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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY

REPORT FOR THE PROPOSED RE-ALIGNMENT OF THE


STANDARD GAUGE RAILWAY (SGR) WITHIN NAIROBI
NATIONAL PARK

Authority:

EIA Lead Expert:

Director General

Eston Murithi

National Environmental
Management Authority

Reg. No. 0633

P.O. Box 67839 00200


Nairobi.

P.O. Box 7894 00200


Nairobi

Project Proponent:

Kenya Railways
Corporation (KRC)
P.O. Box 30121-00100
Nairobi

MAY, 2015
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IDENTIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION


I ........................................................................... on behalf of Kenya Railways Corporation
submit the following Environmental Impact Assessment Study Report for the proposed realignment of Standard Gauge Railway (SGR) within Nairobi National Park. To my
knowledge, all information contained in this report is accurate and truthful presentation of all
findings relating to the proposed project.

Signed at Nairobi on this .............................. Day of May, 2015


Signature:

Designation ....................

*************************************************************************

EIA/EA Lead Expert: Eston Murithi


NEMA Registration Number: 0633
PIN Number: A002775564J
Signature: ...
Date: ...

Address:
P.O. Box 7894 - 00200, Nairobi
Telephone: 0722-329201
Email: emurithi@limcomafriconsults.com/ estonmus@yahoo.com

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The lead expertise Mr. Eston Murithi and on behalf of LIMCOM AFRICONSULTS takes
this opportunity to thank Kenya Railways Corporation for providing an opportunity to carry
out this Environmental Impact Assessment Study for the re-alignment of Mombasa-Nairobi
Standard Gauge Railway (SGR) within Nairobi National Park. This was done in compliance
with the legal requirement as stipulated in Section 58 of the Environmental Management and
Co-ordination Act (EMCA) of 1999, Legal Notice No.8. We sincerely thank the CRBC team,
and all other stakeholders consulted in providing the necessary support, documentation and
facilitation of site visits that enabled the experts to effectively carry out this environmental
impact assessment study.

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ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS


CRBC

China Road and Bridge Corporation (Kenya)

EA

Environmental Audit

EIA

Environmental Impact Assessment

EMCA

Environmental Management and Coordination Act

EMP

Environmental Management Plan

ERS

Economic Recovery Strategy

ESIA

Environmental and Social Impact Assessment

ESMMP

Environmental, Social Management and Mitigation Plan

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

HWC

Human Wildlife Conflict

IUCN

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

KRC

Kenya Railways Corporation

KWS

Kenya Wildlife Service

NEMA

National Environment Management Authority

NLC

National Land Commission

NNP

Nairobi National Park

PPE

Personal Protective Equipment

SGR

Standard Gauge Railway

TOR

Terms of Reference

WPA

Wildlife Protection Areas

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Table of Contents
IDENTIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION ........................................................................................ 2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ...................................................................................................................... 3
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................... 4
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................................ 7
LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................................................. 7
LIST OF PLATES .................................................................................................................................. 7
CHAPTER ONE ..................................................................................................................................... 8
1.0

PROJECT INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND .......................................................... 8

1.2

Standard Gauge Railway Realignment Rationale and Justification .................................. 11

1.3

Project Objectives ............................................................................................................. 11

1.4

General Terms of Reference for the EIA .......................................................................... 11

1.4

Specific Terms of Reference ............................................................................................. 12

CHAPTER TWO .................................................................................................................................. 15


2.0

PROJECT DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................... 15

2.1

Project Scope .................................................................................................................... 15

2.2

General Construction Design ............................................................................................ 16

2.3

Preparation for Commencement ....................................................................................... 17

2.4.

Personnel Deployment ...................................................................................................... 17

2.5

Filling of Subgrade............................................................................................................ 19

2.6

Blasting for Cutting Construction ..................................................................................... 20

2.7

Construction of Culvert ..................................................................................................... 21

2.8

Construction of Bridge ...................................................................................................... 23

2.9

Summary of main project activities .................................................................................. 29

2.10

Project Cost ....................................................................................................................... 29

CHAPTER THREE .............................................................................................................................. 30


3.0

BASELINE INFORMATION .............................................................................................. 30

3.1

Location ............................................................................................................................ 30

3.2

Climate .............................................................................................................................. 30

3.3

Soils................................................................................................................................... 31

3.4

Fauna ................................................................................................................................. 31

3.5

Flora .................................................................................................................................. 32
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CHAPTER FOUR................................................................................................................................. 34
4.0

ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES ...................................................................................... 34

4.1

SGR Crossing African Heritage House............................................................................. 34

4.2

Crossing NNP with 800m radius ...................................................................................... 35

4.3

Crossing NNP with 1000m radius .................................................................................... 35

CHAPTER FIVE .................................................................................................................................. 39


5.0

PUBLIC CONSULTATION AND PARTICIPATION ........................................................ 39

5.1

Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 39

5.2

Methodology in Public Consultation ................................................................................ 39

5.3

Results of Stakeholder Consultations................................................................................ 40

CHAPTER SIX ..................................................................................................................................... 43


6.0

POLICY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK ............................................................................. 43

6.1

The Constitution of Kenya ................................................................................................ 43

6.2

Kenya Vision 2030............................................................................................................ 44

6.3

The Wildlife Conservation and Management Act, 2013................................................... 44

6.4

Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA) 1999 ................................. 46

6.5

Environmental Impact Assessment and Audit Regulations, 2003 .................................... 46

6.6

Noise and Excessive Vibration Pollution Control Regulations, 2009 .............................. 47

6.7

Waste Management Regulations, 2006 ............................................................................. 47

6.8

The Lands Act, 2012 No. 6 of 2012 .................................................................................. 48

6.9

Physical Planning Act 1996 (Cap 286) ............................................................................. 49

6.10

National Land Commission Act, 2012 .............................................................................. 49

6.11

Kenya Railways Corporation Act (Cap. 397), 1979 ......................................................... 50

6.12

Land Registration Act, 2012 ............................................................................................. 50

CHAPTER SEVEN .............................................................................................................................. 51


7.0

IMPACT IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS ................................................................ 51

7.1

Potential Positive Impacts ................................................................................................. 51

7.2

Potential Negative and their Mitigation Measures ............................................................ 52

7.3

Impact Significance Analysis............................................................................................ 59

CHAPTER EIGHT ............................................................................................................................... 63


8.0

ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION PLAN (ESMMP) ..


.............................................................................................................................................. 63
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8.1

Significance of ESMMP ................................................................................................... 63

8.2

Environmental Monitoring and Audits ............................................................................. 63

CHAPTER nINE ................................................................................................................................... 72


9.0

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................. 72

9.1

Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 72

9.2

Recommendations ............................................................................................................. 72

References ............................................................................................................................................. 74
APPENDICES ...................................................................................................................................... 75

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1: Detailed alignment and habitat loss in NNP Part -I......................................................... 9
Figure 1-2. Detailed alignment and habitat loss in NNP Part -II ..................................................... 10
Figure 2-1:Map showing the re-alignment of SGR within Nairobi National Park ............................. 15
Figure 2-2:Map of Nairobi National Park showing the location of the old approved SGR alignment
from Cheetah Gate to Kapa Oil Refinery ....................................................................... 16
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1: Construction Personnel Employment ................................................................................ 18
Table 4-1: Comparison of Houses earmarked for Demolition along the SGR alignment ................... 38
Table 4-2: Comparison of costs of earthworks and laying tracks ....................................................... 38
Table 7-1; Impact Significance Analysis Criteria ............................................................................... 59
Table 7-2: Summary of Impact Significance Rating ........................................................................... 60
Table 8-1; Environmental & Social Management & Mitigation Plan (ESMMP) ............................... 63

LIST OF PLATES
Plate 3-1: Some of the Wildlife Animals within the Nairobi National Park ....................................... 32
Plate 4-1: Some KWS Structures that will be Re-located after SGR Realignment ............................. 37

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CHAPTER ONE
1.0

PROJECT INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

China Road and Bridge Corporation (Kenya) has been contracted to construct the MombasaNairobi Standard Gauge Railway (SGR). The SGR will significantly influence land use and
spur development in the areas along and around where it will traverse. It is envisaged that at
least 40 per cent of the cost of financing the railway will be spent in Kenya, in tandem with
existing policies. This will unlock a number of benefits locally, especially during the
construction and operational phases. It is estimated that the SGR will create 60 new direct
jobs per kilometer of track during its construction phase. The supply of inputs to the project is
projected to create as many as 40,000 new jobs. Once completed, the SGR line will operate
on the principle of open access, where local entrepreneurs will have the opportunity to
participate in the provision of railway transport services by investing in locomotives and
rolling stock.
The transport sector in Kenya is a major driver of the countrys economy, as it provides and
supports the necessary infrastructure to spur the country to a middle income country by 2030.
The transformative power of a railway line has already been demonstrated by the current line,
its deficiencies notwithstanding. The transport arteries that serve the port of Mombasas
hinterland, and which form the Northern Corridor, account for over 80 per cent of Kenyas
Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The existing Kenya-Uganda Railway was meant to open up
the interior and provide access to overseas markets for goods (mostly agricultural produce)
from the expansive hinterland. Looking at the map of Kenya, one sees a clear linear pattern of
urbanization, with the railway line being the common denominator among Kenyas main
towns. The SGR will amplify the positive results that have been demonstrated by the KenyaUganda Railway. The SGR is expected to improve operations in the transport system and
ease pressure on road for container freight delivery in the East African Region linking
countries like Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and South Sudan among others.
According to the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) study report for the
SGR dated October 2012, the proposed new line is within the existing Mombasa-Nairobi
transport corridor or parallel to the existing corridor. In some instances, it deviates from the
existing line in order to attain a relatively straight alignment which will enhance train speed.
To enhance safety, it is proposed that the whole corridor will be protected by a guard fence
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made of reinforced concrete columns and metal meshes 1.8m high. However, within Wildlife
Protected Areas (WPA), the design will be modified to fit the requirements of KWS in order
to enhance movement of wild animals especially elephants, giraffes, buffaloes and large
carnivores among others.
However, the section of the SGR between chainage DK453+100 to DK465+455 within AthiRiver and Nairobi National Park areas requires to be realigned mainly to avoid demolishing
culturally significant developments and economical high value installations that will require
heavy compensation, and to make it more economic to construct the railway line. Following
this realignment the effective area affected will be from DK455+650 to DK464+500 a
distance of about 11.6Km of which 8.85Km will be within the Nairobi National Park (NNP).
The original alignment that was approved through a Grant of Easement Agreement dated 22nd
August 2014 between Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) and Kenya Railways Corporation
(KRC), would have affected an area of approximately 7.79 ha of NNP. The proposed new
SGR alignment will affect approximately 87.29 ha (215.69 acres or 0.873km), equivalent to
0.75% of the total park area that is 117 km2 (Fig.1, & 2). This is a significant portion of
wildlife habitat.
Figure 1-1: Detailed alignment and habitat loss in NNP Part -I

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Figure 1-2. Detailed alignment and habitat loss in NNP Part -II

This new re-alignment was not envisage or covered by the original SGR ESIA report and the
EIA licence issued by NEMA. As such, a project of this nature and magnitude and given that
it affects a wildlife conservation area (Nairobi National Park), will require that an
Environmental Impact Assessment Study is conducted in accordance to EMCA 1999 and the
Environmental (Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2003, thus, this EIA study was
commissioned.
This EIA study is being carried out as an addendum to the initial Environmental and Social
Impact Assessment (ESIA) Study Report for the Mombasa-Nairobi SGR, which during the
period it was conducted, the current proposed change in design had not been anticipated.

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1.2

Standard Gauge Railway Realignment Rationale and Justification

The proposed realignment, also technically referred to as 1000m radius, according to the
China Road and Bridge Corporation (CRBC) and Kenya Railways Corporation (KRC) has
been prompted by the following reasons:

Avoidance of the cultural and historical monument the Murumbi Hotel located along
the initial SGR alignment design.

Improvement of the efficiency and operating the SGR line by reducing the number of
curves on the line subsequently lowering operating and maintenance costs.

Inadequate funds for compensation of affected project person next to Mlolongo


township, including relocating large established companies and industries like the
KAPA Oil Refinery.

Arising from above, the National Land Commission (NLC) recommended the option
of passing the SGR through the NNP to avoid the high compensation cost of
relocating established factories, industries and private developers.

