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II. Instead of running your apps yourself. they run on a shared data center. The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to 1960. Cloud computing is a better way to run your business.MUHAMMAD AMIR BIN KHALID: SEM 1 2015 CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY CSC 098 FOUNDATION COMPUTING I NAME : MUHAMMAD AMIR BIN KHALID MATRIC NO : 2015891326 ABSTRACT DEFINITION: I. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public 1 .

MUHAMMAD AMIR BIN KHALID: SEM 1 2015 III. V. indeed it shares characteristics with service bureaus that date back to the 1960s. utility". 2 2 . The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. IV. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider from that of the user. who until the 1990s primarily offered dedicated point-to-point data circuits. Cost is claimed to be greatly reduced and capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. VI. Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using. began offering “VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN)” services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost.

However. or social networking sites.MUHAMMAD AMIR BIN KHALID: SEM 1 2015 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I. broad network access. an operating system. community cloud. the cloud infrastructure is operated solely for a specific organization. Service models . along with any required software. The IaaS model provides just the hardware and network. and use of a service is measured and customers are billed accordingly. resource pooling. the customer installs or develops its own operating systems. In a private cloud.Cloud services are typically made available via a private cloud. e-mail services. Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). In a Software as a Service model.The cloud computing service models are Software as a Service (SaaS). hardware. III. Generally speaking. On-demand self service means that customers (usually organizations) can request and manage their own computing resources. public cloud or hybrid cloud. and the customer installs or develops its own software and applications. In PaaS. and network are provided. Deployment of cloud services . 3 . software and applications. a pre-made application. Some examples include services aimed at the general public. Pooled resources means that customers draw from a pool of computing resources. and is managed by3 the organization or a third party.The characteristics of cloud computing include ondemand self service. services for enterprises can also be offered in a public cloud. Services can be scaled larger or smaller. services provided by a public cloud are offered over the Internet and are owned and operated by a cloud provider. operating system. usually in remote data centres. Broad network access allows services to be offered over the Internet or private networks. Characteristics . hardware. II. rapid elasticity and measured service. such as online photo storage services. and network are provided.

INTRODUCTION Why cloud services are popular 1. flexible use. 3. Widespread use of the cloud may also encourage open standards for cloud computing that will establish baseline data security features common across different services and providers. The cloud is reliable in that it enables access to applications and documents anywhere in the world via the Internet. customization. 7. 6. Cloud services are popular because they can reduce the cost and complexity of owning and operating computers and networks. or buy software licences. 4 4 . the benefits are low up-front costs.MUHAMMAD AMIR BIN KHALID: SEM 1 2015 In a community cloud. Cloud providers that have specialized in a particular area (such as e-mail) can bring advanced services that a single company might not be able to afford or develop. 2. Scalability means that cloud computing offers unlimited processing and storage capacity. which may permit adjustments to procedures based on the sensitivity of the data. Cloud users do not have to invest in information technology infrastructure. rapid return on investment. reliability. rapid deployment. and efficiency. Some other benefits to users include scalability. cloud computing may improve efforts to build privacy protection into technology from the start and the use of better security mechanisms. 5. 4. It allows organizations to free up resources to focus on innovation and product development. 8. Cloud computing will enable more flexible IT acquisition and improvements. Specifically. The infrastructure may be owned and operated by the organizations or by a cloud service provider. purchase hardware. the service is shared by several organizations and made available only to those groups. and solutions that can make use of new innovations. Personal information may be better protected in the cloud.

It may also allow for better audit trails. information in the cloud is not as easily lost (when compared to the paper documents or hard drives.MUHAMMAD AMIR BIN KHALID: SEM 1 2015 9. In addition. for example) 2 2 .

