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Composite Structures 94 (2012) 21432156

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Composite Structures
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

A model of composite laminated Reddy plate based on new modied couple


stress theory
Wanji Chen a,b,, Ma Xu b,c, Li Li b,d
a

Key Laboratory of Liaoning Province for Composite Structural Analysis of Aerocraft and Simulation, Shenyang Aerospace University, Shenyang, LN 110136, China
State Key Laboratory for Structural Analysis of Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, China
c
School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, China
d
Physics and Biophysics Department, China Medical University, No. 92, The 2nd North Road, Heping District, Shenyang 110001, China
b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Available online 16 February 2012
Keywords:
Composite laminated Reddy plate
Modied couple stress
Material length parameter
Scale effect

a b s t r a c t
Based on new modied couple stress theory a model for composite laminated Reddy plate is developed in
rst time. In this theory a new curvature tensor is dened for establishing the constitutive relations of
laminated plate. The characterization of anisotropy is incorporated into higher-order laminated plate theories based on the modied couple stress theory by Yang et al. in 2002. The form of new curvature tensor
is asymmetric, however it can result in same as the symmetric curvature tensor in the isotropic elasticity.
The present model of thick plate can be viewed as a simplied couple stress theory in engineering
mechanics. Moreover, a more simplied model for cross-ply composite laminated Reddy plate of couple
stress theory with one materials length constant is used to demonstrate the scale effects. Numerical
results show that the present plate model can capture the scale effects of microstructure. Additionally,
the present model of thick plate model can be degenerated to the model of composite cross-ply laminated
Kirchhoff plate and Mindlin plate of couple stress theory.
2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

theory cannot explain or solve the problems of the scale effects,


theories for microstructures need to be developed.

1.1. Scale effects of microstructure


1.2. Couple stress theory
With the material size scaling down to the order of microscales, the stiffness and the strength of metal materials can
increase with the size decreasing, which is called size effects. The
microstructure-dependent size effects have been exhibited by
many micro- and nano-scale components and devices. The classical
elasticity theory is not capable of predicting such size effects. To
overcome this deciency, theories for microstructures need to be
developed.
Numerous experiments have shown that microstructure has
scale effects. Fleck et al. [1] observed that the scaled shear strength
increases by a factor of three as the wire diameter decreases from
170 lm to 12 lm in the twisting of thin copper wires; Lam et al. [2]
reported a signicant increase in the normalized bending hardening with the beam thickness decreasing in bending of ultra thin
beams. Sun et al. [3] put forward a alternative view of the size
effects in the nano-scale structures. As conventional continuum
Corresponding author at: Key Laboratory of Liaoning Province for Composite
Structural Analysis of Aerocraft and Simulation, Shenyang Aerospace University,
Shenyang, LN 110136, China.
E-mail address: chenwj@dlut.edu.cn (W.J. Chen).
0263-8223/$ - see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2012.02.009

Theories for microstructures include couple stress theory and


strain gradient theory. The couple stress theory can be viewed as
a special case of strain gradient theory which uses rotation as a variable to describe curvature, while the strain gradient theory uses
strain as a variable to describe curvature. Though both theories
can describe the scale defects at micro-scale The couple stress/
strain gradient theory for microstructures can be classied into
two respective theories, C1 theory and C0 theory. For C1 theory
the displacements and rotations/strains are dependent variables.
For C0 theory, the displacements and rotations/strains are independent variables. The C0 couple stress theory (Cosserat-type theories )
which contains more than two additional material constants. In
general, the Cosserat-type theories have six additional micromaterial constants. The C0 couple stress theory have to have two
additional micro-material constants, however, the C1 couple stress
theory may have one additional micro-material constants. The
C1 couple stress theory cannot explain as pseudo-Cosserat
approach. It is well known that in the classical bending plate
theory, the thin plate theory is called as C1 theory, the medium plate
theory is called as C0 theory. Both classical bending plate theories

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W.J. Chen et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 21432156

have a distinction to have connection again, when the thinness of


plate became very thin, the C0 theory can approximate C1 theory.
Unlike classical bending plate theory, the C1 theory and C0 theory
for couple stress theory cannot nd a connection each order.
For the couple stress theory, the C1 theory have to satisfy the
relation of rotation-displacement as xi  12 uk;j  uj;k 0: However, the C0 theory cannot satisfy this condition and this term
has to possess one independent micro-material constant. Up today
it is no answer about the condition for vanishing this term in the C0
the couple stress theory.
A series of research in the couple stress theories have been
made. For example, Toupin [4], Koiter [5] and Mindlin [6] proposed
couple stress theory; Neuber [7] proposed couple stress theory
containing four materials characteristic length constants; Fleck
Hutchinson [8] proposed couple stress theory containing one
materials characteristic length constants; Yang [9] proposed symmetrical couple stress theory (C1 theory) containing one material
characteristic length constants.
The microstructures such as sensors and actuators in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nano-electromechanical
systems (NEMS) often consist in the components of beam, plate
and membrane et al. According to the application in engineering,
the beam, plate and shell theories based on couple stress/strain
gradient theory should be developed.
1.3. The couple stress isotropic plate model based on the C0 couple
stress theory
The researchers have focused on the plate theory on micro-scale
in recent years. A number of papers have been published for
attempting to develop microstructure-dependent non-local Timoshenko plate models and apply them to analyze nanotubes and
other small plate-like members/devices. All of these models are
based on a C0 theory in which the rotation-displacement as dependent variables. For example, the model for pure bending proposed
by Anthoine [10] is based on the classical C0 couple stress elasticity
theory, which includes two additional internal material length
scale parameters. The higher-order BernoulliEuler plate model
developed by Papargyri-Beskou et al. [11] is based on the C0 gradient elasticity theory, which involves two internal material length
scale parameters. The non-local BernoulliEuler plate model proposed by Peddieson et al. [12], in the formulation the constitutive
equation suggested by Eringen [13] contains two additional material constants. More background related to the couple stress plate
based on the C0 couple stress theory, especially Cosserat-type theories which contain more than two additional material constants,
can be found in the review by Johannes al. [14].
1.4. The couple stress isotropic plate model based on the C1 couple
stress theory
Recently, due to the difculty of determining more than one
microstructure-dependent length scale parameters and the
approximate nature of plate theories, C1 non-classical plate models
involving only one material length scale parameter are getting
many attentions. One model, as a simpler BernoulliEuler beam
model based on modied couple stress theory with only one material length parameter, has recently been developed by Park and
Gao [15]. Ma et al. [16] proposed a microstructure-dependent Timoshenko beam model based on a modied couple stress theory
with only one material length parameter. Tsiatas [17] proposed a
new Kirchhoff plate model based on a modied couple stress
theory, and by using modied couple stress theory, the governing
equation of couple stress thin plate are obtained as
(D + 2D)r4w = fw, where D and Dl are the bending rigidity and
rotation gradients rigidity of the plate respectively [17]. This equa-

tion can show the scale effects obviously, so many researchers get
many attentions to use the modied couple stress theory to study
the couple stress plate and beam models. Metin [18] developed a
general nonlocal beam theory based on C0 theory where the nonlocal constitutive equations proposed by Eringen [13] are adopted.
The nonclassical ReddyLevinson (RL) beam model based on the
higher order shear deformation theory and C1 couple stress theory
was developed by Ma et al. [19]. The non-classical RL model can
be reduced to the existing classical elasticity-based RL model by
using the material length scale parameter and Poissons ratio are
both taken to be zero. The classical RL beam model [20] is a
third-order beam model satised the condition of shear stress
equal zero on the upper and lower surfaces of the beam. For moderate thickness beam, the accuracy is higher than rst-order shear
beam model. Furthermore the RL plate model can be reduce the
non-classical BernoulliEuler beam model when the normality
assumption is introduced. Recently, Li et al. used directly the model of modied couple stress theory proposed by Tsiatas [16] to
analysis of vibration of micro-scale plates [21]. Jomehzadehei
et al. based on a modied couple stress theory to analysis of the
size-dependent vibration of micro-plates [22]. Ma et al. based on
a modied couple stress theory establish a Mindlin plate model
[23]. Wang et al. based on strain gradient elasticity theory proposed a Kirchhoff micro-plate model [24]. Recently, Reddy et al.
developed models of functionally graded beams and nonlinear formulations based on nonlocal/couple stress theory. The couple
stress theory is used to analysis functionally graded beams by Reddy [25]. The nonlocal nonlinear formulations for beams and plates
was developed by Reddy [26] and Reddy et al. based on modied
couple stress proposed a nonlinear third-order theory of functionally graded plates [27].
Today, by using modied couple stress theory to establish the
model of beam and plate in the microstructures is just starting.
The rst paper is published in 2006, however, up to 2011 relative
many papers have been published. A hot point to study the micro-shale effects may arise.
Existing modied couple stress theory belong to isotropic theory, so the plate models established based on the modied couple
stress theory belong to isotropic theory including the non-classical
Mindlin plate model based on a modied couple stress theory [23].
These models and existing modied couple stress theory cannot
apply to establish anisotropic plate model, especially the study of
couple stress laminated plate theory.
Composite laminate plates are widely used in engineering. Due
to the micro-scale impurities such as bre, and microcracks at
micro-matrix are involved in a laminated composite structures, it
results in classical laminate theory invalid in some problems
related to the micro-scale of laminate composites.
It is well known that the constitute relation of isotropic elasticity can be easily extended to anisotropic elasticity. Unlike the classical elasticity theory, for the modied couple stress theory, this
extension cannot be easy, especially composites laminated plate.
In the couple stress theory, the rotation variables related to micro-scale impurities or defects are formulated into rotation equilibrium equations. The anisotropic elasticity of the couple stress
theory depends on the single component of rotation rather than
the assembly of derivative of rotations. The symmetric curvature
dened on the modied couple stress theory is an assembly of
the derivative of rotations, so it cannot be easily extended to
anisotropic.
The study for couple stress laminated plate is presented in rst
time in this paper. Firstly the isotropic modied couple stress theory is extended to anisotropic modied couple stress theory and it
can degenerate to the isotropic modied couple stress theory. The
contribution of this work is that a new curvature tensor is dened
for establishing the constitutive relations of laminated plate as

