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Jaymee B.


Competency Appraisal II

BSN 4-1

Content Analysis on the Article

Fundamental Patterns of Knowing b B.A. Carper
When a discipline is created, the bricklaying of the knowledge that a particular discipline and
the means how it can be achieved are already made. Nursing as a discipline views phenomena
uniquely from other disciplines and the way we perceive phenomena in nursing has patterns,
structure and forms which contributes o the uniqueness of nursing from other disciplines. It is
therefore imperative for us nurses to know the different patterns of knowing to understand what
it means to know and what types of knowledge are important to the discipline of nursing.
There are four fundamental patterns of knowing- first is Empirics which is the science of
nursing; second is aesthetics which is the art of nursing; third is the component of personal
knowledge in nursing; and fourth, ethics which is the moral knowledge in nursing.

The science of nursing generally was born in 1950s or in the post industrial age where much
emphasis was made in creating a scientific and theoretical framework for professional practice
according to the article The discipline of Nursing by Donaldson and Crowley (1978). Unlike
academic sciences that of physics, chemistry etc. which have already established conceptual
framework which integrate the laws, theories, and constructs governing their discipline, the
discipline of nursing is still in the verge of discovering cohesiveness/ commonalities among the
already established theories as presented by the article The Discipline of Nursing. However,
nursing science as a pattern of knowing has not yet fully developed existing theories and models
in our profession gives us a new perspective on how we view already established generalization
which then can be considered or revised to coincide to the knowledge our discipline aims to
Empirics, as a pattern of knowing, use scientific process to give a background on our
professional practice. The first fundamental pattern of knowing exhibits two aspects- natural
history stage of inquiry and stage of deductively formulated theory.
For an example-in nursing, we gather information and make clinical decision using the
scientific process. We gather information using our senses from our clients (scientific process/
natural stage of inquiry) making factual assessment and try to incorporate concepts from other

discipline (Substantive Structure) and from our assessment we try to analyze (theoretical
analysis) and formulate a nursing clinical picture of our client (theory formulation).
Nursing as a science is clearly new and theories and paradigms governing the nursing
discipline are not well established than older sciences. Thus, the aim of the first fundamental
pattern of knowing is ultimately on developing abstract and explanation.

Aesthetics as a fundamental pattern of knowing deals with the art, the technical skill involved
in the nursing practice. Many scholars are reluctant to emphasize or even consider this pattern of
knowing in the discipline of nursing since they only believe on knowledge that is factual,
empirical, objective, descriptive and generalizable.
Nursing as a discipline had undergone several stages of development before it became the
nursing that we know today. Before, nursing is taught first hand while caring for the sick. Nurses
learn as they are in the job. Such skills where a product or mere imitations and isnt based on
empirics. But what is special in the art aspect of nursing is like an art we nurses consider
certain aspect of things/ phenomena and be able to gather more data beyond what we can observe
by mere using our senses (empirics). The aesthetic aspect of nursing tries to see possibilities and
appreciate certain phenomenon that occurs on human with regards with their health. Compared
to empirics, aesthetics dwell more on the better understanding of phenomena. Where nursing
science clamours on classifying and stereotyping phenomena to build a structure to govern
nursing, nursing as an art is seeing individuality or uniqueness.

Personal Knowledge
Personal knowledge as a fundamental pattern of knowing is concerned with the knowing,
encountering and actualizing of the concrete, individual self. Although it is considered the most
problematic and most difficult to master and to teach; Personal knowledge is essential in
understanding the meaning of health for individuals. It is where we nurse use the therapeutic use
of self in approaching our client/patient.
Personal knowledge is important to the discipline of nursing for in personal knowledge we are
able to relate to the patient with empathy in an authentic manner. This pattern of knowing tackles
on how we nurses are more humane than other discipline for we consider our patient as our
subject to care to not just a mere object where we generate our knowledge base. We try to know
more about human nature, behaviours, and traits and emphasize the uniqueness of an individual

Ethics as a fundamental pattern of knowing is essential to the discipline of nursing for we deal
with the human person. Ethics is focused more on matters of obligation or what ought to be
In nursing we deal with human life, and our subject or focus of our discipline are human
responses to health and illness. Evidently, we get our knowledge for our discipline from live
human beings and it poses a great deal of care in order to not violate their rights or devalue them
as a person. Ethics guides and directs how nurses conduct their practice. This pattern of
knowledge refers to operating within a framework of ethical standards in order to recognize or
judge what is correct or just when there is no "textbook answer." This means drawing on
knowledge and experience to identify and address legal, moral and social issues with integrity
and professionalism.