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International Symposium on Information Theory and its Applications, ISITA2008

Auckland, New Zealand, 7-10, December, 2008

Throughput Evaluation of the the Nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA ALOHA with Interference


Canceler

Nobuyoshi KOMURO† , Hiromasa HABUCHI‡ and Toshinori TSUBOI††



School of Computer Science ‡
College of Engineering,
Tokyo University of Technology
Ibaraki University
1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo, 192-0982, Japan
4-12-1 Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 316-8511, Japan
E-mail: nkmr@cs.teu.ac.jp

††
School of Computer Science
Tokyo University of Technology
1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo, 192-0982, Japan

Abstract scheme and to use the interference canceler [5].


The DS/CDMA ALOHA system can maintain high
Nonorthogonal Code Shift Keying Code Division Multi- throughput by using access control system [3]. On the other
ple Access (CSK/CDMA) ALOHA is expected to improve hand, the maximum throughput of the DS/CDMA ALOHA
the throughput in advanced wireless network, such as sen- system itself can improve by using the interference canceler
sor networks and ad-hoc networks. The throughput of the [6]. We have shown that the nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA
nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA ALOHA is expected to get bet- ALOHA system does not only maintain high throughput but
ter by introducing the interference cancellation technique. also its maximum throughput improves. Using the interfer-
It is not clear how much the throughput improved by in- ence canceler into the nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA ALOHA
troducing the interference canceler. This paper presents the system is expected to improve the throughput, but its effect
throughput performance of the nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA is unclear.
ALOHA with the interference canceler by theoretical anal- In this paper, we evaluate the throughput of our system
ysis. Consequently, it is found that the throughput perfor- with the interference canceler. We derive the throughput
mance of our system is over 1.0. of the nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA ALOHA system theo-
retically, and then we evaluate its throughput. We inves-
tigate the improvement factor of the throughput by using
1. INTRODUCTION the interference canceler. And we compare our system with
the conventional CDMA ALOHA systems; the DS/CDMA
The Direct Sequence/Code Division Multiple Access ALOHA system and the orthogonal CSK/CDMA ALOHA
(DS/CDMA) ALOHA system is widely used in wireless system. The notation on the following discussion is shown
communication networks because of its advantages; sim- in Table 1.
ple transmission procedure and multiple access [1]-[3]. To
improve the throughput performance of the DS/CDMA
ALOHA system, we have proposed and investigated the
nonorthogonal Code Shift Keying Code Devision Multiple 2. SYSTEM MODEL
Access (CSK/CDMA) ALOHA system [7]. In our system,
the sequences which are used for CSK are constructed by To distinguish users, each user has the assigned partic-
concatenating Mcon primitive orthogonal sequences. We ular Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence. All users have the same
have shown that the throughput performance of our sys- Mnon nonorthogonal sequences which are used for CSK.
tem is 2.0 times or more higher than that of the DS/CDMA
ALOHA system [7]. From [7][8], we have found that 2.1. Nonorthogonal sequences
the throughput of our system improves by lengthening the
nonorthogonal sequences. However, the throughput perfor- Figure 1 shows their structure. One nonorthogonal se-
mance deteriorates significantly when the number of on- quence is constructed by concatenating Mcon orthogonal
going users exceeds the network capacity. There are two sequences. A frame is the sequence which is constructed
strategies to overcome the problem; to use access control by concatenating Mcon orthogonal sequences. The group of

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Table 1: Notations group #1
Lp−inf o Number of bits of the packet [bit] 1 frame
Lp Packet length [sequences] OS 1 OS 1 OS 1
Lf rame Frame length [chips] group #Mos
Mos Number of orthogonal sequences OS11frameOS 1 -OS 1
Mcon Number of concatenations
Mnon Number of nonorthogonal sequences OS Mos OS Mos OS Mos
Nbit Number of bits per sequence -OS 1
OS Mos OS -OS 1-OS Mos -OS 1
(= log2 Mos + Mcon )
Mos
K Number of users
k Number of interfering packets -OS Mos -OS Mos -OS Mos
G Average number of generated packets
in a packet duration 1 2 Mcon
(Offered load)
Eb /N0 Ratio of transmitted signal energy per bit OS: Primitive orthogonal sequence
to noise power spectral density