W. Chen et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 21432156

anisotropy materials. Secondly, the model of composite laminated


Reddy plate of couple stress theory and analysis of the scale efcient are given in the rst time.
2. Formulations for composite laminated plate based on new
modied couple stress theory

2145

The main differences of modied couple stress theory with the


standard couple stress theory are that for modied couple stress
theory the couple stress tensor is symmetric and only one internal
material length scale parameter is considered [9], however, for
standard couple stress theory, the couple stress tensor is asymmetric and number of internal material length scale parameters is one
not always.

2.1. Classical couple stress theory


Mindlin developed a couple stress theory [6], which can be
called as classical couple stress theory.
The strain tensor and curvature tensor can be dened respectively as

2.3. Hypothesis of composite laminated plate of new modied couple


stress theory

where k and G are elasticity constants, is the materials constant of


the microstructures.

In the point of elastic theory, the plate theory can be described


by introducing the hypothesis of the cross-section into the plate. It
is also true for the composite laminated plate for the couple stress
theory.
The displacements are represented by u, v and w, which are displacements along x, y and z directions respectively. For the plate
couple stress theory, xx, xy and xz are the rotations as shown in
Fig. 1, while it is assumed as xz = 0 for the Kirchhoff plate model
based on modied couple stress theory [17], however, the rotation
xz is adopted in the formulation of the non-classical Mindlin plate
model based on a modied couple stress theory [23]. In this paper
we assume xz = 0 for modeling composite laminated plate with
high-order shear deformation based on the modied couple stress
theory.

2.2. Modied couple stress theory

2.4. Two-dimensional plate theories

eij 12 ui;j uj;i


vij xi;j

2-1

where ui the displacement vector, xi is the rotation vector and


xi 12 eijk uk;j ; eij is symmetric tensor and vij is asymmetric tensor.
Constitutive relations are given by

rij kekk dij 2Geij


mij 42 Gvij

2-2

Unlike the standard couple stress theory, Yang et al. [9] developed modied couple stress theory in which the part of rotation
gradient in the strain tensor is symmetric.
According to the symmetric couple stress theory, the strain tensor and curvature tensor can be dened respectively as

eij 12 ui;j uj;i


vij 12 xi;j xj;i

2-3

where x 12 curl u; uui is the displacement vector and x(xi) is


the rotation vector, eij and vij are symmetric tensor.
The strain energy can be written as

1
U
2

r : e m : vdv

2-4

where r stress tensor, strain e tensor, m couple stress moment tensor and v curvature tensor. They are dened by

r ktreI 2Ge
m 22 Gv

2-5

In (2-2) the coefcient 4 is chosen for a couple stress theory


developed by Mindlin [6]. However, in (2-5) the coefcient 2 is
chosen for a modied couple stress theory developed by Yang
et al. [9], which can ensure the coefcients of the constitutive
relations the couple stress tensor is symmetric. It is means that
the value of in the two theories is difference only with a multiple.

(1) The thin plate: the Kirchhoff plate theory. The displacement
eld is assumed as

@w
@x
@w
v x; y; z v 0 x; y  z
@y
w wx; y
ux; y; z u0 x; y  z

2-6

(2) The medium thickness plate: the Mindlin plate theory. The
displacement eld is assumed as

ux; y; z u0 x; y zhy x; y

v x; y; z v 0 x; y  zhx x; y

2-7

w wx; y
where according to the engineering conventional representation, hx, hy are the angles of rotations around the y, x axes of
the cross-section, and for Kirchhoff plate: hx @w
; hy  @w
.
@y
@x
(3) The thick plate: the Reddy plate theory. The Reddy plate theory, known as a third-order plate theory, is based on the displacement eld



@w
ux; y; z u0 x; y zhy x; y  cz3 hy
dx


@w
v x; y; z v 0 x; y  zhx x; y  cz3 hx
dy
wx; y; z w0 x; y

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of composite laminated plate.

2-8

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W.J. Chen et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 21432156

4l
where c 3h
2 ; l is a parameter to control model: l = 0rst order
model, l = 1 Reddy model, hx, hy are the angle of rotation around
the y-, x-axis of the cross-section respectively (see Fig. 1). The displacement elds shown in (2-6)(2-8) can be found in Book [28].
Substituting Eq. (2-8) into the expression of the rotation as
x 12 curl u, we have,

1
1
2
2
1
1
xy u;z  w;x 1 3cz2 w;x 1  3cz2 hy 
2
2
1
xz v ;x  u;y 0
2

xx w;y  v ;z 1 3cz2 w;y 1  3cz2 hx 

The strain tensor and curvature tensor for modied couple


stress theory of isotopic elasticity can be written as

2-10

According to the engineering conventional representation, the


strain and curvature for the plate in isotropic elasticity can be expressed as follows:

ex u;x ey v ;y ; cxy 2c12 ; vx v11 ;


vy v22 ;
vxy 2v12 :
)

 ( @x
x
@@z
vxz
Due to xz = 0, we have
@@x
0
@
x
x
vyz
@z
@y
z

8
@u
>
>
> @x
>
>
@v
>
>
>
@y
>
<

9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=

9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=

cxy @u
@@xv
@y
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
@w
>
>
>
cxz >
>
>
>
>
@u
>
>
>
>
@x
@z
>
>
>
:
>
; >
>
>
>
@w
@
v
:
;
cyz

@z
@y

2-11-1

8
9
>
>
< vx =

y
>
:v >
;
xy

9
>
>
=

@ xy
@y

>
>
: @ xx
@y

@ xy
@x

2-11-2

>
>
;

6
6
6
6
>
mxy >
>
> 6
>
>
4
>
>
:
;
myx

81
9
1 3cz2 w;xy 1  3cz2 hx;x 
>
>
2
>
>
>
<  1 1 3cz2 w  1  3cz2 h  >
=
vy
;xy
y;y
2
v
1
2
2
>
>
>
v
> 2 1 3cz w;yy 1  3cz hx;y  >
>
>
xy >
>
>
>
: 1
:
;
; >
vyx
 2 1 3cz2 w;xx  1  3cz2 hy;x 
8
vx
>
>
>
<

9
>
>
>
=

2-14

The constitutive relations of composite laminated plate are dened in layer-by-layer.


