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Background

ThehistoryoftheIsraeliPalestinianconflicthasitsrootsinthelate19thcenturyandbeginning
of20thcenturyalongwiththehistoryofregionandcontinuestothepresentday.Theendofthe
19th century and the beginning of the 20th century are marked by the birth of two major
nationalistgroupsastheJewsandtheArabs.Inthe7thcentury,anewinfluencewasgrowingin
the West Asia that was known as Islam. The Islam as a practice startedwith theprophet
Muhammad.
ThePalestineIsraelconflictistheongoingstrugglebetweenIsraelisandPalestiniansthatbegan
in the early 20th century. It is also important to look at the history of early 20th century. How
these problems were shaped. Major turning point in the history of the West Asia came
whenoilwasdiscovered,firstinPersiain1908andlaterinSaudiArabiain1938andtheother
PersianGulfstates,andalsoinLibyaandAlgeria.Itisalsoveryfactthatcrudeoilwasthemost
importantcommodityinthe20thcenturyofindustrialworld.However,theOttomanEmpirewas
defeated by British Empire forcesin 1918. At the same time, the British promised to the Jews
throughtheBalfourDeclaration(1917)increatingaJewishhomelandinPalestine.Theriseto
power of German dictatorAdolf Hitler inGermanyhad created a new urgency in the Zionist
quest to immigrate to Palestine and create aJewish statethere. The immigration of Jewish has
increasedtotheLandofIsrael.
However,itisalsoimportanttoseethekeyissuesofconflictbetweenPalestineIsrael.Theseare
the mutual recognition, settlement of refugees, borders, security, water disputes, control over
Jerusalem,Israeli settlements. At first issue, the Jerusalem is most important for both parties,
social,politically,theologically,andchronologically.ItisalsoholycityforJudaism,Islamand
Christianity. For Christians, Jerusalem has been a holy city since, even according to theNew
Testament,Jesus was crucifiedthere. As well as, in Islam, Jerusalem is thethirdholiest city.
InIslamic traditionin 610 CE it became the firstQibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer.
Prophet Muhammadmade hisNight Journey over there.Whereas, the Western Wall is the
ancient wall that surrounded theJewishTemples courtyard and is one of the most and last
sacredsitesinJudaism.Insumup,theOldCityishometomanysitesoftremendousreligious
importance,theTempleMountanditsWesternWall,theChurchoftheHolyTomb,theDomeof
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the RockandAlAqsa Mosque. These religious holy sites cannot be separated or can say
inseparablebecausetheirlocation.Theyareattachedwithonetoothersbytheirwalls.
WhenoneexaminestheIsraeliPalestinianconflict,itisobviousthatthedisparitybetweenthe
rival sides is great. Israelis have a state with robust institutions, a wellequipped military
consideredbymanytobethemostcapableintheregion,andathrivingeconomywithastrong
export component made up of hightech, pharmaceutical, and military industries. Israel also
controls all of the borders and therefore the movement of Palestinians living in both the West
Bank and Gaza Strip, and continues to hold central aspects of sovereignty over the territory
ranging from the Jordan Valley to the Mediterranean Sea. In April, Palestinian
PresidentMahmoud Abbas announcedthat the Palestinian Liberation Organization's (PLO)
leadingfaction,Fatah,hasagreedtoaunitypactwithitsmainpoliticalrival,Hamas,endinga
sevenyearriftbetweentheparties.Thisledtothenewsimmediatenegativereactionsfromboth
IsraelandtheU.S.,whoconsiderHamasaterroristgroup.ItisalsoafactthatHamasandFatah
havelongheldfundamentallyopposingviewpointsonseveralissues,mostnotably,thatstatusof
Israel,whichFatahhastriedtoworkwith,butHamashasofficiallyvowedtodestroy.
U.S.provideshumanitarianassistanceinWestBank.AlthoughitisalsoafactthatUNRWAs
services encompass education, health care, relief, camp infrastructure and improvement,
communitysupport,microfinanceandemergencyresponsewiththesupportofU.S.Hamasand
Fatah have fundamentally different approaches to the state of Israel. Hamas believes the state
doesnothavetherighttoexist,andFatahbelievesitdoes,choosingtoattemptpoliticalsolutions
instead.Fatahhasanofficialstanceofnonviolentresistance,whileHamashasconsistentlyuses
terrorist tactics against Israel. These (major) disparities have kept the two from joining forces
since2006,whenHamassweptPalestinianelectionsandunseatedFatahastherulingpartyinthe
PalestinianAuthorityforadecade.Abbashadjusttakenhisseataspresidentinanelectionthat
followedthedeathoflongtimeleaderYasserArafat,andwasslatedtofinishouttheterm.
ReviewofLiterature
Akram, Susan M. (2002), argues that the Palestinian refugee problem is one of the longest
lasting refugee crises in the worldnow exceeding fiftythree yearswithout a real solution in
sight.Althoughatitscoreapoliticalproblem,thePalestinianrefugeecrisisisalsoaproblemof
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legal distortion: Palestinian refugees fall into a legal lacuna that sets them outside minimal
international protections available for all other refugee groups in the world. In his paper he
providesbackgroundtothelegalanomalythatsetsPalestinianrefugeesapartdiscussesthelegal,
practical, and political implications of that status and proposes a framework and mechanisms
aimedatpromotingarightsbasedsolutionforthePalestinianrefugeeproblem.
