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A Model of Composite Laminated Reddy Plate Based on New Modified Couple

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Composite Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

stress theory

Wanji Chen a,b,, Ma Xu b,c, Li Li b,d

a

Key Laboratory of Liaoning Province for Composite Structural Analysis of Aerocraft and Simulation, Shenyang Aerospace University, Shenyang, LN 110136, China

State Key Laboratory for Structural Analysis of Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, China

c

School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, China

d

Physics and Biophysics Department, China Medical University, No. 92, The 2nd North Road, Heping District, Shenyang 110001, China

b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Available online 16 February 2012

Keywords:

Composite laminated Reddy plate

Modied couple stress

Material length parameter

Scale effect

a b s t r a c t

Based on new modied couple stress theory a model for composite laminated Reddy plate is developed in

rst time. In this theory a new curvature tensor is dened for establishing the constitutive relations of

laminated plate. The characterization of anisotropy is incorporated into higher-order laminated plate theories based on the modied couple stress theory by Yang et al. in 2002. The form of new curvature tensor

is asymmetric, however it can result in same as the symmetric curvature tensor in the isotropic elasticity.

The present model of thick plate can be viewed as a simplied couple stress theory in engineering

mechanics. Moreover, a more simplied model for cross-ply composite laminated Reddy plate of couple

stress theory with one materials length constant is used to demonstrate the scale effects. Numerical

results show that the present plate model can capture the scale effects of microstructure. Additionally,

the present model of thick plate model can be degenerated to the model of composite cross-ply laminated

Kirchhoff plate and Mindlin plate of couple stress theory.

2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

theories for microstructures need to be developed.

1.2. Couple stress theory

With the material size scaling down to the order of microscales, the stiffness and the strength of metal materials can

increase with the size decreasing, which is called size effects. The

microstructure-dependent size effects have been exhibited by

many micro- and nano-scale components and devices. The classical

elasticity theory is not capable of predicting such size effects. To

overcome this deciency, theories for microstructures need to be

developed.

Numerous experiments have shown that microstructure has

scale effects. Fleck et al. [1] observed that the scaled shear strength

increases by a factor of three as the wire diameter decreases from

170 lm to 12 lm in the twisting of thin copper wires; Lam et al. [2]

reported a signicant increase in the normalized bending hardening with the beam thickness decreasing in bending of ultra thin

beams. Sun et al. [3] put forward a alternative view of the size

effects in the nano-scale structures. As conventional continuum

Corresponding author at: Key Laboratory of Liaoning Province for Composite

Structural Analysis of Aerocraft and Simulation, Shenyang Aerospace University,

Shenyang, LN 110136, China.

E-mail address: chenwj@dlut.edu.cn (W.J. Chen).

0263-8223/$ - see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2012.02.009

strain gradient theory. The couple stress theory can be viewed as

a special case of strain gradient theory which uses rotation as a variable to describe curvature, while the strain gradient theory uses

strain as a variable to describe curvature. Though both theories

can describe the scale defects at micro-scale The couple stress/

strain gradient theory for microstructures can be classied into

two respective theories, C1 theory and C0 theory. For C1 theory

the displacements and rotations/strains are dependent variables.

For C0 theory, the displacements and rotations/strains are independent variables. The C0 couple stress theory (Cosserat-type theories )

which contains more than two additional material constants. In

general, the Cosserat-type theories have six additional micromaterial constants. The C0 couple stress theory have to have two

additional micro-material constants, however, the C1 couple stress

theory may have one additional micro-material constants. The

C1 couple stress theory cannot explain as pseudo-Cosserat

approach. It is well known that in the classical bending plate

theory, the thin plate theory is called as C1 theory, the medium plate

theory is called as C0 theory. Both classical bending plate theories

2144

plate became very thin, the C0 theory can approximate C1 theory.

Unlike classical bending plate theory, the C1 theory and C0 theory

for couple stress theory cannot nd a connection each order.

For the couple stress theory, the C1 theory have to satisfy the

relation of rotation-displacement as xi 12 uk;j uj;k 0: However, the C0 theory cannot satisfy this condition and this term

has to possess one independent micro-material constant. Up today

it is no answer about the condition for vanishing this term in the C0

the couple stress theory.

A series of research in the couple stress theories have been

made. For example, Toupin [4], Koiter [5] and Mindlin [6] proposed

couple stress theory; Neuber [7] proposed couple stress theory

containing four materials characteristic length constants; Fleck

Hutchinson [8] proposed couple stress theory containing one

materials characteristic length constants; Yang [9] proposed symmetrical couple stress theory (C1 theory) containing one material

characteristic length constants.

The microstructures such as sensors and actuators in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nano-electromechanical

systems (NEMS) often consist in the components of beam, plate

and membrane et al. According to the application in engineering,

the beam, plate and shell theories based on couple stress/strain

gradient theory should be developed.

1.3. The couple stress isotropic plate model based on the C0 couple

stress theory

The researchers have focused on the plate theory on micro-scale

in recent years. A number of papers have been published for

attempting to develop microstructure-dependent non-local Timoshenko plate models and apply them to analyze nanotubes and

other small plate-like members/devices. All of these models are

based on a C0 theory in which the rotation-displacement as dependent variables. For example, the model for pure bending proposed

by Anthoine [10] is based on the classical C0 couple stress elasticity

theory, which includes two additional internal material length

scale parameters. The higher-order BernoulliEuler plate model

developed by Papargyri-Beskou et al. [11] is based on the C0 gradient elasticity theory, which involves two internal material length

scale parameters. The non-local BernoulliEuler plate model proposed by Peddieson et al. [12], in the formulation the constitutive

equation suggested by Eringen [13] contains two additional material constants. More background related to the couple stress plate

based on the C0 couple stress theory, especially Cosserat-type theories which contain more than two additional material constants,

can be found in the review by Johannes al. [14].

1.4. The couple stress isotropic plate model based on the C1 couple

stress theory

Recently, due to the difculty of determining more than one

microstructure-dependent length scale parameters and the

approximate nature of plate theories, C1 non-classical plate models

involving only one material length scale parameter are getting

many attentions. One model, as a simpler BernoulliEuler beam

model based on modied couple stress theory with only one material length parameter, has recently been developed by Park and

Gao [15]. Ma et al. [16] proposed a microstructure-dependent Timoshenko beam model based on a modied couple stress theory

with only one material length parameter. Tsiatas [17] proposed a

new Kirchhoff plate model based on a modied couple stress

theory, and by using modied couple stress theory, the governing

equation of couple stress thin plate are obtained as

(D + 2D)r4w = fw, where D and Dl are the bending rigidity and

rotation gradients rigidity of the plate respectively [17]. This equa-

tion can show the scale effects obviously, so many researchers get

many attentions to use the modied couple stress theory to study

the couple stress plate and beam models. Metin [18] developed a

general nonlocal beam theory based on C0 theory where the nonlocal constitutive equations proposed by Eringen [13] are adopted.

The nonclassical ReddyLevinson (RL) beam model based on the

higher order shear deformation theory and C1 couple stress theory

was developed by Ma et al. [19]. The non-classical RL model can

be reduced to the existing classical elasticity-based RL model by

using the material length scale parameter and Poissons ratio are

both taken to be zero. The classical RL beam model [20] is a

third-order beam model satised the condition of shear stress

equal zero on the upper and lower surfaces of the beam. For moderate thickness beam, the accuracy is higher than rst-order shear

beam model. Furthermore the RL plate model can be reduce the

non-classical BernoulliEuler beam model when the normality

assumption is introduced. Recently, Li et al. used directly the model of modied couple stress theory proposed by Tsiatas [16] to

analysis of vibration of micro-scale plates [21]. Jomehzadehei

et al. based on a modied couple stress theory to analysis of the

size-dependent vibration of micro-plates [22]. Ma et al. based on

a modied couple stress theory establish a Mindlin plate model

[23]. Wang et al. based on strain gradient elasticity theory proposed a Kirchhoff micro-plate model [24]. Recently, Reddy et al.

developed models of functionally graded beams and nonlinear formulations based on nonlocal/couple stress theory. The couple

stress theory is used to analysis functionally graded beams by Reddy [25]. The nonlocal nonlinear formulations for beams and plates

was developed by Reddy [26] and Reddy et al. based on modied

couple stress proposed a nonlinear third-order theory of functionally graded plates [27].

