(n,k) (n,k)
j 2π
λ (0.5Lr +0.5−q)dRx cos αR cos βR
bDB
q,n,k ≈e
 
2π (n,k) (n,k) (n,k)
j λ (0.5Lr +0.5−q) dRy sin αR cos βR +dRz sin βR
  ×e
  ηT
L
(t, f ) = Fτ hSBT × e−j

(D/2+R(k)
r ).
pq (t, τ ) = Ωpq lim
SBT
Tpq λ (82)
K + 1 M→∞
  l=1
(l) (l)

M 1 − γ2 ΔT (m,l) (m,l) A PPENDIX C
SBT j2πtfT max cos(αT −γT ) cos βT
√ aSBT
p,m,l bq,m,l e T HE C LOSED -F ORM STF-CF S OF THE SBT, SBR, AND DB
M
m=1
(l) (m,l) (l) (m,l) ΔH
C OMPONENTS
ej2πtfRmax (cos γR −ΔT 
sin γR sin αT
) cos(ΔT βT + D )
After replacing (8), (9), and (13) with (43) - (45), respec-
2π (l) (m,l)
−j f D+Rt (1−cos αT ) +jφm,l
e
(m,l)
c0 cos β
T , (73) tively, calculating the new SBT, SBR and DB components of
 the time-variant transfer function,
π using trigonometric trans-
 SBR  ηR F
Tpq (t, f ) = Fτ hpq (t, τ ) = Ωpq
SBR
lim formations, the equality exp {a sin(c) + b cos(c)}dc =
K + 1 N →∞ √  −π
2πI0 2 2
a + b [13, eq. 3.338-4], and the results in [14], the
  k=1
(k) γ (k) closed-form STF-CFs of the SBT, SBR and DB components
 1 − 2 ΔR
N
√ aSBR SBR j2πtfRmax cos(αR
(n,k) (n,k)
−γR ) cos βR can be written as
p,n,k bq,n,k e  
N
n=1 ηT cos 2π λ βT m (p − p̃)dT z
(k) (n,k) (k) (n,k) ΔH Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δt)Rpq,p̃q̃ (Δf ) =
SBT SBT
 2
ej2πtfT max (ΔR sin γT sinαR +cos γT) cos(ΔR βR − D ) I0 (kT )
2π (k) (n,k) 1 − 4βT m (p−λ
p̃)dT z
−j (n,k)
f D+Rr 1+cos αR +jφn,k
e c0 cos βR , (74) 2π
 −j 2π e−j c0 Δf D
  × I e λ (q−q̃)dRx e−j2πΔtfRmax cos γR
ηT R SBT 2 − R2
TpqDB
(t, f ) = Fτ hDB pq (t, τ ) = Ωpq Rt2
K +1   t1
  2 2
(l) (k) γ (l) γ (k) × I0 xSBT 1 + ySBT 1 , (83)
L,M F,N  1 − 4 ΔT − 4 ΔR
lim √ DB DB
ap,m,l bq,n,k  
M,N →∞ MN ηR cos 2π λ βRm (q − q̃)dRz
l,m=1 k,n=1 R SBR
(Δt)R SBR
(Δf ) =  2
  pq,p̃q̃ pq,p̃q̃
I0 (kR )
(m,l)
j2πt fT max cos(αT −γT ) cos βT
(m,l) (n,k)
+fRmax cos(αR −γR ) cos βR
(n,k)
1 − 4βRm (q−q̃)d Rz
e 
λ
(l) (m,l) (k) (n,k) 2π
e−j c0 Δf D
Rt (1−cos α ) R (1+cos α )
−j 2π
c f D+
T + r R +jφm,l,n,k j 2π
λ (p−p̃)dT x j2πΔtfT max cos γT
(75) × ISBR e
0 (m,l) (n,k)
e cos β
T
cos β
R , e 2 − R2
  
Rr2 r1
  K
LoS
Tpq (t, f ) = Fτ hLoS
pq (t, τ ) = Ωpq 2 2
× I0 xSBR1 + ySBR1 , (84)
1+K
 
ej2πt[fT max cos(π−αRq −γT )+fRmax cos(αRq −γR )]−j λ D
LoS LoS 2π
ηT R cos 2π βT m (p − p̃)dT z
jπ [ (L +1−2p)d cos θ cos ψ +(L +1−2q)d cos ψ cos(α LoS
−θ ) ] R DB
pq, p̃q̃ (Δt)R DB
pq, p̃q̃ (Δf )= λ  2
e λ t√ T T T r R R Rq R
4βT m (p−p̃)dT z
2π 2 2 I (k )I
0 T 0 R (k ) 1−
e−j c0 f D +ΔH ,
λ
(76)  2π 
cos λ βRm (q − q̃)dRz e−j2πΔf D/c0
×  2 2 2 )(R2 − R2 ) (85)
4βRm (q−q̃)dRz (Rt2 − Rt1
1 − r2 r1
where the parameters aSBT p,m,l , bq,m,l , ap,n,k , bq,n,k , ap,m,l , and
SBT SBR SBR DB