The stressstrain relations of kth layer in the local coordinate
(x0 , y0 , z0 ) can be expressed as follows:

r k C k ek

2-15

where

8
h
>
 k rkx0
<r
h
>
: ek ek0
x

Ck
6 11
6 Ck
6 21
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
k
C 6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4

rky0 skx0 y0 skx0 z0 sky0 z0 mkx0 mky0 mkx0 y0 mky0 x0


eky0 ckx0 y0 ckx0 z0 cky0 z0 vkx0 vky0 vkx0 y0 vky0 x0

iT

iT

C k12
C k22
C k66
C k44
C k55
22b C k44
22m C k55
2b C k44
2b C k44

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
k
2m C 55 7
5
2m C k55

where x0 aligns with the direction of the ber in kth layer,


C k11

The constitutive relations of the anisotropic elasticity of the


couple stress theory depend on the component of rotation. For
@x
xx
the composite laminated plate, the @@y
and @xy should be taken as
independent components which are relative to the micromaterials constants 2b ; 2m to describe the ber and matrix of the
laminated plate respectively.
The new expression of the constitutive relations can be written
as follows

9
>
>
>
>
=

2-13

2-17

2.6. Constitutive relations for composite laminated plate based on new


modied couple stress theory

8
mx
>
>
>
>
< my

em cxy u0;y v 0;x  2cz3 w;xy z  cz3 hy;y  z  cz3 hx;x


>
>
>
>
>
>
>
> 1  3cz2 w;x hy
>
>
> >
>
>
>
> cxz >
>
> >
>
>
>
>
: ; :
;
2
cyz
1  3cz w;y  hx

and

8 @ xx
>
>
< @x

9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=

2-16

The strain can be written as

8
ex
>
>
>
>
>
ey
>
>
<

8
u0;x  cz3 w;xx z  cz3 hy;x
>
>
>
>
3
3
>
>
< v 0;y  cz w;yy  z  cz hx;y

9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=

and

2.5. Strain for modied couple stress theory of isotopic elasticity

eij 12 ui;j uj;i


vij 12 xi;j xj;i

8
ex
>
>
>
>
>
>
< ey

2-9

4l
where c 3h
2 and a comma followed by a subscript denotes differentiation with respect to the subscript (e.g., u,x = @u/@x).

Substituting Eqs. (2-8) and (2-9) into (2-11-2), (2-12), the strain
of the laminated plate can be obtained as follows:

2C 44 2b
2C 55 2m
C 44 2b
C 44 2b

38 @ xx 9
>
@x >
>
>
>
> @x >
>
>
7>
< @yy >
=
7>
7
7
xx >
>
> @@y
>
C 55 2m 7
>
5>
>
>
>
>
>
>
2
:
@ xy ;
C
55 m

@x

2-12

1v k22 v k22


Ek2 Ek2 D

, C k12 C k21

v k21 v k22 v k21


Ek2 Ek2 D

, C k22

1v k21 v k12


Ek1 Ek2 D

; C k44 Gk12 ; C k55

Ek v k
1v k12 v k21 v k22 v k22 v k12 v k21 2v k21 v k22 v k12
Gk22 , C k66 Gk12 , v k21 2Ek12 , D
and
Ek1 Ek2 Ek2
1

 

 k

k
k
k
k
k
E1 ; E2 ; G12 ; G22 and v 12 ; v 21 are the elastic constants, shear

elastic constants and Poisson ratios of kth layer respectively, in


which subscripts 1 and 2 represent the direction of ber and matrix.
2b ; 2m are constants to describe the materials microstructural characteristics of respectively.
After coordinate transformation, the stressstrain relations of
kth layer in the global coordinate (x, y, z) can be written as follows

rk Q k e

2-18

where

8
h
iT
< rk rk rk sk sk sk mk mk mk mk
x
y xy xz
yz
x
y
xy
yx


:
e ex ey cxy cxz cyz vx vy vxy vyx T

2-19

Q k T kT C k T k

2-20

2147

W. Chen et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 21432156

The coordinate transformation matrix, Tk, is expressed as

"
Tk

T k1

2-21

T k2
2

m2

n2

mn

6
7
k
4 n2
m2
mn 5; T 2
mn mn m2  n2
2 2
n2
m


6
2
m n
m2
6 n
T0
; T1 6
4 mn mn
n m

T k1

T0
T1
mn


;
mn

v
3

n2

2-22

m2

where /k is angle of ply and m = cos/k, n = sin/k.


The components of Qk are expressed as

"
k

Q
2

2-23

Q kc

Q k11 Q k12 Q k16

ek
22 Q
46
2 ek
2 Q
56

bk
2 Q
44
2 bk
Q
44

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
2 ek 7
2 Q 47 7
7
ek 7
22 Q
57 7
7
bk 7
2 Q
55 5
bk
2 Q
55
2-24

where

2-27

>
>
;

Constitutive relations to relative to the curvature are given by

8 @ xx
9
8
9
>
>
>
>
>
< mx >
=
< @x
=
@ xy
2
m my
2G
@y
>
>
>
>
:
;
>
: @ xx @ xy >
;
mxy

2-28

@x

1
2

mv : vdv

For isotropic plate:

m : v 2G2

8 @x
x
>
>
@x
>
<

9T 8 @ x
x
>
>
> @x
>
>
<
= >

@ xy
@y

@ xy
@y

@x

2-25

4m n


3m2 n2 2b C k44 2m C k55

2b C k44

2m C k55

n4 2b C k44 m4 2m C k55 4m2 n2 2b C k44 2m C k55




mn m2 2b C k44  n2 2m C k55

@x

8
9
xx
8
9
2C 44 2b @@x
>
>
>
mx > >
>
>
>
>
>
> >
xy
>
>
< 2C 55 2m @@y
<m >
=
= >
y

@
x
2
2
y
@
x
x
>
>
mxy >
> C 44 b @y C 55 m @x >
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
>
; >
>
>
:
myx
2 @ xx
2 @ xy ;
C 44 b @y C 55 m @x

1
2

2-31

mv : vdv

2-33

m : v 2G2

8 @x
x
>
>
> @x
<

@ xy
@y

9
>
>
>
=

@ xy
@y

@x

@y

2-34

@x

Obviously, (2-30) is identical to (2-34), so formulations anisotropic plate such as laminated plate and sandwich plate can be
used to isotropic plate by using Q kij C kij ; b m .

mnn2 2m2 2b C k44 mnm2 2n2 2m C k55




mn n2 2b C k44  m2 2m C k55


2b C k44 m4 2m C k55 n4 m2 n2 2b C k44 2m C k55


n4 2b C k44 m4 2m C k55 m2 n2 2b C k44 2m C k55

9T 8 @ x
>
> @xx
>
> >
>
=
<


>
>
>
> >
> @xx @ xy  >
>
>
>
: @ xx @xy >
; >
:
;

@y

mnm2 2n2 2b C k44 mnn2 2m2 2m C k55

2-32

For isotropic plate:

@y

2-30

For new modied couple stress theory, constitutive relations to


relative to the curvature are given by

2 2

9
>
>
>
=


>
>
>
> @xx @ xy  >
> >
>
>
>
: @ xx @xy >
:
; >
;

@y

C k44 n2 C k55 m2

2m C k55 n4

2-29

The strain energy of the part of curvature can be written as

C k44 m2 C k55 n2


mn C k44  C k55

@y

@ xy
@x

8 @ xx
9
8
9
8
9 > 2G2 @xx
>
>
@x
>
>
>
@x
>
>
>
>
m
x >
>
>
>
>
>
@ xy
>
>
>
>
>
>
@ xy
2
>
>
>
>
>
>
< m = < 2G @y
< @y
=
=
y


2

2G
@ xy
1 @ xx
@
x
2
2
y
@
x
x
@x >
>
>
>
mxy >
>
>
>
> G @y G @x >
>
>
2
@y
>
>
>
>
:
>
; >
>
>
>

>
>
>
>
>
>
: 2 @ xx
>
myx
2 @ xy ;
@
x
:
;
y
@
x
1
x
G @y G @x

@y
@x
2

n4 C k11 m4 C k22 2m2 n2 C k12 4m2 n2 C k66




m2 n2 C k11 C k22  4C k66 m4 n4 C k12




m3 n C k11  C k22  2C k66 mn3 C k12  C k22 2C k66




mn3 C k11  C k22  2C k66 m3 n C k12  C k22 2C k66


m2 n2 C k11 C k22  2C k12 m2  n2 2 C k66

2b C k44 m4

@ xy

@y
>
>
: @ xx

For isotropic plate: C44 = C55 = G and b = m = .

m4 C k11 n4 C k22 2m2 n2 C k12 4m2 n2 C k66

8
2 ek
>
>
> Q 44
>
>
>
>
> 2 Q
ek
>
>
45
>
>
>
>
>
2
e
>
Q k55
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
ek
> 2 Q
>
46
<
2 ek
Q 47
>
>
>
>
ek
>
2 Q
>
56
>
>
> 2
>
>
ek
>
Q

>
57
>
>
>
>
>
2
b
> Q k44
>
>
>
>
>
>
: 2 Q
bk
55

9
>
>
=

The strain energy of the part of curvature can be written as

6 k
k
k
6Q
6 12 Q 22 Q 26
6 k
k
6 Q 16 Q 26 Q k66
6
6
6
Q k44 Q k45
6
6
Qk 6
Q k45 Q k55
6
6
ek
ek
22 Q
22 Q
6
44
45
6
2 ek
2 ek
6
2 Q 45 2 Q 55
6
6
6
e k 22 Q
ek
22 Q
4
57
46
2 ek
2 ek
2 Q 57 2 Q 46

8 k
Q
>
>
> 11
>
k
>
>
>
> Q 22
>
>
k
>
>
> Q 12
>
>
>
>
>
>
Q k16
>
>
>
<
Q k26
>
>
>
> k
>
>
Q 66
>
>
>
>
>
k
>
>
> Q 44
>
>
>
>
Q k45
>
>
>
>
:
Q k55

y
>
:v >
;

8 @ xx
>
>
< @x

@y

Q km

8
9
>
< vx >
=
xy

mn mn 7
7
7
m2
n2 5

mn mn

where m = cos /k, n = sin /k.


