re

© All Rights Reserved

5 views

re

© All Rights Reserved

- 11 Cbse Notes
- Elementary Trigonometry - Hall & Knight.pdf
- Math 54 5th Long Exam
- Giancoli Ch 3 2D Motion
- 10-19
- PH2130C 2006 Exam Papera
- ch5
- Final Examiners Report 2011
- 5.4+sum+and+difference+formulas
- trig_m6_handouts.pdf
- Simultaneous Equations
- MrJacksonMaths Higher Non Calculator Paper J
- Methods Integration
- Osnovni Pojmovi o Vektorima
- BPGHSAM2
- DE01_sol
- GCSE Astar Paper
- trigonometry
- 4037_s05_qp_1
- Quiz

You are on page 1of 3

INTRODUCTION

A cart is released from rest on a frictionless inclined plane. A ball is projected upward from the cart, perpendicular

to the inclined plane, and the ball follows its trajectory in a vacuum. The ball may be released just as the cart starts

rolling, or some time later. The objective is for the cart to catch the ball somewhere down the ramp. Here, catch

means that the cart and the ball arrive at the same point on the ramp at the same time.

To help picture the situation, imagine a remote control with two buttons: pressing the first button releases the cart

from the top of the ramp, and it begins rolling down. Pressing the second button then releases the ball, projecting it

upward perpendicular to the ramp direction.

As in most mechanics problems, we are free to choose any convenient coordinate system. For inclined-plane

problems, choosing x to be positive down the plane (ramp) and y to be positive upward, perpendicular to the ramp

usually results in a simpler analysis, as opposed to using the local horizontal as x.

Figure 1 shows the resolution of the gravitational acceleration vector into components in this rotated (x,y)

coordinate system. In the usual Cartesian system (X,Y) that is relative to the local horizontal, the g vector is entirely

in the y direction; there is no x component. In the rotated system, however, there are both x and y components of g.

The appropriate trig functions can be determined by geometry, or just by reasoning through what the effect of a zero,

or 90 degree, ramp angle would be. In the x (along the ramp) direction, if the ramp angle approaches zero, there

will be no acceleration; if the ramp angle approaches 90 degrees, all the gravitational acceleration will be along this

direction. Hence the appropriate trig function for the along-the-ramp direction is the sine. Thus the normal-to-theramp component of this acceleration varies with the cosine of .

y

g s in()

g cos ()

g

WCEvans 10/09

MOTION OF CART

First we will analyze the motion of the cart. In the rotated system its parametric equations of motion, using

elementary kinematics for a constant acceleration, are

xt = v0x t +

1 2

g t sin( )

2

yt = 0

(1)

where v0x is the initial x-velocity of the cart. The component of gravitational acceleration along the ramp is readily

shown to be g sin(). This equation is simple, but usually we will need to have the motion in the un-rotated system,

for example, for graphics plotting. Thus we need to rotate these equations back to the usual Cartesian system.

To do this, we use a rotation matrix, and recognize that the rotation angle is negative. This gives

cos ( ) sin ( )

cos ( ) sin ( )

sin ( ) cos ( )

sin ( ) cos ( )

so that the un-rotated equations are

cos ( ) sin ( ) xt

Xt

X0

+

=

Yt

Y0

sin ( ) cos ( ) yt

(2)

where (X0 Y0) are the coordinates of the carts starting point. Carrying out these matrix operations leads to

X t = X 0 + xt cos ( ) + yt sin ( )

Yt = Y0 xt sin ( ) + yt cos ( )

(3)

Using the results in Eq(1) above for xt and yt in Eq(3) we then have

1 2

g t sin ( ) cos ( )

2

1

g t 2 sin ( ) sin ( )

2

X t = X 0 + v0x t cos ( ) +

Yt = Y0 v0x t sin ( )

1 2

g t sin ( 2 )

4

1

g t 2 sin 2 ( )

2

X t = X 0 + v0x t cos ( ) +

x

0

Yt = Y0 v t sin ( )

(4)

This is a projectile motion problem, with the added twist that there is now an acceleration in the x-direction, and the

y-direction acceleration is not just g, it is g cos(). A fundamental assumption of projectile motion problems is that,

assuming motion in a vacuum, there is no acceleration in the horizontal direction. That is not the case here.

