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“The starting point of all achievement is desire”

Basic Macroscopic OrgAnization of the Nervous System
Main parts of the nervous system
 Central NS- brain & spinal nerve
 Peripheral NS- cranial nerves & ganglia; spinal nerve &
ganglia; parasympha & sympha nerves & ganglia; and
enteric nervous system
 Ectoderm- neural tube
 Neural tube
 Swelling & outpouching – brain
 Running down at the back – spinal cord
 Fluid filled cavity - ventricles
 Fluid – CSF
 3 main division – dev brain
 Forebrain – prosencephalon
 Midbrain – mesencephalon
 Hindbrain – rhombencehalon
 Forebrain- largest
 Telencephalon- cerebral hemisphere

Cerebral cortex

Subcortical white matter

Basal ganglia

Basal forebrain nuceli
 Diencehalon – thalamus, hypothalamus, &
 on top of Brain stem – midbrain , pons & medulla
 Midbrain – short narrow region, connecting forebrain &
 Cerebral peduncles
 Midbraiun tectum
 Midbrain tegmentum
 Hindbrain
 Pons
 Cerebellum - metencephalon
 Medulla – myelencephalon
 Midbrain, pons, & medulla form connection btwn forebrain
& spinal cord
 Ventricles – interconnected fluid fld spaces lying core of
forebrain & brainstem
 Choroid plexus – vascular tuffs w/ in ventricles where CSF
is formed.
 Meninges – three membranous layers that protects the CNS
 Pia
 Arachnoid
 Dura
 Above the brain
 Anterior – rostral
 Posterior – caudal
 Superior – dorsal
 Inferior – ventral
 Below the midbrain

Anterior – ventral
Posterior – dorsal
Superior – rostral
Inferior – caudal

Basic Cellular & Neurochemical Organization
 Neurons- basic units of signalling
 Cell body – contain nucleus
 Dendrites – short processes that receive most inputs
 Axons- long processes that carry outputs
 Multipolar – several dendrites & several axons
 1 axon travel for a distance then 1 or several axon
collateral branch off to reach target
 Bipolar – single dendrite and single axon arising from the
cell body
 Sensory neurons – vision & smell
 Pseudo-unipolar – their processes are initially
fused then split to produce two long axons
 Unipolar – both axon & dendrites arise from single process
coming off the cell body
 Synapse – specialized regions where communication btwn
 Axon  dendrite
 Axo-axonic
 Dendro-dendritic
* Some reverse
 Chemical synapses – neurotransmitters
 Electrical synapses – direct electrical coupling
 Action potentials – trigger release of neurotransmitters
 Neurotransmitter – Blumenfeld 20
 Neurotransmitters – have diff actions at diff synase of even
at same synapse
 Glial cells – supporting cells
 Oligodendrocytes – wrap processes around portion of
axons in the CNS forming myelin sheaths
 Schwann cells- forms myelin around 1 axon in the PNS
 Astrocytes – provide regulated microenvironment for
neurons, for dev of neurons, structural support, contribute
to the BBB, reg inflammatory processes, for synaptic
growth & plasticity.
 Ependymal cells- mov’t of CSF
 Microglia- immune cells of the CNS
CNS Gray & White Matter; PNS Ganglia & Nerves
 White matter – myelinated areas in the CNS
 Axons transmit over distances
 Gray matter – unmyelinated areas, mainly cell bodies
 Where local synaptic communication btwn
neurons in CNS occurs
 Found in large clusters of cells – nuclei deep in
the cerebral hemisphere & brainstem