Aforementioned formulations can use to isotropic plate and
anisotropic plate such as laminated plate and sandwich plate.
The modied couple stress theory proposed by Yang [9] is a theory of isotopic elasticity. The curvature is written as follows:

2-26

3. Potential energy principle for composite laminated Reddy


plate of new modied couple stress theory
It is well known that the potential energy principle can be used
to derive the equilibrium equation and the boundary condition.
The potential energy principle for composite laminated Reddy
plate of modied couple stress theory is given by

dpp dU  dW 0

3-1

2148

W.J. Chen et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 21432156

where pp is the total potential energy of the deformable body, U is


the strain energy of the deformable body, W is the work produced
by the external forces, dU and dW are the rst variation of U and
W respectively.
!
 Z X
n
n Z
n Z zk1
X
X
k
kT
kT
dU
dU
r dedxdydz
r dedz dxdy
k1

dW

Vk

k1

f T dudv

k1

8 1 9 8
9
9
>
>
>
< ex >
< hy;x
=
= >
=
0
1
h
ey

e
v 0;y
; e1

;
x;y
y
m
>
>
>
> >
>
: 0 >
:
:
:
; >
;
;
1 ;
u

v
h

h
0;y
0;x
y;y
x;x
cxy
cxy
8 3 9
8
9

w
h
e
>
>
>
;xx
< x >
< y;x
=
=
3
ey
c hx;y  w;yy
>
>
>
: 3 >
:
;
;
hy;y  2w;xy hx;x
cxy

e0
m

3 - 2
T T duds

em3

3-3

8
>
< u0;x

3-9-1

@X


fu du0 fv dv 0 fw dw fcx dxx fcy dxy dxdy


Nnx du0 Nny dv 0 Vdw Mn dhn ds

3-4

iT

1
2w;x hy ; 2w;y  hx ;
2
T
w;xy hx;x ; w;xy hy;y ; w;yy hx;y ; w;xx hy;x
h
iT 3 
2 2 2 2 2
c2
c 2hy w;x ; 2hx w;y ;
xz cyz vx vy vxy vyx
2
T
hx;x w;xy ; hy;y w;xy ; hx;y w;yy ; hy;x w;xx

0 0 0 0 0
v0 cxz0 cyz
vx vy vxy vyx

v2

8 0 9
>
< ex >
=

zk

where 
f T and T T are the body force on the plate domain X and
boundary force on the plate boundary oX, respectively.
The dW in the plate on the modied couple stress theory can be
expressed as

dW

and

3-9-2

@X

where fu, fv and fw are, respectively, the x-, y- and z-components of


the body force per unit length, fcx and fcy are the x- and y-component
of body couple force per unit length along the x- and y-axis, and
N x ; Ny ; Nxy are the applied axial forces and shear force, V and Mn
transverse force and bending moment at the boundary of the plate
respectively, and
R
R
8R
@fcx
1
1
>
X fcx dxx dxdy 2 X fcx dhx w;y dxdy 2 X fcx dhx  @y dwdxdy
>
>
R
>
< 1
f n dwds
2 @ X cx y
R
R
R
@f
>
>
fcy dxy dxdy 12 X fcy dhy  w;x dxdy 12 X fcy dhy @xcy dwdxdy
>
>
: X 1R
 2 @ X fcy nx dwds

3-5
Substituting (3-5) into (3-4), we have

dW




Z 
1 @fcy @fcx
dw
fu du0 fv dv 0 fw

2 @x
@y
X

Z
1
fcx dhx fcy dhy dxdy
Nnx du0 Nny dv 0
2
@X


1
V fcx ny  fcy nx dw M n dhn ds
2

3-6

3-7

where
1
3 3
em e0
m zem z em
v v0 z2 v2

n R

P
dU k
rkT dem mkT dvdxdydz
Vk m
k1
k1
 n




R zk1  kT  0
R P
3
3
mkT dv0 z2 dv2 dz dxdy
X
rm dem zde1
m z dem
zk

dU

n
P

k1

8
8
9T
9T
9T
08
> Nx >
>
>
< Nx1 >
< Nx3 >
=
=
=
R B<
0
1
3
X @ Ny
dem Ny1
dem Ny3
d em
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
:
:
;
;
;
N xy
Nxy1
Nxy3
1
8
9
8
9T
Q x2 >T
>
>
>
Q
C
>
>
>
>
x
>
>Q >
>
>
C
>
>
>
y2 >
>
>
>
>
>
>
C
>Qy >
>
>
>
<
<
=
=
C
Y
x2
C
Y x Y y dv0
dv2 Cdxdy
>
>
>
>
C
Y y2 >
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
C
Y xy >
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
C
>
>
>
>
Y
xy2 >
:
>
;
A
>
>
Y yx
:
;
Y yx2
2

The expression of the strain can be rewritten as

em ex ey cxy T ; v cxz cyz vx vy vxy vyx T

Substituting Eqs. (2-15), (3-8) and (3-9) into the Eq. (3-2), we
have,

3-8

3
N x du0;x N y dv 0;y N xy du0;y dv 0;x
6 Q  3cQ dhy  Q  3cQ dhx Q  3cQ dw;x Q  3cQ dw;y 7
x
x2
y
x2
y
6
7
y2
 x
y2
7
Z 6 
6 N xy1 cN xy3 12 Y x  32 cY x2 dhx;x N xy1  cN xy3 12 Y y  32 cY y2 dhy;y
7
7dxdy




6
6 N x1  cN x3 1 Y yx  3 cY yx2 dhy;x N y1 cN y3 1 Y xy  3 cY xy2 dhx0 y
7
X6
7
2
2
2
2

1

6 
7
1
3
3
4 cN x3  2 Y yx  2 cY yx2 dw;xx 2 Y xy 2 cY xy2  cN y3 dw;yy
5
1

2 Y x 3cY x2  Y y  3cY y2  cN xy3 dw;xy

3-10
4l
3h2

As the expression given in Eq. (2-8), c


and l is a parameter
to control model, l = 0: rst order model, l = 1: the third order
Reddy model.
By using twice the Greens theorem, we have

3
Nx;x N xy;y du0 Ny;y Nxy;x dv 0


7
6 N N
1
3
6
x1;x
xy1;y 2 Y yx;x Y y;y  Q x cN x3;x  N xy3;y  2 Y yx2;x Y y2;y 3Q x2 dhy 7
7
R 6

1
3
7
dU  X 6
6
Ny1;y  Nxy1;x 2 Y xy;y Y x;x Q y cNy3;y Nxy3;x  2 Y xy2;y Y x2;x  3Q y2 dhx 7dxdy
7
6
5
4 Q x;x Q y;y 12 Y yx;xx  Y xy;yy Y y;xy  Y x;xy

cNx3;xx Ny3;yy 2Nxy3;xy 32 Y yx2;xx  Y xy2;yy Y y2;xy  Y x2;xy  3Q x2;x Q y2;y dw
3
2


mNx nN xy du0 nNy mNxy dv 0 12 Y yx m2  Y xy n2 dw;n 12 Y xy  Y yx mn 14 Y x  Y y dw;t




7
6 1
7
6 2 Y x m2 N y1  Nx1 12 Y xy  12 Y yx mn  12 Y y n2  Nxy1 dhn N y1 12 Y xy n2 12 Y x Y y mn Nx1 12 Y yx m2 dhs
7
6 

1

7
6
1
1
1
R 6 2 Y yx;x Q x  4 Y x;y  Y y;y m  2 Y xy;y Q y  4 Y x;x  Y y;x n dw
7







@ X 6 3 

7ds
6 2 c Y y2 n2  Y x2 m2 23 Ny3 Nx3 Y yx2  Y xy2 mn 23 Nxy3 dhn 23 N y3  Y xy2 n2 Y y2  Y x2 mn  23 Nx3 Y yx2 m2 dhs 7
7
6