The parametric equations of motion for the ball, in the rotated system, will then be

xt = v0x t +

1 2

g t sin ( )

2

yt = v0y t

1 2

g t cos ( )

2

(5)

Note that the x-direction motion of the ball is exactly the same as for the cart, in the rotated system. The ball is

launched with initial y-velocity v0y, perpendicular to the ramp. Using the rotation matrix again, to get the motion in

WCEvans 10/09

the un-rotated system, we use Eq(5) in Eq(3), and with a bit of algebra and trig, we find the ball equations of

motion

Yt =

1 2

gt

2

(6)

One way to find out if the cart will catch the ball is to see if there is a real solution for the time of flight (TOF).

Since the ball and cart have the same x equation of motion in the rotated system, there will be a catch, i.e., the cart

and ball will be at the same x-coordinate, at the TOF, if it exists. At the TOF T, the condition is that the rotatedcoordinate y is zero, when the ball has returned to the ramp, so, using the y-component of Eq(5),

yT = 0 = v0y T

1

g T 2 cos ( )

2

T =

2 v0y

g cos ( )

(7)

Note that the x initial velocity has no effect on the TOF. Intuitively, this is because the ball has the same x (downthe-ramp) velocity as the cart at the instant of release.

Another approach to the catch issue is to equate the x (or y) positions of the cart and ball in the un-rotated system,

and see if there is a real solution for the time at which this happens. Using the x-components of Eq(4) and Eq(6), it

can be shown that Eq(7) results; using the y-components produces the same result.

POSITION OF THE CATCH

Finding where along the ramp the intersection, or catch, occurs is just a matter of using the TOF, Eq(7), in Eq(1).

This results in

2 v0y

v0x + v0y tan ( ) = T v0x + v0y tan ( )

xT =

g cos ( )

(8)

with yT = 0. The only effect of a nonzero initial x velocity is to move the catch point down the ramp. Since this is

arbitrary, it is simpler for simulation purposes to release the ball at the same instant the cart begins to roll, so that the

initial x velocity can be taken to be zero. With that assumption, the un-rotated coordinates of the catch point are

XT = X 0 +

( )

2 v0y

g

tan ( )

YT = Y0

( )

2 v0y

g

tan 2 ( )

(9)

TI CALCULATOR

These equations can be implemented in a TI-83/84 calculator, in Parametric mode. Use Eq(4) and Eq(6); choose

some convenient values for the initial x and y, the ramp angle, and initial y-velocity. With proper setting of the

Window parameters, and graphing in the point-by-point mode, an animation of the motion of the ball and cart can be

obtained. Of course, the Geogebra implementation is easier to see, and more flexible.

WCEvans 10/09

- 11 Cbse NotesUploaded byPraveen Maram
- Elementary Trigonometry - Hall & Knight.pdfUploaded byAxel Padilla
- Math 54 5th Long ExamUploaded byJustin Richmond
- Giancoli Ch 3 2D MotionUploaded byahkeel
- 10-19Uploaded byAlcyr
- PH2130C 2006 Exam PaperaUploaded bybbteenager
- ch5Uploaded bydavid.contatos4308
- Final Examiners Report 2011Uploaded byhmphry
- 5.4+sum+and+difference+formulasUploaded byHelpful Panda
- trig_m6_handouts.pdfUploaded byRonald A. Sato
- Simultaneous EquationsUploaded bysavsengineering
- MrJacksonMaths Higher Non Calculator Paper JUploaded byRussell Jackson
- Methods IntegrationUploaded bykapsicum
- Osnovni Pojmovi o VektorimaUploaded byKenan Muhamedagic
- BPGHSAM2Uploaded byJASON_INGHAM
- DE01_solUploaded byvamsiprasannakoduru
- GCSE Astar PaperUploaded byLscribd15
- trigonometryUploaded byapi-260926638
- 4037_s05_qp_1Uploaded bymstudy123456
- QuizUploaded byKim Bryan Sta Ana
- artifact 3Uploaded byapi-326255121
- Manila RWE 4 Math Solution.pdf · Version 1 (1)Uploaded byNida Bagoyboy Naticho
- 6_4NOTES128SUploaded byKarla Perera
- Lecture 9Uploaded byuazaga
- answer3,week1Uploaded byRodrigoCastellano
- AM1_05A-Q&AUploaded bySammi Cheang
- Test Ncert2.PmUploaded bysuhail ahmad
- Trigonometric IdentitiesUploaded byKedar Shelke
- Ph-1,2,3 & Binomial(WA)(F)Uploaded byAmanjot Kaur
- HL TriUploaded byJohn Cena