It is therefore critical to have this 11.6Km section of SGR approved to facilitate completion
of the ongoing Mombasa- Nairobi SGR construction that is expected to significantly improve
the transport system in the country and the East African Region.
1.3

Project Objectives

The main objectives of the proposed SGR construction are to:


i)

Improve the transport system in the country and the East African Region.

ii)

Enhance economic growth in the country and the East African Region.

iii)

Increase revenue generation through improved freight haulage.

iv)

Ease pressure from the roads for passenger and freight transport in the country.

1.4

General Terms of Reference for the EIA

The Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA) 1999 provides for the
screening of policies, programmes and projects which are likely to have significant impacts
through Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The proposed project is a scheduled
activity (Second Schedule) as per EMCA 1999, which makes it, a requirement that it should
be subjected to an EIA study.
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The purpose of this EIA study is to ensure that the project option under consideration is
environmentally sound and sustainable, and that environmental consequences are recognized
early in the project and taken into account in the project design, implementation and
operation. This study has been conducted as provided under Section 58 of EMCA and section
7 of Environmental (Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations 2003.
This study is meant to clearly identify as early as possible:

Information necessary for decision making.

Significant impacts and their mitigation.

Nature and extent of impacts on Nairobi National Parks ecosystem health.

Environmental management plans.

1.4

Specific Terms of Reference

The Consultant shall conduct an Environmental Impact Assessment Study which shall detail
the positive and negative effects of the development of the SGR project on the Nairobi
National Park and the associated environments. The specific Terms of Reference (TOR) for
this study will include, but not limited to the following aspects:
i) To provide detailed description of the proposed re-alignment of Standard Gauge
Railway (SGR) in Nairobi National Park.
ii) To review the existing applicable legal and institutional framework on environmental
planning and management aspects in relation to the proposed project. All applicable
legislation and regulations are outlined as well as environmental policies that are
relevant and applicable to the proposed project. Appropriate legal jurisdictions that
will specifically apply to the project will be identified. All relevant legal
institutions/agencies will also be identified for purposes of this study and the proposed
project. This will create basis for projects compliance to all existing statutory
requirements.
iii)

To collect and collate detailed baseline and any other relevant information in
relation to the proposed project and the project area.

iv)

To provide detailed description of the Project Objectives, Justification of the realignment and detailed description of the potentially affected environment
including Nairobi National Park.

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v)

To identify potential impacts of the proposed project. This will involve


identification of impacts related to SGR construction activities, for instance
possible vegetation clearance, land borrowing and filling. In addition, identification
of impacts related to construction of the access roads and associated facilities
within the project area. A distinction will be made between significant impacts that
are positive and negative, short-term and long-term. The impacts broad effect areas
will be categorized into physical/ environmental, social and economic
effects/impacts.

vi)

To undertake comprehensive analysis of various alternatives to the proposed


project including project site, design and technologies. This will involve
description of the alternatives examined for the proposed project that would
achieve the same objective including the no action alternative. Justification and
reasons of the proposed and preferred project option will also be provided.

vii)

To develop a comprehensive Environmental Management Plan (EMP) with


practical monitoring mechanisms proposing the measures for eliminating,
minimizing or mitigating adverse impacts on the environment to acceptable levels,
including the cost, timeframe and responsibility implementation matrix.

viii) To develop a Monitoring and Evaluation Plan. This will involve identification of
the critical issues requiring monitoring and evaluation to ensure compliance with
mitigation measures and present impact Management and Monitoring and
Evaluation Plans for such issues during various project phases.
ix)

To specifically assess any possible human-wildlife conflicts within this park area
and suggest mitigation measures.

x)

To assess and make recommendations on the type of fencing or other forms of


barriers to wild animals that will be used for the area proposed for the Standard
Gauge Railway (SGR).

xi)

To undertake adequate disclosure and stakeholders engagement and consultations


regarding the proposed project. Adequate public and all relevant stakeholder
participation and consultation will be administered in this EIA Study process. The
EIA lead expert will identify appropriate mechanisms for providing information on
the proposed project to stakeholders for their various comments and feedback. This
will assist in obtaining the views of the relevant stakeholders in this project.

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xii)

To provide final summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations on the


proposed project.

xiii) To Compile a Comprehensive and Detailed Environmental Impact Assessment


Study Report, to be presented in both electronic and hard copies to NEMA. The
report will be prepared and presented in the format dully prescribed by NEMA.
xiv)

The actual land size required for the way leave to facilitate acquisition of the
corridor for the construction work.

xv)

Availability of land to compensate the acquired way-leave on the principle of land


for land and acre for acre.

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CHAPTER TWO
2.0

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

2.1

Project Scope

The project description discussed in this chapter covers the line construction at mileage range
DK455+650 - DK464+500 within Nairobi National Park and with total length of 8.85km,
including the construction of subgrade, culverts and bridge engineering (Fig. 2-1), while
Figure 2-2 shows the previous approved alignment, that would have only affected 7.8 ha of
the park. The SGR will be a single track railway with a track gauge of 1435mm, with design
speed of 120Km/h for passenger train and 80Km for freight transport. The rail track will be
made of ballast with internal combustion traction category with reserved conditions for future
electrification.

Figure 2-1: Map showing the re-alignment of SGR within Nairobi National Park

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Figure 2-2: Map of Nairobi National Park showing the location of the old approved
SGR alignment from Cheetah Gate to Kapa Oil Refinery.

2.2

General Construction Design

All the subgrade shall be excavated mechanically incorporated with blasting excavation of
stonework, and the fill shall use the soils from borrow pits or cut area. According to the
length of pile foundation, it is planned to adopt hand-dug pile and bored pile in general and
percussion drilling for pile foundation where groundwater exists. Bearing platform and opencut foundation shall adopt slope excavation by machinery with manual coordination and onetime pouring on combined steel formwork. Solid piers which are than 15m shall be formed by
one-time integral pouring on typified steel formwork. Those higher than 15m shall be formed
by segmented pouring. The foundation and body of the culvert shall be cast in site and the
prefabricated slabs shall be installed then.

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2.3

Preparation for Commencement

Technical Preparation
Careful study of the design drawings, construction specifications and acceptance criteria will
be done by the technical teams before work commencement so as the implement them during
construction. The technical team will prepare technical, quality and safety disclosure data for
clarification in written format before construction.

Water, electricity and road shall be available at the construction site and the ground shall be
levelled before construction. Cables and pipelines above and underground, existing structures
and other obstructions shall be properly handled or removed. Various temporary facilities
shall be ready. Major temporary facilities shall be built and completed to meet the living and
business demand of main management, technical and operating personnel. Personnel of
special type of work such as electricians, blasters and scaffolders shall be trained by relevant
department and granted with certificate for corresponding special work before taking their
posts.
Material Preparation
Reinforcement and steel pipes used for construction shall be purchased domestically in a
unified manner by China Road and Bridge Corporation. Procurement plan shall be made in
advance due to long mobilization period. According to preliminary market survey, cement,
coal ashes, aggregate and various small-sized machines have been procured locally. To
ensure smooth construction, investigation on required materials has been conducted and
agreements have been signed with suppliers of major materials to ensure supply and
mobilization of materials. Centralized mixing shall be adopted for in-situ concrete pouring.
Sources of major materials selected for construction shall be subject to sampling test and
approval by the Supervisor.
2.4.

Personnel Deployment

The construction department shall make clarification to the construction personnel before
commencement for them to master the operating skills and relevant issues relating to safety.
Safety awareness of relevant personnel shall be strengthened and safety education shall be
carried out to make sure that everyone is aware of and attaches great importance on safety
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issues and participate in safety management. All construction personnel shall be familiar with
construction scheme and quality requirements to ensure project quality.

Table 2-1: Construction Personnel Employment


S/No

Position

Quantity

Main duties

Head
of
construction area

Responsible
for
coordination
of
construction progress, quality and safety

Technical principle
of construction area

Provide production and


guidance during construction

technical

Construction
principle

Assist
the
project
manager
in
coordination of construction progress,
quality and safety and civilized
construction

Safety officer

Responsible for safety supervision and


management during construction

Director
laboratory

Responsible for tests during construction

Measurement
supervisor

Responsible for measurement during


construction

Quality inspector

Responsible for quality inspection during


construction

On-site principal

Responsible for specific construction

of

Formwork worker

50

Assembly and removal, adjustment and


modification of formworks. Protecting
the formwork from being impacted by
external
forces.
Collocation
of
formworks and brushing release agent.

10

Reinforcement
worker

30

Reinforcement binding for pier body

11

Scaffolder

40

Erection,
inspection
and
daily
maintenance of steel pipe supports.

12

Welder

12

Welding
of
plates,
reinforcement lapping.

13

Concrete worker

20

Unloading, pouring,
vibration of concrete.

14

Crane operator

Hoisting operation and daily maintenance


of cranes.

15

Unskilled worker

100

Total

steels

and

levelling

and

265

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2.5

Filling of Subgrade

Surveying and Setting Out


This will involve surveying to recover mid-line and set out side-line.
Treatment of Clearing
This will involve removal of planting soil and non-applicable/suitable soil within the 30cm of
roadbed range.
Lattices and Earth Filling
The use of excavators to obtain soil from qualified borrow area and load to trucks that will
transport soil to the construction site. According to the thickness of each layer and quantity in
each trucks, the paving area of filler per truck can be calculated. Then the length and width of
paving grid shall be determined and lines drawn with plaster. When filling in order to ensure
the quality of sub-grade compaction, the actual paving width at each edge shall be beyond
design width of embankment on 30-50cm.
Placement and Grading
Bulldozers will be used to grade roughly the construction surface to form a triangle arch at
the rate of 4% to prevent ponding after the rain. Graders will be used to pave particularly and
make paving surface in the vertically and horizontally smooth and uniform, which can ensure
the roller wheels contact with the surface evenly to achieve an even effect of compaction.
Watering or Airing
When the moisture content is 3% less than the optimum content, watering shall be done to
ensure the optimum moisture content of filler. When the moisture content exceeds 2% of the
optimum moisture content, ploughing or rotary plow to air and appropriately reduce the
thickness of filling layer and lower the water content of filler, which controls the moisture
content at a permissible construction range will be done to ensure a best compaction effect.
Rolling and Compaction
This will involve selection of vibratory rollers of more than 25T to compact. Rolling will be
done in straight segment from both sides to the middle in the model of back-and-forth while
the curve segment will be done from the inside to outside. The lateral overlap is around 0.5m
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or 1/3 of the drum width and the overlap of before-and-after adjacency shall be more than
1m. The compaction times shall be determined by testing data of different filler.
Testing
The technicians shall do testing of the sub-grade compaction quality. The standards for
quality control: elevation difference 50 mm, deviation for mid-line 50 mm, width no less
than designed value, cross slope of drainage 0.5% and degree of flatness 30mm. Laboratory
staff shall detect the quality of compaction. Compacting factor and foundation coefficient to
the fine -grained soil shall be tested; foundation coefficient and void rate to coarse grained
soil and gravel -soil shall be measured to meet the design standards and specifications before
the filling of next layer.
Refinishing of Sub-grade
After the completion of the embankment in accordance with design elevation, trim and
measurement shall be processed. The mid-line will then be recovered by setting pile every
20m, calculating refinished height, casting side pile then constructing road arch and rolling
again with steel rollers which can make the surface clean without aggradation and horizontal
drainage slope meet the requirements.
2.6

Blasting for Cutting Construction

Surveying and Setting out


This will involve setting out before excavation, calculating and measuring out the excavation
boundary based on the original ground elevation and slope ratio.
Surface Cleaning
This will involve clearing the ground vegetation that shall not be used as fill with excavators
or bulldozers before cutting excavation.
Construction of Drainage Ditches
After surface cleaning, drainage ditches shall be constructed as soon as possible.

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Digging and Transportation of Earthwork


The excavation work shall adopt the order of from top to bottom vertically and then stratify
horizontally. The vertical slope shall be in strict accordance with the design, cutting the
vertical earthwork bottom is forbidden. Stake out to check the width, slope frequently during
excavation and correct deviations timely, to avoid over break, and keep smooth of the slope.
The slope that need to set protection, shall be protected timely as designed, if cannot keep up
the excavation protection, it should be reserved for a certain thickness of the protective layer.

Where the surface soil quality on the bedding of cutting cannot meet the requirements, adopt
the measurements of changing fill or compaction, so that the filler shall meet the designed
requirements. The bearing capacity of foundation in the range of subgrade underlying
thickness shall not be less than the design requirements, otherwise it shall be reinforced.