λ
  
bq,n,k are, respectively,
DB
×I x2 + y2 I z2 + w2 (I I + I I )
0 DB1 DB 0 DB1 DB T 1 R2 T 2 R1

where a = 2πΔf /c0 , c = γ/D, and


2π (m,l) (m,l)
(0.5Lt +0.5−p)dT x cos αT cos βT
p,m,l ≈ e
aSBT j λ

(m,l) (m,l) (m,l)
 xSBT 1 = j(2π/λ)(p − p̃)dT x + j2πΔtfT max cos γT
j 2π
λ (0.5Lt +0.5−p) dT y sin αT cos βT +dT z sin βT
×e , (77) + kT cos μT ,
 
(l) (m,l)
j 2π
λ (0.5Lr +0.5−q)dR cos ψR ΔT sin θR sin αT −cos θR ySBT 1 = j2π(p − p̃)dT y /λ + j2π(q − q̃)dRy
bSBT
q,m,l ≈e
 
−j 2π D+Rt
(l) × (Rt1 + 0.5(Rt2 − Rt1 ))/(Dλ) + j2πΔtfT max sin γT
×e λ
, (78)

(k) (n,k)
 + j2πΔtfRmax sin γR (Rt1 +0.5(Rt2 − Rt1 ))/D +kT sin μT ,
j 2π
λ (0.5Lt +0.5−p)dT cos ψT ΔR sin θT sin αR +cos θT
aSBR ≈e
p,n,k xSBR1 = j(2π/λ)(q − q̃)dRx + j2πΔtfRmax cos γR
× e−j λ (D+Rr ) ,
2π (k)
(79) + kR cos μR ,

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ZAJIĆ and STÜBER: THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING AND SIMULATION OF WIDEBAND MIMO MOBILE-TO-MOBILE CHANNELS 1273

ySBR1 = j2π(q − q̃)dRy /λ + j2π(p − p̃)dT y where tT = Δt + ASBT and √tR = Δt + ASBR ,

× (Rr1 + 0.5(Rr2 − Rr1 ))/(Dλ) + j2πΔtfRmax sin γR and  by using equality
 0
J0 (α t2 + u2 ) cos(βt)dt =
2 2 2 2
cos(u α − β )/ α − β [13, eq. 6.677-3]. Parameters in
+ j2πΔtfT max sin γT (Rr1 +0.5(Rr2 −Rr1 ))/D +kR sin μR ,
equations (87) and (88) are defined as follows:
xDB1 = j(2π/λ)(p − p̃)dT x + j2πΔtfT max cos γT
+ kT cos μT , ASBT = (2πpxSBT cos γT + 2πpySBT sin γT − wxSBT )
zDB1 = j(2π/λ)(q − q̃)dRx + j2πΔtfRmax cos γR / 2πfT max ,
+ kR cos μR , pxSBT = (p − p̃)dT x /λ,
2   wxSBT = jkT cos(γT − μT ),
IT 1 = 2 e−jaRt2 (1 + jaRt2 ) − e−jaRt1 (1 + jaRt1 ) ,
a pySBT = [(p − p̃)dT y + (q − q̃)dRy (Rt1
2  
IR1 = 2 e−jaRr2 (1 + jaRr2 ) − e−jaRr1 (1 + jaRr1 ) , + 0.5(Rt2 − Rt1 ))/D]/λ,
a  
1 wySBT = jkT sin(γT − μT ),
ISBT = 3 e−2jaRt2 jc + 2ja2 Rt2 + a − 2caRt2
2a ASBR = (2πpxSBR cos γR + 2πpySBR sin γR + wxSBR )
 