- Contact Stresses and DeformationsUploaded bySwamy Babu
- C7Uploaded byjungdjudf
- Motion GraphsUploaded byjungdjudf
- Answer Ramp LabUploaded byjungdjudf
- Mechanical Central Release System 1Uploaded byManica Lucian
- Hertzian ContactUploaded byGanesh R Navad
- Ramps ActivityUploaded byjungdjudf
- 1.5.ball on rampUploaded byjungdjudf
- Grade 2 Balls and Ramps CompleterUploaded byjungdjudf
- Ds Lab Force and MotionUploaded byjungdjudf
- Op Amp Circuit CollectionUploaded byvijai daniel
- op-ampsUploaded bybhanuteja465
- Triple ClutchUploaded byjungdjudf
- pct_1226680Uploaded byjungdjudf
- fisita2010scp23Uploaded byjungdjudf
- pct_1226680Uploaded byjungdjudf
- IMECE2008-67411Uploaded byjungdjudf
- Final ReportsUploaded byjungdjudf
- q4_08_solUploaded byjungdjudf
- ETM-englUploaded byjungdjudf
- Ball and RampUploaded byjungdjudf
- 하이브리드 자동차 기술동향Uploaded byjungdjudf
- ED_ENGINEUploaded bykimsundal
- nonlinear2_7Uploaded byjungdjudf
- Cm 2Uploaded byPablo Fini
- ContactUploaded bypraveen637
- 03 Stress 01 Surface and Contact ForcesUploaded byjungdjudf

- Effect ValveUploaded bylux0008
- Measurement Scale.pptxUploaded bysoni
- Antwerp Oct2014 02vaspintroUploaded byDavid Zorrilla
- Motion Palpation: A Narrative ReviewUploaded byrapannika
- Maths REML ManualUploaded byLam Sin Wing
- First SPE Comparative StudiesUploaded byAprilya Ramadanti
- 56 Days Study Plan for IBPS PO Prelims 2016- Bankers AddaUploaded byasitkumarsahoo81
- Factors Affecting the Valuation of Corporate BondsUploaded bySohilauw 1899
- RaschMeasurementUploaded byJohanna Rueda Díaz
- INTERNATIONAL STAGE OF ARTISTIC ROLLER SKATING ROCCARASO 2010 - SpinsUploaded byFlavio Moreira
- CHAPTER 9 Hypothesis Testing.pptxUploaded byXander Clock
- Relativistic Effects in Structural ChemistryUploaded byEdison Florez
- test RDCUploaded byWan Sah
- Projected CurveUploaded byakshay_punde
- IHSTATv212.xlsUploaded byStivens Marin Medina
- Vol 6 _2_ - Cont. Eng. Sci.DETERMINATION OF WATER INFLUX IN RESERVOIR IN NIGER DELTAUploaded byFrancis Abulude
- miscue analysis formsUploaded byapi-315723475
- sine analysisUploaded byapi-246734219
- 2011 Reviewer for MTAP - 5Uploaded bySinned Seyer
- (Springer Series in Materials Science 245) Christopher R. Weinberger, Garritt J. Tucker (Eds.)-Multiscale Materials Modeling for Nanomechanics-Springer International Publishing (2016)Uploaded byAnonymous RuEybH
- Analytical and Numerical Methods for Volterra EquationsUploaded byНадежда Бурмистрова
- To517.Idiots.guides.speed.mathUploaded byLuisGómez
- Bmo 2011 SolutionUploaded byjfmarques
- 400 PuzzlesUploaded byPothireddy Marreddy
- Perspective Drawing EguideUploaded bymoniquelim
- A Study of HRM Practices and Its Impact on Employees Job-related Management Skill in Public Limited CompaniesUploaded byarcherselevators
- MICHLET users manual (thin ship theory)Uploaded bySam Samsam
- OS Lab2012Uploaded bymcavimal2011
- Noise Removal of Trading Prices via Fourier AnalysisUploaded byaaron
- Formulas for Converting Latitude and Longitude to UTMUploaded byWidianto Eka Pramana