45 views

Uploaded by 6034035

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Pitot Tube
- Basics of Vacuum
- CHAP1
- Pressure Measurement
- Manometers
- Be-All Ss Pressure Gauge
- CASR Part 145 Amdt. 4 - Approved Maintenance Organizations
- Process Control and Instrumentation Sec5-7
- Control Engineering Lec_09
- Literature Pressure gauges
- path
- EXP Absorption
- Bro Control Valves '14
- Simple Images New Products PrecisionRegulatorCatalogue
- DS PE a 10 Product Profile en Us 52381
- Lecture 6
- Chapter14.pdf
- Catalog Flupec Pressure Gauges
- Tabela fator K - VAV Trox.pdf
- 34758-EN-VEGADIF-65-4-20-mA

You are on page 1of 24

july 28th

FLUID MECHANICS

for

CIVIL Engineers

Dr H Md Azamathulla

Lecturer,REDAC, USM

http://redac.eng.usm.my/eah416/

• The expression is p1+γm(0.25m)

• Here the term Ym(0.25)m is change in pressure

between two points 1 and 2 due to change in

elevation

• Ym - specific weight of mercury (right leg of

manometer)

• Expression for the Pr.. At point 3?

• P1+Ym(0.25m)

• Because the points 2 & 3 are on the same

elevation (same level) in the same fluid at rest.

• So pr.. Are equal.

• Now we will write expression for Pr.. At

point 4.

• P1+Ym(0.25m)-Ym(0.40m)

• See here – sign decrease in pr.. Between

points 3 & 4, so last term subtracted from

previous expression.

• Now Pr.. at Point A?

• pA=P1+Ym(0.25m)-Ym(0.40m)

• Sg=13.54

• Yw=9.81 KN/m3

• Ym=Sg*g=13.54*9.81 KN/m3=132.8 KN/m3

• p1=0=patm=0Pa

• pA= 0+132.8*0.25-9.81*0.40

• pA=29.28 kN/m2=29.28 Kpa

Barometers

• A barometer is a device for

measuring atmospheric

pressure.

• h=760 mm of mercury

• why not water or ethanol?

• is the vacuum on top really

empty space?

Manometers

• A manometer is a device for measuring

fluid pressure consisting of a bent tube

containing one or more liquids of different

densities.

• A known pressure (which may be

atmospheric) is applied to one end of the

manometer tube and the unknown

pressure (to be determined) is applied to

the other end.

• Differential pressure manometer measures only

the difference between the two pressures.

Manometer types

• Simple U - tube manometer

• Inverted U - tube manometer

• U - tube with one leg enlarged

• Two fluid U - tube manometer

• Inclined U - tube manometer

Simple U - tube manometer

p X = p1 + ρ g (a + h )

p X ' = p 2 + ρ ga + ρ m gh

pX = pX '

p1 − p 2 = ( ρ m − ρ ) g h

Inverted U - tube manometer

p X = p1 − ρ g (a + h )

p X ' = p 2 − ρ ga − ρ m gh

pX = pX '

p1 − p 2 = ( ρ − ρ m ) g h

U - tube with one leg enlarged

accurate readings

p1 − p 2 = ( ρ m − ρ ) g h

Two fluid U-tube manometer

accurate readings of

small pressure

differences

Inclined U-tube manometer

used for more accurate readings of

small pressure differences

Pressure measurement categories

• Gravity based : barometer, manometer, dead weight

piston

• Elastic deformation: Bourdon tube (metal & quartz),

strain gauge, optical beam displacement

• Gas behavior : Gas compression (McLeod gage),

thermal conductance (Pirani gae), Moducular impact

(Knudsen gage), ionization, air piston, thermal

conductivity

• Electric output: resistance (Bridgman wire gage),

diffused strain gage, piezoelectric, Linear variable

differential transformer (LVDT)

Bourdon tube device foe mechanical measurement

of high pressures

cross

Section will deflect outward.

The deflection can be measured by a linkage

attached to a calibrated dial pointer,

An interesting variation of the fused –quartz,

force-balanced bourdon tube

Whose spiral tube deflection is sensed optically and

returned to a zero reference state by a magnetic element

whose out put is proportional to the fluid pressure

EAH 221

July 28th

FLUID MECHANICS

for

CIVIL Engineers

Dr H Md Azamathulla

Lecturer,REDAC, USM

http://redac.eng.usm.my/eah416/

Question: Pressure gage B is to measure the pressure at point A in water flow.

If the Pressure at B is 87KPa , estimate the pressure at A in KPa.?

Question: Pressure gage B is to measure the pressure at point A in water flow.

If the Pressure at B is 87KPa , estimate the pressure at A in KPa.?

• If PB = 87 K Pa, PA=?

• Proceed from A to B , down then ‘up’ jumping

across at the left mercury ..

• PA+9790(0.05)-133100(0.07)-8720(0.06)=87000

Hydrostatic forces on Plane Surfaces

• Figure shows, a plane panel of arbitrary

shape completely submerged in a liquid.

• The panel plane makes an arbitrary angle

‘θ’ with horizontal free surface, so that

depth varies over the plane surface.

• If ‘h’ is depth to any element area dA of

the plate.

• The pressure is p = p + γ h

a

• To derive formulas involving the plate

shape, establish an xy coordinate system

in the plane of the plate with the origin an

its centroid, plus a dummy co-ordinate ‘ξ’

down from the surface in the plane of the

plate.