Today, by using modied couple stress theory to establish the

model of beam and plate in the microstructures is just starting.

The rst paper is published in 2006, however, up to 2011 relative

many papers have been published. A hot point to study the micro-shale effects may arise.

Existing modied couple stress theory belong to isotropic theory, so the plate models established based on the modied couple

stress theory belong to isotropic theory including the non-classical

Mindlin plate model based on a modied couple stress theory [23].

These models and existing modied couple stress theory cannot

apply to establish anisotropic plate model, especially the study of

couple stress laminated plate theory.

Composite laminate plates are widely used in engineering. Due

to the micro-scale impurities such as bre, and microcracks at

micro-matrix are involved in a laminated composite structures, it

results in classical laminate theory invalid in some problems

related to the micro-scale of laminate composites.

It is well known that the constitute relation of isotropic elasticity can be easily extended to anisotropic elasticity. Unlike the classical elasticity theory, for the modied couple stress theory, this

extension cannot be easy, especially composites laminated plate.

In the couple stress theory, the rotation variables related to micro-scale impurities or defects are formulated into rotation equilibrium equations. The anisotropic elasticity of the couple stress

theory depends on the single component of rotation rather than

the assembly of derivative of rotations. The symmetric curvature

dened on the modied couple stress theory is an assembly of

the derivative of rotations, so it cannot be easily extended to

anisotropic.

The study for couple stress laminated plate is presented in rst

time in this paper. Firstly the isotropic modied couple stress theory is extended to anisotropic modied couple stress theory and it

can degenerate to the isotropic modied couple stress theory. The

contribution of this work is that a new curvature tensor is dened

for establishing the constitutive relations of laminated plate as

Reddy plate of couple stress theory and analysis of the scale efcient are given in the rst time.

2. Formulations for composite laminated plate based on new

modied couple stress theory

2145

standard couple stress theory are that for modied couple stress

theory the couple stress tensor is symmetric and only one internal

material length scale parameter is considered [9], however, for

standard couple stress theory, the couple stress tensor is asymmetric and number of internal material length scale parameters is one

not always.

Mindlin developed a couple stress theory [6], which can be

called as classical couple stress theory.

The strain tensor and curvature tensor can be dened respectively as

stress theory

the microstructures.

by introducing the hypothesis of the cross-section into the plate. It

is also true for the composite laminated plate for the couple stress

theory.

The displacements are represented by u, v and w, which are displacements along x, y and z directions respectively. For the plate

couple stress theory, xx, xy and xz are the rotations as shown in

Fig. 1, while it is assumed as xz = 0 for the Kirchhoff plate model

based on modied couple stress theory [17], however, the rotation

xz is adopted in the formulation of the non-classical Mindlin plate

model based on a modied couple stress theory [23]. In this paper

we assume xz = 0 for modeling composite laminated plate with

high-order shear deformation based on the modied couple stress

theory.

vij xi;j

2-1

xi 12 eijk uk;j ; eij is symmetric tensor and vij is asymmetric tensor.

Constitutive relations are given by

mij 42 Gvij

2-2

Unlike the standard couple stress theory, Yang et al. [9] developed modied couple stress theory in which the part of rotation

gradient in the strain tensor is symmetric.

According to the symmetric couple stress theory, the strain tensor and curvature tensor can be dened respectively as

vij 12 xi;j xj;i

2-3

the rotation vector, eij and vij are symmetric tensor.

The strain energy can be written as

1

U

2

r : e m : vdv

2-4

where r stress tensor, strain e tensor, m couple stress moment tensor and v curvature tensor. They are dened by

r ktreI 2Ge

m 22 Gv

2-5

developed by Mindlin [6]. However, in (2-5) the coefcient 2 is

chosen for a modied couple stress theory developed by Yang

et al. [9], which can ensure the coefcients of the constitutive

relations the couple stress tensor is symmetric. It is means that

the value of in the two theories is difference only with a multiple.

(1) The thin plate: the Kirchhoff plate theory. The displacement

eld is assumed as

@w

@x

@w

v x; y; z v 0 x; y z

@y

w wx; y

ux; y; z u0 x; y z

2-6

(2) The medium thickness plate: the Mindlin plate theory. The

displacement eld is assumed as

ux; y; z u0 x; y zhy x; y

v x; y; z v 0 x; y zhx x; y

2-7

w wx; y

where according to the engineering conventional representation, hx, hy are the angles of rotations around the y, x axes of

the cross-section, and for Kirchhoff plate: hx @w

; hy @w

.

@y

@x

(3) The thick plate: the Reddy plate theory. The Reddy plate theory, known as a third-order plate theory, is based on the displacement eld

@w

ux; y; z u0 x; y zhy x; y cz3 hy

dx

@w

v x; y; z v 0 x; y zhx x; y cz3 hx

dy

wx; y; z w0 x; y

2-8

2146

4l

where c 3h

2 ; l is a parameter to control model: l = 0rst order

model, l = 1 Reddy model, hx, hy are the angle of rotation around

the y-, x-axis of the cross-section respectively (see Fig. 1). The displacement elds shown in (2-6)(2-8) can be found in Book [28].

Substituting Eq. (2-8) into the expression of the rotation as

x 12 curl u, we have,

1

1

2

2

1

1

xy u;z w;x 1 3cz2 w;x 1 3cz2 hy

2

2

1

xz v ;x u;y 0

2

stress theory of isotopic elasticity can be written as

2-10

strain and curvature for the plate in isotropic elasticity can be expressed as follows:

vy v22 ;

vxy 2v12 :

)

( @x

x

@@z

vxz

Due to xz = 0, we have

@@x

0

@

x

x

vyz

@z

@y

z

8

@u

>

>

> @x

>

>

@v

>

>

>

@y

>

<

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

cxy @u

@@xv

@y

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

@w

>

>

>

cxz >

>

>

>

>

@u

>

>

>

>

@x

@z

>

>

>

:

>

; >

>

>

>

@w

@

v

:

;

cyz

@z

@y

2-11-1

8

9

>

>

< vx =

y

>

:v >

;

xy

9

>

>

=

@ xy

@y

>

>

: @ xx

@y

@ xy

@x

2-11-2

>

>

;

6

6

6

6

>

mxy >

>

> 6

>

>

4

>

>

:

;

myx

81

9

1 3cz2 w;xy 1 3cz2 hx;x

>

>

2

>

>

>

< 1 1 3cz2 w 1 3cz2 h >

=

vy

;xy

y;y

2

v

1

2

2

>

>

>

v

> 2 1 3cz w;yy 1 3cz hx;y >

>

>

xy >

>

>

>

: 1

:

;

; >

vyx

2 1 3cz2 w;xx 1 3cz2 hy;x

8

vx

>

>

>

<

9

>

>

>

=

2-14

The stressstrain relations of kth layer in the local coordinate

(x0 , y0 , z0 ) can be expressed as follows:

r k C k ek

2-15

where

8

h

>

k rkx0

<r

h

>

: ek ek0

x

Ck

6 11

6 Ck

6 21

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

k

C 6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

eky0 ckx0 y0 ckx0 z0 cky0 z0 vkx0 vky0 vkx0 y0 vky0 x0

iT

iT

C k12

C k22

C k66

C k44

C k55

22b C k44

22m C k55

2b C k44

2b C k44

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

k

2m C 55 7

5

2m C k55

C k11

couple stress theory depend on the component of rotation. For

@x

xx

the composite laminated plate, the @@y

and @xy should be taken as

independent components which are relative to the micromaterials constants 2b ; 2m to describe the ber and matrix of the

laminated plate respectively.