often referred to as "dumb terminals". This eliminated periods of inactivity on the mainframe and allowed for a greater return on the investment. time-sharing was popularly known as RJE (Remote Job Entry). because they were used for better communications but had no internal processing capacities. The popularization of the term can be traced to 2006 when Amazon. To make more efficient use of costly mainframes. accessible via thin clients/terminal computers. the implication is that the specifics of how the end points of a network are connected are not relevant for the purposes of understanding the diagram. The expression cloud is commonly used in science to describe a large agglomeration of objects that visually appear from a distance as a cloud and describes any set of things whose details are not inspected further in a given context. Another explanation is that the old programs to draw network schematics surrounded the icons for servers with a circle. the introduced the Elastic Compute Cloud. 3 3 . when largescale mainframe computers were seen as the future of computing. The practice of sharing CPU time on a mainframe became known in the industry as time-sharing. References to cloud computing in its modern sense appeared as early as 1996. a practice evolved that allowed multiple users to share both the physical access to the computer from multiple terminals as well as the CPU time. which resembled a cloud. but external to. In analogy to above usage the word cloud was used as a metaphor for the Internet and a standardized cloud-like shape was used to denote a network on telephony schematics and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams. and became available in academia and corporations. With this simplification. and a cluster of servers in a network diagram had several overlapping circles.[18] During the mid 70s. IBM developed the VM Operating System to provide time-sharing services.MUHAMMAD AMIR BIN KHALID: SEM 1 2015 CONTENT . this nomenclature was mostly associated with large vendors such as IBM and DEC. with the earliest known mention in a Compaq internal document.HISTORY T he origin of the term cloud computing is unclear. The underlying concept of cloud computing dates to the 1950s. The cloud symbol was used to represent the Internet as early as 1994 in which servers were then shown connected to.

As computers became more prevalent. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas. In the same year. began offering virtual private network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service. they could use overall network bandwidth more effectively. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project. S ince 2000 cloud computing has come into existence. platform. Rackspace Hosting and NASA jointly launched an open-source cloud-software initiative known as OpenStack.[ 4 4 . The early code came from NASA's Nebula platform as well as from Rackspace's Cloud Files platform. scientists and technologists explored ways to make large-scale computing power available to more users through timesharing.. In early 2008. By switching traffic as they saw fit to balance server use. efforts were focused on providing quality of serviceguarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures. By mid-2008.MUHAMMAD AMIR BIN KHALID: SEM 1 2015 I n the 1990s. The OpenStack project intended to help organizations offer cloudcomputing services running on standard hardware. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. but at a lower cost. resulting in a real-time cloud environment. and applications to prioritize CPUs and increase efficiency for end users. NASA's OpenNebula. telecommunications companies."[24] Microsoft Azure became available in late 2008. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover all servers as well as the network infrastructure. who previously offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits.. They began to use the cloud symbol to denote the demarcation point between what the provider was responsible for and what users were responsible for. those who use IT services and those who sell them and observed that "organizations are switching from companyowned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to computing . In July 2010. and for the federation of clouds. They experimented with algorithms to optimize the infrastructure.

2011. 5 5 . While aspects of the Oracle Cloud are still in development. 1 Software licensing and delivery model in which software is licensed on a subscription basis and is centrallyhosted. this cloud offering is posed to be the first to provide users with access to an integrated set of IT solutions. providers of IaaS offer computers – physical or (more often) virtual machines – and other resources. Among the various components of the Smarter Computing foundation. including the Applications (SaaS1). and Infrastructure (IaaS3) layers. 3 In the most basic cloud-service model & according to the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). cloud computing is a critical piece.MUHAMMAD AMIR BIN KHALID: SEM 1 2015 On March 1. IBM announced the IBM SmartCloud framework to support Smarter Planet. On June 7. Oracle announced the Oracle Cloud. 2012. Platform (PaaS2). 2 A category of cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop run and manage Web application without the complexity of building and maintaining the infrastructure typically associated with developing and launching the app.

6 6 . There are also privacy and security concerns. can best be protected. you should think about how your personal information. If you are considering a cloud service. Carefully review the terms of service or contracts. and challenge the provider to meet your needs.MUHAMMAD AMIR BIN KHALID: SEM 1 2015 Conclusion Cloud computing offers benefits for organizations and individuals. and that of your customers. 5 5  https://www.29  http://www.MUHAMMAD AMIR BIN KHALID: SEM 1 2015 APPENDIX  https://en.gc.wikipedia.