7
6 2 N N
1
2
1
x3;x
xy3;y Y yx2;x  2 Y x2;y  Y y2;y  2Q x2 m 3 N y3;y N xy3;x  Y xy2;y  2 Y x2;x  Y y2;x  2Q y2 n dw
5
4
3

 2

 2

 2
2  2
2

1
 3 Nx3  Y yx2 m   3 Ny3 Y xy2 n dw;n  3 Nx3 Ny3 Y xy2  Y yx2 mn  3 Nxy3 2 Y x2  Y y2 dw;t
2

3-11

2149

W. Chen et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 21432156

where Nx, Ny, Nxy, Nxi, Nyi, Nxyi, Qx, Qy, Qx1, Qy1 are the classical tractions of the plate, Yx, Yxy, Yx2, Yy2, Yxy, Yyx, Yxy2, Yyx2 are the traction
of couple stress moment of the plate. They are

8
9
8 9
k
n Z h2
< Na = X
<1 =
k
N a1
r
z dz; a x; y; xy
a
: N ; k1 hk : z3 ;
2
a3
k

 X
 
n Z h2
Qb
1
k

b xz; yz
s
b z2 dz;
k
Q b2
h2
k1
k

 X
 
n Z h2
Yc
k 1

dz; c x; y; xy; yx
m
c
k
Y c2
z2
h
k1

3-12

The displacement boundary conditions are

8

u0 u
>
>
>
>
0
>
v
0 v
>
>
>
>
>

w

w
>
<
@w
@@sw
@s
>
>
@w
>
@@nw
>
@n
>
>
>
>
> hn hn
>
>
:
hs hs

3-15

3.1. Equilibrium equations in terms of tractions for the composite


laminated plate of new modied couple stress theory
From Eqs. (3-6) and (3-11), the equilibrium equations in terms
of tractions are obtained as
@Nx @N xy

fu 0
@x
@y
@Ny @N xy

fv 0
@y
@x
!
@Q x @Q y 1 @ 2 Y x @ 2 Y y @ 2 Y xy @ 2 Y yx





@x
@y 2 @x@y @x@y @y2
@x2
"
!
2
2
2
2
@ Nx3 @ Ny3
@ N xy3 3 @ Y yx2 @ 2 Y xy2 @ 2 Y x2 @ 2 Y y2

2



c
@x2
@y2
@x@y 2
@x2
@y2
@x@y @x@y




@Q x2 @Q y2
1 @fcy @fcx

fw 0
3
@x
@y
@y
2 @x


 

@Nxy1 @N x1 1 @Y y @Y yx
@N xy3 @N x3

 Qx c 
@y
@x
@x
@y
@x
2 @y



3 @Y y2 @Y yx2
1


3Q x2 fcy 0
2 @y
2
@x


 

@Nxy1 @N y1 1 @Y x @Y xy
@Nxy3 @N y3

 Qy c 
@x
@y
@y
@x
@y
2 @x



3 @Y x2 @Y xy2
1

3Q y2  fcx 0
@y
2 @x
2

3-13
Traction boundary conditions are
mN x nNxy Nnx
nNy mN xy Nny



1
@Y x @Y y
@Y yx
m Qx

2

@y
@y
@x
4

@Nx3 @N xy3
cm 3Q x2

@x
@y


3
@Y x2 @Y y2
@Y yx2


2
@y
@y
@x
4



1 @Y y @Y x
@Y xy

2
n Qy
@x
@y
4 @x



@Ny3 @Nxy3 3 @Y y2 @Y x2
@Y xy2
V
cn 3Q y2


2
@y
@x
@x
@y
4 @x


1 2
1 2
1
1
m Y x  n Y y mn Ny1  Nx1 Y xy  Y yx
2
2
2
2




3
2
2
2
 Nxy1 c n Y y2  m Y x2 mn Ny3 Nx3 Y yx2  Y xy2 N xy3 Mn
2
3
1
m2 Nx1  n2 Ny1 m2 Y yx n2 Y xy mnY x Y y
2


3
3
c n2 Ny3  m2 Nx3 mnY y2  Y x2  n2 Y xy2 m2 Y yx2 Ms
2
2


1 2
3
2
2
2
 m Y yx n Y xy c n Ny3  m Nx3  m2 Y yx2 n2 Y xy2 0
2
2


1
1
3
Y x  Y y mnY xy  Y yx c mn Y xy2  Y yx2  Nx3  Ny3
4
2
2

3
Nxy3 Y x2  Y y2 0
4

3-14

3.2. Equilibrium equations in terms of displacements for the composite


cross-ply laminated plate of new modied couple stress theory
For the laminated plate we can assume 2m 0 because of
2b  2m . And for the cross-ply composite laminated plate, the
Eqs. (2-25) and (2-26) became as follows

8
>
Q k11
>
>
>
>
k
>
>
> Q 22
>
>
>
k
>
> Q 12
>
>
>
>
> Q k16
>
<
Q k26
>
>
>
>
Q k66
>
>
>
>
> Qk
>
>
44
>
>
> k
>
>
Q
>
>
> 45
:
Q k55

m4 C k11 n4 C k22
n4 C k11 m4 C k22
C k12
0
;

C k66
C k44 m2

C k55 n2

0
C k44 n2 C k55 m2

8 2 k
e
Q
>
44
>
>
>
>
2 ek
>

Q
>
45
>
>
>
>
2 ek
>

Q
>
55
>
>
>
>
ek
> 2 Q
>
46
<
2 ek
Q 47
>
>
>
ek
>
2 Q
>
56
>
>
>
> 2 ek
>
Q 57
>
>
>
> 2 bk
>
>
Q 44
>
>
>
:
bk
2 Q
55

m4 2b C k44
0
n4 2b C k44
0
3-16

0
0
0
ek
2 Q
44
2 ek
Q
55

and for the cross-ply composite laminated plate, Qk can be expressed as

" k
#
8
Qm
>
k
>
>
Q

>
>
>
Q kc
>
<
2
Q k Q k12
>
6 11
>
k
>
> Qm 6 Qk Qk
>
4 12
22
>
>
:

Q k66

7
7;
5

3
Q k2
7
6
2 ek 7
Q kc 6
4 2 Q 2 5
bk
2 Q
2
2

3-17

where

" k
#
8
Q 44
>
k
>
>
Q

>
2
>
>
Q k55
>
>
>
"
#
>
<
ek
Q
44
k
e
Q2
>
ek
>
Q
>
55
>
"
#
>
>
ek
ek
>
Q
Q
>
44
55
>
k
b
>
:Q2
ek
ek
Q
Q
44
55

3-18

where 2 2b .
Substituting stressstrain relations (3-16)(3-18) into equation
(3-12), for the same materials of each layer, we have,

8
9
8
9
>
>
< Nx >
=
< Nx1 >
=
1
3
1
3
Ny
Ny1
Q 3 e0
J 3 e0
m J 3 em R3 em ;
m I 3 em cS 3 em ;
>
>
>
>
:
;
:
;
Nxy
Nxy1
8
9
>
< Nx3 >
=
>
:


Ny3

Nxy3


Qx

Qy

>
;

1
3
R3 e0
m S 3 em cT 3 em ;

Q2

c0
c2
xz
xz
I2
;
0
cyz
c2
yz

Q x2
Q y2

(
I2

c0
c2
xz
xz
S2
;
0
cyz
c2
yz
3-19

2150

W.J. Chen et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 21432156

8
9
< v0
=
x

8
9 (
8
9
8
9
( )
)
< v2
=
< v0
=
< v2
=
Yx
Y x2
x
x
x
2
2
2
2
2 Q 2
2 I 2
2 I 2
;
2 S 2
;
0 ;
2 ;
: v0 ;
: v2 ;
:
:
Yy
Y
y2
vy
vy
y
y
8
9
8
9 (
8
9
8
9
(
)
)
< v0
=
< v2
=
< v0
=
< v2
=
Y xy
Y xy2
xy
xy
xy
xy
2b
2b
2b
2b
Q2
I2
I2
;
S2
:
: 0 ;
: 2 ;
: 0 ;
: 2 ;
Y yx
Y yx2

vyx

vyx

vyx

where
2
3
2
3
2
8
J11 J12
I11
Q 11 Q 12
>
>
>
6
6
6
7
7
>
>
6
7
6
7
6
>
Q

;
J
;
I
J
J
Q
Q
3
>
3
22
4 12
5 3 4 12 22
5
4 I12
>
>
>
>
>
J66
Q 66
>
>
>
>
2
3
2
3
2
>
>
>
R
R
T 11
S
S
11
12
11
12
>
>
>
6
6
6
7
7
>
>
6
7
6
7
6
R3 4 R12 R22
>
>
5; S 3 4 S12 S22
5; T 3 4 T 12
>
>
>
>
>
R
S
66
66
>
<
"
#
"
#
"
#
Q 44
I44
S44
>
>
; I2
; S2
;
>
>Q2
>
Q 55
I55
S55
>
>
>
>
2
3
2
3
2
3
>
>
e
e
e
>
e 44
e
eI 44
>
Q
S 44
>
>
4
5
4
5
4
5;
>
Q