The new expression of the constitutive relations can be written

as follows

9

>

>

>

>

=

2-13

2-17

modied couple stress theory

8

mx

>

>

>

>

< my

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

> 1 3cz2 w;x hy

>

>

> >

>

>

>

> cxz >

>

> >

>

>

>

>

: ; :

;

2

cyz

1 3cz w;y hx

and

8 @ xx

>

>

< @x

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

2-16

8

ex

>

>

>

>

>

ey

>

>

<

8

u0;x cz3 w;xx z cz3 hy;x

>

>

>

>

3

3

>

>

< v 0;y cz w;yy z cz hx;y

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

and

vij 12 xi;j xj;i

8

ex

>

>

>

>

>

>

< ey

2-9

4l

where c 3h

2 and a comma followed by a subscript denotes differentiation with respect to the subscript (e.g., u,x = @u/@x).

Substituting Eqs. (2-8) and (2-9) into (2-11-2), (2-12), the strain

of the laminated plate can be obtained as follows:

2C 44 2b

2C 55 2m

C 44 2b

C 44 2b

38 @ xx 9

>

@x >

>

>

>

> @x >

>

>

7>

< @yy >

=

7>

7

7

xx >

>

> @@y

>

C 55 2m 7

>

5>

>

>

>

>

>

>

2

:

@ xy ;

C

55 m

@x

2-12

Ek2 Ek2 D

, C k12 C k21

Ek2 Ek2 D

, C k22

Ek1 Ek2 D

Ek v k

1v k12 v k21 v k22 v k22 v k12 v k21 2v k21 v k22 v k12

Gk22 , C k66 Gk12 , v k21 2Ek12 , D

and

Ek1 Ek2 Ek2

1

k

k

k

k

k

k

E1 ; E2 ; G12 ; G22 and v 12 ; v 21 are the elastic constants, shear

which subscripts 1 and 2 represent the direction of ber and matrix.

2b ; 2m are constants to describe the materials microstructural characteristics of respectively.

After coordinate transformation, the stressstrain relations of

kth layer in the global coordinate (x, y, z) can be written as follows

rk Q k e

2-18

where

8

h

iT

< rk rk rk sk sk sk mk mk mk mk

x

y xy xz

yz

x

y

xy

yx

:

e ex ey cxy cxz cyz vx vy vxy vyx T

2-19

Q k T kT C k T k

2-20

2147

"

Tk

T k1

2-21

T k2

2

m2

n2

mn

6

7

k

4 n2

m2

mn 5; T 2

mn mn m2 n2

2 2

n2

m

6

2

m n

m2

6 n

T0

; T1 6

4 mn mn

n m

T k1

T0

T1

mn

;

mn

v

3

n2

2-22

m2

The components of Qk are expressed as

"

k

Q

2

2-23

Q kc

ek

22 Q

46

2 ek

2 Q

56

bk

2 Q

44

2 bk

Q

44

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

2 ek 7

2 Q 47 7

7

ek 7

22 Q

57 7

7

bk 7

2 Q

55 5

bk

2 Q

55

2-24

where

2-27

>

>

;

8 @ xx

9

8

9

>

>

>

>

>

< mx >

=

< @x

=

@ xy

2

m my

2G

@y

>

>

>

>

:

;

>

: @ xx @ xy >

;

mxy

2-28

@x

1

2

mv : vdv

m : v 2G2

8 @x

x

>

>

@x

>

<

9T 8 @ x

x

>

>

> @x

>

>

<

= >

@ xy

@y

@ xy

@y

@x

2-25

4m n

3m2 n2 2b C k44 2m C k55

2b C k44

2m C k55

mn m2 2b C k44 n2 2m C k55

@x

8

9

xx

8

9

2C 44 2b @@x

>

>

>

mx > >

>

>

>

>

>

> >

xy

>

>

< 2C 55 2m @@y

<m >

=

= >

y

@

x

2

2

y

@

x

x

>

>

mxy >

> C 44 b @y C 55 m @x >

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

>

; >

>

>

:

myx

2 @ xx

2 @ xy ;

C 44 b @y C 55 m @x

1

2

2-31

mv : vdv

2-33

m : v 2G2

8 @x

x

>

>

> @x

<

@ xy

@y

9

>

>

>

=

@ xy

@y

@x

@y

2-34

@x

Obviously, (2-30) is identical to (2-34), so formulations anisotropic plate such as laminated plate and sandwich plate can be

used to isotropic plate by using Q kij C kij ; b m .

mn n2 2b C k44 m2 2m C k55

2b C k44 m4 2m C k55 n4 m2 n2 2b C k44 2m C k55

n4 2b C k44 m4 2m C k55 m2 n2 2b C k44 2m C k55

9T 8 @ x

>

> @xx

>

> >

>

=

<

>

>

>

> >

> @xx @ xy >

>

>

>

: @ xx @xy >

; >

:

;

@y

2-32

@y

2-30

relative to the curvature are given by

2 2

9

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

> @xx @ xy >

> >

>

>

>

: @ xx @xy >

:

; >

;

@y

C k44 n2 C k55 m2

2m C k55 n4

2-29

C k44 m2 C k55 n2

mn C k44 C k55

@y

@ xy

@x

8 @ xx

9

8

9

8

9 > 2G2 @xx

>

>

@x

>

>

>

@x

>

>

>

>

m

x >

>

>

>

>

>

@ xy

>

>

>

>

>

>

@ xy

2

>

>

>

>

>

>

< m = < 2G @y

< @y

=

=

y

2

2G

@ xy

1 @ xx

@

x

2

2

y

@

x

x

@x >

>

>

>

mxy >

>

>

>

> G @y G @x >

>

>

2

@y

>

>

>

>

:

>

; >

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

: 2 @ xx

>

myx

2 @ xy ;

@

x

:

;

y

@

x

1

x

G @y G @x

@y

@x

2

m2 n2 C k11 C k22 4C k66 m4 n4 C k12

m3 n C k11 C k22 2C k66 mn3 C k12 C k22 2C k66

mn3 C k11 C k22 2C k66 m3 n C k12 C k22 2C k66

m2 n2 C k11 C k22 2C k12 m2 n2 2 C k66

2b C k44 m4

@ xy

@y

>

>

: @ xx

8

2 ek

>

>

> Q 44

>

>

>

>

> 2 Q

ek

>

>

45

>

>

>

>

>

2

e

>

Q k55

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

ek

> 2 Q

>

46

<

2 ek

Q 47

>

>

>

>

ek

>

2 Q

>

56

>

>

> 2

>

>

ek

>

Q

>

57

>

>

>

>

>

2

b

> Q k44

>

>

>

>

>

>

: 2 Q

bk

55

9

>

>

=

6 k

k

k

6Q

6 12 Q 22 Q 26

6 k

k

6 Q 16 Q 26 Q k66

6

6

6

Q k44 Q k45

6

6

Qk 6

Q k45 Q k55

6

6

ek

ek

22 Q

22 Q

6

44

45

6

2 ek

2 ek

6

2 Q 45 2 Q 55

6

6

6

e k 22 Q

ek

22 Q

4

57

46

2 ek

2 ek

2 Q 57 2 Q 46

8 k

Q

>

>

> 11

>

k

>

>

>

> Q 22

>

>

k

>

>

> Q 12

>

>

>

>

>

>

Q k16

>

>

>

<

Q k26

>

>

>

> k

>

>

Q 66

>

>

>

>

>

k

>

>

> Q 44

>

>

>

>

Q k45

>

>

>

>

:

Q k55

y

>

:v >

;

8 @ xx

>

>

< @x

@y

Q km

8

9

>

< vx >

=

xy

mn mn 7

7

7

m2

n2 5

mn mn

Aforementioned formulations can use to isotropic plate and

anisotropic plate such as laminated plate and sandwich plate.