OS1 OS2 OSMos


nonorthogonal sequences which is constructed from orthog-
onal sequence #i is called group #i. The sequences among
the groups are orthogonal, but the sequences in the same
group are nonorthogonal. Figure 1: Structure of nonorthogonal sequence

2.2. Transmitter
3. Theoretical analysis
Figure 2 shows the transmitter of our system. The trans-
mitter acts as follows; (1) the amount of information of 3.1. Assumptions
L
Nbit (= Lp ). (2)
the packet, Lp−inf o , is divided into p−inf o

One of Mnon nonorthogonal sequences is selected. (3) We assume the following when analyzing the through-
The selected nonorthogonal sequence is multiplied by the put performance.
assigned PN sequence. (4) One packet which consists • Every transmitted signal is received by equal power
of Lp frames is multiplied by the carrier, and it is trans- in the central station: i.e. the power is controlled by
mitted. In our system, a nonorthogonal sequence is con- the central station.
structed by concatenating Mcon primitive orthogonal se-
quences. A frame is constructed by concatenating Mcon • The number of bits per packet is fixed to be Lp−inf o
primitive orthogonal sequences. The number of bits per bits. When the duration of an orthogonal sequence is
frame is Nbit = log2 (2Mcon Mos )[bit], and the frame length Δt, a packet duration, Tp , is
is Lf rame = Mos Mcon .
Lp−inf o
Tp = Mcon Δt
Nbit
2.3. Canceler = Lp Mcon Δt.

Figure 3 shows the canceler of our system. Timing • The offered load, G, is defined as the average number
of each transmission is assumed to be synchronized com- of generated packets in Tp . Then Gchip is defined as
pletely. And each adjustment of time delay is obtained per- the offered load in a chip interval:
fectly. Firstly, the received signal is multiplied by each
PN sequence. Next, the sequence is correlated with CSK G G
Gchip = = .
sequences and then re-modulated with the same sequence. Lp Mcon Mos Lp Lf rame
Next, the demodulated signal is re-spread by the same PN We assume that the length of a frame is the same as
sequence again. Then the re-spread signal is subtracted that of a PN sequence.
from the original received signal. Subtraction is done for
each PN sequence. Finally, the subtracted signal is demod- • Packets are generated according to binomial distribu-
ulated for each PN sequence. tion.

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Seqence set used for CSK/SS

C1 Delay +

-
+
Nbit [bit] Correlation decoder
for CSK
& +
Modulation
for CSK
PN1 PN1 PN1

+
C Mnon PN k Carrier Correlation decoder
& + for CSK
Modulation
for CSK
PN2 PN2 PN2
OS #i ... -OS #i OS: Primitive orthogonal sequence
frame
+
Correlation decoder
... &
+
for CSK
Modulation
for CSK
PNK PNK PNK
OS #i OS #i -OS #i

Figure 3: Receiver
Figure 2: Transmitter

SN R(Ka) indicates the ratio of the transmitted signal to


3.2. Success rate of one frame the noise power spectral density.
If a sequence error occur, an incorrect sequence is sub-  −1
1 Ka 1 N0
tracted from the desired signal. In our system, each se- SN R(Ka) = + . (3)
quence is constructed by concatenating primitive orthogo- 2 3Lf rame 2 Nbit Eb
nal sequences. There are some patterns of cancellation er- Pocs (k) is the success rate of sequence when the number of
ror: simultaneous transmitted packet is k, and it is given by [7]
• Primitive orthogonal sequence is estimated incor-  ∞  x1 Mos −1
rectly. Then the cancellation signal includes twice in Pocs (k) = f (x1 ) f (x j )dxj dx1 ,(4)
power. That is the power of interfering signal is twice. −∞ −∈f ty j=1