2 2
− 2jca Rt2 − e −2jaRt1
jc + 2ja2 Rt1 + a − 2caRt1 / 2πfRmax ,
 pxSBR = (q − q̃)dRx /λ,
2 2
− 2jca Rt1 , wxSBR = −jkR cos(γR − μR ),
  pySBR = [(q − q̃)dRy + (p − p̃)dT y (Rr1
1
ISBR = 3 e−2jaRr2 jc + 2ja2 Rr2 + a − 2caRr2 + 0.5(Rr2 − Rr1 ))/D]/λ,
2a
  wySBR = −jkR sin(γR − μR ). (89)
− 2jca2 Rr22
− e−2jaRr1 jc + 2ja2 Rr1 + a − 2caRr1
 After extensive calculations, the sD-psds of the SBT and the
2 2
− 2jca Rr1 , SBR components can be written as in (48), (49), respectively.
  The first step in calculating the sD-psd of the DB component
1 −jaRt2 is to note that
IT 2 = 3 e 2jc + ja2 Rt2 + a − 2caRt2     
a
  F I0 2 2
xDB + yDB I0 2
zDB + wDB 2 =
− jca2 Rt2
2
− e−jaRt1 2jc + ja2 Rt1 + a − 2caRt1      
 F I0 2
xDB + yDB 2  F I0 2
zDB + wDB2 (90)
− jca2 Rt1
2
,
    denotes convolution.
where   Then, noting that
 the functions
1 −jaRr2
IR2 = 3 e 2jc + ja2 Rr2 + a − 2caRr2 I0 x2DB + yDB
2 and I0 2
zDB 2
+ wDB can be written
a
  as
2 2
− jca Rr2 − e −jaRr1
2jc + ja2 Rr1 + a − 2caRr1 
 I0 j2πfT max (91)
− jca2 Rr1
2
. (86)   2 
pxDB sin γT py cos γT vyDB
× t2DB1 + − DB + ,
fT max fT max 2πfT max

A PPENDIX D
I0 j2πfRmax (92)
T HE S D- PSDS OF THE SBT, SBR, DB, AND L O S
C OMPONENTS 
 2 
pzDB sin γR pw cos γR vwDB
The sD-psds of the single-bounced components can be × t2DB2 + − DB + ,
  fRmax fRmax 2πfRmax
obtained by noting that the functions I0 2 2
xSBT + ySBT
  where tDB1 = Δt + ADB1 , tDB2 = Δt + ADB2 , and
and I0 x2SBR + ySBR
2 can be written as
ADB1 = (2πpxDB cos γT + 2πpyDB sin γT + vxDB )

/ 2πfT max ,
I0 j2πfT max (87)
 pxDB = (p − p̃)dT x /λ,
 2 
pxSBT sin γT py cos γT wySBT vxDB = −jkT cos(γT − μT ),
× t2T + − SBT − ,
fT max fT max 2πfT max pyDB = (p − p̃)dT y /λ,

vyDB = −jkT sin(γT − μT ),
I0 j2πfRmax (88)
 pzDB = (q − q̃)dRx /λ,
 2 
pxSBR sin γR py cos γR wySBR vzDB = −jkR cos(γR − μR ),
× t2R + − SBR + ,
fRmax fRmax 2πfRmax pwDB = (q − q̃)dRy /λ,

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1274 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

vwDB = −jkR sin(γR − μR ), R EFERENCES


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STF-CF in (42), we obtain the psds of the LoS component
in (51).

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ZAJIĆ and STÜBER: THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING AND SIMULATION OF WIDEBAND MIMO MOBILE-TO-MOBILE CHANNELS 1275

Alenka G. Zajić (S’99-M’08) received the B.Sc. Gordon L. Stüber (S’81-M’82-SM’96-F’99) re-
and M.Sc. degrees form the School of Electrical ceived the B.A.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Electri-
Engineering, University of Belgrade, in 2001 and cal Engineering from the University of Waterloo,
2003, respectively. She received her Ph.D. degree Ontario, Canada, in 1982 and 1986 respectively. In
in Electrical and Computer Engineering form the 1986, he joined the School of Electrical and Com-
Georgia Institute of Technology in 2008. From 2001 puter Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology,
to 2003, she was a design engineer for Skyworks where is the Joseph M. Pettit Chair Professor.
Solutions Inc., Fremont, CA. Currently, she is the Dr. Stüber was co-recipient of the IEEE Vehicular
president of AlZaComm, Atlanta. Her research in- Technology Society Jack Neubauer Memorial Award
terests are in wireless communications and applied in 1997 for the best systems paper. He became an
electromagnetics. IEEE Fellow in 1999 for contributions to mobile
Dr. Zajić received the Best Paper Award at ICT 2008, the Best Student radio and spread spectrum communications. He received the IEEE Vehicular
Paper Award at WCNC 2007, and was also the recipient of the Dan Technology Society James R. Evans Avant Garde Award in 2003 for contri-
Noble Fellowship in 2004, awarded by Motorola Inc. and IEEE Vehicular butions to theoretical research in wireless communications.
Technology Society for quality impact in the area of vehicular technology. Dr. Stüber served as General Chair and Program Chair for several confer-
ences, including VTC’96, ICC’98, MMT”00, CTW’02, and WPMC’02. He is
a past Editor for IEEE T RANSACTIONS ON C OMMUNICATIONS (1993-1998),
and served on the IEEE Communications Society Awards Committee (1999-
2002). He an elected member of the IEEE Vehicular Technology Society
Board of Governors (2001-2003, 2004-2006) and received the Outstanding
Service Award from the IEEE Vehicular Technology Society.

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