For the hard rock bedding that is not easily weathered, it shall set up drainage slope on the
subgrade surface and shall be filled with concrete or graded gravel or graded crush stone.
Blasting is strictly prohibited in the excavation of stone cutting, deep hole presplitting and
smooth blasting are appropriate. When blasting method is adopted to excavate, it shall not
cause risks to the cutting slope stability and damage or risks to adjacent buildings. The
earthwork that is excavated or blasted out shall be transported to the designated dump yard by
dump truck.
Artificial Brush Slope
Trimming the artificial brushed slope, and preparation of waterproofing and drainage
facilities shall be done timely. Clean the debris that appear in the pits and grooves of slope,
and level to flat. Set up the platform location when the cutting is high, the cutting platform
shall be with a certain slope to ensure no ponding.
2.7

Construction of Culvert

Surveying and Setting-Out


The measurement team will precisely measure the planned position and original ground
elevation of culverts, calculate the excavation depth, preliminarily determine the excavation
scheme, and perform a technical disclosure with machine operators. On-site engineers will
lead the process.
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Excavation of Foundation Pit


Foundation pits will mechanically excavated and formed with human assistance, which will
be controlled by specially-assigned persons. Unauthorized excessive excavation is strictly
forbidden. 20-30cm over the foundation base will be manually excavated to avoid destruction
of the soil structure of the foundation base.
Foundation Bearing Capacity Test
After foundation pit excavation is complete, the foundation bearing capacity test will be
performed. The foundation bearing capacity shall not be lower than the designed value. The
next works will be executed in time, to avoid foundation pits being exposed for a long time
and soaked in rainwater. The foundation bearing capacity test shall be identified presently by
the laboratory staff and Supervision Engineer who were informed by on-site technical
personnel.
Placing of the Foundation and Abutment
This will involve fabrication and installation of steel reinforcement: Steel reinforcement shall
be provided with quality certificates of its original manufacturer, and shall be sampled after
being delivered to the construction site. The surface of reinforcement shall be clean and
double overlap welding will be adopted for steel joints.

Fabricated steel bars will be manually delivered to the site for binding or spot welding. Steel
pipes and round wood will be used as supports to prevent the framework of steel
reinforcement from deformation and will be removed after the formwork is installed.

Formwork and support: Combined steel forms will be used for the framework. The slab
staggering for form joints shall not exceed 2mm. The form verticality and large-area flatness
both must meet the specifications.

Pull screws will be installed on the formwork for the prevention of form deformation. All
sundries on surface of formwork (except release agent) shall be removed before concrete
pouring.

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Concrete construction and curing: Before concrete pouring, supervisors shall check all steel
bars and forms and only those qualified can be used for the pouring. The concrete in the
mixing proportion issued by the laboratory and verified by supervision engineers will be
delivered to the site and fed to the formwork via chute or tumbling barrel. The immersion
vibrator will be used for concrete vibrating. The times of watering shall be controlled to the
extent that the concrete surface can be kept wet and the curing time shall not be less than 14
days.
Prefabrication and Installation of Slabs
Slabs will be prefabricated in the factory in the DK450+500 camp. The concrete is pushed
from one end to the other end of the slab until the pouring is complete. After slab concrete is
poured, the upper top of concrete shall be trimmed and flattened then wiped the second time
after hardening with burrs pressed or pulled. The concrete, with its strength reaching the
design strength, will be delivered to the site by flat car and hoisted manually in combination
with cranes.
2.8

Construction of Bridge

Comprehensive Ground Connection Scheme


The bridge design disclosure proves that the bridges on the line have general ground
connection, and set up ground reinforcement on pile foundation, open-cut foundation, bearing
platform and pier in accordance with The General Ground System of Railway figure number:
general number (2009)9301. It shall adopts hand-shaking method on corresponding parts
construction to test resistance, and it requires the ground resistance on the access point of link
up grounding wire shall not more than 4.
Construction Scheme for Percussion Drilling
Setting-out: Surveyor shall check the coordinate of the control point and pile position for
confirmation and then perform setting-out and mark the pile position.

Burial of pile casing: Pile casing shall be made of steel. While embedding the casing, the
center axis of the casing shall be aligned with the pile position center measured and marked
out. Vertical position of the casing shall be maintained.

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Preparation of slurry: Before drilling, slurry shall be prepared in the slurry tank in accordance
with relevant specifications. Slurry shall be mixed properly by using high-quality clay and
clean water. If there is water in the hole, clay can be directly put into the pile casing and
percussion drill shall be used to repeatedly impact with small stroke to make slurry.

Drilling machine in place: Draw a cross on the steel pile casing to locate the pile center,
adjust the position of the drilling machine, align the drill to the pile center and level it
accurately. The error of center position and horizontal error shall be controlled within
specified limit.

Percussion drilling: Before drilling, slurry shall be poured into the hole. If there is water in
the hole, clay can be directly put into the hole and then percussion drill shall be used to
repeatedly impact with small stroke to make slurry. After the dregs are removed, clean water
or slurry shall be timely added to maintain the height of water head and prevent collapse of
the hole.

Inspection of finished hole: After the hole is finished, calculate to check whether the hole
bottom reaches design elevation. Each index shall comply with the requirements of
specifications.

Hole cleaning: Hole shall be cleaned by replacement of slurry by using slurry pump. During
replacement of slurry, fresh slurry shall be timely filled into the hole. After several cycles of
slurry replacement, the floating drilling slag in the hole shall be displaced till the property
indicators, viscosity, sand content and sediment thickness of the replaced slurry and replacing
slurry meet relevant specifications.

Fabrication and installation of reinforcement cage: For pile foundation which is relatively
short the reinforcement cage shall be of an integral part and installed in place in one-time. For
pile foundation which is deeper, the reinforcement cage shall be fabricated section by section
and welded on site. After the cage is fabricated, truck crane shall be used for lifting. To
prevent deformation of the cage during lifting, for long cage, triangle support shall be welded
in the skeleton before lifting to enhance its stiffness.

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Installation of conduit: Joint is sealed by rubber ring to ensure the conduit interface is
watertight.

Pouring underwater concrete: Cement concrete shall be mixed at the mixing station and
transported to the site by concrete tank car, then the first batch of concrete shall be poured by
pulling out and stuffing method

Inspection: After the bored pile is formed and the concrete strength meets specifications for
test, test department shall be timely contacted for carrying out test in accordance with the
methods and frequency specified in construction technical specifications to check the
uniformity and strength of the pile concrete.
Construction Scheme of Bearing Platform
For construction of bearing platform, slope excavation may be carried out based on the
conditions on site. The bearing platform shall be formed by one-time pouring by using
combined steel formwork.

Excavation of foundation pit: Excavation area shall be determined based on pit size,
geological condition and excavation depth. Excavation shall be carried out with excavator in
combination with manpower. The flatness of foundation pit bottom shall be strictly
controlled.

Inspection of foundation base: the foundation pit shall be inspected for the following:
whether the geological condition of the foundation base conforms to design; whether the size
of the pit meet the drawing; whether there are water or impurities in the base.

Cleaning of pile head and inspection of pile foundation: After the foundation pit is excavated
to design elevation, the design elevation of pile head shall be marked, and the pile body shall
insert into the bearing platform for 10cm. At first the top of pile shall be cut in the way of a
ring and air compressor and air pick in combination with manpower shall be adopted to
remove the upper part of pile head, during which the reinforcement at the pile head shall be
protected and bent. The concrete and floating slag on the pile head reinforcement shall be
cleaned and then reinforcement shall be adjusted and centered.
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Construction of cushion: For foundation pit requiring laying cushion as per design, after the
pit is excavated into a depth 10cm under the design elevation of the bearing platform bottom,
plane position of the bearing platform shall be surveyed and set out. While setting out, C20
concrete cushion shall start to be paved when it is 0.5~0.8m over the borderline of the
platform. The cushion shall be flat.

Binding and welding of reinforcement: Reinforcement for bearing platform shall use
HRB335 reinforcement, welded as per Code of Construction for Bridge & Culvert of Railway
(TB10203-2004). Bending of reinforcement and hooking at the ends shall meet design
requirements and relevant specifications; blank size of various reinforcements shall meet
design requirements and relevant specifications.

Formwork installation: Large-piece combined steel formwork shall be used. While erecting
the formwork, the surface shall be cleaned and brushed with release agent. Attention shall be
paid to ensure that the splicing interface is tight, flat and straight to prevent leakage of slurry.

Mixing and transportation of concrete: Concrete shall be mixed at the mixing station
uniformly and of consistent colour.

Concrete pouring: Concrete pump car or chute shall be used for pouring concrete into the
formwork in a horizontal and continuous manner layer by layer. If it is greater than 2m,
sliding chute and tumbling barrel shall be used. Vibrating of concrete shall be carried out
layer by layer.

Curing of concrete and removal of formwork: After concrete is poured, it shall be covered
and watered within 12 hours till specified time for curing. During operating, the concrete
shall be protected from being contaminated or damaged.
Construction of Solid Pier
Pier shall be of round-ended pier integrally poured one-time on integral steel formwork.
Formwork for pier body shall adopt large piece typified steel formwork, and the pier shall be
formed by one-time pouring on erected formwork. Formwork and reinforcement for pier
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body shall be lifted by truck crane in a vertical manner. Concrete shall be poured into the
formwork by pump. After the pier body is poured, the concrete shall be watered for curing
without removing the formwork. After the formwork is removed, the concrete shall be cured
by covering two layers of plastic film enclosed with geotechnical cloth and watering.
Abutment body shall be constructed in flow process.

Fabrication of formwork: Large-piece integral steel formwork shall be adopted. The


formwork surface shall be flat. Dimensional deviation of the formwork shall meet design
requirements. The formwork shall have sufficient stiffness, strength and stability, be easy to
be assembled and disassembled, with tight joints and free of leakage.

Installation of formworks and supports: After the formwork is installed and its axis and
elevation are checked for conformity, the formwork shall be reinforced to prevent
deformation and displacement under stress while pouring concrete. The formwork shall be
free of impurities and shall be properly and tightly spliced.

OCL post foundation: The setting direction, specific dimension and reinforcement layout of
pier overhead line system stanchion foundation shall in accordance with Single Line Round
End Ontic Pier General Drawings Bridge Access (2012) 4103. The embedded part of
stanchion foundation shall be dealt with preformed hole.

Construction of reinforcement: The reinforcement delivered to the site shall have factory
certificate and be subject to sampling inspection for acceptance under the witness of the
Supervisor. The reinforcement shall be cleaned before use and shall be straight and free of
local bending. Blank size of various reinforcements shall meet design requirements and
relevant specifications.

Concrete pouring: Concrete shall be poured in a continuous manner. If it has to be interrupted


due to some reason, the interruption time shall be shorter than the initial setting time or
remodeling time of the previous concrete layer and shall be determined through test. If the
allowable interruption time is exceeded, measures for guaranteeing concrete quality or
handling construction seams shall be taken.

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Construction of Pallet and Cap


Binding of pallet and cap steel bars: As the pier body and pallet are molded by one-step
pouring as a whole formwork, so the steel bars of pallet and cap steel bar shall be bound
when the steel bars of pier body is bound.

Formwork installation: Formworks for pallet and cap and that for the last section of pier body
belong to a whole formwork, so they are installed similarly to the pier formwork.

Concrete pouring: The concrete is mixed in concrete mixing station in a centralized manner,
transported with concrete delivering car and poured with concrete pump truck or concrete
pump.
Construction of Bearing Pad Stone
The typified steel formwork shall be one-step moulded for the bearing pad stone. After
completion of concrete construction, the sundries within anchor holes also shall be cleaned
and keep curing.
Construction of Abutment
The abutment body shall use large combined steel formwork and the support of steel tube
frame shall be reinforced. The steel bar and formwork of abutment body shall be hoisted with
truck crane.

Construction of abutment body, side wall formwork, and support: Measure accurately the
location and elevation of abutment as per design drawing to ensure no mistake. After
completion of foundation construction, backfill the foundation pit as per design drawing.

Pouring and curing of concrete for abutment body and side wall: The concrete is mixed with
auto-metering mixing device in a centralized manner and transported to the site with agitator
truck. During pouring, the concrete shall be pumped into the formwork with concrete pump
truck. For concrete poured in layers, vibration shall be performed as per operating
requirements, with no honeycombs and spongy surfaces.