Basal ganglia


Cranial nerve nuclei
 Cerebral hemisphere
 Gray matter - cerebral cortex, mantle

 Occipital lobe  Posterior. inferior  Parieto-occipital sulcus  Other regions of the brain:  Insular cortex – buried w/ in Sylvian fissure  Anterior: covered by a lip of frontal cortex (frontal operculum)  Posterior: lip of parietal cortex (parietal operculum)  Limbic cortex – formerly limbic cortex Surface Anatomy of the Cerebral Hemisphere  There is variability but sulci & gyri form certain fairly consistent patterns Lateral surface  Central sulcus – bound frontal lobe posteriorly  Precentral gyrus – gyrus infront  Lateral-frontal surface divided to Superior. connects 2 hemisphere of the brain consist of :  Rostrum  Genu .convey signal to from the cortex Spinal cord  Gray matter – inside  White matter – outside Brain stem  Gray & white matter found inside & outside surface  Outside. fascicle.posterior/ dorsal  Dorsal nerve roots of SC – afferent sensory info into the dorsal SC  Ventral nerve roots of SC – carry efferent motors from the ventral SC to the periphery  Spinal nerves  Cervical – 8  Thoracic – 12  Lumbar – 5  Sacral – 5  Coccyx – 1  During dev’t – bony vertebral canal  length faster than SC  SC ends at L1to L2  Cauda equina – collection of nerve roots below the spinal cord w/c continue down to their exit points  Spinal nerve – formed by dorsal-sensory nerve root and motor-ventral nerve roots joined together in ahort distance outside SC  Plexus – elaborate meshwork of nerves  Brachial plexus – arms  Lumbosacral plexus – legs  Cervical enlargement – segment in the SC where there is  amt of gray matter in region of Brachial plexus  Lumbosacral enlargement – segment in the SC where there is  amt of gray matter in region of Lumbosacral plexus  PNS also include some specialized neurons involved in ctrling automatic fxns – Autonomic NS  Major division: Sympa & Parasympa Sympa NS  Arises from T1 to L3/ thoracolumbar division  Releases norepinephrine Parasympa NS  Arises from Cranial nerves & S2 to S4/ craniosacral division  Releases ACh  Sympa & Parasympa pathways are ctrled by higher centers in the hypothalamus & limbic system and by afferent sensory info from the periphery Cerebral Cortex: Basic Organization & Primary Sensory Motor Areas  Sulci – numerous infoldings or crevices of the cerebral cortex  Fissure – deep sulci  Gyri – bumps or ridges rising in btwn sulci Lobes of the Cerebral Hemispheres  Frontal  In front & extends back to the central sulcus of Rolando  Sylvian/ lateral fissure – separates frontal lobe inferiorly & laterally to the Temporal lobe  Temporal lobe  Lateral  Sylvian fissure separates frontal lobe  No demarcation from parietal lobe  Parietal lobe  Bound anteriorly by central sulcus  No sharp demarcation from temporal or occipital when viewed laterally  Parieto-occipital sulcus – separates parietal & occipital lobe when viewed medially. lemniscus & bundle Commisure – white matter pathway that connect structures on the R & L side of CNS Peripheral nerves – bundles of axons in the PNS Ganglia – cluster of cell bodies in the PNS Afferent – pathways carrying signal towards a structure Efferent – carry signals away from a structure Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nervous System  Cranial nerves exit the segment of embryonic segments of the forming cerebral hemisphere  Spinal nerves arise from the segments of the spinal cord w/c give rise to both sensory & motor nerve roots on each side of the body.mostly white matter White matter pathways – tract.  Motor systems.2          White matter.anterior/ ventral  Sensory systems. Middle & Inferior Frontal gyri by Superior & Middle Temporal suclus  Post central gyrus – most anterior portion of the parietal lobe lying just behind the Central sulcus  Intraparietal sulcus – divides the superior parietal lobule from the inferior parietal lobule  Inferior parietal lobule – consist of supramarginal gyrus and angular gyrus  Supramarginal gyrus – surrounds end of Sylvian fissure  Angular gyrus – surrounds end of the Superior Temporal sulcus Medial Surface  Corpus callosum – largest white matter.