;
;
2
2
>
> 2
e
e
e
>
eI 55
e
e 55
>
S
Q
>
55
>
>
>
2
3
2
3
2
3
>
>
e
e
e
e
e
>
e 44 Q
e 55
e
eI 55
eI 44 e
>
Q
S 55
S 44 e
>b
>
b
b
5; I 2 4
5; S 2 4
5
>
Q 4
>
: 2
e
e
e
e
e
eI 44 e
eI 55
e
e 44 Q
e 55
S 44 e
S 55
Q

vyx
3-20
3

I12

7
7;
5

I22
I66

T 12

7
7;
5

T 22
T 66

4.2. Cross ply composite laminated Kirchhoff plate of new modied


couple stress theory
Substituting geometric equations of hx @w
; hy  @w
and c = 0
@y
@x
into (4-1), we have
8
Q 11 u0;xx Q 66 u0;yy Q 12 Q 66 v 0;xy  J 11 w;xxx  J12 2J 66 w;xyy fu 0
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
> Q 66 Q 12 u0;xy Q 66 v 0;xx Q 22 v 0;yy  J 22 w;yyy  2J 66 J12 w;xxy fv 0
>
>
>
2
e
e
e
e
@Q
>
e 44 Q
e 55 w;xxyy Q
e 55 w;xxxx Q
e 44 w;yyyy 1 @fcy;x  fcx;y fw 0
x
> @Q
y  Q
>
2
>
< @x @y 2
J11 u0;xx J 66 u0;yy J12 J 66 v 0;xy  I11 w;xxx  I12 2I66 w;xyy  Q x
>
>
>
e
e
e
> 2 2 Q
e 55 Q
e 44 w;xyy  Q
e 55 w;xxx 1 fcy 0
>
>
2
>
> 2
>
>
>
J 12 J 66 u0;xy J22 v 0;yy J 66 v 0;xx  I12 2I66 w;xxy  I22 w;yyy  Q y
>
>
>
>
: 2
e
e
e
e
e 45  2 Q
e 44 Q
e 55 w;xxy  Q
e 44 w;yyy  1 fcx 0
2 2 Q
2

4-2
By Eq. (4-2), the equations of
@Q x
@x

@Q y
@y

@Q x
@x

@Q
; @yy

can be written as

J 11 u0;xxx J 12 2J 66 u0;xyy J 12 2J66 v 0;xxy J 22 v 0;yyy

I11 w;xxxx  2I12 2I66 w;xxyy  I22 w;yyyy


2
e
e
e
e
e 55 Q
e 44 w;xxyy Q
e 55 w;xxxx Q
e 44 w;yyyy 1 fcy;x  @fcx;y
 2 Q
2
4-3
Substituting (4-3) into (4-2), we have

J11 u0;xxx J 12 2J 66 u0;xyy J 12 2J 66 v 0;xxy J 22 v 0;yyy

3-21

I11 w;xxxx  2I12 2I66 w;xxyy  I22 w;yyyy


e
e
e
e
e 55 Q
e 44 w;xxyy Q
e 55 w;xxxx Q
e 44 w;yyyy fcy;x  fcx;y fw 0
2 Q

k

8
i
i
n h
n
n h
P
P
Q ij z4k1 z4k
e
>
e ij P Q
e k zk1  zk
>
; Q
Q kjj zk1  zk ; Rij
> Q ij
ij
4
>
>
k1
k1
k1
>
>
"
#
>
k

k

>
n
n
n
e
<
P
P
P
Q kij z3k1 z3k
Q ij z5k1 z5k
Q 11 z2k1 z2k
e
e
;
;
I
Jij
S

ij
ij
2
5
3
>
k1
k1
k1
>
>
"
#
>




>
>
n
n
n
e
P
P
P
>
Q kij z5k1 z5k
Q kjj z3k1 z3k
Q kij z7k1 z7k
e
>
e
>
;
;
S
T

: Iij
ij
ij
3
7
5

4-4

where

k1

k1

k1

3-22
Substituting Eqs. (3-16) and (3-17) into Eq. (3-13), the Equilibrium equations in terms of displacements for the composite crossply laminated plate of new modied couple stress theory can be
obtained by using computer algebra systems like Maple.

The equilibrium equations for the cross ply composite laminated Kirchhoff plate of new modied couple stress theory can
be obtained as follows as:
8
Q 11 u0;xx Q 66 u0;yy Q 12 Q 66 v 0;xy  J11 w;xxx  J12 2J66 w;xyy fu 0
>
>
>
>
>
>
Q Q 12 u0;xy Q 66 v 0;xx Q 22 v 0;yy  J22 w;yyy  2J66 J12 w;xxy fv 0
>
< 66
J11 u0;xxx J12 2J66 u0;xyy J12 2J66 v 0;xxy J22 v 0;yyy  I11 w;xxxx
>
>
>
2I12 2I66 w;xxyy  I22 w;yyyy
>
>
>
>
: 2 e
e
e
e
e 55 Q
e 44 w;xxyy Q
e 55 w;xxxx Q
e 44 w;yyyy fcy;x  fcx;y fw 0
 Q

4-5
5. Numerical example for scale effect:simply supported plate

4. Degradation of the composite laminated plate of new


modied couple stress theory
4.1. Composite cross ply laminated Mindlin plate of new modied
couple stress theory
Substituting c = 0 into the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements for the composite cross ply laminated Mindlin plate of
new modied couple stress theory is given as
8
>
Q 11 u0;xx Q 66 u0;yy Q 12 Q 66 v 0;xy J 11 hy;xx J66 hy;yy  J12 J 66 hx;xy fu 0
>
>
>
>
>
>
Q 66 Q 12 u0;xy Q 66 v 0;xx Q 22 v 0;yy J 66 J12 hy;xy  J66 hx;xx  J22 hx;yy fv 0
>
>
>
>
>
>
e
e
e
e
>
2
e
e
e
e
>
>
> Q 44 w;xx Q 55 wyy  Q 55 hx;y Q 44 hy;x  4 Q 44 Q 55 w;xxyy Q 55 w;xxxx Q 44 w;yyyy
>
>
>
>
e
e
e
e
>
1
e
e
e
e
< Q
44 hx;xxy Q 44 hx;yyy  Q 55 hy;xyy  Q 55 hy;xxx 2 fcy;x  fcx;y fw 0
>
>
J11 u0;xx J66 u0;yy J12 J66 v 0;xy I11 hy;xx I66 hy;yy  I12 I66 hx;xy  Q 44 w;x hy
>
>
>
>
>
>
e
e
e
e
e
e
2
1
>
e
e
e
e
e
e
>
> 4 2 Q 55 Q 44 w;xyy  Q 55 w;xxx Q 44 hx;xy 2 Q 55 hy;yy Q 55 hy;xx 2 fcy 0
>
>
>
>
>
> J 12 J66 u0;xy J 22 v 0;yy J66 v 0;xx  I66 hx;xx  I22 hx;yy I12 I66 hy;xy  Q 55 w;y  hx
>
>
>
>
>
2
e
e
e
e
e
e
:
1
e
e
e
e
e
e
4 2 Q
44 Q 55 w;xxy  Q 44 w;yyy  Q 55 hy;xy  2 Q 44 hx;xx  Q 44 hx;yy  2 fcx 0

4-1

In this paper the numerical example is used to check availability


of new modied couple stress theory and the model of laminated
plate of the couple stress theory proposed on the anisotropic elasticity in the rst put forward, especially it is used to the analysis of
scale effects.
A cross-ply simply supported plate shown in Fig. 2 is analyzed
here. The plate is only subjected to bending loads of fw = q0sin (p
x/L)sin(py/L). The thickness and the material properties of each
layer are uniform.

y
h

L
Fig. 2. Simply supported laminated plate under double sinusoidal loading.

