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# EAH 221

july 28th

FLUID MECHANICS
for
CIVIL Engineers

Dr H Md Azamathulla
Lecturer,REDAC, USM
http://redac.eng.usm.my/eah416/
• The expression is p1+γm(0.25m)
• Here the term Ym(0.25)m is change in pressure
between two points 1 and 2 due to change in
elevation
• Ym - specific weight of mercury (right leg of
manometer)
• Expression for the Pr.. At point 3?
• P1+Ym(0.25m)
• Because the points 2 & 3 are on the same
elevation (same level) in the same fluid at rest.
• So pr.. Are equal.
• Now we will write expression for Pr.. At
point 4.
• P1+Ym(0.25m)-Ym(0.40m)
• See here – sign decrease in pr.. Between
points 3 & 4, so last term subtracted from
previous expression.
• Now Pr.. at Point A?
• pA=P1+Ym(0.25m)-Ym(0.40m)
• Sg=13.54
• Yw=9.81 KN/m3
• Ym=Sg*g=13.54*9.81 KN/m3=132.8 KN/m3
• p1=0=patm=0Pa

• pA= 0+132.8*0.25-9.81*0.40
• pA=29.28 kN/m2=29.28 Kpa
Barometers
• A barometer is a device for
measuring atmospheric
pressure.
• h=760 mm of mercury
• why not water or ethanol?
• is the vacuum on top really
empty space?
Manometers
• A manometer is a device for measuring
fluid pressure consisting of a bent tube
containing one or more liquids of different
densities.
• A known pressure (which may be
atmospheric) is applied to one end of the
manometer tube and the unknown
pressure (to be determined) is applied to
the other end.
• Differential pressure manometer measures only
the difference between the two pressures.
Manometer types
• Simple U - tube manometer
• Inverted U - tube manometer
• U - tube with one leg enlarged
• Two fluid U - tube manometer
• Inclined U - tube manometer
Simple U - tube manometer

p X = p1 + ρ g (a + h )

p X ' = p 2 + ρ ga + ρ m gh

pX = pX '

p1 − p 2 = ( ρ m − ρ ) g h
Inverted U - tube manometer

p X = p1 − ρ g (a + h )

p X ' = p 2 − ρ ga − ρ m gh

pX = pX '

p1 − p 2 = ( ρ − ρ m ) g h
U - tube with one leg enlarged

## used for more

p1 − p 2 = ( ρ m − ρ ) g h
Two fluid U-tube manometer

## used for more

small pressure
differences
Inclined U-tube manometer
used for more accurate readings of
small pressure differences
Pressure measurement categories
• Gravity based : barometer, manometer, dead weight
piston
• Elastic deformation: Bourdon tube (metal & quartz),
strain gauge, optical beam displacement
• Gas behavior : Gas compression (McLeod gage),
thermal conductance (Pirani gae), Moducular impact
(Knudsen gage), ionization, air piston, thermal
conductivity
• Electric output: resistance (Bridgman wire gage),
diffused strain gage, piezoelectric, Linear variable
differential transformer (LVDT)
Bourdon tube device foe mechanical measurement
of high pressures

## When pressurized internally , a curved tube with flattened

cross
Section will deflect outward.
The deflection can be measured by a linkage
attached to a calibrated dial pointer,
An interesting variation of the fused –quartz,
force-balanced bourdon tube
Whose spiral tube deflection is sensed optically and
returned to a zero reference state by a magnetic element
whose out put is proportional to the fluid pressure
EAH 221
July 28th

FLUID MECHANICS
for
CIVIL Engineers

Dr H Md Azamathulla
Lecturer,REDAC, USM
http://redac.eng.usm.my/eah416/
Question: Pressure gage B is to measure the pressure at point A in water flow.
If the Pressure at B is 87KPa , estimate the pressure at A in KPa.?
Question: Pressure gage B is to measure the pressure at point A in water flow.
If the Pressure at B is 87KPa , estimate the pressure at A in KPa.?

• If PB = 87 K Pa, PA=?

## • Y oil= 8720 N/m3

• Proceed from A to B , down then ‘up’ jumping
across at the left mercury ..
• PA+9790(0.05)-133100(0.07)-8720(0.06)=87000

## • PA= 96.4 KPa

Hydrostatic forces on Plane Surfaces
• Figure shows, a plane panel of arbitrary
shape completely submerged in a liquid.
• The panel plane makes an arbitrary angle
‘θ’ with horizontal free surface, so that
depth varies over the plane surface.
• If ‘h’ is depth to any element area dA of
the plate.
• The pressure is p = p + γ h
a
• To derive formulas involving the plate
shape, establish an xy coordinate system
in the plane of the plate with the origin an
its centroid, plus a dummy co-ordinate ‘ξ’
down from the surface in the plane of the
plate.
• Then the total hydrostatic force on one
side of the plate is given by
F = ∫ pdA = ∫ ( p + γh)dA = p A + γ ∫ hdA
a a

## The remaining integral is evaluated by noticing

from figure that h=ξ sinθ
1
By definition, the centroidal slant distance from the ξ = ∫ ξdA
CG
surface to the plate is A
• Therefore, since ‘θ’ is constant along the plate,
above equation becomes
F = p A + γ sin θ ∫ ξdA = p A + γ sin θξ A
a a CG

## Finally, unravel this is by noticing that ξCG Sinθ =hCG,

the depth straight down from the surface to the plate
centroid.
Thus

F = p A + γh A = ( pa + γh ) A = p A
a CG CG CG

The force on one side of any plane submeged surface in a uniform fluid
equals the pressure at the plate centroid times the plate area, independent of the
Shape of the plate or the angle ‘θ’ at which slanted. I
ξ =ξ + gg

CP
HOME WORK
The gate shown in figure is 5 ft
wide, is hinged at point B, rest
against a smooth wall at point A.
Compute (1) the force on the
gate due to sea water pressure,
(2) the horizontal force P
exerted by the wall at point A,
and (3) the reactions at the
hinge B
Free body diagram of GATE