Many areas correlate fairly well w/ various fxnal areas of the cortex Table 2. SC & basal ganglia  Layer VI – Polymorphic/ Multiform layer  main connection: sends output to thalamus  Projects primarily to thalamus              Info reaching primary auditory cortex us less lateralized & represent more mixture of inputs from both ears   Thicknes of cell laers varies according to the main fxn of the particular area of cortex  PMC – many large efferent projections to ctrl mov’t  thicker Layer V containing more cell bodies than IV  PVC – receive sensory input  thicker Layer IV containing more cell bodies than V Classification scheme for diff region of the cerebral cortex – Korbinian Brodmann parcelled the cortex into 52 cytoarchitectonic areas w/ assigned # based on how he prepared the slide.4 p31 Blumenfeld Motor Systems  Motor ctrl involves delicate balance btwn multiple parallel pathways & recurrent feedback loop Main Motor Pathways  Corticospinal tract – begins in the PMC down thru cerebral white matter & brain stem to reach SC  Most imt pathway  Pyramidal tract . eg brain stem. Association cortex – higher order sensory & motor processing Topographical organization of sensory & motor pathways  Adjacent areas on the receptive (or motor) surface are maped to adjacent fibers in the white matter pathways and to the adjacent regions of cortex Somatotopic maps on the cortex – motor or sensory homunculus (little man) Retinal areas are maped in a retinotopic fashion onto the primary visual cortex Regions of cochlea have tonotopic representation on the primary auditory cortex Primary somatosensory cortex & motor cortex represent sensation & movement of opposite side of the body Primary visual cortex represent visual inputs from opposite visual field  Left half of visual field for each eye is mapped to the right primary visual cortex  Cell Layers & Regional Classification of the Cerebral Cortex  Neocortex – composed of 6 cell layer from surface inward  Layer I – Molecular layer main connection: dendrites & axon from other layers  Contain mainly dendrites from deeper neurons & axons  Layer II – Small pyramidal/ External granular  main connection: cortical-cortical connections  Contains neuron projecting mainly to other areas of the cortex  Layer III – Medium pyramidal/ External pyramidal  main connection: cortical-cortical connections  Contains neurons projecting to other areas of the cortex  Layer IV – Granular/ Internal pyramidal  main connection: receive input from thalamus  Receive inputs from thalamus  Layer V – Large pyramidal/ Internal pyramidal  main connection: sends outputs to subcortical structures other than thalamus  Projects mostly to subcortical structure other than thalamus. shape in the medulla  PMC – where neuron cell bodies project via axons  Majority of fibers cross over to ctrl mov’t of opposite side of the body known as Pyramidal decussation  Pyramidal decussation occurs at the junction btwn medulla & SC  Lesion above decussation – contralateral weakness  Lesion below decusation – ipsilateral weakness .deep sulcus of the medial surface of the occipital lobe  Superior: Lingua gyrus – little tongue  Inferior: Cuneus gyrus – wedge  Anterior: Precuneus gyrus of medial Parietal lobe Inferior Surface  Orbital frontal gyri – lies on top of orbital ridges of the eyes  Olfactory sulcus – separates Orbital frontal gyri from gyrus Rectus  Inferior temporal sulcus – located inferior surface of Temporal lobe that separates Temporal gyrus from Occipitotemoral/ Fusiform gyri  Collateral sulcus – located medially which continues anteriorly as Rhinal sulcus.3     Body  Sphlenium Cignalate gyrus – (belt) surrounds Corpus callosum. separates Fusiform gyri from Parahhiocampal gyrus Superior Surface  Same lateral land marks can be seen Figures: pp 26-25 Blumenfeld Primary Sensory & Motor Areas  Primary motor cortex – Precentral gyrus in the Frontal lobe w/c ctrls movement of opposite side of the body  Primary somatosensory cortex – Postcentral gyrus in the Parietal lobe Both separated by central sulcus Like in SC motor is anterior while somatosensory is posterior Primary visual cortex – Occipital lobe along the banks of Calcarine fiure Primary auditory cortex – transverse gyri of Heschl – two fingerlike gyri lying inide the Slvian fissure. runs anteriorly from Paraterminal gyrus to posteriorly from Isthmus  Marginal branch running up to the surface forms central sulcus Central sulcus – don’t run onto medial surface but the region surrounding it is the Paracentral lobule Calcarine fissure .