The modied couple stress theory proposed by Yang [9] is a theory of isotopic elasticity. The curvature is written as follows:

2-26

plate of new modied couple stress theory

It is well known that the potential energy principle can be used

to derive the equilibrium equation and the boundary condition.

The potential energy principle for composite laminated Reddy

plate of modied couple stress theory is given by

dpp dU dW 0

3-1

2148

the strain energy of the deformable body, W is the work produced

by the external forces, dU and dW are the rst variation of U and

W respectively.

!

Z X

n

n Z

n Z zk1

X

X

k

kT

kT

dU

dU

r dedxdydz

r dedz dxdy

k1

dW

Vk

k1

f T dudv

k1

8 1 9 8

9

9

>

>

>

< ex >

< hy;x

=

= >

=

0

1

h

ey

e

v 0;y

; e1

;

x;y

y

m

>

>

>

> >

>

: 0 >

:

:

:

; >

;

;

1 ;

u

v

h

h

0;y

0;x

y;y

x;x

cxy

cxy

8 3 9

8

9

w

h

e

>

>

>

;xx

< x >

< y;x

=

=

3

ey

c hx;y w;yy

>

>

>

: 3 >

:

;

;

hy;y 2w;xy hx;x

cxy

e0

m

3 - 2

T T duds

em3

3-3

8

>

< u0;x

3-9-1

@X

fu du0 fv dv 0 fw dw fcx dxx fcy dxy dxdy

Nnx du0 Nny dv 0 Vdw Mn dhn ds

3-4

iT

1

2w;x hy ; 2w;y hx ;

2

T

w;xy hx;x ; w;xy hy;y ; w;yy hx;y ; w;xx hy;x

h

iT 3

2 2 2 2 2

c2

c 2hy w;x ; 2hx w;y ;

xz cyz vx vy vxy vyx

2

T

hx;x w;xy ; hy;y w;xy ; hx;y w;yy ; hy;x w;xx

0 0 0 0 0

v0 cxz0 cyz

vx vy vxy vyx

v2

8 0 9

>

< ex >

=

zk

where

f T and T T are the body force on the plate domain X and

boundary force on the plate boundary oX, respectively.

The dW in the plate on the modied couple stress theory can be

expressed as

dW

and

3-9-2

@X

the body force per unit length, fcx and fcy are the x- and y-component

of body couple force per unit length along the x- and y-axis, and

N x ; Ny ; Nxy are the applied axial forces and shear force, V and Mn

transverse force and bending moment at the boundary of the plate

respectively, and

R

R

8R

@fcx

1

1

>

X fcx dxx dxdy 2 X fcx dhx w;y dxdy 2 X fcx dhx @y dwdxdy

>

>

R

>

< 1

f n dwds

2 @ X cx y

R

R

R

@f

>

>

fcy dxy dxdy 12 X fcy dhy w;x dxdy 12 X fcy dhy @xcy dwdxdy

>

>

: X 1R

2 @ X fcy nx dwds

3-5

Substituting (3-5) into (3-4), we have

dW

Z

1 @fcy @fcx

dw

fu du0 fv dv 0 fw

2 @x

@y

X

Z

1

fcx dhx fcy dhy dxdy

Nnx du0 Nny dv 0

2

@X

1

V fcx ny fcy nx dw M n dhn ds

2

3-6

3-7

where

1

3 3

em e0

m zem z em

v v0 z2 v2

n R

P

dU k

rkT dem mkT dvdxdydz

Vk m

k1

k1

n

R zk1 kT 0

R P

3

3

mkT dv0 z2 dv2 dz dxdy

X

rm dem zde1

m z dem

zk

dU

n

P

k1

8

8

9T

9T

9T

08

> Nx >

>

>

< Nx1 >

< Nx3 >

=

=

=

R B<

0

1

3

X @ Ny

dem Ny1

dem Ny3

d em

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

:

:

;

;

;

N xy

Nxy1

Nxy3

1

8

9

8

9T

Q x2 >T

>

>

>

Q

C

>

>

>

>

x

>

>Q >

>

>

C

>

>

>

y2 >

>

>

>

>

>

>

C

>Qy >

>

>

>

<

<

=

=

C

Y

x2

C

Y x Y y dv0

dv2 Cdxdy

>

>

>

>

C

Y y2 >

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

C

Y xy >

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

C

>

>

>

>

Y

xy2 >

:

>

;

A

>

>

Y yx

:

;

Y yx2

2

Substituting Eqs. (2-15), (3-8) and (3-9) into the Eq. (3-2), we

have,

3-8

3

N x du0;x N y dv 0;y N xy du0;y dv 0;x

6 Q 3cQ dhy Q 3cQ dhx Q 3cQ dw;x Q 3cQ dw;y 7

x

x2

y

x2

y

6

7

y2

x

y2

7

Z 6

6 N xy1 cN xy3 12 Y x 32 cY x2 dhx;x N xy1 cN xy3 12 Y y 32 cY y2 dhy;y

7

7dxdy

6

6 N x1 cN x3 1 Y yx 3 cY yx2 dhy;x N y1 cN y3 1 Y xy 3 cY xy2 dhx0 y

7

X6

7

2

2

2

2

1

6

7

1

3

3

4 cN x3 2 Y yx 2 cY yx2 dw;xx 2 Y xy 2 cY xy2 cN y3 dw;yy

5

1

2 Y x 3cY x2 Y y 3cY y2 cN xy3 dw;xy

3-10

4l

3h2

and l is a parameter

to control model, l = 0: rst order model, l = 1: the third order

Reddy model.

By using twice the Greens theorem, we have

3

Nx;x N xy;y du0 Ny;y Nxy;x dv 0

7

6 N N

1

3

6

x1;x

xy1;y 2 Y yx;x Y y;y Q x cN x3;x N xy3;y 2 Y yx2;x Y y2;y 3Q x2 dhy 7

7

R 6

1

3

7

dU X 6

6

Ny1;y Nxy1;x 2 Y xy;y Y x;x Q y cNy3;y Nxy3;x 2 Y xy2;y Y x2;x 3Q y2 dhx 7dxdy

7

6

5

4 Q x;x Q y;y 12 Y yx;xx Y xy;yy Y y;xy Y x;xy

cNx3;xx Ny3;yy 2Nxy3;xy 32 Y yx2;xx Y xy2;yy Y y2;xy Y x2;xy 3Q x2;x Q y2;y dw

3

2

mNx nN xy du0 nNy mNxy dv 0 12 Y yx m2 Y xy n2 dw;n 12 Y xy Y yx mn 14 Y x Y y dw;t

7

6 1

7

6 2 Y x m2 N y1 Nx1 12 Y xy 12 Y yx mn 12 Y y n2 Nxy1 dhn N y1 12 Y xy n2 12 Y x Y y mn Nx1 12 Y yx m2 dhs

7

6

1

7

6

1

1

1

R 6 2 Y yx;x Q x 4 Y x;y Y y;y m 2 Y xy;y Q y 4 Y x;x Y y;x n dw

7

@ X 6 3

7ds

6 2 c Y y2 n2 Y x2 m2 23 Ny3 Nx3 Y yx2 Y xy2 mn 23 Nxy3 dhn 23 N y3 Y xy2 n2 Y y2 Y x2 mn 23 Nx3 Y yx2 m2 dhs 7