2151

W. Chen et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 21432156

Boundary conditions:

8
wj 0
>
>
> C
>
< @ 2 w

@x2 x0 or
>

>
>
x
>
: @h
@y 



0; @@yw2 
xL
y0

@h 
0; @xy 

y0 or yL

The stress at x = L/2, y = L/2 in section of the plate can be expressed as follows:

or yL

x0 or xL

5-1

5-5

A cross-ply simply supported laminated plate subjected to


bending loads of fw = q0sin(px/L)sin(py/L) is a simplest example.
The traditional triangle function try method adopted in this paper
and numerical result is only used to test the ability of the present
theory and the model as well as the characteristics of the scale effects of microstructure. It is of course that the numerical example
is not used to study the advantages of the solving process.
5.1. Solution of the composite laminated Reddy plate with cross-ply of
couple stress theory
Assume as u0(x, y) = 0, v0(x, y) = 0 and fu = fv = fcx = fcy = 0, and the
trial function is written as [28]

8
>
< wx; y w0 sin ax sin by
hy hya cos ax sin by
>
:
hx hxa sin ax cos by

5-2

where a = p/L, b = p/L.


Substituting Eq. (5-2) into equilibrium equations in terms of
displacements for the composite laminated Reddy plate, we have

8
>
< l11 w0 l12 hya l13 hxa q0 0
l21 w0 l22 hya l23 hxa 0
>
:
l31 w0 l32 hya l33 hxa 0

5-3

where

l11
l12
l13
l21

p2
2

p
L

p
L

p
L

Q 44 Q 55 6cI44 I55  9c2 S55 S44 

Q 55  6cI55 9c2 S55

l31

p2
2

p
L

p2
2

p3
3

cS11 S12 2S66  c2 T 11 T 12 2T 66

I11 I66  2cS11 S66 c2 T 11 T 66

p3
3

p2
2

32 p2
4L2

2 p4 e
e
e
e 44 Q
e 55 6ce
e
eI 44 e
eI 55 9c2 e
Q
S 44 e
S 55
2L4

2 p3
4L3

e
e
e
e 55  4 Q
e 44 9c2 e
e
3 Q
S 44  3 e
S 55

e
e
e 55 6ce
eI 55  9c2 e
S 55
 Q

2
e
e
e 44 6ce
eI 44  9c2 e
S 44
 Q
4

cS22 S12 2S66 c2 T 22 T 12 2T 66

I12 I66  2cS12 S66 c2 T 12 T 66

l33 Q 55 6cI55  9c2 S55 

T 11 T 22 2T 12 4T 66 

2 p3 e
e
e 44  9c2 e
S 44
Q
2L3

I12 I66  2cS12 S66 c2 T 12 T 66

Q 55  6cI55 9c2 S55

l32

Q 44 6cI44  9c2 S44

l22 Q 44 6cI44  9c2 S44 


l23

In order to test characteristics of the scale effects of microstructure, models of simply supported laminated cross-ply square plate
are adopted. The sizes of the square plate model: length of a side is
L = 200 lm, thickness is h = 25 lm, bending load is q0 = 1 N/lm2,
the material constants [29]:E2 6:98 GPa;
E1 25E2 ; G12
Ek v k
0:5E2 ; G22 0:2E2 ; m12 m22 0:25; v k21 2Ek12 , in which sub1
scripts 1 and 2 represent the direction of ber and matrix,
respectively.
We choose the next two types of cross-ply laminated plate with
three-layer as rst one[0/90/0], and second one [90/0/90].
On the micro-materials constants2b ; 2m , for the composite lam@x
xx
inated plate, the curvatures of @@y
and @xy should be taken as independent components which are relative to the micro materials
constants 2b ; 2m to describe the materials microstructural characteristics of the ber and matrix of the laminated plate respectively.
In the couple stress theory, the rotation variables related to microscale impurities or defects are formulated into rotation equilibrium
equations.
For kth layer of composite laminated plate in the local coordinates (x0 , y0 , z0 ), xx is a rotation round the ber and the its partial
xx @ xx
derivative @@x
; @y are dened as the curvatures vx, vxy, the 2b is
introduced constitute relations of the moments mx, mxy and the
curvatures vx, vxy. Thexy is a rotation to perpendicular the ber
@x @x
and its partial derivative @xy ; @yy are dened as the curvatures

cS22 S12 2S66 c2 T 22 T 12 2T 66 

5.2. Numerical examples for the Scale effects of microstructure

2 p3 e
e
e 55  9c2 e
S 55
Q
2L3

c2 p4

where c

4l
.
3h2

cS11 S12 2S66  c2 T 11 T 12 2T 66

Q 44 6cI44  9c2 S44

8
h



i
>
< rkx pL z pL cz2 w0 Q k11 Q k12  1  cz2 Q k11 hya  Q k12 hxa ;
h



i
>
: rky pL z pL cz2 w0 Q k12 Q k22  1  cz2 Q k12 hya  Q k22 hxa :

2 p3 e
e
e
e 55  3 Q
e 44 9c2 3 e
e
Q
S 44  e
S 55
4L3

2
e
e
e 55 6ce
eI 55  9c2 e
S 55
 Q
4

I22 I66  2cS22 S66 c2 T 22 T 66

32 p2
4L2

e
e
e 44 6ce
eI 44  9c2 e
 Q
S 44
5-4

2152

W.J. Chen et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 21432156

l= 0
l=h/4
l=h/2
l=h

0.2
0.18
0.16

w/h

0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

x/L
Fig. 3. The deection of the plate [0, 90, 0] at y = L/2.

vyx, vy. The 2m is introduced constitute relations of the moments


myx, my and the curvatures vyx, vy. The micro-scale of impurities

with ber as the transverse isotropy in cross-section (y0 , z0 ) is mush


larger than the micro-scale of matrix the transverse anisotropy in
cross-section (x0 , z0 ). It is obviously, it is more easy to turn around
ber than turn to perpendicular to ber i.e.2b  2m , so for the laminated plate we can assume that 2m 0.
The values of the micro-materials constants 2b ; 2m , which related to the length in micro-scale of impurities or defects, in the
numerical example are considered in the scale on the thickness
of a single layer and 2m 0; 2b 2 .
Next, keep the thickness of the plate constant and change the
material constant l to examine the scale effect. Numerical results
of the deection of the plate are given in Fig. 3 where, which show
that the deection of the plate in couple stress theory is smaller
than that in the classical elasticity (l = 0) as the material constant
l increases.
Numerical results of the angle of rotation of the plate are given
in Fig. 4, which show that the angle of rotation of the plate in couple stress theory is smaller than that in the classical elasticity as
the material constant l increases.
Numerical results of the stresses in section of the plate are given
in Fig. 5, which show that the stress in the section of the plate in
couple stress theory is smaller than that in the classical elasticity
as the material constant l increases.

0.08

0.025

l= 0
l=h/4
l=h/2
l=h

0.06
0.04

0.015
0.01

0.02

l=0
l=h/4
l=h/2
l=h

0.02

0.005

0
-0.005

-0.02

-0.01

-0.04

-0.015

-0.06
-0.08

-0.02

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

-0.025

0.1

0.2

y/L

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

x/L

(b) at y = L/2

(a) at x = L/2
Fig. 4. The angle of rotation of the plate [0, 90, 0].

0.5
0.4
0.3

0.4
0.3
0.2

0.1

0.1

z/h

z/h

0.2

0.5

l=0
l=h/4
l=h/2
l=h

-0.1

-0.1

-0.2

-0.2

-0.3

-0.3

-0.4

-0.4

-0.5
-1.5

-1

-0.5

x (GPa)

0.5

1.5

-0.5
-0.8

l=0
l=h/4
l=h/ 2
l=h

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

y (GPa)

Fig. 5. The stresses rx and ry in section of the plate [0, 90, 0] at x = L/2, y = L/2.

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

2153

W. Chen et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 21432156

l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h

Kirchhoff plate
Mindlin plate
Reddy plate

0.03

0.025

w/h

0.02

0.015

0.01

0.005

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

x/L

(a) Thick plate with L / h = 4


l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h

0.2

w/h

0.15

l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h

Kirchhoff plate
Mindlin plate
Reddy plate

2500

2000

w/h

Kirchhoff plate
Mindlin plate
Reddy plate

1500

0.1
1000

0.05

500

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

x/L

(b) Medium thickness plate with L / h = 8

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

x/L

(c) Thin plate with L / h = 100

Fig. 6. The deection of the plate to compare Kirchhoff plate, Mindlin plate and Reddy plate couple stress theories [0/90/0].