 LMNS project via ventral roots  muscles  contraction. habenula. tem. pineal body. temp. discriminative touch  Anterolateral pathways – convey pain. posterior to basal ganglia  Egg shaped w. Posterior ends angled outward forming inverted in horizontal sections  Consist of multiple nuclei  Each sense has own nuclear area where synpases occur b4 info is relayed to the brain  Nonsensory also relay to thalamus  Process info from basal ganglia.4   Upper Motor Neurons – motor neurons that roject from cortex down the SC or brain stem Lower Motor Neurons – located in the anterior horns of central gray matter of SC or brain stem motor nuclei  Axons project out of CNS via anterior spinal roots or cranial nerves to reach muscle cells in the periphery Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia  Motor system – perform delicate & complicated task  Cerebellum & basal ganglia – used for multiple feedback system to refine output of motor system  Both act by modulating output of pyramidal tract & other descending motor system  Both receive major input from motor cortex  Cerebellum – also receive significant inuts from brainstem & SC  Project back to motor cortex via thalamus  Lesions in cerebellum – dso corrdination & balance eg Ataxia  Lesion in basal ganglia  Hypokinetic mov’t dso – Parkinsonism  Hyperkinetic mov’t dso – Huntington’s Somatosensory System  Sensation – conveyed by parallel pathways mediating diff senor modalities that travel to the CNS Main Somatosensory Pathway  Somatic sensation – conscious perceptions of touch. vibration sense & fine. hypothalamus & eithalamus  Hypothalamus.  Epithalamus – encompas several small nuclei e.g. limic system etc. & crude touch  Primary sensory neuron cell bodies are located outside CNS in the dorsal root ganglia w/ bifurcating axons – 1 long process extensing to the periphery & 1 into the SC Posterior Column Pathway Stimulus (proprioception. cerebellum. limbic pathways & reticular formation on their way to the cortex  Reciprocal nature of cortical – thalamic connections  All cortical regions project strongly vi Alayer I back to thalamic areas  Diencephalon – formed by thalamus.autonomic. temp & crude touch)  Primary sensory neurons  Dorsal roots  SC  1st synapses in the gray matter of SC  Secondary sensory neurons  Cross over other side of SC  Ascend anterolateral white matter  Forms spinothamic tract  Thalamus  Primary somatosensory cortex Thalamus  Relay center  Gray matter structures deep w/ in cerebral white matter  Superior to brainstem. pain. neuroendocrine. vibration & fine touch)  Primary sensory neuron axons  Dordal roots  SC  Ipsilateral white matter dorsal column  Dorsal column nuclei of medulla  Make synapses  2ndary sensory neuron  Axons cross over to other side (contralateral)  Thalamus  Primary Somatosensory Cortex of Postcentral gyrus Anterolateral Pathway Stimulus (pain. vibration & proriocetion  2 main pathways  Posterior column pathways – convey proprioception.  Afferent sensory neurons also forms synapses onto i inhibitory excitatory interneurons the SC gray matter w/c then synapses w/ LMNs . & small part of pretectum Stretch Reflex  Monosynaptic stretch reflex – provides rapid local feedback from motor ctrl  Begin w/ specialized receptors – muscle spindles  Muscle spindles – detect amt & rate of stretch in muscles  Info detected  distal process of sensory neuron  dorsal roots  SC gray matter where are multiple synapses including LMNs in the anterior horn.