(Error pattern 1) f (xj ) = g(|qj |) ⊗ · · · ⊗ g(|qj |), (5)


  
• Primitive orthogonal sequence is estimated correctly Mcon times
  2 
but its polar characters are estimated incorrectly. 1 1 q j − μj
Then the power of interfering signal is fourfold. (Er- g(qj ) = √ exp − . (6)
2πσj 2 σj
ror pattern 2)
qj is the output of the jth correlator, uj is the mean of ran-
Error rate of one sequence for error pattern 1, P e1 (k), is Nbit /Mcon
given by dom variable qj , σj = 2SN R(Ka) , and ’⊗’ expresses the
convolution integral.
⎧ ⎛ ⎞⎫Mcon
⎨ ⎬ Error rate of one sequence for error pattern 2 P e2 (k) is
1 SN R(Ka)
P e1 (k) = 1 − 1 − erf c ⎝ ⎠ given by
⎩ 2 Mcon ⎭
  Mos −1  P e2 (k) = 1 − Pocs (kj )
∞ x1 ⎧ ⎛ ⎞ ⎫
× f (x1 ) f (x )dxj dx1 . M con ⎨ ⎬
j SN R(kj ) ⎠
−∞ −∞ j=1 × 1 − erf c ⎝ Pocs (k) ,(7)
(1) ⎩ Mcon ⎭
j=1

where Ka is the number of interfering packets after re- where kj is the number of interfering packet for jth primi-
modulation, tive orthogonal sequence, and it is given by

Ka = 2k(1 − Pocs (k)). (2) kj = 4kP e1j (k)Pocs (k), (8)

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⎛ ⎞
1 SN R(k)
P e1j (k) = erf c ⎝ ⎠. (9)

Normalized throughput [bits/chip]


2 Mcon
Nonorthogonal CSK
From above, we can obtain the success rate for one frame, 1 Orthogonal CSK
P c(k),

P c(k) = 1 − P e1 (k) − P e2 (k) . (10)

3.3. Normalized throughput 0.5


DS
We assume that the number of interfering packets
changes at one packet interval (i.e. we assume perfect cap-
ture). Then the success rate of one packet, P s(k) is ex-
pressed as
L p 0
0 0.001 0.002
P s(k) = P c(k) , (11)
Offered load per chip duration, Gchip
where Lp is the packet length.
The probability of generating k packets in a packet du- Figure 4: Normalized throughput versus Offered load when
ration is K = 100, Lp−inf o = 840, Eb /N0 = 10[dB], Lf rame =
   k  K−k 256.
G G G
B k, = K Ck 1− , (12)
K K K