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2.9

Summary of main project activities


a) Construction of Culvert and Bridge

The project design incorporates a culverts and bridge which can be used by animals. There
will be a super bridge located after Maribet station in addition to two animal passages of 5
meters wide and 5 meters high at DK460+216 and DK460+500 respectively in the Park
based on the site conditions to allow animals to pass freely.
b) Electricity Facilities
A 33kV overhead high voltage power line will be established within the Right of Way of the
SGR along the entire alignment.
c) Communication Facilities
Two GYTA23 32-core optic cables of different physical pathways will be established with
one overhead and one underground at the outer side within the Right of Way of SGR along
the entire alignment.
2.10 Project Cost
The total project cost is estimated at Kenya Shillings Seven Hundred and Fifty Million
(KShs. 750,000,000).

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CHAPTER THREE
3.0

BASELINE INFORMATION

3.1

Location

The proposed 8.85Km SGR realignment will be located within the Nairobi National Park
(NNP). The park was gazetted in 1946 as the first National Park in Kenya and indeed the East
African Region and covers an area of 117Km (KWS, 2005). NNP is one of the worlds most
unique protected areas, due to its location within a few kilometers from a major city, Nairobi,
which has a fast growing human population of over three million people. It is ranked fifth in
respect to visitation and income generation receiving in excess of 100,000 visitors annually
since the 1950s with average revenue earning approximately USD 0.6 million per year
(KWS, 2005).

The park provides a significant section of open grassland bordering the Jomo Kenyatta
International Airport and Wilson Airport which are two of the busiest in Eastern Africa. The
park is rich in biodiversity which includes both flora and fauna. The Nairobi National Park is
managed by the KWS as per the provisions of the Wildlife Management and Conservation
Act, 2013. The park lies between 2 18 - 2 20 South and 36 23 -36 28 East. The park is
bordered by Wilson Airport in the north, Mombasa road in the east, Kitengela and Athi River
to the south and Langata road to the west. The park has an electric fence along the parks
northern, eastern and western boundaries. The southern boundary is marked by the Mbagathi
river and it is not fenced opening it to the Kitengela Conservation Area and the Athi-Kapiti
plains. The park's altitude ranges between 1,533 metres (5,030 feet) and 1,760 metres (5,774
feet) above sea level.
3.2

Climate

The Nairobi National Park is dominated by Ecological Zone IV which is associated with the
East African Savannas. The area has a bi-modal rainfall pattern similar to most parts of
Nairobi and receives a mean annual rainfall of between 762mm (east side) to 911mm (west

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side) in two rainy seasons. Long rains occur from mid-March to May, while the short rains
occur from October to December.

The park has an annual evaporation rate of 1721mm based on Wilson Airport weather station.
The park also experiences cool climate with minimum temperature ranging between 12.3 C 13.1 C prevailing in July/August and maximum temperature ranging between 24.8 C 25.4 C hot weather prevailing in January, February, Mid-March, and October at above 26.6
C (KWS, 2005). This meteorological characteristic gives Nairobi National Park a sub-humid
climate with seasonal dry periods.
3.3

Soils

Most of the Park has volcanic rocks formed in the middle and upper tertiary periods. The
southern part of the park has tertiary sediments while calcareous and non-calcareous clay
loams derived from colluvium cover most of the park. Other areas of the park have dark
brown calcareous clay loams, which are associated with old lacustrine deposits.
3.4

Fauna

The Nairobi National Park is home to over 100 mammal species including four of the 'big
five' (lion, buffalo, leopard and rhino) and in some years, it hosts a spectacular wildebeest
and zebra migration. The park has over 400 bird species, at least 20 of which are seasonal
European migrants (KWS, 2005). The common mammalian species include common zebra,
African buffalo, common warthog, Cokes hartebeest, wildebeests, Maasai giraffe,
waterbuck, Thomsons gazelle, Grants gazelle and impala among others. The park is also
rich in mammals of the order carnivora which include lion, cheetah, leopard, hyena, jackal,
foxes, mongooses, civets and other small carnivores.

Endangered mammalian species found in this park include the black and white rhino. The
Nairobi National Park is one of the countrys rhino sanctuaries important for breeding and
restocking other areas. The parks rhino population is classified under the IUCN/SSG African
Rhino Specialist Group ranking as a key population category B meaning it has a population
of between 51 to 100 individuals (KWS, 2005).

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Plate 3-1: Some of the Wildlife Animals within the Nairobi National Park.

The park has over 400 bird species, with about 20 seasonal European migrants (KWS, 2005).
Some common bird species in NNP include the Somali ostrich, Egyptian geese, Hartlaubs
bustard, martial eagle, secretary bird, kori bustard, wood sandpipers, sparrow hawk, Eurasian
reed warbler, love birds, herons, augur buzzard, guinea fowls and weavers among many
others.

The park is also home to a large number of reptiles and amphibians. These include
hippotamus, crocodiles, lizards and many species of snakes.
3.5

Flora

The vegetation in Nairobi National Park may be divided into eight vegetation communities;
closed dwarf tree grassland, open low shrubland, grassland, scattered low tall tree grassland,
open dwarf tree grassland, open tall riverine woodland, forest glades, and dense tall forest.

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The park's predominant environment is open grass plain with scattered Acacia bushes. The
western uplands of the park have highland dry forest with stands of Olea africana, Croton
dichogamus, Brachylaena hutchinsii, and Calodendrum. The lower slopes of these areas are
grassland, Themeda triandra, Cypress, Digitaria, and Cynodon species are found in these
grassland areas. There are also scattered yellow-barked Acacia xanthophloea. There is a
riverine forest along the permanent Mabgathi River in the south of the park. There are areas
of broken bush and deep rocky valleys and gorges within the park. The species in the valleys
are predominantly Acacia and Euphorbia candelabrum. Other tree species include Apodytes
dimidiata, Canthium schimperiana, Elaeodendron buchananii, Ficus eriocarpa, Aspilia
mossambicensis, Rhus natalensis, and Newtonia species. Several plants that grow on the
rocky hillsides are unique to the Nairobi area. These species include Euphorbia brevitorta,
Drimia calcarata, Crassulla species and Murdannia clarkeana. Some of these plants are
found on shallow water bodies and have a short life span.

In the open grasslands common plants include Aspilia mossambicensis, Gutenbergia


cordifirlia, Solanum incunum, Acacia blevispica, Phyllanthus sepialis, Psiadia arbica,
Plectranthus barbatus, Acacia drepanolobium, Acacia mellifera and Acacia tortilis. Common
herbs including Indigofera schimperi and Orthosiphon pallidus are also found in this
vegetation community. The common grasses that dominate include Eragrostis superba,
Pennisetum mezianum, Themeda triandra, Digitaria scalarum, Sporobolus pyramidalis and
Hyperrhenia species.

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CHAPTER FOUR
4.0

ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES

The alignment of MombasaNairobi Standard Gauge Railway (SGR) mainly passes satellite
towns of Athi River and Mlolongo from the SGR chainage DK453 to DK464+500. There are
many controlling factors causing impact on the alignment, such as Athi River, the existing
meter gauge railway, Mombasa Road, Nairobi National Park, Oil pipelines, Bamburi Cement
Ltd, Devki Steel Mills Ltd, Athi River Steel Plant Ltd, Kapa Oil Refineries Ltd, Orbit
Chemical Plant, Muthama Heights Estate, Kenya Meat Commission, ISL Kenya Ltd,
Murumbi African Heritage House and residential area along the line.

The three options for the SGR alignment advanced by the railway engineers were:
a) Crossing African Heritage House (approved and easement signed).
b) Crossing Nairobi National Park with Radius of 1,000 meters
c) Crossing Nairobi National Park Option with Radius of 800 meters.
4.1

SGR Crossing African Heritage House

This option infers that the status quo is maintained where the railway is not realigned within
the Nairobi National Park and crosses through African Heritage House. In this option the
SGR alignment is as close to the meter gauge railway as possible. It crosses Athi River three
times since derivation from DK453+100, and successively crosses Namanga Road, the meter
gauge railway, and the leather factory. Then it enters into Nairobi National Park from the
southeast, and exits from the Park after 450 meters and crosses again the meter gauge
railway. Thereafter the alignment is generally parallel to the meter gauge railway. After
crossing Murumbi African Heritage House and the nearby residential villas at DK461+100,
the alignment then passes under the meter gauge railway at DK464 before the end of this
section. The area of the park affected is Cheetah Gate-Marimbeti Area (5.5 ha) and KAPA
Area (2.3 ha) totaling to 7.8 ha.
This alternative of the standard gauge railway crossing the African Heritage House would be
preferred if the park ecological integrity is to be safeguarded. This SGR alignment also goes
through a densely built up area with residential villas, regular residential blocks, existing and
planned manufacturing factories. This alternative passes through a highly developed area,

34 | P a g e

which would require compensation of the affected persons and demolitions to be done to
pave way for the SGR. The following are some of the disadvantages of taking this alternative;

Demolition of established standard housing and running manufacturing factories


would lead to massive economic losses.

High sums of money would be required to compensate affected persons and


proprietors.

Established factories will need to be demolished or relocated to other sites.

There will be loss of jobs for those working in these factories.

Loss of income to the commercial property owners and displacement of those living
in the residential houses.

There would be increased pressure in the housing sector which is already strained by
the current housing demand.

Based on the foregoing disadvantages and the comparison with other alternatives, this is not a
preferred alternative.
4.2

Crossing NNP with 800m radius

This alternative adopts a small radius reducing the total area of park to be affected as
compared to the 1000m radius alignment. There is however insignificant reduction in total
affected area of park under this alignment when compared to the 1000M radius. This
alternative will have high maintenance works during the SGR operation compared to the
1000m radius which is expected to have lower maintenance works. This 800m alignment has
the advantage that it does not affect private land and property that would require
compensation. The disadvantage for this alignment is that wildlife habitat will be lost and
fragmented.
4.3

Crossing NNP with 1000m radius

Under this option, the alignment starts from DK453+100 and ends at DK464+676 with a
length of 11.6 km falling within the National Park. After crossing the leather factory, it enters
into Nairobi National Park at DK455+640, and after a distance of 500 meters, it runs in
parallel with the meter gauge railway in between the park boundaries and the existing railway.
The alignment separates from the existing railway gradually after DK456+800, and then
extends forward close to the park boundaries. At DK460 to DK463, the SGR alignment deeps
into the park. The design has proposed two culverts and one bridge for animals to cross.
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Thereafter the alignment exits from the Park gradually at around DK464+000 and goes in
parallel with the existing railway until reaching the end of this section.
This alternative has the alignment running in the NNP for a distance of about 11.6Km taking
about 46.7 hectares for SGR land use and fragmenting 40.6 hectares from the park. This
alternative based on ecological considerations it would be the least desired, however, in order
to maintain the ecosystem connectivity and allow wildlife movement culverts and an animal
underpass bridge are incorporated in the designs.

This alternative based on the technical considerations would provide a good curve radius
which would reduce the SGR maintenance work during the operation phase significantly.
With the 1000m radius achieved then it will be possible to improve speed on the SGR in
future. In terms of displacement, there is minimal disturbance as only the NNP eastern
boundary electric fence, Cheetah gate and associated developments would be affected, as
there is no other private property. In terms of compensation then it would be government to
government to negotiate and agree as provided in the countrys legal framework.

The main disadvantage of this alternative are;

Wildlife habitat loss and fragmentation.

Construction of new comprehensive wildlife fence in the affected area of 8.85Km.

Relocation of the Nairobi National Park Cheetah Gate and associated developments
(Plate 4-1).

Relocation of the Park security patrol base and electric fence energizer house.

In this option the SGR alignment does not cross the existing railway, and therefore does not
cause any impacts on its operation. In addition, there is no private land and structures to be
demolished and compensated. Moreover, the greater radius of curve creates important and
fundamental conditions for increasing the speed of SGR in future.

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Plate 4-1: Some KWS Structures that will be Re-located after SGR Realignment

According to CRBC and KRC, the Option Crossing Nairobi National Park with Radius of
1,000 meters will feature less demolition and compensation costs (Table 4-1). With a greater
curve radius, it greatly reduces the maintenance work during operation stage of SGR, and
reserves basic conditions for a faster speed of the SGR in future (Table 4-1). Although it may
cause some adverse impact on the Park, two culverts and one bridge for animals to cross are
incorporated in the design to mitigate against some of the impacts. However, it is worth
noting that the cost of earthworks and laying tracks are similar in the old and new alignment
(Table 4-2).