7

6

7

6 2 N N

1

2

1

x3;x

xy3;y Y yx2;x 2 Y x2;y Y y2;y 2Q x2 m 3 N y3;y N xy3;x Y xy2;y 2 Y x2;x Y y2;x 2Q y2 n dw

5

4

3

2

2

2

2 2

2

1

3 Nx3 Y yx2 m 3 Ny3 Y xy2 n dw;n 3 Nx3 Ny3 Y xy2 Y yx2 mn 3 Nxy3 2 Y x2 Y y2 dw;t

2

3-11

2149

where Nx, Ny, Nxy, Nxi, Nyi, Nxyi, Qx, Qy, Qx1, Qy1 are the classical tractions of the plate, Yx, Yxy, Yx2, Yy2, Yxy, Yyx, Yxy2, Yyx2 are the traction

of couple stress moment of the plate. They are

8

9

8 9

k

n Z h2

< Na = X

<1 =

k

N a1

r

z dz; a x; y; xy

a

: N ; k1 hk : z3 ;

2

a3

k

X

n Z h2

Qb

1

k

b xz; yz

s

b z2 dz;

k

Q b2

h2

k1

k

X

n Z h2

Yc

k 1

dz; c x; y; xy; yx

m

c

k

Y c2

z2

h

k1

3-12

8

u0 u

>

>

>

>

0

>

v

0 v

>

>

>

>

>

w

w

>

<

@w

@@sw

@s

>

>

@w

>

@@nw

>

@n

>

>

>

>

> hn hn

>

>

:

hs hs

3-15

laminated plate of new modied couple stress theory

From Eqs. (3-6) and (3-11), the equilibrium equations in terms

of tractions are obtained as

@Nx @N xy

fu 0

@x

@y

@Ny @N xy

fv 0

@y

@x

!

@Q x @Q y 1 @ 2 Y x @ 2 Y y @ 2 Y xy @ 2 Y yx

@x

@y 2 @x@y @x@y @y2

@x2

"

!

2

2

2

2

@ Nx3 @ Ny3

@ N xy3 3 @ Y yx2 @ 2 Y xy2 @ 2 Y x2 @ 2 Y y2

2

c

@x2

@y2

@x@y 2

@x2

@y2

@x@y @x@y

@Q x2 @Q y2

1 @fcy @fcx

fw 0

3

@x

@y

@y

2 @x

@Nxy1 @N x1 1 @Y y @Y yx

@N xy3 @N x3

Qx c

@y

@x

@x

@y

@x

2 @y

3 @Y y2 @Y yx2

1

3Q x2 fcy 0

2 @y

2

@x

@Nxy1 @N y1 1 @Y x @Y xy

@Nxy3 @N y3

Qy c

@x

@y

@y

@x

@y

2 @x

3 @Y x2 @Y xy2

1

3Q y2 fcx 0

@y

2 @x

2

3-13

Traction boundary conditions are

mN x nNxy Nnx

nNy mN xy Nny

1

@Y x @Y y

@Y yx

m Qx

2

@y

@y

@x

4

@Nx3 @N xy3

cm 3Q x2

@x

@y

3

@Y x2 @Y y2

@Y yx2

2

@y

@y

@x

4

1 @Y y @Y x

@Y xy

2

n Qy

@x

@y

4 @x

@Ny3 @Nxy3 3 @Y y2 @Y x2

@Y xy2

V

cn 3Q y2

2

@y

@x

@x

@y

4 @x

1 2

1 2

1

1

m Y x n Y y mn Ny1 Nx1 Y xy Y yx

2

2

2

2

3

2

2

2

Nxy1 c n Y y2 m Y x2 mn Ny3 Nx3 Y yx2 Y xy2 N xy3 Mn

2

3

1

m2 Nx1 n2 Ny1 m2 Y yx n2 Y xy mnY x Y y

2

3

3

c n2 Ny3 m2 Nx3 mnY y2 Y x2 n2 Y xy2 m2 Y yx2 Ms

2

2

1 2

3

2

2

2

m Y yx n Y xy c n Ny3 m Nx3 m2 Y yx2 n2 Y xy2 0

2

2

1

1

3

Y x Y y mnY xy Y yx c mn Y xy2 Y yx2 Nx3 Ny3

4

2

2

3

Nxy3 Y x2 Y y2 0

4

3-14

cross-ply laminated plate of new modied couple stress theory

For the laminated plate we can assume 2m 0 because of

2b 2m . And for the cross-ply composite laminated plate, the

Eqs. (2-25) and (2-26) became as follows

8

>

Q k11

>

>

>

>

k

>

>

> Q 22

>

>

>

k

>

> Q 12

>

>

>

>

> Q k16

>

<

Q k26

>

>

>

>

Q k66

>

>

>

>

> Qk

>

>

44

>

>

> k

>

>

Q

>

>

> 45

:

Q k55

m4 C k11 n4 C k22

n4 C k11 m4 C k22

C k12

0

;

C k66

C k44 m2

C k55 n2

0

C k44 n2 C k55 m2

8 2 k

e

Q

>

44

>

>

>

>

2 ek

>

Q

>

45

>

>

>

>

2 ek

>

Q

>

55

>

>

>

>

ek

> 2 Q

>

46

<

2 ek

Q 47

>

>

>

ek

>

2 Q

>

56

>

>

>

> 2 ek

>

Q 57

>

>

>

> 2 bk

>

>

Q 44

>

>

>

:

bk

2 Q

55

m4 2b C k44

0

n4 2b C k44

0

3-16

0

0

0

ek

2 Q

44

2 ek

Q

55

" k

#

8

Qm

>

k

>

>

Q

>

>

>

Q kc

>

<

2

Q k Q k12

>

6 11

>

k

>

> Qm 6 Qk Qk

>

4 12

22

>

>

:

Q k66

7

7;

5

3

Q k2

7

6

2 ek 7

Q kc 6

4 2 Q 2 5

bk

2 Q

2

2

3-17

where

" k

#

8

Q 44

>

k

>

>

Q

>

2

>

>

Q k55

>

>

>

"

#

>

<

ek

Q

44

k

e

Q2

>

ek

>

Q

>

55

>

"

#

>

>

ek

ek

>

Q

Q

>

44

55

>

k

b

>

:Q2

ek

ek

Q

Q

44

55

3-18

where 2 2b .

Substituting stressstrain relations (3-16)(3-18) into equation

(3-12), for the same materials of each layer, we have,

8

9

8

9

>

>

< Nx >

=

< Nx1 >

=

1

3

1

3

Ny

Ny1

Q 3 e0

J 3 e0

m J 3 em R3 em ;

m I 3 em cS 3 em ;

>

>

>

>

:

;

:

;

Nxy

Nxy1

8

9

>

< Nx3 >

=

>

:

Ny3

Nxy3

Qx

Qy

>

;

1

3

R3 e0

m S 3 em cT 3 em ;

Q2

c0

c2

xz

xz

I2

;

0

cyz

c2

yz

Q x2

Q y2

(

I2

c0

c2

xz

xz

S2

;

0

cyz

c2

yz

3-19

2150

8

9

< v0

=

x

8

9 (

8

9

8

9

( )

)

< v2

=

< v0

=

< v2

=

Yx

Y x2

x

x

x

2

2

2

2

2 Q 2

2 I 2

2 I 2

;

2 S 2

;

0 ;

2 ;

: v0 ;

: v2 ;

:

:

Yy

Y

y2

vy

vy

y

y

8

9

8

9 (

8

9

8

9

(

)

)

