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Schematic Diagram


To determine the efficiency, effectiveness of a pin fin, where heat is
transferred to air by forced and natural convection


Pin-fin apparatus

The apparatus consists of a long rectangular duct. One end of the duct is
open to the surrounding and other end is connected to the suction side of a blower. A
brass pin-fin of circular cross section is fitted inside the duct across its length so that
air flows perpendicular to the axis of pin-fin when the blower sucks the air from the
surroundings. The one end of the fin, which is projecting outside the duct, is heated
by means of a electrical heater. The temperature at five points along the length of the
pin and ambient air temperature are measured by thermocouples airflow rate
through the duct is measured by using an anemometer.
The heat transfer from a heated surface to the ambient surrounding is given
by the relation, q = h A T. In this relation h c is the convective heat transfer
coefficient, T is the temperature difference & A is the area of heat transfer. To
increase q, h may be increased or surface area may by increased. In some cases it
is not possible to increase the value of heat transfer coefficient & the temperature
difference T & thus the only alternative is to increase the surface area of heat
transfer. The surface area is increased by attaching extra material in the form of rod
(circular or rectangular) on the surface where we have to increase the heat transfer
rate. "This extra material attached is called the extended surface or fin."The fins may
be attached on a plane surface, and then they are called plane surface fins. If the
fins are attached on the cylindrical surface, they are called circumferential fins. The
cross section of the fin may be circular, rectangular, triangular or parabolic.


Length of the pin fin (L) = 12.5 cm

Diameter of the pin-fin (d) = 12.7 cm
Thermal conductivity fin material (k) = 110 W/Mk

Assumption pin fin is assumed as short fin with insulated tip

Tw = (T1+T2+T3+T4+T5)/5
Ta = Tb OC
Tf = ( Tw+ Ta)/2 OC
To get the air properties from page no. 34 Data book
Kinematic viscosity
Prandtl Number, Pr
Thermal Conductivity, k in W/ mK
Reynolds number , Re
Re = UD/
Nussult number from page no.116 Data book
Nu= C.Rem.Pr0.333
Nu= hD/k

Tw = Wall temperature in OC
Ta = Ambient air temperature in OC
Tb = OC
Tf = Mean film temperature in OC
U = velocity of air in m/s
D = diameter of the film in m
= kinematic viscosity in m2/s
C, m = constant from page no. 116 data book
h= heat transfer coefficient in W/m2K
P= Perimeter of fin in m
A= Area of fin in m2
m= fin ratio
L = length of the fin in m


S. No.






Temperature of fin at
various pionts


Ambient air
Velocity of air



1. Make sure that dimmer start in zero position

2. Switch on the blower and heater.

Fin Efficiency Fin Effectiveness

3. Adjust the dimmer start for the required heat input

4. Adjust the gate valve in the delivery side of the blower for the required flow rate
of air
5. Wait till the fin attains the steady state.
6. At ateady state note down the following readings
Temperature of fin at various points (T1 to T5).
Ambient air temperature T6
Velocity of air in duct using anemometer
7. Bring the dimmer slat to zero position then switch off the heater and blower.

The efficiency and effectiveness of the pin-fin are calculated and a graph is drawn to
show the temperature distribution along the length of the fin
Fin efficiency
Fin effectiveness =