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Table 4-1: Comparison of Houses earmarked for Demolition along the SGR alignment
Quantity

Cost US$

Through
Nairobi
National
Park R-800

Through
African
Heritage

Through
Nairobi
National Park
R-1000

m2

450

1871

450

No

Description

Unit

House to be
Demolished
Curves

Through
Nairobi
National
Park R-800

Through
Nairobi
National
Park R1000

Through
African
Heritage

Table 4-2: Comparison of costs of earthworks and laying tracks


Quantity
Through
Nairobi
National
Park R800

Through
African
Heritage

Through
Nairobi
National
Park R1000

km

11.587

11.4

11.576

Class A
Filling

m3

52,800

50,000

Class B
Filling

m3

76,500

Class C
Filling

m3

Cutting

m3

Description

Unit

Length of the Route

Road
Bed

Cost US$
Through
Nairobi
National
Park R-800

Through
African
Heritage

Through
Nairobi
National
Park R-1000

51,500

1,848,000

1,750,000

1,802,500

62,000

71,000

1,530,000

1,240,000

1,420,000

285,700

191,000

365,000

2,285,600

1,528,000

2,920,000

1,121,370

1,504,000

1,131,000

5,943,261

7,971,200

5,994,300

5,951,275

4,830,835

5,951,275

17,320,035

18,088,075

Special Treatment
and Animal Crossing
Sub-Total

Track
Works

Track Laying

km

11.587

11.4

11.575

5,320,369

5,234,505

5,382,375

Ballast in
Upper Layer

m3

31849

31,004

31,823

1,544,672

1,503,690

1,543,411

Ballast in
Lower Layer

m3

9782

9,528

9,774

469,514

457,323

469,138

7,334,556

7,195,518

7,394,924

24,892,692

24,515,553

25,482,999

Sub-Total
Total

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CHAPTER FIVE
5.0

PUBLIC CONSULTATION AND PARTICIPATION

5.1

Introduction

Public participation is concerned with involving, informing and consulting the public in
planning, management and other decision-making activities for the project. Public
participation ensures that due consideration is given to public values, concerns and
preferences when decisions are made. It encompasses the public actively sharing in the
decisions that government and other agencies make in their search for solutions to issues of
public interest. Public consultation in this project was done with the following aims:

To inform the neighbours and other stakeholders about the proposed project with
special reference to its key components, locations and expected impacts.

To seek views, concerns and opinions of stakeholders who may be affected by


project activities.

To establish if the local people foresee any positive or negative environmental


effects from the proposed project and if so, how they would wish the perceived
impacts to be addressed.

5.2

Methodology in Public Consultation

Public participation was mainly achieved through in-depth interviews with individual
stakeholders, focus group discussions and questionnaire administration. The tool used to
collect information is the administration of open-ended questionnaires where the respondent
is free to comment on the identified issues. Stakeholder consultation questionnaires
administered are in appendices 1-1. Focused group discussions were held to identify any
issues of concern not captured in the questionnaire. Respondents were selected among the
communities living and/or working within the project area that is within the affected Nairobi
National Park section and its neighbourhood. All relevant stakeholders were therefore
involved in the discussions and interviews. Most of those consulted were happy to fill the
questionnaires freely. The following is a detailed discussion of public consultation
methodology used by the EIA team.

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In-depth Interviews
In-depth interviews were used to get responses from the project proponent whose comments
were sought through engaging the project unit in discussions about the proposed project
activities and other related issues. Notes were taken and issues analyzed to give the results
incorporated into this report.
Questionnaire Administration
The major stakeholder in this project area is the KWS mainly because the institution is
charged with conservation and management of wildlife and the area fall under her
jurisdiction. Thus, KWS officers were among the respondents to the questionnaires. Local
communities and business enterprises with Mlolongo and Athi river urban centres, who are
the immediate neighbours to the proposed project site were majorly interviewed. The
respondents were informed of the proposed project and requested for their views concerning
the project. The questionnaires were used to capture views in terms of the positive and
negative impacts that the stakeholders anticipate from the project and any possible mitigation
measures. They were also requested to provide information about the area, focusing on
aspects such as sensitive ecosystems, land use conflicts, provision of various infrastructure
facilities and socio-economic and physical environmental impacts of the project in the area
amongst other issues. Sample of questionnaires administered within project neighborhood are
in Appendix 1-1.
5.3

Results of Stakeholder Consultations

Socio-Economic Issues
A few socio-economic issues were highlighted during the stakeholder consultation. Majority
of the respondents recognize the economic importance of the SGR project at both the local
and national level. The major socioeconomic benefits anticipated and highlighted by the
respondents include

Improvement in speed, efficiency and cost of the transport means in the country.

Decongestion along the major highways especially Nairobi Mombasa road and their
link roads. Some respondents also anticipated reduced frequency of road accidents
along Nairobi Mombasa road.
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Provision of employment especially to the youth at both the local and national level
during and after construction of the railway line.

Demolition of the existing building development on the alternative Standard Gauge


Railway route, especially within Mlolongo town, will be minimized.

The SGR development will promote urbanization and increased source of revenue to
the government.

Environmental and Conservation Issues


Most of the respondents were quick and clear in addressing the issues concerning
environmental aspects and impacts of the Standard Gauge Railway within this Nairobi
National Park section. Some respondents anticipated reduction on air pollution that is
currently caused by gasoline smoke on the current existing modes of railway and road
transport systems. They pointed out that the SGR which will consume electric power to run
will be more eco-friendly. Respondents anticipated below negative environmental impacts
that needs to be mitigated

The project may lead to noise pollution to the area residents especially during the
construction and operation stages. Therefore noise effects needs to be checked and
minimized during this project.

The project will lead clearance of vegetation within the national park area affected
further impacting on the existing ecosystem and wildlife habitat. This will need
careful handling with minimal interference with vegetation during the construction
stage.

Some respondents anticipated that interference with the park and existing wildlife
might affect tourism activities and income emanating from the affected park section.

There may be increased human-wildlife conflict emanating from the human activities
and infrastructure materials employed during the construction and operation phases of
this project. Respondents noted that interference and disturbance to existing wildlife
especially the wild animals, might lead to migration of the wildlife species within the
affected park section.

Accidents leading to killing and loss of wild animals during the operation stage of the
SGR was also brought out by some respondents. The respondents proposed proper

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fencing mechanism between the SGR line and the left park area to minimize collision
between wildlife and the train during the operation phase of the project.

Reduction on the existing national park area was also highlighted as a negative impact
in the project if it passes through the national park. The respondents felt that space for
wild animals will be reduced/ lost and they may be congested in the remaining park
area.
The respondents proposed close monitoring of ecological changes occurring within
the national park area and its ecosystem during the construction and operational
phases of this project.

Support for the Proposed Project


All the stakeholders interviewed (100%) are aware of the SGR project and are also
conversant with the activities already being undertaken by the project contractor in other
sections of the railway line currently under construction. Most respondents were also able to
highlight the possible impacts of the proposed project within the affected park section.
However, the stakeholders recognize that appropriate measures can be instituted through
mitigation or enhancement for management of most of the highlighted impacts.
Out of all the respondents involved in the interviews, 88% of the respondents supported the
proposed project while 12% did not support the project. Meaning, in overall the project has
majority support from the stakeholders consulted. The supporters highlighted positive
impacts listed previously as reasons for support of the project. The major highlighted reasons
for the respondents not supporting the project emanates from concerns on loss of wildlife and
wildlife resources during construction and operation phases of the proposed project.
Therefore, the project will require careful implementation with adequate mitigating measures
that minimize interference and disturbance of the existing wildlife and wildlife resources
within the affected park section. The contractor should follow the guidelines issued by lead
agencies including KWS and NEMA during all the phases of this project.

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CHAPTER SIX
6.0

POLICY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

This chapter highlights the various policy, legal and institutional arrangements that are of
relevance in the successful implementation of the proposed project. The Kenyas National
Environment Action Plan process resulted in the formulation of the policy on Environment
and Development under Sessional Paper No. 6 of 1999. This policy presents extensive
categories of development issues that require a sustainable approach to eco-development. Its
main objectives are to ensure that environmental considerations are taken into account in all
development policies, programs and projects, and that independent EIA reports are prepared
for projects before implementation. The policy resulted to preparation of the Environment
Management and Conservation Act No. 8 of 1999 and other related policies.
6.1

The Constitution of Kenya

The Constitution of Kenya Article 42, on the environment provides that every person has the
right to a clean and healthy environment which includes the right to have environment
protected for the benefit of the present and future generations. Article 69, of the Constitution
provides for the establishment of systems of environmental impact assessment,
environmental audit and environmental monitoring. The Constitution also states that the State
shall eliminate processes and activities that are likely to endanger the environment and the
State shall utilize the environment for the benefit of the people of Kenya. The Constitution of
Kenya clearly states that every person has a duty to cooperate with State organs and other
persons to protect and conserve the environment and ensure ecologically sustainable
development and use of natural resources.

The proposed SGR realignment and construction within the NNP will ensure that ecological
processes are not severely interrupted. Appropriate mitigation measures must be put in place
to ensure that the SGR realignment and construction within the NNP does not adversely
affect the wildlife and their habitats.

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6.2

Kenya Vision 2030

Kenya Vision 2030 is the countrys new development blue print covering the period 2008 to
2030. The blue print aims at transforming Kenya into a newly industrializing middle-income
country providing a high quality life to all its citizens by the year 2030. The Vision is based
on three pillars; the economic, the social and the political. The adoption of Vision 2030
came after the successful implementation of the Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and
Employment Creation (ERS) which has seen the countrys economy back on the path to rapid
growth since 2002 when Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew from a low of 0.6% and rising
gradually to 6.1% in 2006, one of the foundations for Vision 2030 is infrastructure. The
Vision aspires for a country firmly interconnected through a network of roads, railways,
ports, airports, water and sanitation facilities, and telecommunications. In this Vision to
ensure that the main projects under the economic pillar are implemented, investment in the
nations infrastructure is given the highest priority.

The proposed SGR construction and operation will contribute positively in enhancing the
transport system in the country and the East African Region at large and thus help propel
Kenya to a middle-income country as envisioned in Vision 2030.
6.3

The Wildlife Conservation and Management Act, 2013

This is an Act of Parliament to provide for the protection, conservation, sustainable use and
management of wildlife in Kenya and for connected purposes. This Act establishes rules and
regulations for wildlife resource management and conservation in the country. The Act
establishes the framework that outlines the process of integrating development projects
within protected areas. The Wildlife Act recognizes the role played by different agencies of
the government and seeks to establish close collaboration in the management of ecosystems
on which wildlife reside.

Section 34 of the Act provides for the Variation of boundaries or revocation of a national
park or a marine protected area. A notice under this section which proposes to:
(a) vary the boundaries of a national park ; or
(b) change the status from national park to wildlife conservancy or sanctuary;

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Shall only be published by the Cabinet Secretary where a proposal is recommended by the
Service after consultation with the National Land Commission in accordance with subsection
(2) of this section and is subsequently approved by a resolution of Parliament: Provided that
there shall be no recommendation unless (a) they are satisfied that such variation of boundary or cessation of national park proposed
by the notice(i) shall not endanger any rare, threatened or endangered species;
(ii) shall not interfere with the migration and critical habitat of the wildlife;
(iii) does not adversely affect its value in provision of environmental goods and
services, and,
(iv) does not prejudice biodiversity conservation, cultural site protection, or its
use for educational, ecotourism, recreational, health and research purposes;

(b) the proposal has been subjected to an environmental impact assessment in accordance
with the provisions of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act, 1999; and
(c) public consultation in accordance with the Fourth Schedule has been undertaken in
relation to the proposal.

Section 38 of the Act provides for exchange of part of a national park. Subject to subsection
(2) of this section, the Cabinet Secretary may, on recommendation of the Service after
consultation with the National Land Commission, and with the approval of the National
Assembly, exchange part of a national park with private land with the consent of the owner of
such land whereExchange of part of a national park;
(a) the exchange enhances efficient wildlife conservation and management;
(b) the exchange is equitable to conservation and the land owner, according to an
independent valuation;
(c) an environmental impact assessment has been conducted in accordance with the
provisions of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act, 1999, and has
shown that such exchange shall not adversely affect wildlife conservation and the
environment in general; and

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(d) the part of the national park to be exchanged does not contain rare, threatened or
endangered species and is not a water catchment area, wetland or a source of springs.
No.8 of 1999
(2) The Service, in consultation with the National Land Commission and the Cabinet
Secretary, may acquire by purchase any land suitable to be declared a national park,
wildlife corridor, migratory route or dispersal area under this Act.
(3) No purchase shall be transacted under this section unless prior public consultation
is carried out in accordance with this section.

During the proposed SGR construction within the NNP, the contractor CRBC and its
employees (Kenya Railway Corporation) are expected to comply with the provisions of this
Act, to implement construction activities within the park section DK453+100 and
DK464+676 a length of about 11.6Km.
6.4

Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA) 1999

This an Act of parliament that requires a proponent conducting an activity of character likely
to impact on the environment to undertake an Environmental Impact Assessment before
financing such project. The proposed 11.6 Km SGR realignment will be on a protected area,
which is an important wildlife habitat and hence out of character. The proposed project is
therefore, considered a scheduled activity as per the Environmental Management and
Coordination Act (EMCA) 1999 and therefore, should be subjected to an EIA study. This
EIA study has been conducted in compliance to the provisions of EMCA, 1999.
6.5

Environmental Impact Assessment and Audit Regulations, 2003

The Environmental Impact Assessment and Audit Regulations, 2003 are subsidiary
regulations of EMCA, 1999 and stipulate the steps to be followed in undertaking an EIA
study. The Regulations highlight the stages to be followed, information to be made available,
role of every stakeholder and rules to be observed during the EIA process. This EIA study
has been conducted as per the provisions and guidelines of the Environmental Impact
Assessment and Audit Regulations, 2003.

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6.6

Noise and Excessive Vibration Pollution Control Regulations, 2009

These regulations are subsidiary legislation to the Environmental Management and Coordination Act, 1999. These regulations make provisions relating to licensing procedures for
certain activities with a potential of emitting excessive noise and/or vibrations and;
prohibition of excessive noise and vibration; provisions relating to noise and excessive
vibrations mapping.

According to regulation 3 on general prohibitions section (1) states that except otherwise
provided in these regulations, no person shall make or cause to be made any loud,
unreasonable, unnecessary or unusual noise which annoys, disturbs, injures or endangers the
comfort, repose, health or safety of others and the environment. Regulation 4 prohibits any
person to (a) make or cause to be made excessive vibrations which annoy, disturb, injure or
endanger the comfort, repose, health or safety of others and the environment; or (b) cause to
be made excessive vibrations which exceed 0.5 centimeters per second beyond any source
property boundary or 30 metres from any moving source. The Second Schedule of the
Regulations provides the permissible noise levels for construction sites, in areas other than
residential, health facilities, educational institutions and homes for disabled among others to a
day maximum of 75 decibels and 65 decibels for night.

Where certain construction activities of the proposed SGR are likely to have noise levels in
excess of the set thresholds in the Second Schedule of the regulation, compliance to the
regulation is mandatory. KRC and CRBC will ensure compliance to the Regulations by
acquiring necessary permits as may be required.
6.7

Waste Management Regulations, 2006

The Waste Management Regulations are subsidiary Regulations of EMCA, 1999. Part II of
the general provisions makes it the responsibility of the waste generator to dispose waste only
at designated waste receptacles. The Regulations requires any person generating waste to
segregate such waste by separating hazardous waste from non-hazardous waste and to
dispose or cause to be disposed-off such waste as per the provisions of the Regulations.

These Regulations also provide for handling and storage of hazardous waste. During the SGR
construction any materials considered to be hazardous in nature should be handled and stored
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as per the provisions of the Regulations. Part IV, Section 24 of the Regulations, requires
proper labelling of hazardous waste and inscription of warning or caution statements on such
material with words such as WARNING or CAUTION, or POISON (marked indelibly
in red on a contrasting background), the words DANGER! KEEP AWAY FROM
UNAUTHORIZED PERSONS and a pictogram of a skull and crossbones. A statement on
the first aid measures to be taken must be indicated. CRBC and KRC will be expected to
handle and store any construction materials that may be considered of hazardous nature as
outlined in Fourth and Fifth Schedules of these Regulations.
6.8

The Lands Act, 2012 No. 6 of 2012

Part II Section 8 provides guidelines on management of public land by National Land


Commission on behalf of both National and County Governments. This law in Section 8(b)
stipulates that the Commission shall evaluate all parcels of public land based on land
capability classification, land resources mapping consideration, overall potential for use, and
resource evaluation data for land use planning. Section 8(d) stipulates that The Commission
may require the land to be used for specified purposes subject to such conditions, covenants,
encumbrances or reservations as are specified in the relevant order or other instrument.

In managing public land the Commission is further required in Section 10(1) to prescribe
guidelines for the management of public land by all public agencies, statutory bodies and
state corporations in actual occupation or use. In these guidelines management priorities and
operational principles for the management of public land resources for identified uses shall be
stated. This in essence means that the Commission shall take appropriate action to maintain
public land that has endangered or endemic species of flora and fauna, critical habitats or
protected areas. As well the Commission shall identify ecologically sensitive areas that are
within public lands and demarcate or take any other justified action on those areas and act to
prevent environmental degradation and climate change.

Part VIII of the Act provides procedures for compulsory acquisition of interest in land.
Section III (1) states that if land is acquired compulsorily under this Act just compensation
shall be paid in full to all persons whose interest in the land have been determined. The Act
also provides for settlement programmes. Any dispute arising out of any matter provided for
under this Act may be referred to the Land and Environment Court for determination.
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6.9

Physical Planning Act 1996 (Cap 286)

Section 30 of the Act demands that local authority provide permission for any development
and Section 29 controls the criteria for the development with powers vested into local
authority to;

Prohibit or control development of land or building in the interest of orderly


development of the area.

Reserve and maintain all land planned for open spaces.

Consider and approve all development application and grant all necessary permission.

Control or prohibit sub-division of land or plots into smaller areas.

Formulate by-laws to regulate zoning with respect to use and density of population
and development.

KRC and CRBC shall guarantee compliance by ensuring that applicable approvals are
acquired from the relevant offices as per the provisions of this Act.
6.10

National Land Commission Act, 2012

The National Land Commission Act is an Act of parliament for the purposes of the
management and administration of land in accordance with the principles of land policy set
out in Article 60 of the Constitution and the National Land Policy. The Act also aims to
provide for a linkage between the Commission, the county governments and other institutions
dealing with land and related resources. The Act outlines the operations, powers,
responsibilities and additional functions of the Commission as pursuant to the Constitution of
Kenya. The National Lands Commission under this Act is expected to manage public land on
behalf of the national and county governments and to recommend a national land policy to
the national government among other functions.

Part II Section 5 (c) Another function of the Commission is to ensure that public land and
land under the management of designated state agencies are sustainably managed for their
intended purpose and for the future generations. The proposed use of NNP land for the
construction of the SGR will be undertaken with the guidance of the National Land
Commission.

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6.11

Kenya Railways Corporation Act (Cap. 397), 1979

The Kenya Railways Corporation Act (Cap 397) of the Laws of Kenya established the Kenya
Railways Corporation with an overall mandate to provide a coordinated and integrated
system within Kenya of rail and inland waterways transport services and inland port facilities.
The proposed SGR is aimed at improving rail transport in Kenya and in the East African
Region at large and thus facilitate economic development in the region. KRC is a key
stakeholder and also a proponent in this project.
6.12

Land Registration Act, 2012

The Act provides that an easement may be created under section 98 of the Act. This Act may
be read with Section 38 of the Wildlife Conservation and Management Act 2013, where land
for exchange is not readily available. Acquisition of right of way by the proponent may be
obtained by grant of easement on the part of park land to facilitate SGR construction pending
negotiation for land for exchange as provided by the Law.

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CHAPTER SEVEN
7.0

IMPACT IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS

EIA is a tool used to guide environmentally sustainable decisions. The proposed project is
envisaged to generate undesirable environmental impacts and hence the need to subject the
proposed project to an EIA. This Chapter identifies and analyses the potential impacts of the
proposed project activities mainly starting from the construction, operation and
decommissioning phase. Throughout the project lifecycle both positive and negative impacts
will be identified and mitigation measures to minimize the negative impacts suggested. The
potential impacts are derived from the project activities discussed in Chapter 2, the baseline
information in Chapter 3, findings from the field reconnaissance survey and issues raised
during the consultation and public participation process.
7.1

Potential Positive Impacts

Employment Opportunities
The proposed SGR construction will generate employment opportunities for both skilled and
semi-skilled workers. There SGR construction will also generate indirect employment
opportunities for people that will be supplying construction materials to the site. This will
lead to improved livelihoods for those that will be involved in one way or the other.
Improved Transport System
In broad considerations once the proposed SGR is completed there will be improved transport
system in the country and the East African Region in general. The SGR during the operation
phase will provide efficient and cost effective movement of passengers and freight from the
port city of Mombasa to other inland destinations. The rail network will also improve
transport system in all areas where the line crosses. It is important to complete the 11.6Km
discussed in this EIA report.
Economic Development
The operation phase of the entire 485Km of SGR will facilitate economic development as
envisioned in Kenyas Vision 2030 and steer Kenya to a middle income country. Economic
development will also be realized as small towns and businesses mushroom along the major
railway stations.
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Reduced Road Maintenance Cost


The operation phase of the SGR will enhance the transport system in the country, which will
also ease freight haulage on Kenyan roads. The reduction in the number of trucks on Kenyan
highways will have a resultant benefit of reduced road maintenance costs. The savings made
from road maintenance can be diverted to other important government projects like upgrading
the road network in rural Kenya to enhance transportation of agricultural produce from one
region where there is surplus to another where the commodity is in demand.
Improved Reliable Transport
The completed SGR will provide reliable transport system in the country. The passenger and
freight traffic will be controlled within a specified schedule hence making SGR transport
preferable. Currently road and rail transport systems in Kenya face the challenge of
reliability, as there are frequent breakdowns and accidents that happen often resulting to
delays for passengers and freight to get to their destinations.
Reduction in Road Accidents
In Kenya road transport claims many lives annually. The provision of improved, efficient and
reliable rail transport system will make more people prefer to use it instead of travelling in
private vehicles. Other people will also opt to use rail transport because it is faster instead of
using the existing public and transit vehicles. These will reduce the traffic pressure on the
roads and has potential to reduce the number of accidents on Kenyan roads.
7.2

Potential Negative and their Mitigation Measures

Loss of Wildlife Habitat and Habitat Fragmentation


The SGR realignment will make some park areas unusable by wildlife. The construction
activities between DK453+100 to DK465+455 will involve working in a wildlife
conservation area with micro habitats suitable for various species of wildlife that include soil
micro-organisms. The total area of wildlife habitat to be lost through this proposed
realignment as land use will be about 46.7 hectares and 40.6 hectares which will be left or
fragmented from the rest of the park and left of little or no utility for wildlife.

Construction activities will include vegetation clearing along the SGR land use area.
Clearance of trees and shrubs of Acacia species will lead to loss of bird nesting and roosting

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sites. This will however not be significant because based on a field survey in the area no
active nests were sighted along the SGR alignment.
Mitigation

Restrict vegetation clearance to only the working area of 130m.

Where possible avoid cutting down the indigenous trees within the 130m but out of
the actual rail route.

Compensate for lost vegetation through landscaping with suitable indigenous plants.

KWS and CRBC to compensate lost wildlife habitat by identifying a parcel of land
suitable for wildlife conservation and acquiring it for that purpose.

Potential Increase in Poaching


Poaching for trophy and bush-meat is common in most protected areas, Nairobi National Park
included. Trophy poaching for large carnivores and black rhino in the past decades was quite
alarming, however, with improved security surveillance and use of modern technology trophy
poaching has greatly reduced. The severity of poaching for certain species can be seen in the
drastic decline witnessed in the population of such species in the world. On the other hand
bush meat poaching is common in the areas bordering crop farming communities and urban
areas. The proposed realignment of the SGR within the Nairobi National Park is likely to lead
to increased trophy and bush meat poaching.
Mitigation

Sensitize all persons involved in the SGR construction work within the national park
area on the importance of conservation and that they should not engage in illegal
activities within the Park.

Prepare and provide conservation awareness materials in the project site. This to
include large posters with information on conservation, procedures to be followed
when operating in a protected area, park rules and regulations.

Provide information on the legal implication of anyone found dealing wildlife


products.

Enhance KWS security patrols in the area.

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Human Wildlife Conflicts


The 8.85 Km SGR construction will be done in a protected area with diverse wildlife species,
most of which are dangerous. Some of the dangerous animals found in the project area
include lions, leopards, cheetahs, rhinos, buffalo, snakes and crocodiles among others. The
presence of increased number of people working in the park is likely to increase incidents of
Human Wildlife Conflict (HWC).

