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A deterministic system is one in which the occurrence of all events is known with certainty. In
such a system, given a description of the system state at a particular point of time and its
operation, the next state can be perfectly predicted.
Example: A correct computer program which performs exactly according to set of instructions.
Probabilistic System is one in which the occurrence of events cant be perfectly predicted
though the behavior of such a system can be described in terms of probability. A certain
degree of error is always attached to the prediction of the behavior of the system.
Example: set of instructions given to a person who may not follow the instructions exactly as


An open system is that interacts with its environment and thus exchanges information from a
material or energy with the environment. Open system are adaptive in nature as they tend to
react with the environment in such a way so as to favor there continued existence such
systems are self-organizing in the sense that they change their organization in response to
changing conditions.
A closed system is one which does not interact with its environment. Such systems in business
world are rare but relatively closed systems are common. Thus, the systems that are relatively
isolated from the environment but not completely closed are termed as closed system.
Example: A computer program is relatively closed system because it accepts and processes
previously defined inputs and provides output too in a previously defined way.


In User Machine System both i.e. human as well as machine performs some activities in the
accomplishment of as goal. The machine elements may be computer hardware and software is
relatively closed and deterministic whereas the human elements of the system are open and


The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model used in project management
that describes the stages involved in an information system development project, from an
initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application.Systems

4. Design
The logical system design arrived at as a result of system analysis and is converted into
physical system design. In the design phase the SDLC process continues to move from
what questions of the analysis phase to the how. The logical design produced during the
analysis is turned into a physical design - a detailed description of what is needed to
solve original problem. Input, output, databases, forms, codification schemes and
processing specifications are drawn up in detail. In the design stage, the programming
language and the hardware and software platform in which the new system will run are
also decided. Data structure, control process, equipment source, workload and
limitation of the system, Interface, documentation, training, procedures of using the
system, taking backups and staffing requirement are decided at this stage.
General Design (framework) :- How will the problem will be solved
Detailed Design
o Input
o Output
o Files
o Procedure
What is the flow of system
Coding: The system design needs to be implemented to make it a workable
system. This demands the coding of design into computer language, i.e.,
programming language. This is also called the programming phase in which the
programmer converts the program specifications into computer instructions,
which we refer to as programs. It is an important stage where the defined
procedures are transformed into control specifications by the help of a computer
Testing (working properly or not): After codifying the whole programs of the
system, a test plan should be developed and run on a given set of test data. The
output of the test run should match the expected results.
o User Testing
o User Acceptance Testing
o Combined Module Testing
5. Implementation
After having the user acceptance of the new system developed, the implementation
phase begins. Implementation is the stage of a project during which theory is turned
into practice. The major steps involved in this phase are: