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Pipette

AIR

DISPLACEMENT

PIPETTES

Air

displacement

micropipettes are a type of


adjustable micropipette that
measured volume between
about 0.1 l to 1000 l (1 ml). These pipettes require disposable
tips that come in contact with the fluid. The four standard sizes of
micropipettes correspond to four different disposable tip colors:

Pipette type

Volumes (L)

Tip color

P10

0.5 10

white

P20

2 20

yellow

P200

20 200

yellow

P1000

200 1000

blue

POSITIVE
PIPETTES

DISPLACEMENT

These
are
similar
to
air
displacement pipettes, but are less
commonly used and are used to avoid
contamination and for volatile or
viscous substances at small volumes,
such as DNA. The major difference is
that
the
disposable
tip
is
a
microsyringe (plastic), composed of a
plunger which directly displaces the
liquid.

VOLUMETRIC PIPETTES

Volumetric pipettes or bulb pipette allow


the user to measure a volume of solution
extremely accurately (accuracy of four
significant figures). These pipettes have a
large bulb with a long narrow portion above
with a single graduation mark as it is
calibrated
for
a
single
volume
(like
a volumetric flask). Typical volumes are 10,
25, and 50 mL. Volumetric pipettes are
commonly used to make laboratory solutions
from a base stock as well as prepare solutions
for titration.

Graduated pipettes are a type of macropipette consisting of


a long tube with a series of graduations, as on a graduated
cylinder or burette, to indicate different calibrated volumes. They
also require a source of vacuum; in the early days of chemistry
and biology, the mouth was used. Graduated pipettes commonly
come in 5, 10, 25 and 50 mL volumes.

(top) Mohr, backward or drain-out pipettes have a 0 mL mark just


above the end of the pipette. A volume is pulled into the pipette,
sometimes to the maximum volume, then the needed volume is aliquoted
out.

(bottom)Serological, forward or blow-out pipettes have no 0ml


mark as that corresponds to an empty pipette. The volume needed is
pulled into the pipette and then dispensed.

PASTEUR PIPETTES
Pasteur pipettes are plastic or glass
pipettes used to transfer small amounts
of liquids, but are not graduated or
calibrated for any particular volume.
Pasteur pipettes are also called teat
pipettes, droppers, eye droppers and
chemical droppers.

TRANSFER PIPETTES
Transfer pipettes, also known
as Beral
pipettes,
are
similar to Pasteur pipettes
but are made from a single

piece of plastic and their bulb can serve as the liquid-holding


chamber.

GLASS MICROPIPETTES

compositions
applications.

has

unique

These are used to physically


interact with microscopic samples,
such as in the procedures of
microinjection and patch clamping.
Most micropipettes are made of
borosilicate, aluminosilicate or quartz
with many types and sizes of glass
tubing being available. Each of these
properties which will determine suitable

Glass micropipettes are fabricated in a micropipette puller and are


typically used in a micromanipulator.

MICROFLUIDIC PIPETTES
A recent introduction into the
micropipette
field
integrates
the
versatility of microfluidicsinto a freely
positionable pipette platform. At the tip
of the device a localized flow zone is
created, allowing for constant control of
the nanoliter environment, directly in
front of the pipette. The pipettes are
made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)
which is formed using reactive injection
molding. Interfacing of these pipettes
using pneumatics enables multiple
solutions to be loaded and switched on
demand, with solution exchanged times of 100ms.

PIPETTE ROBOTS
Pipette robots are capable of
manipulating the pipettes as
humans would do.