Additionally opening the eastern boundary electric fence between chainage DK453+100 to
DK465+455 is likely to allow free movement of people and wildlife in and out of the Park.
This unhindered movement of wildlife may result to wildlife moving to settlement areas of
Mlolongo and Syokimau areas and thus exacerbating human wildlife conflict within NNP and
its environs.
Mitigation

Sensitize all personnel working on the project on park rules and regulations.

Ensure a new electric fence is constructed connecting the two fences before
demolishing sections of the existing eastern boundary fence.

Enhance KWS problem animal control efforts.

KWS Nairobi National Park management to provide a hotline for reporting HWC
incidents.

Fire Risk
Fire has been used as a habitat management tool in many grassland savanna ecosystems.
NNP has a long term program of managing the savanna through prescribed burning. This is
however a planned and well-coordinated program conducted by the park management. Unprescribed fires on the other hand can have adverse far reaching effects on a fragile
ecosystem like the NNP. There is potential risk that worker at the SGR may cause fire within
the park through various means like dropping burning objects and leaving them unattended.
This can cause fire within the park resulting to destruction of both flora and fauna.
Mitigation

Sensitize the workers on park rules and regulations.

Provide fire extinguishers in the working area and or provide emergency numbers for
the Nairobi fire brigades.
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Land and Soil Degradation


The SGR construction activities will include extensive excavations and earth movement to
prepare required foundation for the rail. Soil disturbance; exposing and setting it loose to the
agents of soil erosion will be expected during this phase. However, the issue is not as
significant because the land is level and the soils are stable and strip foundation will be used
restricting construction activities on the 130m land use area. Soil disturbance is expected
during the construction period hence the anticipated impacts are short term. Soil may also be
contaminated by oils and other wastes if disposed within the Park.
Mitigation

Avoid unnecessary movement of soil materials from the site and provide soil
conservation structures on the areas prone to soil erosion mostly to reduce impact by
the surface run-off.

Depending on the period, monitor construction activities for appropriate and effective
control measures of erosion e.g. during rainy / wet conditions, ensure suitable barriers
on potential water erosion paths.

Conduct standard landscaping after project completion i.e. resurface (pave) open areas
after the completion of the project and introduce suitable (indigenous plants) and
well-managed vegetation to generate surface covers on the open areas; to control soil
movement by erosion agents. Grasses found in the area like Pennisetum mezianum,
Themeda triandra, Digitaria scalarum and Sporobolus pyramidalis

Ensure suitable storm water drainage channels. Such channels need to be regularly
maintained and repaired to avoid point discharges which have pronounced effect on
soil erosion in case of breakages or blockages.

Restrict operation in the 130m land use area.

Air Pollution
Dust will be generated at the project site and surrounding area as a result of excavation works
and transportation of construction materials. The contractor CRBC will ensure that dust
levels at the site are minimized.
The construction activities on the site will result to increased dust and gaseous emissions. Air
quality pollution is likely to result from some construction machinery, trucks, and other
vehicles which generate hazardous exhaust fumes such as Carbon Oxides (Cox), Sulphur
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Oxides (SOx) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). Dust particles as caused by wind and vehicles
suspends in the air mostly during dry spells. Such dust and gases have direct negative impact
to the quality of air hence affecting animal and human health. During the rain seasons
increased amounts of these gases in the atmosphere can lead to acid rain.
Mitigation

Provide personal protective equipment, materials and clothing such as nose masks and
goggles to workers during construction.

Ensure regular and prompt maintenance of construction machinery and equipment.


This will minimize generation of hazardous gases and other suspended particulate
matter.

Sprinkle water in areas being excavated and along the tracks used by the transport
trucks within the site.

Use environmentally friendly fuels such as unleaded gasoline.

Ensure that vehicles drive only on designated roads/driveways (avoid off road driving
as much as is possible).

Vehicles transporting construction materials to the site move at the recommended


park speed of 40Km/hr.

Noise Pollution
Construction activities generally generate noise and hence affecting the immediate
environment. Such noise emanate from the construction personnel, machinery and
equipment. During operation phase noise pollution is also expected and may affect both
people and wildlife animals in the Park.
Mitigation

Construction works should be carried out only during the specified time i.e. from
0700 hours to 1800 hours on the section that is within the NNP.

Sensitize construction vehicle drivers and machinery operators to switch off engines
of vehicles or machinery when not in use.

Machineries should be maintained regularly to reduce noise.

There should be no unnecessary hooting of the involved machinery and vehicles.

Workers should be provided with relevant personal protective equipment (PPE).

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Observe the provisions of the Environmental Management and Coordination (Noise


and Excessive Vibration Pollution) (Control) Regulations, 2009.

Solid Waste Disposal


There is a possibility of generation of considerable volumes of solid waste during the
construction phase. Construction activities contribute to increased solid wastes including
stones, wood, glasses, plastics, containers, metal pieces among others. Such wastes, if left in
the park will affect wildlife as well as people living in the nearby residential estates. During
the project operation period this area will be a transit section and hence some solid waste is
expected.
Mitigation

Generated waste should be handled and disposed through sound waste management
strategies as per the prevailing regulatory provisions in the Environmental
Management and Coordination (Waste Management) Regulations, 2006.

During all the project phases waste should be properly segregated to encourage
recycling of some useful waste materials; i.e. some stone and concrete materials
remains can be used as backfills. This calls for source reduction, recycling and reuse.

During the operation phase sensitize the railway users on waste management and
provide waste receptacles at designated points like terminals and in the passenger and
freight locomotives for use while on transit.

Oil Leaks and Spills


It is important to note that oil/grease spills are prevalent in construction sites and may lead to
release of hazardous elements to the environment. For this project oil spills are likely to occur
from storage of oils, machine maintenance activities and from poorly serviced vehicles at the
site during the construction.
Mitigation

Ensure use of serviceable machinery.

Maintenance services should be carried out in known designated service bays more
suitably outside the project area.

All oil products and materials should be stored in the site store and should be handled
appropriately to avoid spills and leaks.
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Visual Intrusion
Visual impacts are expected during earthworks to lay the foundation of SGR. Visual impacts
are also anticipated during the SGR operation. This specific section of 11.6Km will fall
mainly within the NNP which is one of the metropolitan national parks in the world. The park
is a popular tourist destination with both local and international tourists. Visual impacts will
therefore be expected in this part of the park. The extent of these visual impacts will however
be limited to the area near the park boundary which is close to the built up area and therefore
the impacts will not be very significant. Despite the low visual impact anticipated, great care
should be taken to protect the ecological integrity of the park and normal activities in the
park.
Mitigation
Visual intrusion may be unavoidable during construction but fortunately the effects are
insignificant due to the project scale and proposed implementation schedule. The following
are the proposed mitigation measures to minimize anticipated adverse visual impacts;

On completion the worked area should be restored through proper landscaping and
planting of more vegetation so as to blend with existing environment.

All solid waste and debris of spoil material from construction activities must be
collected upon completion.

Occupational Safety and Health


During construction, there are chances for increased dust, air and noise pollution. These plus
other safety hazards such as accidents, falling objects, risks from poor scaffolding, ladder and
formwork are considered negative impacts. There is also risk of coming across live electric
cables during construction works. Poor quality construction materials, poor workmanship and
poor construction standards may also contribute to health and safety risks. Inadequate skills
in machinery operation and stress are serious safety hazards. Most of the contractors hire
casuals on daily basis and therefore do not take responsibility of training the workers on
health and safety issues. The entry and exit points to the development may also pose the
danger of imminent accidents if not properly designed. Food for the construction workforce is
usually provided by mobile individuals who usually operate without licenses. This can
compromise health of the workers especially if such foodstuffs are prepared under unhygienic
conditions.

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Mitigation

All workers should be provided with personal protective gear. These include working
overalls, helmets, goggles, earmuffs, masks, and gloves among others.

The requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, 2007, the Building Code
and other relevant regulations should be strictly adhered to.

A first aid kit(s) should be provided within the site and it should be fully equipped at
all times during construction.

At least one person in the workforce should be trained in administering first aid.

The contractor should not expose workers to stress inducing factors.

7.3

Impact Significance Analysis

The anticipated impacts of the proposed project on the environmental elements are both
positive and negative. The relative significance of the impacts has been determined using the
criteria on Table 7-1. The analysis is an indication of the significance of each impact, thus the
weight it carries in terms of developing and implementing mitigation measures.

Table 7-1; Impact Significance Analysis Criteria


Key/Symbol
Used
++
-0
Sp
R
Sh
T
Overall Rating
Key/Symbol
Used

Impact Attribute
Major positive
impact.
Major negative
impact
Negligible/Zero
impact
Specific/Localized
impact
Reversible impacts
Short term impacts
Temporary impacts

Key/Symbol
Impact Attribute
Used
+
Minor positive impact
-

Minor negative impact

NC

No change

Widespread impacts

Ir
L
P

Irreversible impacts
Long term impacts
Permanent impacts
Impact Attribute

The highest rated negative impact with the following attributes;


major negative, widespread, irreversible, long-term, permanent.
Impacts rated at this level require well designed, practical
mitigation measures. These require particular attention.
The lowest rated negative impact with the following attributes;
minor negative, localized, reversible, short term and temporary.
The highest rated positive impact with the following attributes;
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major positive impact, widespread, irreversible, long-term and


permanent.
The lowest rated positive impact with the following attributes;
minor positive, localized, reversible, short term and temporary.
NB:The overall impact rating ranges between the highest and lowest levels stated on
this table.
Table 7-2: Summary of Impact Significance Rating

Environmental
Impact

Impact
Attributes

Overall
Impact
Rating

+,Sh

Skilled
and
semi-skilled
people will be employed
during the project duration.
This is a short term impact as
the worker will only benefit
during the construction phase.
This is long term impact as a
result of completion of the
railway. Transport will be
greatly enhanced.
This is a long term impact
which is a result of completion
and operation of the railway.
Many sector of economy will
be enhanced.
This is a long term impact
which is a result of completion
and operation of the railway.

Employment
Opportunities

++,W
Improved Transport
System
++,W, L
Economic
Development
++,W, L
Reduced

Road

Maintenance Cost
Improved

++,W, L

This is a long term impact


which is a result of completion
and operation of the railway.

++,W, L

This is a long term impact


which is a result of completion
and operation of the railway

Reliable

Transport
Reduction in Road
Accidents
Loss of Wildlife
Habitat and Habitat
Fragmentation

Explanations

- -, W, L, P

Part of the park land will be


lost to SGR construction while
parts of the Park land will be
severed from the Park. This a
significant negative impact
that
requires
appropriate
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Environmental
Impact

Impact
Attributes

Overall
Impact
Rating

- -, W, L

-, L, Sp, R

-, W, R, Sh,

-, Sp, Sh, R

-, Sp. R, Sh.T

-, Sp. R, Sh.T

-, Sp. R, Sh, T

Potential Increase in
Poaching

Human

Wildlife

Conflicts

Fire Risk

Land

and

Soil

Degradation

Air Pollution

Noise Pollution

Solid Waste Disposal

Explanations

mitigation measure.
Increase access to the Park
may increase potential for
poaching.
It
can
be
widespread because it could
affect the whole park and can
be long term if uncontrolled.
Increase access to the Park
and breaking of the fence for
animals will result to more
HWC. The impact is localized
and can be reversed with
appropriate measures.
The workers and people using
the
railway
line
after
completion have the potential
to start fires. Impacts are
reversible, and can be
widespread depending on
intensity of the fires.
Soil erosion and other soil
pollutants during construction
may have significant impacts
on the soils within the Park.
The impacts are localised,
short term and can be
reversed.
The construction activities on
the site will result to increased
dust and gaseous emissions.
The impacts are localized,
reversible and short term.
Construction
activities
generally generate noise and
hence affecting the immediate
environment. This only lasts
during the construction phase.
There is a possibility of
generation of considerable
volumes of solid waste during
the construction and operation
phases.
If
appropriate
measures are taken, the
localised impacts are short
term.
61 | P a g e

Environmental
Impact

Impact
Attributes

Overall
Impact
Rating

-, Sp. R, Sh, T

-, Sp. Ir, L, P

-, Sp. R, Sh, T

Oil Leaks and Spills

Visual Intrusion

Occupational Safety
and Health

Explanations

For this project oil spills are


likely to occur from storage of
oils, machine maintenance
activities and from poorly
serviced vehicles at the site
during the construction. The
impacts are minor negative
given that garages cannot be
constructed on the park
section.
Visual impacts are expected
during earthworks to lay the
foundation of SGR. The
impacts are permanent from
the perspective of the railway
which
is
a
permanent
structure.
During construction, there are
chances for increased dust, air
and noise pollution that may
compromise the health of
people and animals. This is
short term and reversible as it
is experienced during the
construction phase only.