< v0

=

< v2

=

< v0

=

< v2

=

Y xy

Y xy2

xy

xy

xy

xy

2b

2b

2b

2b

Q2

I2

I2

;

S2

:

: 0 ;

: 2 ;

: 0 ;

: 2 ;

Y yx

Y yx2

vyx

vyx

vyx

where

2

3

2

3

2

8

J11 J12

I11

Q 11 Q 12

>

>

>

6

6

6

7

7

>

>

6

7

6

7

6

>

Q

;

J

;

I

J

J

Q

Q

3

>

3

22

4 12

5 3 4 12 22

5

4 I12

>

>

>

>

>

J66

Q 66

>

>

>

>

2

3

2

3

2

>

>

>

R

R

T 11

S

S

11

12

11

12

>

>

>

6

6

6

7

7

>

>

6

7

6

7

6

R3 4 R12 R22

>

>

5; S 3 4 S12 S22

5; T 3 4 T 12

>

>

>

>

>

R

S

66

66

>

<

"

#

"

#

"

#

Q 44

I44

S44

>

>

; I2

; S2

;

>

>Q2

>

Q 55

I55

S55

>

>

>

>

2

3

2

3

2

3

>

>

e

e

e

>

e 44

e

eI 44

>

Q

S 44

>

>

4

5

4

5

4

5;

>

Q

;

;

2

2

>

> 2

e

e

e

>

eI 55

e

e 55

>

S

Q

>

55

>

>

>

2

3

2

3

2

3

>

>

e

e

e

e

e

>

e 44 Q

e 55

e

eI 55

eI 44 e

>

Q

S 55

S 44 e

>b

>

b

b

5; I 2 4

5; S 2 4

5

>

Q 4

>

: 2

e

e

e

e

e

eI 44 e

eI 55

e

e 44 Q

e 55

S 44 e

S 55

Q

vyx

3-20

3

I12

7

7;

5

I22

I66

T 12

7

7;

5

T 22

T 66

couple stress theory

Substituting geometric equations of hx @w

; hy @w

and c = 0

@y

@x

into (4-1), we have

8

Q 11 u0;xx Q 66 u0;yy Q 12 Q 66 v 0;xy J 11 w;xxx J12 2J 66 w;xyy fu 0

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

> Q 66 Q 12 u0;xy Q 66 v 0;xx Q 22 v 0;yy J 22 w;yyy 2J 66 J12 w;xxy fv 0

>

>

>

2

e

e

e

e

@Q

>

e 44 Q

e 55 w;xxyy Q

e 55 w;xxxx Q

e 44 w;yyyy 1 @fcy;x fcx;y fw 0

x

> @Q

y Q

>

2

>

< @x @y 2

J11 u0;xx J 66 u0;yy J12 J 66 v 0;xy I11 w;xxx I12 2I66 w;xyy Q x

>

>

>

e

e

e

> 2 2 Q

e 55 Q

e 44 w;xyy Q

e 55 w;xxx 1 fcy 0

>

>

2

>

> 2

>

>

>

J 12 J 66 u0;xy J22 v 0;yy J 66 v 0;xx I12 2I66 w;xxy I22 w;yyy Q y

>

>

>

>

: 2

e

e

e

e

e 45 2 Q

e 44 Q

e 55 w;xxy Q

e 44 w;yyy 1 fcx 0

2 2 Q

2

4-2

By Eq. (4-2), the equations of

@Q x

@x

@Q y

@y

@Q x

@x

@Q

; @yy

can be written as

2

e

e

e

e

e 55 Q

e 44 w;xxyy Q

e 55 w;xxxx Q

e 44 w;yyyy 1 fcy;x @fcx;y

2 Q

2

4-3

Substituting (4-3) into (4-2), we have

3-21

e

e

e

e

e 55 Q

e 44 w;xxyy Q

e 55 w;xxxx Q

e 44 w;yyyy fcy;x fcx;y fw 0

2 Q

k

8

i

i

n h

n

n h

P

P

Q ij z4k1 z4k

e

>

e ij P Q

e k zk1 zk

>

; Q

Q kjj zk1 zk ; Rij

> Q ij

ij

4

>

>

k1

k1

k1

>

>

"

#

>

k

k

>

n

n

n

e

<

P

P

P

Q kij z3k1 z3k

Q ij z5k1 z5k

Q 11 z2k1 z2k

e

e

;

;

I

Jij

S

ij

ij

2

5

3

>

k1

k1

k1

>

>

"

#

>

>

>

n

n

n

e

P

P

P

>

Q kij z5k1 z5k

Q kjj z3k1 z3k

Q kij z7k1 z7k

e

>

e

>

;

;

S

T

: Iij

ij

ij

3

7

5

4-4

where

k1

k1

k1

3-22

Substituting Eqs. (3-16) and (3-17) into Eq. (3-13), the Equilibrium equations in terms of displacements for the composite crossply laminated plate of new modied couple stress theory can be

obtained by using computer algebra systems like Maple.

The equilibrium equations for the cross ply composite laminated Kirchhoff plate of new modied couple stress theory can

be obtained as follows as:

8

Q 11 u0;xx Q 66 u0;yy Q 12 Q 66 v 0;xy J11 w;xxx J12 2J66 w;xyy fu 0

>

>

>

>

>

>

Q Q 12 u0;xy Q 66 v 0;xx Q 22 v 0;yy J22 w;yyy 2J66 J12 w;xxy fv 0

>

< 66

J11 u0;xxx J12 2J66 u0;xyy J12 2J66 v 0;xxy J22 v 0;yyy I11 w;xxxx

>

>

>

2I12 2I66 w;xxyy I22 w;yyyy

>

>

>

>

: 2 e

e

e

e

e 55 Q

e 44 w;xxyy Q

e 55 w;xxxx Q

e 44 w;yyyy fcy;x fcx;y fw 0

Q

4-5

5. Numerical example for scale effect:simply supported plate

modied couple stress theory

4.1. Composite cross ply laminated Mindlin plate of new modied

couple stress theory

Substituting c = 0 into the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements for the composite cross ply laminated Mindlin plate of

new modied couple stress theory is given as

8

>

Q 11 u0;xx Q 66 u0;yy Q 12 Q 66 v 0;xy J 11 hy;xx J66 hy;yy J12 J 66 hx;xy fu 0

>

>

>

>

>

>

Q 66 Q 12 u0;xy Q 66 v 0;xx Q 22 v 0;yy J 66 J12 hy;xy J66 hx;xx J22 hx;yy fv 0

>

>

>

>

>

>

e

e

e

e

>

2

e

e

e

e

>

>

> Q 44 w;xx Q 55 wyy Q 55 hx;y Q 44 hy;x 4 Q 44 Q 55 w;xxyy Q 55 w;xxxx Q 44 w;yyyy

>

>

>

>

e

e

e

e

>

1

e

e

e

e

< Q

44 hx;xxy Q 44 hx;yyy Q 55 hy;xyy Q 55 hy;xxx 2 fcy;x fcx;y fw 0

>

>

J11 u0;xx J66 u0;yy J12 J66 v 0;xy I11 hy;xx I66 hy;yy I12 I66 hx;xy Q 44 w;x hy

>

>

>

>

>

>

e

e

e

e

e

e

2

1

>

e

e

e

e

e

e

>

> 4 2 Q 55 Q 44 w;xyy Q 55 w;xxx Q 44 hx;xy 2 Q 55 hy;yy Q 55 hy;xx 2 fcy 0

>

>

>

>

>

> J 12 J66 u0;xy J 22 v 0;yy J66 v 0;xx I66 hx;xx I22 hx;yy I12 I66 hy;xy Q 55 w;y hx

>

>

>

>

>

2

e

e

e

e

e

e

:

1

e

e

e

e

e

e

4 2 Q

44 Q 55 w;xxy Q 44 w;yyy Q 55 hy;xy 2 Q 44 hx;xx Q 44 hx;yy 2 fcx 0

4-1

of new modied couple stress theory and the model of laminated

plate of the couple stress theory proposed on the anisotropic elasticity in the rst put forward, especially it is used to the analysis of

scale effects.

