††
School of Computer Science
Tokyo University of Technology
14041 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo, 1920982, Japan
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Table 1: Notations group #1
Lp−inf o Number of bits of the packet [bit] 1 frame
Lp Packet length [sequences] OS 1 OS 1 OS 1
Lf rame Frame length [chips] group #Mos
Mos Number of orthogonal sequences OS11frameOS 1 OS 1
Mcon Number of concatenations
Mnon Number of nonorthogonal sequences OS Mos OS Mos OS Mos
Nbit Number of bits per sequence OS 1
OS Mos OS OS 1OS Mos OS 1
(= log2 Mos + Mcon )
Mos
K Number of users
k Number of interfering packets OS Mos OS Mos OS Mos
G Average number of generated packets
in a packet duration 1 2 Mcon
(Offered load)
Eb /N0 Ratio of transmitted signal energy per bit OS: Primitive orthogonal sequence
to noise power spectral density
2.2. Transmitter
3. Theoretical analysis
Figure 2 shows the transmitter of our system. The trans
mitter acts as follows; (1) the amount of information of 3.1. Assumptions
L
Nbit (= Lp ). (2)
the packet, Lp−inf o , is divided into p−inf o
One of Mnon nonorthogonal sequences is selected. (3) We assume the following when analyzing the through
The selected nonorthogonal sequence is multiplied by the put performance.
assigned PN sequence. (4) One packet which consists • Every transmitted signal is received by equal power
of Lp frames is multiplied by the carrier, and it is trans in the central station: i.e. the power is controlled by
mitted. In our system, a nonorthogonal sequence is con the central station.
structed by concatenating Mcon primitive orthogonal se
quences. A frame is constructed by concatenating Mcon • The number of bits per packet is ﬁxed to be Lp−inf o
primitive orthogonal sequences. The number of bits per bits. When the duration of an orthogonal sequence is
frame is Nbit = log2 (2Mcon Mos )[bit], and the frame length Δt, a packet duration, Tp , is
is Lf rame = Mos Mcon .
Lp−inf o
Tp = Mcon Δt
Nbit
2.3. Canceler = Lp Mcon Δt.
Figure 3 shows the canceler of our system. Timing • The offered load, G, is deﬁned as the average number
of each transmission is assumed to be synchronized com of generated packets in Tp . Then Gchip is deﬁned as
pletely. And each adjustment of time delay is obtained per the offered load in a chip interval:
fectly. Firstly, the received signal is multiplied by each
PN sequence. Next, the sequence is correlated with CSK G G
Gchip = = .
sequences and then remodulated with the same sequence. Lp Mcon Mos Lp Lf rame
Next, the demodulated signal is respread by the same PN We assume that the length of a frame is the same as
sequence again. Then the respread signal is subtracted that of a PN sequence.
from the original received signal. Subtraction is done for
each PN sequence. Finally, the subtracted signal is demod • Packets are generated according to binomial distribu
ulated for each PN sequence. tion.
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Seqence set used for CSK/SS
C1 Delay +

+
Nbit [bit] Correlation decoder
for CSK
& +
Modulation
for CSK
PN1 PN1 PN1
+
C Mnon PN k Carrier Correlation decoder
& + for CSK
Modulation
for CSK
PN2 PN2 PN2
OS #i ... OS #i OS: Primitive orthogonal sequence
frame
+
Correlation decoder
... &
+
for CSK
Modulation
for CSK
PNK PNK PNK
OS #i OS #i OS #i
Figure 3: Receiver
Figure 2: Transmitter
where Ka is the number of interfering packets after re where kj is the number of interfering packet for jth primi
modulation, tive orthogonal sequence, and it is given by
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⎛ ⎞
1 SN R(k)
P e1j (k) = erf c ⎝ ⎠. (9)
where K is the number of users. The throughput S, which Figure 5 shows the maximum throughput versus Eb /N0
is deﬁned as the number of success bits per chip, is given by when K = 100, and Lp−inf o = 840. In the nonorthogonal
K k K−k CSK/CDMA ALOHA system, Mos = 64, Mcon = 4, and
log2 Mos + Mcon G G Lf rame = 256. In the orthogonal CSK/CDMA ALOHA
S= 1− P s(k). (13)
Lf rame K K system, Mos = 256 and Lf rame = 256. In the DS/CDMA
k=0
ALOHA system, Lf rame = 256. The solid line is the
throughput of our system, the dotted line is that of the
4. THROUGHPUT EVALUATION
DS/CDMA ALOHA with the interference canceler, and
Figure 4 shows the normalized throughput versus the the dotdashed line is that of the orthogonal CSK/CDMA
offered load per chip duration when the number of users, ALOHA with the interference canceler. From Fig.5, we
K = 100, the number of bits per packet, Lp−inf o = found that the maximum throughput of our system does
840[bit], and Eb /N0 = 10[dB]. In the nonorthogonal not improve so much when Eb /N0 is low. Otherwise, the
CSK/CDMA ALOHA system, the number of orthogonal se maximum throughput shows about 3.0 times increase by
quences , Mos and the length of orthogonal sequence are 64, using the interference canceler. We also found that the
the number of concatenations, Mcon = 4, and the frame maximum throughput of the nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA
length Lf rame = 256. In the orthogonal CSK/CDMA ALOHA with the interference canceler is the best. More
ALOHA system, Mos = 256 and Lf rame = 256. In over, the throughputs of CSK/CDMA ALOHA systems are
the DS/CDMA ALOHA system, Lf rame = 256. The over 1.0 while that of the DS/CDMA is equal or less than
solid line is the throughput of our system, the dotted line 1.0. It is because the spectral efﬁciency of our system can
is that of the DS/CDMA ALOHA with the interference exceed 1.0 as well as that of Mary/CDMA [5].
