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# MEEM 3700

Mechanical Vibrations
Mohan D. Rao
Chuck Van Karsen
Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Michigan Technological University

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F
f

X
x

F = KX
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## Stiffness Elements: Bar in Tension/Compression

K=

F
A= Area of Cross-Section
E= Modulus of Elasticity
L= Length

AE
L

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## Lecture 4-Equivalent M & K

E = modulus of elasticity.
I = area moment of inertia relative to bending axis.
Kb = spring rate of beam.
L

3EI
F = _____
L3

3EI
Kb = _____
FL3
=
for a cantilever beam
L3
3EI
Similarly obtain Kb for other boundary conditions
from deflection equations
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Fixed-Fixed

Simply Supported

max

max

F = Kmax max =

FL3
192EI

F = Kmax

192EI
Kb = _______
L3

max =

FL3
48EI

48EI
Kb = ______
L3
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## Lecture 4-Equivalent M & K

L
M=Moment
M = K t ( L - R ) = K t

Kt
GJ
Kt =
J= d 4 / 32
L
for a round shaft of diameter d

= K t

units=
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Nm
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## How to combine Stiffness Elements?

Equivalent System

Keq
K1

K2
F
F

Keq = K1 + K2
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## Lecture 4-Equivalent M & K

F
X1 K2

K1
F

K1

Keq

K2
F

X = X1 + X 2
F = K eq X = K1 X 1 = K 2 X 2

X=

X2

K eq X
K1

K eq X
K2

1
1
1
=
+
K eq K1 K 2

Equivalent System
K eq =

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K1 K 2

( K1 + K 2 )
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## Lecture 4-Equivalent M & K

Keq = K +

Keq

3EI
_____

L3
Equivalent System
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Case 1
F1

F1 =K eq X

Keq =K1 +

K1

K2K3
K2 +K3

Case 2

K2

F2 =K eq X

Keq =K3 +

K3

K2K1
K2 +K1

F2
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## Lecture 4-Equivalent M & K

U = Potential Energy

U=

Spring Force

Kx

1
Kx 2
2

dx

1
or U = K t 2
2
for a torsional spring

U = Kxdx
x

U = Kxdx =
0

1 2
Kx
2

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## Lecture 4-Equivalent M & K

d = x cos
Equivalent potential energy

U=

K eq = Kcos 2
in the x-direction

1
1
2
k ( x cos ) = keq x 2
2
2

K eq
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## Archimedes principle: The buoyant force acting on a floating body is equal

to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body.
Spring Force (F)= Weight of the fluid displaced = mass*g =density*volume*g.
Volume displaced= cross-sectional area*displacement x.
Hence, F= gAx= Keq x, x is measured from the static equilibrium.

Keq

Static
equilibrium

mg

F
Keq=gA

Fb = mg + gAx
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J
X

## J = mass moment of inertia

( kgm )
2

Rotating
Inertia

Mass
Rigid Body Behavior
Gain / Lose Kinetic Energy
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1
K.E. = mx& 2
2

1
K.E. = J& 2
2

M,J

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translation

rotation

## Kinetic Energy of rolling motion

X
r

1
1
K.E. = mx& 2 + J& 2
2
2

1
1 x& 2
NOTE: x = r therefore K.E. = mx& 2 + J 2
2
2 r
1
K.E. = m eq x& 2 where meq = m+ J/r 2
2
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M,J
d
CG

CG
d

K.E. =

0
CG

1 &2
J 0
2

M,J

J 0 =J cg +Md 2

## J0 is the mass Moment of Inertia of the body about the

pivot 0. Jcg is the same about the center of mass
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## Lecture 4-Equivalent M & K

Viscous damping
Force (or Torque)

C F = Cx&
ear
Lin

C or Ct

Ct

Velocity

M = C t &

(Translation or
Angular)

Linear Torsional
Viscous Damper
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