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CHAPTER EIGHT
8.0
ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION PLAN
(ESMMP)
8.1
Significance of ESMMP
This is aimed at identifying mitigation measures for negative impacts already identified so
that the mitigation measures are incorporated in all the phases of the project. The mitigation
measures will on the one hand eliminate or offset adverse environmental and social impacts
or reduce them to acceptable levels. The strategies employed for impact mitigation are
avoidance, reduction and remedy. Table 8-1 summarizes the ESMMP.
8.2

Environmental Monitoring and Audits

Environmental monitoring and audits are essential in projects life span as they are conducted
to establish if project implementation has complied with set environmental management
standards for Kenya as spelt out in EMCA 1999 and the Environmental (Impact Assessment
and Audit) Regulations 2003. In this Project, environmental monitoring and audit will be
conducted to ensure that identified potential negative impacts are mitigated during the
projects life span.
Table 8-1; Environmental & Social Management & Mitigation Plan (ESMMP)
Environmental

Proposed Mitigation

Responsibility

Impact

Measures

to Implement

Time Frame

Monitoring
Responsibility
and Indicators

Loss of Wildlife

Restrict

vegetation KWS, KRC and Before, during KRC and KWS

Habitat and

clearance

Habitat

working area of 130m.

Fragmentation

Where

to

only

possible

the the

contractor and

CRBC.
avoid

cutting down the indigenous

after to monitor the

completing the implementation.


construction

Land used for

works.

compensation

trees within the 130m but

should

be

out of the actual rail route.

suitable

for

Compensate
vegetation

for

lost
through

wildlife
conservation.

landscaping with suitable


63 | P a g e

Environmental

Proposed Mitigation

Responsibility

Impact

Measures

to Implement

Time Frame

Monitoring
Responsibility
and Indicators

indigenous plants.
KWS

and

CRBC

to

compensate lost wildlife


habitat by identifying a
parcel of land suitable for
wildlife conservation and
acquiring

it

for

that

purpose.
Potential

Sensitize

persons KWS, KRC and Throughout the KWS and KRC

all

SGR the

contractor SGR

to

monitor

Increase in

involved

Poaching

construction work within CRBC.

construction

implementation.

the national park area on the

phase.

Workers at SGR

in

the

importance of conservation

not engaging in

and that they should not

illegal activities

engage in illegal activities

within the Park.

within the Park.


Prepare

and

conservation

provide
awareness

materials in the project site.


This to include large posters
with

information

on

conservation, procedures to
be followed when operating
in a protected area, park
rules and regulations.
Provide information on the
legal implication of anyone
found

dealing

wildlife

KWS

security

products.
Enhance

patrols in the area.

64 | P a g e

Environmental

Proposed Mitigation

Responsibility

Impact

Measures

to Implement

Time Frame

Monitoring
Responsibility
and Indicators

Human Wildlife Sensitize


Conflicts

personnel KWS, KRC and During

all

working on the project on the


park rules and regulations.

KWS and KRC

contractor preparation and to monitor. SGR

CRBC.

Ensure a new electric fence


is constructed connecting

construction

workers

phases of the awareness


project

of

park

rules

before

should be high,

demolishing sections of the

and illegal cases

existing eastern boundary

should

fence.

reported to Park

the

two

Enhance

fences

KWS

be

Management.

problem

animal control efforts.


KWS Nairobi National Park
management to provide a
hotline for reporting HWC
incidents.
Fire Risk

Sensitize the workers on The contractor


park rules and regulations.
Provide fire extinguishers in

During

KWS and KRC

preparation and should


construction

jointly

monitor.

SGR

the working area and or

phases of the workers should

provide

project.

emergency

be aware of park

numbers for the Nairobi fire

rules and fire

brigades.

extinguishers
should

be

in

place.
Land and Soil
Degradation

Avoid

unnecessary The contractor

During

the KRC to monitor,

movement of soil materials

construction

all

from the site and provide

phase.

degradation

soil

soil conservation structures

prevention

on the areas prone to soil

measures should

erosion mostly to reduce

be put in place.

impact by the surface runoff.


65 | P a g e

Environmental

Proposed Mitigation

Responsibility

Impact

Measures

to Implement

Time Frame

Monitoring
Responsibility
and Indicators

Depending on the period,


monitor

construction

activities
and

for

appropriate

effective

control

measures of erosion e.g.


during

rainy

wet

conditions, ensure suitable


barriers on potential water
erosion paths.
Conduct

standard

landscaping after project


completion i.e. resurface
(pave) open areas after the
completion of the project
and

introduce

(indigenous

suitable

plants)

and

well-managed vegetation to
generate surface covers on
the open areas; to control
soil movement by erosion
agents. Grasses found in the
area

like

Pennisetum

mezianum,

Themeda

triandra, Digitaria scalarum


and Sporobolus pyramidalis
Ensure suitable storm water
drainage
channels

channels.
need

to

Such
be

regularly maintained and


repaired
discharges

to avoid

point

which

have

pronounced effect on soil


66 | P a g e

Environmental

Proposed Mitigation

Responsibility

Impact

Measures

to Implement

Time Frame

Monitoring
Responsibility
and Indicators

erosion in case of breakages


or blockages.
Restrict operation in the
130m land use area.
Air Pollution

Provide personal protective The contractor

During

the KRC to monitor,

equipment, materials and

construction

all air pollution

clothing such as nose masks

phase.

prevention

and goggles to workers

measures should

during construction.

be put in place.

Ensure regular and prompt


maintenance of construction
machinery and equipment.
This

will

generation

minimize

of

hazardous

gases and other suspended


particulate matter.
Sprinkle water in areas
being excavated and along
the tracks used by the
transport trucks within the
site.
Use

environmentally

friendly

fuels

such

as

unleaded gasoline.
Ensure that vehicles drive
only

on

designated

roads/driveways (avoid off


road driving as much as is
possible).
transporting

Vehicles
construction

materials to the site move at


the

recommended

park
67 | P a g e

Environmental

Proposed Mitigation

Responsibility

Impact

Measures

to Implement

Time Frame

Monitoring
Responsibility
and Indicators

speed of 40Km/hr.
Noise Pollution

Construction works should The contractor

During

the KRC to monitor,

be carried out only during

construction

all

the specified time i.e. from

phase.

pollution

noise

0700 hours to 1800 hours

prevention

on the section that is within

measures should

the NNP.

be put in place.

Sensitize

construction

vehicle

drivers

machinery
switch

and

operators

to

engines

of

off

vehicles or machinery when


not in use.
Machineries

should

be

maintained

regularly

to

reduce noise.
There

should

be

no

unnecessary hooting of the


involved

machinery

and

vehicles.
Workers should be provided
with

relevant

personal

protective equipment (PPE).


Observe the provisions of
the

Environmental

Management

and

Coordination (Noise and


Excessive

Vibration

Pollution)

(Control)

Regulations, 2009.
Solid Waste
Disposal

Generated waste should be The contractor


handled

and

disposed

During
construction

the KRC to monitor,


all solid waste
68 | P a g e

Environmental

Proposed Mitigation

Responsibility

Impact

Measures

to Implement

Time Frame

Monitoring
Responsibility
and Indicators

through

sound

waste

management strategies as
per

the

phase

and disposal

operation phase

prevailing

guidelines

are

followed.

regulatory provisions in the


Environmental
Management

and

Coordination

(Waste

Management) Regulations,
2006.
During

all

the

project

phases waste should be


properly

segregated

to

recycling

of

encourage
some

useful

waste

materials; i.e. some stone


and

concrete

materials

remains can be used as


backfills. This calls for
source reduction, recycling
and reuse.
During the operation phase
sensitize the railway users
on waste management and
provide waste receptacles at
designated
terminals

points
and

passenger

and

like

in

the

freight

locomotives for use while


on transit.
Oil Leaks and
Spills

Ensure use of serviceable The contractor


machinery.
Maintenance

services

During

the KRC to monitor,

construction

that

guidelines

phase.

that prevent oil


69 | P a g e

Environmental

Proposed Mitigation

Responsibility

Impact

Measures

to Implement

Time Frame

Monitoring
Responsibility
and Indicators

should be carried out in

leaks and sills

known designated service

are followed. No

bays more suitably outside

oil leaks should

the project area.

be found.

All

oil

products

and

materials should be stored


in the site store and should
be handled appropriately to
avoid spills and leaks.
Visual Intrusion On completion the worked The contractor

During

the KRC to monitor,

area should be restored

construction

through proper landscaping

phase and after guidelines

are

and

completion

No

planting

of

more

that restoration

of followed.

vegetation so as to blend

the

solid

with existing environment.

construction.

dumps

All solid waste and debris


of

spoil

material

waste
should

be found.

from

construction activities must


be

collected

upon

completion.
Occupational

All

workers

should

be The contractor

During

the KRC to monitor,

Safety and

provided with Appropriate

construction

that staff safety

Health

personal

phase.

and

These

protective
include

gear.

working

health

guidelines

are

overalls, helmets, goggles,

followed. There

earmuffs, masks, and gloves

should

among others.

minimal

safety

and

health

The requirements of the


Occupational
Health

Act,

be

Safety

and

related

2007,

the

incidences.

Building Code and other


relevant regulations should
70 | P a g e

Environmental

Proposed Mitigation

Responsibility

Impact

Measures

to Implement

Time Frame

Monitoring
Responsibility
and Indicators

be strictly adhered to.


A first aid kit(s) should be
provided within the site and
it should be fully equipped
at

all

times

during

construction.
At least one person in the
workforce should be trained
in administering first aid.
The contractor should not
expose workers to stress
inducing factors.

71 | P a g e

CHAPTER NINE
9.0

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

9.1

Conclusion

This EIA study has assessed and summarized anticipated adverse environmental impacts,
which may arise from the proposed SGR realignment. The overriding mitigation measure is
to compensate for the wildlife habitat lost to the SGR construction and then implementing
other mitigation measures as proposed in this report. Based on this EIA study findings it is
concluded that anticipated adverse impacts of the proposed development can adequately be
mitigated and thus the realignment should be given an approval so that construction of the
SGR can proceed as planned.
9.2
Recommendations
The contractor involved in the construction of the road is advised to implement the
Environmental and Social Management and Mitigation Plan (ESMMP) so as to reduce
adverse impacts and boost good environmental practices. Recommendations for the
prevention and mitigation of adverse impacts are as follows:

A parcel of land suitable for wildlife conservation and management should be


acquired and handed over to KWS in compensation for the wildlife habitat lost to the
SGR construction.

The construction of the SGR in the Park should not commence before an appropriate
electric fence is installed to prevent wildlife animals getting out of the park to
adjacent residential areas or to the railway construction sites.

The SGR construction activities in the park should be restricted to the rail way leave
section to avoid any intrusion into the adjacent Nairobi National Park.

Legal requirements must be followed before, during and after completion of the SGR
construction. Various laws including EMCA, 1999, The Wildlife Conservation and
Management Act, 2013, have provisions that have to be adhered to by the contractor
and the proponent.

Community education and awareness program should be initiated by KRC, KWS and
the contractor to create public awareness on wildlife conservation issues in relation to
the SGR construction and use when completed.
72 | P a g e

The contractor and the proponent should work very closely with KWS to ensure that
remedial measures are taken so that wildlife conservation and management in Nairobi
National Park is not negatively affected both in the short term and in the long term.

73 | P a g e

REFERENCES
1.

GOK, (1979) Kenya Railways Corporation Act

2.

GOK, (1984) Government Lands Act

3.

GOK, (1994) Physical Planning Act

4.

GOK, (1999) Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act

5.

GOK, (2006) Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Impact Assessment


and Audit) Regulations

6.

GOK,

(2006)

Environmental

Management

and

Co-ordination

(Waste

Management) Regulations
7.

GOK, (2007) Occupational Safety and Health Act

8.

GOK, (2009) Environmental Management and Coordination (Noise and Excessive


Vibration Pollution) (Control) Regulations

9.

GOK, (2012) Lands Act

10.

GOK, (2012) National Lands Commission Act

11.

GOK, (2013) Wildlife Management and Conservation Act

12.

KWS, (2005) Nairobi National Park Ecosystem Management Plan 2005-2010

74 | P a g e

APPENDICES

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Appendix 1-1: Sample of Stakeholder Consultation Questionnaires


Administered within the Section of NNP affected by the Realignment of the
Mombasa-Nairobi Standard Gauge Railway.

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Appendix 1-2: Design of Bridge and Culvert.

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