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Jaymee B.


Competency Appraisal II

BSN 4-1

Content Analysis on the Article
Fundamental Patterns of Knowing b B.A. Carper
When a discipline is created, the bricklaying of the knowledge that a particular discipline and
the means how it can be achieved are already made. Nursing as a discipline views phenomena
uniquely from other disciplines and the way we perceive phenomena in nursing has patterns,
structure and forms which contributes o the uniqueness of nursing from other disciplines. It is
therefore imperative for us nurses to know the different patterns of knowing to understand what
it means to know and what types of knowledge are important to the discipline of nursing.
There are four fundamental patterns of knowing- first is Empirics which is the science of
nursing; second is aesthetics which is the art of nursing; third is the component of personal
knowledge in nursing; and fourth, ethics which is the moral knowledge in nursing.

The science of nursing generally was born in 1950s or in the post industrial age where much
emphasis was made in creating a scientific and theoretical framework for professional practice
according to the article “The discipline of Nursing” by Donaldson and Crowley (1978). Unlike
academic sciences that of physics, chemistry etc. which have already established conceptual
framework which integrate the laws, theories, and constructs governing their discipline, the
discipline of nursing is still in the verge of discovering cohesiveness/ commonalities among the
already established theories as presented by the article “The Discipline of Nursing”. However,
nursing science as a pattern of knowing has not yet fully developed existing theories and models
in our profession gives us a new perspective on how we view already established generalization
which then can be considered or revised to coincide to the knowledge our discipline aims to
Empirics, as a pattern of knowing, use scientific process to give a background on our
professional practice. The first fundamental pattern of knowing exhibits two aspects- natural
history stage of inquiry and stage of deductively formulated theory.
For an example-in nursing, we gather information and make clinical decision using the
scientific process. We gather information using our senses from our clients (scientific process/
natural stage of inquiry) making factual assessment and try to incorporate concepts from other

behaviours. Before. Many scholars are reluctant to emphasize or even consider this pattern of knowing in the discipline of nursing since they only believe on knowledge that is factual. Nursing as a science is clearly new and theories and paradigms governing the nursing discipline are not well established than older sciences. Such skills where a product or mere imitations and isn’t based on empirics. We try to know more about human nature. Personal Knowledge Personal knowledge as a fundamental pattern of knowing is concerned with the knowing. the aim of the first fundamental pattern of knowing is ultimately on developing abstract and explanation. the technical skill involved in the nursing practice. It is where we nurse use the therapeutic use of self in approaching our client/patient. Aesthetics Aesthetics as a fundamental pattern of knowing deals with the art. The aesthetic aspect of nursing tries to see possibilities and appreciate certain phenomenon that occurs on human with regards with their health. empirical. nursing as an art is seeing individuality or uniqueness. This pattern of knowing tackles on how we nurses are more humane than other discipline for we consider our patient as our subject to care to not just a mere object where we generate our knowledge base. descriptive and generalizable. nursing is taught first hand while caring for the sick. Compared to empirics. But what is special in the “art” aspect of nursing is like an “art” we nurses consider certain aspect of things/ phenomena and be able to gather more data beyond what we can observe by mere using our senses (empirics). objective. Nurses learn as they are in the job. and traits and emphasize the uniqueness of an individual person. Although it is considered the most problematic and most difficult to master and to teach. aesthetics dwell more on the better understanding of phenomena. encountering and actualizing of the concrete. Where nursing science clamours on classifying and stereotyping phenomena to build a structure to govern nursing. Thus. Nursing as a discipline had undergone several stages of development before it became the nursing that we know today. . Personal knowledge is essential in understanding the meaning of health for individuals. individual self. Personal knowledge is important to the discipline of nursing for in personal knowledge we are able to relate to the patient with empathy in an authentic manner.discipline (Substantive Structure) and from our assessment we try to analyze (theoretical analysis) and formulate a nursing clinical picture of our client (theory formulation).

. we get our knowledge for our discipline from live human beings and it poses a great deal of care in order to not violate their rights or devalue them as a person. This pattern of knowledge refers to operating within a framework of ethical standards in order to recognize or judge what is correct or just when there is no "textbook answer. In nursing we deal with human life.Ethics Ethics as a fundamental pattern of knowing is essential to the discipline of nursing for we deal with the human person. Ethics is focused more on matters of obligation or what ought to be done." This means drawing on knowledge and experience to identify and address legal. Ethics guides and directs how nurses conduct their practice. moral and social issues with integrity and professionalism. Evidently. and our subject or focus of our discipline are human responses to health and illness.