canceler, and the dotdashed line is that of the orthogonal Figure 6 shows the maximum throughput versus K
CSK/CDMA ALOHA with the interference canceler. The when Lp−inf o = 840[bit], and Eb /N0 = 10[dB]. In the
maximum throughput of the nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA ALOHA system, Mos = 64,
ALOHA is 1.05 times better than that of the orthogonal Mcon = 4, and Lf rame = 256. In the orthogonal
CSK/CDMA ALOHA system, and 2.04 times better that of CSK/CDMA ALOHA system, Mos = 256 and Lf rame =
the DS/CDMA ALOHA system. From Fig. 4, the maxi 256. In the DS/CDMA ALOHA system, Lf rame = 256.
mum throughput of our system exceeds 1.0. It is due to the The solid line is the throughput of our system, the dotted
advantage of multilevel modulation system. line is that of the DS/CDMA ALOHA with the interfer
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1.5
Maximum throughput
Canceler on
Maximum throughput
Nonorthogonal
1 1 (Mos=64, Mcon=4)
Orthogonal (Mos=256)
Canceler off
0.5
Nonorthogonal
(Mos=64, Mcon=4)
Orthogonal (Mos=256)
DS
DS
0 0
0 10 20 30 0 50 100
Eb/N0 K
Figure 5: Maximum throughput versus Eb /N0 when K = Figure 6: Maximum throughput versus K when Eb /N0 =
100, Lp−inf o = 840, Lf rame = 256. 10[dB], Lp−inf o = 840, Lf rame = 256.
ence canceler, and the dotdashed line is that of the orthog be demodulated successfully at the same time. More
onal CSK/CDMA ALOHA with the interference canceler. over, the spectral efﬁciency of our system can exceed
From Fig.6, The maximum throughput varies by K, and 1.0 as well as that of Mary/CDMA [5].
it converges as K increases. There is a peak value of the
• The throughput performance of our system shows
maximum throughput for the number of users. When K is
about 3.0 times increase by using the interference
small, the number of generated packets does not approach
cancellation technique.
the number to maximize the throughput performance. Thus,
the maximum throughput is not so high. From Fig.6, we • When comparing the nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA
found that the maximum throughput of the nonorthogonal ALOHA system with the conventional CDMA
CSK/CDMA ALOHA system with interference canceler is ALOHA systems, the maximum throughput of
the best at every K. nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA ALOHA system with
the interference canceler is the highest.
5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION From above, we can conclude that the nonorthogonal
CSK/CDMA ALOHA with the interference canceler is ef
This paper presents the evaluation of throughput per
fective.
formance of the nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA ALOHA with
Future works include the investigation of the in
an interference cancellation technique. In the nonorthog
terference cancellation technique on the nonorthogonal
onal CSK/CDMA ALOHA, the nonorthogonal sequences
CSK/CDMA ALOHA under fading channel, the way to
which are used for CSK are constructed by concatenat
reduce the sequence error, and the investigation of the
ing Mcon primitive orthogonal sequences. Our study in
nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA system which integrates access
dicated that introducing an interference cancellation tech
control scheme and the interference cancellation technique.
nique into the nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA ALOHA is very
effective. From the numerical results, we obtained the fol
lowing points; References
• the normalized throughput (maximum throughput) [1] A.Jamalipour, T.Wada, and T.Yamazato: ”A Tutorial
sometimes exceeds 1.0. The nonorthogonal CSK is on Multiple Access Technologies for Beyond 3G Mo
one of the multilevel modulation systems, and it has bile Networks”, IEEE Commun. Mag., Vol.43, Issue
the usual effect of Mary/CDMA. So, some bits can 2, pp.110117, Feb. 2005.
Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on August 2, 2009 at 05:03 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
[2] A.H.Abdelmonem, and T.N.Saadawi: ”Performance
analysis of spread spectrum packet radio network with
channel load sensing:, IEEE J. Sel. Areas in Commun.,
Vol.7, No.1, pp.161166, Jan. 1989.
[3] T.Sato, H.Okada, T.Yamazato, M.Katayama, and
A.Ogawa: ”Throughput Analysis of DS/SSMA Un
slotted ALOHA System with Fixed Packet Length”,
IEEE J. on Sel. Areas in Commun., Vol.14, No.4,
pp.750755, May 1996.
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