where K is the number of users. The throughput S, which Figure 5 shows the maximum throughput versus Eb /N0
is defined as the number of success bits per chip, is given by when K = 100, and Lp−inf o = 840. In the nonorthogonal
K  k  K−k CSK/CDMA ALOHA system, Mos = 64, Mcon = 4, and
log2 Mos + Mcon  G G Lf rame = 256. In the orthogonal CSK/CDMA ALOHA
S= 1− P s(k). (13)
Lf rame K K system, Mos = 256 and Lf rame = 256. In the DS/CDMA
k=0
ALOHA system, Lf rame = 256. The solid line is the
throughput of our system, the dotted line is that of the
4. THROUGHPUT EVALUATION
DS/CDMA ALOHA with the interference canceler, and
Figure 4 shows the normalized throughput versus the the dot-dashed line is that of the orthogonal CSK/CDMA
offered load per chip duration when the number of users, ALOHA with the interference canceler. From Fig.5, we
K = 100, the number of bits per packet, Lp−inf o = found that the maximum throughput of our system does
840[bit], and Eb /N0 = 10[dB]. In the nonorthogonal not improve so much when Eb /N0 is low. Otherwise, the
CSK/CDMA ALOHA system, the number of orthogonal se- maximum throughput shows about 3.0 times increase by
quences , Mos and the length of orthogonal sequence are 64, using the interference canceler. We also found that the
the number of concatenations, Mcon = 4, and the frame maximum throughput of the nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA
length Lf rame = 256. In the orthogonal CSK/CDMA ALOHA with the interference canceler is the best. More-
ALOHA system, Mos = 256 and Lf rame = 256. In over, the throughputs of CSK/CDMA ALOHA systems are
the DS/CDMA ALOHA system, Lf rame = 256. The over 1.0 while that of the DS/CDMA is equal or less than
solid line is the throughput of our system, the dotted line 1.0. It is because the spectral efficiency of our system can
is that of the DS/CDMA ALOHA with the interference exceed 1.0 as well as that of M-ary/CDMA [5].
canceler, and the dot-dashed line is that of the orthogonal Figure 6 shows the maximum throughput versus K
CSK/CDMA ALOHA with the interference canceler. The when Lp−inf o = 840[bit], and Eb /N0 = 10[dB]. In the
maximum throughput of the nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA ALOHA system, Mos = 64,
ALOHA is 1.05 times better than that of the orthogonal Mcon = 4, and Lf rame = 256. In the orthogonal
CSK/CDMA ALOHA system, and 2.04 times better that of CSK/CDMA ALOHA system, Mos = 256 and Lf rame =
the DS/CDMA ALOHA system. From Fig. 4, the maxi- 256. In the DS/CDMA ALOHA system, Lf rame = 256.
mum throughput of our system exceeds 1.0. It is due to the The solid line is the throughput of our system, the dotted
advantage of multilevel modulation system. line is that of the DS/CDMA ALOHA with the interfer-

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1.5
Maximum throughput

Canceler on

Maximum throughput
Nonorthogonal
1 1 (Mos=64, Mcon=4)
Orthogonal (Mos=256)

Canceler off
0.5
Nonorthogonal
(Mos=64, Mcon=4)
Orthogonal (Mos=256)
DS
DS
0 0
0 10 20 30 0 50 100
Eb/N0 K

Figure 5: Maximum throughput versus Eb /N0 when K = Figure 6: Maximum throughput versus K when Eb /N0 =
100, Lp−inf o = 840, Lf rame = 256. 10[dB], Lp−inf o = 840, Lf rame = 256.

ence canceler, and the dot-dashed line is that of the orthog- be demodulated successfully at the same time. More-
onal CSK/CDMA ALOHA with the interference canceler. over, the spectral efficiency of our system can exceed
From Fig.6, The maximum throughput varies by K, and 1.0 as well as that of M-ary/CDMA [5].
it converges as K increases. There is a peak value of the
• The throughput performance of our system shows
maximum throughput for the number of users. When K is
about 3.0 times increase by using the interference
small, the number of generated packets does not approach
cancellation technique.
the number to maximize the throughput performance. Thus,
the maximum throughput is not so high. From Fig.6, we • When comparing the nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA
found that the maximum throughput of the nonorthogonal ALOHA system with the conventional CDMA
CSK/CDMA ALOHA system with interference canceler is ALOHA systems, the maximum throughput of
the best at every K. nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA ALOHA system with
the interference canceler is the highest.
5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION From above, we can conclude that the nonorthogonal
CSK/CDMA ALOHA with the interference canceler is ef-
This paper presents the evaluation of throughput per-
fective.
formance of the nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA ALOHA with
Future works include the investigation of the in-
an interference cancellation technique. In the nonorthog-
terference cancellation technique on the nonorthogonal
onal CSK/CDMA ALOHA, the nonorthogonal sequences
CSK/CDMA ALOHA under fading channel, the way to
which are used for CSK are constructed by concatenat-
reduce the sequence error, and the investigation of the
ing Mcon primitive orthogonal sequences. Our study in-
nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA system which integrates access
dicated that introducing an interference cancellation tech-
control scheme and the interference cancellation technique.
nique into the nonorthogonal CSK/CDMA ALOHA is very
effective. From the numerical results, we obtained the fol-
lowing points; References

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