Elizabeth, Matthewa (2011) argued that education for peace is the best way to ensure that the
nextgenerationsofIsraelisandPalestinianshavetheskills,theknowledge,andthemotivationto
create a truly peaceful West Asia. He stressed also that through education, Israelis and
Palestinianchildrenmustbeprovidedwiththeskillsandknowledgetoliveinpeaceandtocreate
mutual respect and understanding which will transform their lives and this region into
cooperation,prosperity,andfreedom.
Gordon, N. & Cohen, Y. (2012), in this essay like paper both writers analyzes the impact of
Israeli unilateralism specifically that of its settlement projection the twostate solution. After
exploringtherelationshipbetweenunilateralismandpower,theauthorsshow,interalia,thatin
migrationhasaccountedforabouthalfthesettlementgrowthsincetheinternationalembraceof
thelandforpeaceformulain1991,thatthelevelofinmigrationdoesnotfluctuateaccordingto
government composition, and that IsraeliPalestinian negotiations have spurred rather than
inhibitedsettlementexpansion.AndfurtherpaperisframedbyacontrastwiththePalestinianbid
for full UN membership, rejected as unilateralism by the Western powers but in fact aimed at
undercuttingIsraeliunilateralismandcreatingtheconditionsformeaningfulnegotiations.
AsherSusser(2012)exploresthatwiththefailureofthepeaceprocessunderthesigningofthe
OsloAccords,thetwostatesolutionlostmuchofitsappeal,legitimacy,andpracticalityinthe
region. The Israeli settlements and the successive Israeli governments is somewhere in
contending with the challenge of the settler movement across the region. In this literature, the
authoralsofocusesthepoliticalconfusiononthenatureofPalestinewiththePAandHamas.
Definition,NatureandScope
The Oslo Accords became a milestone for the both country and its provide compatible
approaches for regional and multilateral groups to see the roots of problems and way to
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solutions. PLO and Israel in 199395 ushered into existence the Palestinian Authority and
inspiredeffortstobuildautonomousstructuresforPalestinianselfrule.Sofortheprospectsfor
thesuccessofreform,haveseemedbrightestwheneverthedomesticagendaandtheinternational
communitys agenda. Such linkages were being built in the year prior to the eruption of the
secondintifadaandhaveagainbeenapparentsinceApril2002.Sincethen,however,thecauseof
reform has faced a difficult conundrum: i) real progress in reform seems impossible without
somediminutionoftheconflictwithIsraelandsomerelaxationofIsraelirestrictionsontravelin
the West Bank and Gaza. ii) such political changes seem unlikely unless robust Palestinian
institutionsthe kind that the reformers have worked to buildcan guide Palestinian society. In
short,reformandanendtoviolenceholdeachotherhostage.
The rationale behind this research study lies in to the fact that the uniqueness of the Israeli
Palestinian conflict and challenges the assumption that the reasons for its long duration are
exceptional. Focus is set on political institutional arrangements and how these affect conflict
duration in general and the endurance of the IsraeliPalestinian conflict in particular. Israeli
Palestinian conflict does not appear to be unique when it comes to political institutional
arrangements. Israels large share of excluded population, proportional electoral system,
parliamentary, and power centralization, also seem to be more relevant to understand the
conflictsendurancethanusuallyrecognized.
The scope of the proposed study would focus mainly critical Israelrelated trends that might
affect the course of the IsraeliPalestinian conflict over the next years. To the extent that this
endeavorissuccessful,itsfruitsmightbeusefultoIsraeliaswellastoU.S.,European,andArab
policymakersandplannersastheystrivetounderstandthedynamicsthatcouldreducetensions
and generate greater stability and eventually peace. An additional set of trends is external and
involvesIsraeliperceptionsofandresponsestodevelopmentsintheregionandtointernational
involvement.
ResearchQuestion
x WhatwerethecoreissuesofPalestineIsraelConflict?
x WhatexplainstherelationofFatahandUSinWestAsianPolitics?
x WhatdifferentformatsofassociationwithHamasFatahapplytoPalestineIsraelConflict?
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x WhatarechallengesandrestrictionsFatahUShumanitarianAid?
ResearchMethodology
Thisresearchwillusebothprimary(officialrecordsanddocumentofthestates)andsecondary
(books,journalsandresearchpapersetc.)sourcesofdataandadoptinductivemethodstoanalyze
thesubjectoftheresearch.Thisresearchwillalsousehistorical,descriptive,andanalyticaltools
ofmethods.
TentativeChapters
Chapter1:Introduction
Chapter2:RootCausesofConflictbetweenPalestineIsrael
ThischapterwillexaminetherootcausesofPalestineIsraelconflict,howithaschangedtimeto
time as manifested in the region and effect regional politics. The discussion will pay also
attentiontothecoreissuesofconflicts.
Chapter3:UnderstandingNatureofFatahandDiplomacyofWorldOrganizations
ThischapterwillexaminetheunderstandingnatureofPalestinianRefugee.Furtherwithitwill
followthepoliticsoftheirRightsandintheregion.
Chapter4:OutcomeofPeaceProcessandFutureofPalestineasaNation
Thischapterwillexaminethecontributionofdifferencesagenciesthatinvolvesinpeaceprocess
andwillstudythatwhatisthefutureofPalestinian.
Chapter5:Conclusion
Thischapterwillhighlightthefindingsandtestthehypothesisofthestudy.

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URl:http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/Declaration+of+
Establishment+of+State+of+Israel.htm