• Then the total hydrostatic force on one

side of the plate is given by

F = ∫ pdA = ∫ ( p + γh)dA = p A + γ ∫ hdA

a a

from figure that h=ξ sinθ

1

By definition, the centroidal slant distance from the ξ = ∫ ξdA

CG

surface to the plate is A

• Therefore, since ‘θ’ is constant along the plate,

above equation becomes

F = p A + γ sin θ ∫ ξdA = p A + γ sin θξ A

a a CG

the depth straight down from the surface to the plate

centroid.

Thus

F = p A + γh A = ( pa + γh ) A = p A

a CG CG CG

The force on one side of any plane submeged surface in a uniform fluid

equals the pressure at the plate centroid times the plate area, independent of the

Shape of the plate or the angle ‘θ’ at which slanted. I

ξ =ξ + gg

Aξ

CP

HOME WORK

The gate shown in figure is 5 ft

wide, is hinged at point B, rest

against a smooth wall at point A.

Compute (1) the force on the

gate due to sea water pressure,

(2) the horizontal force P

exerted by the wall at point A,

and (3) the reactions at the

hinge B

Free body diagram of GATE

- Pitot TubeUploaded byDhananjay Kadam
- Basics of VacuumUploaded byganesh_n1412
- CHAP1Uploaded byJohnathan Ortega Meneses
- Pressure MeasurementUploaded byprasaad08
- ManometersUploaded byENVIRO TECH INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS.
- Be-All Ss Pressure GaugeUploaded bypankaj doshi
- CASR Part 145 Amdt. 4 - Approved Maintenance OrganizationsUploaded byHarry Nuryanto
- Process Control and Instrumentation Sec5-7Uploaded byJayvee Francisco
- Control Engineering Lec_09Uploaded bySharath Munduri
- Literature Pressure gaugesUploaded byHardik Acharya
- pathUploaded byAny DBs'uNo
- EXP AbsorptionUploaded byCastiel161
- Bro Control Valves '14Uploaded bypraveenice23
- Simple Images New Products PrecisionRegulatorCatalogueUploaded byJobin Varghese
- DS PE a 10 Product Profile en Us 52381Uploaded bybehnamatg
- Lecture 6Uploaded byAsad ullah
- Chapter14.pdfUploaded byAnonymous tdTgleCCi
- Catalog Flupec Pressure GaugesUploaded byPepeOrmenisan
- Tabela fator K - VAV Trox.pdfUploaded bymquaiotti
- 34758-EN-VEGADIF-65-4-20-mAUploaded bymata1802
- pressure measurementUploaded byRaymond Lomerio
- Air Combination Model Selection Software – SMC CorporationUploaded bySudipto Majumder
- A Manometric Method for the Determination of Soil Carbonates in tUploaded byhartman_jcp
- Wind TunnelUploaded byRaj Manova
- Pump Systems BasicsUploaded byJanneth Herrera Flores
- NIT_1987_2 (2)Uploaded bykunaldeora
- Chapter 1 (Part 2) Process VariablesUploaded byMuhammad Fawwaz
- Hydraulics(1)Uploaded byAnonymous QinVSh
- Sensores de PresionUploaded byJack Vásquez
- autoclave (2)Uploaded bysuresh

- 1159 Diagrama Sistema Eje Levante Con y Sin Abs Diagrama Sistema Eje Levante Con y Sin ABSUploaded byBernardo Oliva
- Literature ReviewUploaded byPrakash Suhagiya
- DNS TrainingUploaded bysciby
- forestfires-names.txtUploaded byPammi Kavitha
- Truyen_dan-RSRAN-WBTS-hour-PM_13910-2018_03_09-15_41_00__254Uploaded byHa Thanh
- One Road to Turnover_ an Examination of Work Exhaustion in TechnUploaded byShakeel Siddiqui
- TPMandADUploaded bysuresh
- iptv.m3uUploaded byAhmed Elaidy
- Sorting AlgorithmsUploaded bybhaskar_chintakindi
- Investigating the Effect of Crevice Flow on Internal CombustionUploaded bycata_alex_munt
- Car Finance PawanUploaded bypawan batham
- CH 05 -OS8e.pptxUploaded byAnonymous dDhOhsJ
- Branch InstallUploaded byMuhammad Safwat
- mupsUploaded byPavan Thati
- CyberLympics PR2 Instructions (1)Uploaded byAlfred Bergnobel
- Hoffmann Et Al - Effect of Pressure Recovery Vanes on the Performance of a Swirl Tube, With Emphasis on the Flow Pattern and Separation EfficiencyUploaded byjdgh1986
- SCWI Re-Exam PkgUploaded byKishorsing Rajput
- An Introduction to LogisticsUploaded byIRJET Journal
- OS Concepts Test 7Uploaded byJohnny York
- Vantage Troubleshooting GuideUploaded byJose G Lopez
- Samsung Uc5000 Sx1 Led LargeUploaded byluciaquiroga
- Mark VIe ClassUploaded byRam Krishna
- F8913C-BA ZigBee Module Technical Specification V2.0.0Uploaded byXiamen Four-Faith Industrial Router supplier
- Multivariable Control SystemUploaded byFatin Fateha
- Microstation v8Uploaded byCarmen Glo
- OraclePLSQL Knowledge BaseUploaded byManivannan Ravikumar
- Networking AssignmentUploaded byHarsimar Singh Gulati
- Knowledge MapUploaded byAlan Chan
- Recruitment- HRMUploaded byAditi Jindal
- Windows Activation KeysUploaded bysarawgiharshit