A cross-ply simply supported plate shown in Fig. 2 is analyzed

here. The plate is only subjected to bending loads of fw = q0sin (p

x/L)sin(py/L). The thickness and the material properties of each

layer are uniform.

y

h

L

Fig. 2. Simply supported laminated plate under double sinusoidal loading.

2151

Boundary conditions:

8

wj 0

>

>

> C

>

< @ 2 w

@x2 x0 or

>

>

>

x

>

: @h

@y

0; @@yw2

xL

y0

@h

0; @xy

y0 or yL

The stress at x = L/2, y = L/2 in section of the plate can be expressed as follows:

or yL

x0 or xL

5-1

5-5

bending loads of fw = q0sin(px/L)sin(py/L) is a simplest example.

The traditional triangle function try method adopted in this paper

and numerical result is only used to test the ability of the present

theory and the model as well as the characteristics of the scale effects of microstructure. It is of course that the numerical example

is not used to study the advantages of the solving process.

5.1. Solution of the composite laminated Reddy plate with cross-ply of

couple stress theory

Assume as u0(x, y) = 0, v0(x, y) = 0 and fu = fv = fcx = fcy = 0, and the

trial function is written as [28]

8

>

< wx; y w0 sin ax sin by

hy hya cos ax sin by

>

:

hx hxa sin ax cos by

5-2

Substituting Eq. (5-2) into equilibrium equations in terms of

displacements for the composite laminated Reddy plate, we have

8

>

< l11 w0 l12 hya l13 hxa q0 0

l21 w0 l22 hya l23 hxa 0

>

:

l31 w0 l32 hya l33 hxa 0

5-3

where

l11

l12

l13

l21

p2

2

p

L

p

L

p

L

l31

p2

2

p

L

p2

2

p3

3

p3

3

p2

2

32 p2

4L2

2 p4 e

e

e

e 44 Q

e 55 6ce

e

eI 44 e

eI 55 9c2 e

Q

S 44 e

S 55

2L4

2 p3

4L3

e

e

e

e 55 4 Q

e 44 9c2 e

e

3 Q

S 44 3 e

S 55

e

e

e 55 6ce

eI 55 9c2 e

S 55

Q

2

e

e

e 44 6ce

eI 44 9c2 e

S 44

Q

4

T 11 T 22 2T 12 4T 66

2 p3 e

e

e 44 9c2 e

S 44

Q

2L3

l32

l23

In order to test characteristics of the scale effects of microstructure, models of simply supported laminated cross-ply square plate

are adopted. The sizes of the square plate model: length of a side is

L = 200 lm, thickness is h = 25 lm, bending load is q0 = 1 N/lm2,

the material constants [29]:E2 6:98 GPa;

E1 25E2 ; G12

Ek v k

0:5E2 ; G22 0:2E2 ; m12 m22 0:25; v k21 2Ek12 , in which sub1

scripts 1 and 2 represent the direction of ber and matrix,

respectively.

We choose the next two types of cross-ply laminated plate with

three-layer as rst one[0/90/0], and second one [90/0/90].

On the micro-materials constants2b ; 2m , for the composite lam@x

xx

inated plate, the curvatures of @@y

and @xy should be taken as independent components which are relative to the micro materials

constants 2b ; 2m to describe the materials microstructural characteristics of the ber and matrix of the laminated plate respectively.

In the couple stress theory, the rotation variables related to microscale impurities or defects are formulated into rotation equilibrium

equations.

For kth layer of composite laminated plate in the local coordinates (x0 , y0 , z0 ), xx is a rotation round the ber and the its partial

xx @ xx

derivative @@x

; @y are dened as the curvatures vx, vxy, the 2b is

introduced constitute relations of the moments mx, mxy and the

curvatures vx, vxy. Thexy is a rotation to perpendicular the ber

@x @x

and its partial derivative @xy ; @yy are dened as the curvatures

2 p3 e

e

e 55 9c2 e

S 55

Q

2L3

c2 p4

where c

4l

.

3h2

8

h

i

>

< rkx pL z pL cz2 w0 Q k11 Q k12 1 cz2 Q k11 hya Q k12 hxa ;

h

i

>

: rky pL z pL cz2 w0 Q k12 Q k22 1 cz2 Q k12 hya Q k22 hxa :

2 p3 e

e

e

e 55 3 Q

e 44 9c2 3 e

e

Q

S 44 e

S 55

4L3

2

e

e

e 55 6ce

eI 55 9c2 e

S 55

Q

4

32 p2

4L2

e

e

e 44 6ce

eI 44 9c2 e

Q

S 44

5-4

2152

l= 0

l=h/4

l=h/2

l=h

0.2

0.18

0.16

w/h

0.14

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

x/L

Fig. 3. The deection of the plate [0, 90, 0] at y = L/2.

myx, my and the curvatures vyx, vy. The micro-scale of impurities

larger than the micro-scale of matrix the transverse anisotropy in

cross-section (x0 , z0 ). It is obviously, it is more easy to turn around

ber than turn to perpendicular to ber i.e.2b 2m , so for the laminated plate we can assume that 2m 0.

The values of the micro-materials constants 2b ; 2m , which related to the length in micro-scale of impurities or defects, in the

numerical example are considered in the scale on the thickness

of a single layer and 2m 0; 2b 2 .

Next, keep the thickness of the plate constant and change the

material constant l to examine the scale effect. Numerical results

of the deection of the plate are given in Fig. 3 where, which show

that the deection of the plate in couple stress theory is smaller

than that in the classical elasticity (l = 0) as the material constant

l increases.

Numerical results of the angle of rotation of the plate are given

in Fig. 4, which show that the angle of rotation of the plate in couple stress theory is smaller than that in the classical elasticity as

the material constant l increases.

Numerical results of the stresses in section of the plate are given

in Fig. 5, which show that the stress in the section of the plate in

couple stress theory is smaller than that in the classical elasticity

as the material constant l increases.

0.08

0.025

l= 0

l=h/4

l=h/2

l=h

0.06

0.04

0.015

0.01

0.02

l=0

l=h/4

l=h/2

l=h

0.02

0.005

0

-0.005

-0.02

-0.01

-0.04

-0.015

-0.06

-0.08

-0.02

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

-0.025

0.1

0.2

y/L

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

x/L

(b) at y = L/2

(a) at x = L/2

Fig. 4. The angle of rotation of the plate [0, 90, 0].

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1

z/h

z/h

0.2

0.5

l=0

l=h/4

l=h/2

l=h

-0.1

-0.1

-0.2

-0.2

-0.3

-0.3

-0.4

-0.4

-0.5

-1.5

-1

-0.5

x (GPa)

0.5

1.5

-0.5

-0.8

l=0

l=h/4

l=h/ 2

l=h

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

y (GPa)

Fig. 5. The stresses rx and ry in section of the plate [0, 90, 0] at x = L/2, y = L/2.

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

2153

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

Kirchhoff plate

Mindlin plate

Reddy plate

0.03

0.025

w/h

0.02

0.015

0.01

0.005

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

x/L

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

0.2

w/h

0.15

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

Kirchhoff plate

Mindlin plate

Reddy plate

2500

2000

w/h

Kirchhoff plate

Mindlin plate

Reddy plate

1500

0.1

1000

0.05

500

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

x/L

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

x/L

Fig. 6. The deection of the plate to compare Kirchhoff plate, Mindlin plate and Reddy plate couple stress theories [0/90/0].