It should be noted that the results of the second one [90/0/


90] are equal to the rst one [0/90/0] by exchanging the x axis
and y axis, for instance, the deection of the plate [90/0/90] at
x = L/2 along y/L is same as the Fig. 3.
5.3. Solution of the cross-ply composite laminated Mindlin plate of
new modied couple stress theory
Substituting u0(x, y) = 0, v0(x, y) = 0 and fu = fv = fcx = fcy = 0 into
Eq. (4-1), the equilibrium equations in terms of displacement for
the composite laminated Mindlin plate of new modied couple
stress theory can be expressed as follows:

8
2
e
e
>
e 44 Q
e 55 w;xxyy
>
Q 44 w;xx hy;x Q 55 w;yy  hx;y  4 2 Q
>
>
>
>
>
e
>
e 44 w;yyyy 2hx;xxy hx;yyy
>
Q
>
>
>
>
e
>
e
>
>
> Q 55 w;xxxx  2hy;xyy  hy;xxx fw 0
<
Q 44 w;x hy I11 hy;xx I66 hy;yy  I12 I66 hx;xy
>
>
e
>
2e
>
>
>
Q4 55 2wxyy  w;xxx 2hy;yy hy;xx 0
>
>
>
>
>
Q 55 w;y  hx  I66 hx;xx  I22 hx;yy I12 I66 hy;xy
>
>
>
>
e
>
>
Q 44
:  2 e
2w;xxy w;yyy 2hx;xx hx;yy 0
4

Substituting the trial function (5-2) into Eq. (5-6), we have


!
8 

e 2
>
e
>
Q 55 p
3p4 2 e
p2 Q Q w p Q 32 e
e
e
>
hya


>
44
55
44
55
0
44
L
>
4L4
L2
4L2
>
>
>
>
>
>
e 2
>
>
Q 44 p
> p Q  32 e
>
hxa q0 0
< L 55
4L2
!
!!
e
e
>p
2
32 e
Q 55 p2
Q 55
>
p2 32 e
>
w
hya pL2 I12 I66 hxa 0
Q

Q


I
44
0
44
11
66
>
2
2
L
4
>
4L
L
>
>
>
>
!
!!
>
>
e 2
e
>
2e
>p
2
2
32 e
Q 44 p
>
>
w0 pL2 I12 I66 hya Q 55  pL2 3 4Q 44 I22 I66
hxa 0
: L Q 55  4L2

5-7
The stresses at x = L/2, y = L/2 in section of the plate can be
expressed as follows:

8


>
< rkx z pL Q k11 hya  Q k12 hxa


>
: rky z pL Q k12 hya  Q k22 hxa

5-8

5.4. Solution of the cross-ply composite laminated Kirchhoff plate of


couple stress theory

5-6

Substituting u0(x, y) = 0, v0(x, y) = 0 and fu = fv = fcx = fcy = 0 into


the Eq. (4-5), the equilibrium equations in terms of displacement

2154

W.J. Chen et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 21432156


0.5

l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

z/h

0
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3

Kirchhoff plate
Mindlin plate
Reddy plate

-0.4
-0.5
-0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

x (GPa)

(a) Thick platewith L / h = 4


0.5

0.5

0.3
0.2
0.1

z/h

0
-0.1

0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1
-0.2

-0.2
-0.3

-0.3

Kirchhoff plate
Mindlin plate
Reddy plate

-0.4
-0.5
-1.5

l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h

0.4

z/h

0.4

l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h

-1

-0.5

0.5

Kirchhoff plate
Mindlin plate
Reddy plate

-0.4
1.5

-0.5
-250

-200

-150

-100

-50

50

100

150

200

250

x (GPa)

x (GPa)

(b) Medium thickness plate with L / h = 8

(c) Thin plate with L / h = 100

Fig. 7. The stress rx in section of the plate at x = L/2 to compare Kirchhoff plate, Mindlin plate and Reddy plate couple stress theories [0/90/0].

of composite laminated Kirchhoff plate of cross-ply of couple stress


theory is given as

I11

@4w
@4w
@4w
2I12 2I66 2 2 I22 4
@x4
@x @y
@y

!
4
4
4
e
e
e
e
e 55 Q
e 44 @ w Q
e 55 @ w Q
e 44 @ w fw
2 Q
@x2 @y2
@x4
@y4

5-9

The trial function is assumed as w(x, y) = w0 sin ax sin by.


The deection at x = L/2, y = L/2 in section of the plate can be
obtained as

w0

q0 L 4

p4 I11 2I12 2I66 I22 22 Qee 44 Qee 55

5-10

The stresses at x = L/2, y = L/2 in section of the plate are


given as

8


2
>
< rkx z Q k11 Q k12 pL w0


>
: rky z Q k12 Q k22 pL 2 w0

5-11

5.5. Numerical examples to compare Kirchhoff plate, Mindlin plate and


Reddy plate of new modied couple stress theories for microstructures
In order to compare Kirchhoff plate with Mindlin plate and Reddy plate of the couple stress theories for microstructures, aforementioned models of simply supported cross-ply laminated plate
are adopted. However, various sizes of the plate are chosen as
length L = 100 lm, L = 200 lm, L = 2500 lm and thickness h =
25 lm respectively. We choose the cross-ply laminated plate with
three-layer of [0/90/0] and [90/0/90] respectively, and change
the material constant as l = (0, h/2, h), to examine the scale effect.
Numerical results of the deection of the plate are given in
Fig. 6 which show that the deference of the Mindlin plate and Reddy plate in couple stress theory is more than Kirchhoff plate of couple stress theory for thickness plate with L/h = 4, medium thickness
plate with L/h = 8, while the results for thin beam with L/h = 100
are identical under the same as the material constant l.
It is should note that in the case of thin plate with L/h = 100, the
lines of Reddy beam of couple stress theory coincide with Timoshenko beam of couple stress theory and EulerBernoulli beam
of couple stress theory in Figs. 6c, 7c, and 8c.
Numerical results of the stress rx in section of the plate are given in Figs. 7 and 8, which show that the stress rx of the Mindlin
plate and Reddy plate in couple stress theory is smaller than

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W. Chen et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 21432156


0.5

l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

z/h

0
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3

Kirchhoff plate
Mindlin plate
Reddy plate

-0.4
-0.5
-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

y (GPa)

(a) Thick plate with L / h = 4

0.4
0.3
0.2

z/h

0.1
0
-0.1

0.5

l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h

0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1

-0.2

-0.2

-0.3

-0.3

Kirchhoff plate
Mindlin plate
Reddy plate

-0.4
-0.5
-0.8

l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h
l=0
l=h/2
l=h

0.4

z/h

0.5

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

y (GPa)

0.2

0.4

0.6

Kirchhoff plate
Mindlin plate
Reddy plate

-0.4
0.8

-0.5
-80

-60

(b) Medium thickness plate with L / h = 8

-40

-20

y (GPa)

20

40

60

80

(c) Thin plate with L / h = 100

Fig. 8. The stress rx in section of the plate at x = L/2 to compare Kirchhoff plate, Mindlin plate and Reddy plate couple stress theories [90/0/90].

Kirchhoff plate of couple stress theory for thickness beam with L/


h = 4, Medium thickness beam with L/h = 8, while the results for
thin beam with L/h = 100 are identical under the same as the material constant l.
6. Conclusions
A model for composite laminated Reddy plate of the new modied couple stress theory is developed in rst time. The characteristics of the couple stress theory are the use of rotation-displacement
as dependent variables and the use of only one constant to describe
the materials microstructural characteristics. In this theory a new
curvature tensor is dened for establishing the constitutive relations of laminated plate for anisotropy materials. The characterization of anisotropy is incorporated into higher-order laminated beam
theories based on the modied couple stress theory by Yang et al. in
2002. The form of new curvature tensor is asymmetric, however it
can result in same as the symmetric curvature tensor in the case
of the isotropic elasticity. By introducing the hypothesis of the
cross-section of plate, the governing equations of the composite
laminated Reddy plate of couple stress theory are established.
The present model of plate can be viewed as a simplied couple
stress theory in engineering mechanics. A simply supported crossply laminated plate subjected to loads of fw = q0sin(px/L)sin(py/L)

is solved by directly applying the newly developed plate model.


Numerical results show that the present plate model can capture
the scale effects of microstructure. The deections and stresses of
the present model of plate of couple stress theory are always smaller than that by the classical plate model.
Additionally, the present Reddy plate model can be degenerated
to the model of cross-ply composite laminated Mindlin plate and
cross-ply composite laminated Kirchhoff plate model of couple
stress theory.
Acknowledgement
The work in this paper was supported by the National Natural
Sciences Foundation of China (No. 11072156). This support is
gratefully acknowledged.
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