inferior medial frontal lobes & circulate gyri  Include deeper structures – hippocampal formation and amygdale located w/in medial temporal lobes.  Dysfxn: pysch dsos. primitive reflexes/ Frontal release signs. anosognosia. influcen higher areas through modulation of thalamic & cortical activity  Lesions: affect LOC     Limbic system  Medial edge of cerebral cortex  Regulate emotion.g. extinction     Complex task. anterior insula. left hemisphere near PMC involed in moving lips.  Several nuclei in the medial thalamus.  Usually located adjacent to a primary motor or sensory area  E.g.  Convey info to Wernicke’s area in the dominant (usually left) hemisphere  Lesion: Wernicke’s / Receptive/ Sensory aphasia  Broca’s area – frontal love. pons. septal area and brainstem  Fornix – connect pathways to diff area in the limbic system. autonomic & nueroendocrine ctrl  Includes cortical areas located in the medial anterior temporal lobes.needs higher order planning before PMC can be activated Motor lanning – distributed in many areas of the cortex Diffuse lesion or sometimes more focal leion can produce apraxia Apraxia – abnormalities in motor conceptualization. memory. norepinephrine. arch shaped white matter connecting hippocampal formation to the hypothalamus & septal nuclei  Lesions: long term memory loss.Paired. appetie drive. perseveration of action. Language  Usually perceived 1st by the PAC in the superior temporal lobe when listening or in PVC when reading. dyslexia. tongue.5 Local circuits in the SC can use sensory info to regulate activity of LMNs w/o conscious input from higher center Nevertheless there are descending pathways hat modulate activity of the stretch reflex Lesions/ damage: hypoactive or hyperactive reflex  Deep tendon reflex  Brainstem and cranial nerves  Composed of midbrain. magnetic gait (feet shuffle close to the floor) and urinary incontinence  Visual assoc cortex – parieto-occipital & inferior temporal lobes  Lesions:prosopagnosia (faces). R-L confussion & Finger agnosia  Spatial awareness  Lesions nondominant hemisphere: hemineglect. serotonin. & epileptic siezures Association system  Carriers higher order of processing Unimodal assoc cortex – higher order of processing takes place mostly in for a single sensory or motor modality. and medulla  Superior: diencephalon  Inferior: SC  Posterior: cerebellum  Most of the CNrvs arise from the brainstem  CNrvs analogous in some ways to SNrvs having both sensory & motor fxns  But CNrvs also carry out more specialized fxn r/t organ of the head  Tightly packed w. face & larynx  Lesion: Broca’s / Expressive/ Motor aphasia Parietal lobe  Intraparietal sulcus – divides superior & inferior parietal lobule  Lesion inferior parietal lobule: Gerstmann’s syndrome – dyscalculia. planning & excecution Frontal lobes  Largest hemispheres containing vast areas of association cortex  Lesions: cognitive dsos & cognitive fxning. dopa. BP RR etc  Lesions: devastating effect on sensory & motor fxn  Reticular formation  Impt region of the brainstem  Contains many nuclei  Network like appearance of its fibers in histologicl sec  Extends throughout the central portions of the brainstem from medulla to the midbrain  More inferior portion (medulla & lower pons) – involved mainly in motor & autonomic fxns  Superior (midbrain & upper pons) – regulate lvl of consciousness. & Ach  Nuclei involved in pain modulation  Nuclei ctrling HR. hypothalamus.  Nuclei that produce N/V in resp to certain chemicals  Nuclei containing neurotransmitters e. unimodal motor association cortex (premotor cortex & supplemental motor area) is located adjacent to primary mortor cortex Heteromodal assoc cortex – involved in integrating fxns from multiple sensory and/or motor modalities. achromatopsia (color) and palinopsia (persistace or reappearance of an object viewed earlier)  Seizure in Visual assoc cortex. Numerous other impt nuclei & white matter tracts  All info passing btwn cerebral hemispheres & SC must pass through the brainstem  Contain nuclei that play impt role in motor system.can cause elaborate visual hallucination Blood Supply to the Brain and SC  2 pairs of Arteries that carry all blood supply  1 pair of draining Veins  Internal Carotid As – form anterior blood supply  Vertebral As –join together in a single Basilar A form the posterior blood supply  Circle of Willis – joining of Internal Carotid & Vertebral As in an anastomosing ring at the base of the brain  Give rise to main arteries supplying the cerebral hemisphere . basal ganglia. abulic (stare passively & delay response to command).

run along R & L dorsal surface of SC A & P Spinal As – supplied by Vertebral As in the cervical region and by Radicular As arising from the Aorta in the thoracic & lumbar region . runs along medial ventral surface Posterior Spinal As – suppy SC. & Posteroinferior Cerebellar As – supply brainstem and cerebellum Internal Jugular Vs – venous drainage of the brain    Anterior Spinal A – supply SC. Anteroinferior.6     Anterior & Middle Cerebral As – derive main blood supply from the Internal Carotid As (anterior circulation) Posterior Cerebral As – derive main blood supply from vertebrobasilar system (posterior circulation) Superior.