90] are equal to the rst one [0/90/0] by exchanging the x axis

and y axis, for instance, the deection of the plate [90/0/90] at

x = L/2 along y/L is same as the Fig. 3.

5.3. Solution of the cross-ply composite laminated Mindlin plate of

new modied couple stress theory

Substituting u0(x, y) = 0, v0(x, y) = 0 and fu = fv = fcx = fcy = 0 into

Eq. (4-1), the equilibrium equations in terms of displacement for

the composite laminated Mindlin plate of new modied couple

stress theory can be expressed as follows:

8

2

e

e

>

e 44 Q

e 55 w;xxyy

>

Q 44 w;xx hy;x Q 55 w;yy hx;y 4 2 Q

>

>

>

>

>

e

>

e 44 w;yyyy 2hx;xxy hx;yyy

>

Q

>

>

>

>

e

>

e

>

>

> Q 55 w;xxxx 2hy;xyy hy;xxx fw 0

<

Q 44 w;x hy I11 hy;xx I66 hy;yy I12 I66 hx;xy

>

>

e

>

2e

>

>

>

Q4 55 2wxyy w;xxx 2hy;yy hy;xx 0

>

>

>

>

>

Q 55 w;y hx I66 hx;xx I22 hx;yy I12 I66 hy;xy

>

>

>

>

e

>

>

Q 44

: 2 e

2w;xxy w;yyy 2hx;xx hx;yy 0

4

!

8

e 2

>

e

>

Q 55 p

3p4 2 e

p2 Q Q w p Q 32 e

e

e

>

hya

>

44

55

44

55

0

44

L

>

4L4

L2

4L2

>

>

>

>

>

>

e 2

>

>

Q 44 p

> p Q 32 e

>

hxa q0 0

< L 55

4L2

!

!!

e

e

>p

2

32 e

Q 55 p2

Q 55

>

p2 32 e

>

w

hya pL2 I12 I66 hxa 0

Q

Q

I

44

0

44

11

66

>

2

2

L

4

>

4L

L

>

>

>

>

!

!!

>

>

e 2

e

>

2e

>p

2

2

32 e

Q 44 p

>

>

w0 pL2 I12 I66 hya Q 55 pL2 3 4Q 44 I22 I66

hxa 0

: L Q 55 4L2

5-7

The stresses at x = L/2, y = L/2 in section of the plate can be

expressed as follows:

8

>

< rkx z pL Q k11 hya Q k12 hxa

>

: rky z pL Q k12 hya Q k22 hxa

5-8

couple stress theory

5-6

the Eq. (4-5), the equilibrium equations in terms of displacement

2154

0.5

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

z/h

0

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3

Kirchhoff plate

Mindlin plate

Reddy plate

-0.4

-0.5

-0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

x (GPa)

0.5

0.5

0.3

0.2

0.1

z/h

0

-0.1

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

-0.1

-0.2

-0.2

-0.3

-0.3

Kirchhoff plate

Mindlin plate

Reddy plate

-0.4

-0.5

-1.5

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

0.4

z/h

0.4

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

-1

-0.5

0.5

Kirchhoff plate

Mindlin plate

Reddy plate

-0.4

1.5

-0.5

-250

-200

-150

-100

-50

50

100

150

200

250

x (GPa)

x (GPa)

Fig. 7. The stress rx in section of the plate at x = L/2 to compare Kirchhoff plate, Mindlin plate and Reddy plate couple stress theories [0/90/0].

theory is given as

I11

@4w

@4w

@4w

2I12 2I66 2 2 I22 4

@x4

@x @y

@y

!

4

4

4

e

e

e

e

e 55 Q

e 44 @ w Q

e 55 @ w Q

e 44 @ w fw

2 Q

@x2 @y2

@x4

@y4

5-9

The deection at x = L/2, y = L/2 in section of the plate can be

obtained as

w0

q0 L 4

5-10

given as

8

2

>

< rkx z Q k11 Q k12 pL w0

>

: rky z Q k12 Q k22 pL 2 w0

5-11

Reddy plate of new modied couple stress theories for microstructures

In order to compare Kirchhoff plate with Mindlin plate and Reddy plate of the couple stress theories for microstructures, aforementioned models of simply supported cross-ply laminated plate

are adopted. However, various sizes of the plate are chosen as

length L = 100 lm, L = 200 lm, L = 2500 lm and thickness h =

25 lm respectively. We choose the cross-ply laminated plate with

three-layer of [0/90/0] and [90/0/90] respectively, and change

the material constant as l = (0, h/2, h), to examine the scale effect.

Numerical results of the deection of the plate are given in

Fig. 6 which show that the deference of the Mindlin plate and Reddy plate in couple stress theory is more than Kirchhoff plate of couple stress theory for thickness plate with L/h = 4, medium thickness

plate with L/h = 8, while the results for thin beam with L/h = 100

are identical under the same as the material constant l.

It is should note that in the case of thin plate with L/h = 100, the

lines of Reddy beam of couple stress theory coincide with Timoshenko beam of couple stress theory and EulerBernoulli beam

of couple stress theory in Figs. 6c, 7c, and 8c.

Numerical results of the stress rx in section of the plate are given in Figs. 7 and 8, which show that the stress rx of the Mindlin

plate and Reddy plate in couple stress theory is smaller than

2155

0.5

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

z/h

0

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3

Kirchhoff plate

Mindlin plate

Reddy plate

-0.4

-0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

y (GPa)

0.4

0.3

0.2

z/h

0.1

0

-0.1

0.5

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

-0.1

-0.2

-0.2

-0.3

-0.3

Kirchhoff plate

Mindlin plate

Reddy plate

-0.4

-0.5

-0.8

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

l=0

l=h/2

l=h

0.4

z/h

0.5

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

y (GPa)

0.2

0.4

0.6

Kirchhoff plate

Mindlin plate

Reddy plate

-0.4

0.8

-0.5

-80

-60

-40

-20

y (GPa)

20

40

60

80

Fig. 8. The stress rx in section of the plate at x = L/2 to compare Kirchhoff plate, Mindlin plate and Reddy plate couple stress theories [90/0/90].

h = 4, Medium thickness beam with L/h = 8, while the results for

thin beam with L/h = 100 are identical under the same as the material constant l.

6. Conclusions

A model for composite laminated Reddy plate of the new modied couple stress theory is developed in rst time. The characteristics of the couple stress theory are the use of rotation-displacement

as dependent variables and the use of only one constant to describe

the materials microstructural characteristics. In this theory a new

curvature tensor is dened for establishing the constitutive relations of laminated plate for anisotropy materials. The characterization of anisotropy is incorporated into higher-order laminated beam

theories based on the modied couple stress theory by Yang et al. in

2002. The form of new curvature tensor is asymmetric, however it

can result in same as the symmetric curvature tensor in the case

of the isotropic elasticity. By introducing the hypothesis of the

cross-section of plate, the governing equations of the composite

laminated Reddy plate of couple stress theory are established.

The present model of plate can be viewed as a simplied couple

stress theory in engineering mechanics. A simply supported crossply laminated plate subjected to loads of fw = q0sin(px/L)sin(py/L)

Numerical results show that the present plate model can capture

the scale effects of microstructure. The deections and stresses of

the present model of plate of couple stress theory are always smaller than that by the classical plate model.

Additionally, the present Reddy plate model can be degenerated

to the model of cross-ply composite laminated Mindlin plate and

cross-ply composite laminated Kirchhoff plate model of couple

stress theory.

Acknowledgement

The work in this paper was supported by the National Natural

Sciences Foundation of China (No. 11072156). This support is

gratefully acknowledged.

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