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THE COMPARISON OF THE ADJECTIVE

Adjectivul din limba englez nu se schimb dup gen, numr i caz. Singurul mod de
marcare formal este COMPARATIA. Categoria gramatical a comparaiei este concretizat n
limba englez, ca i n romn, n trei grade de comparaie:
GRADUL POZITIV nemarcat arat prezena normal a unei caliti a obiectelor, fr a se face
vreo comparaie: He is tall. She is beautiful.
GRADUL COMPARATIV compar dou obiecte, indicnd prezena calitii la obiectele
comparate - n msur egal - comparativul de egalitate: He is as tall as his sister.
- n msur inegal comparativul de superioritate: I am younger than her.
inferioritate: This lesson is less interesting than
the previous one. / Grandma is not as old as Grandpa.
GRADUL SUPERLATIV arat c un membru al unui grup posed calitatea comparat n cel mai
nalt grad, prin intermediul
unei comparaii directe superlativul relativ: She is the cleverest of all.
sau fr comparaie direct superlativul absolut: She is very clever.
Atentie ! Atunci cnd se compar numai dou noiuni se folosete gradul comparativ precedat
de articolul the n locul superlativului:
She is the younger and the more beautiful of the two sisters.
He lives in the newer part of the town. (El locuiete n zona cea mai nou a oraului. Se
consider c oraul are dou zone.)
I took the bigger box.(Am luat cutia cea mai mare.- Nu erau dect dou: una mare i una mic.)
Pentru a forma gradele de comparaie ale adjectivelor n limba englez, trebuie s le mprim n
trei categorii: a) adjective scurte (adjectivele monosilabice i bisilabice); b) adjective lungi
(formate din trei sau mai multe silabe); c) adjective neregulate.
A. COMPARATIA ADJECTIVELOR SCURTE
GRADUL POZITIV
GRADUL
COMPARATIV
Adjectiv + - er
small
smaller
Short
shorter
big *
bigger
Thin
thinner
Fat
fatter
dry **
drier
dirty
dirtier
Funny
funnier
nice ***
nicer
Free
freer
clever****
cleverer
Gentle
gentler
Simple
simpler

GRADUL
SUPERLATIV
the adjectiv + - est
the smallest
the shortest
the biggest
the thinnest
the fattest
the driest
the dirtiest
the funniest
the nicest
the freest
the cleverest
the gentlest
the simplest
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Narrow
narrower
the narrowest
*adjectivele terminate ntr-o consoan precedat de o vocal scurt dubleaz consoana
**adjectivele terminate n y precedat de o consoan transform pe y n i
***adjectivele terminate n e sau ee pierd pe e final naintea lui er sau est.
**** unele adjective bisilabice (common, gentle, handsome, mature, narrow, pleasant, polite,
simple, stupid, subtle, etc) pot forma comparativul i superlativul cu ajutorul ambelor reguli.
Eager, proper, fertile, hostile, fragile, se compar numai cu more i the most.
B. COMPARATIA ADJECTIVELOR LUNGI
GRADUL POZITIV
Careful
Difficult
Boring
bored

GRADUL
COMPARATIV
MORE +Adjectiv
more careful
more difficult
more boring
more bored

GRADUL
SUPERLATIV
THE MOST + adjectiv
the most careful
the most difficult
the most boring
the most bored

C. COMPARATIA ADJECTIVELOR NEREGULATE


GRADUL POZITIV
good
bad / ill
much / many
late*
old **
near = aproape
little
far ***
* late =trziu
trziu / recent

GRADUL
COMPARATIV
better
worse
more
later
older
elder
nearer = mai apropiat
(n spaiu, rudenie)
less
farther
further

later = mai trziu, mai recent

GRADUL SUPERLATIV
the best
the worst
the most
the latest / the last
the oldest (of people and things)
the eldest (of people only)
the nearest = cel mai apropiat
the next = urmtorul (in timp, ordine)
the least
the farthest (of distance only)
the furthest (of distance and time)
the latest

= cel mai

the latter = cel de-al doilea (dintre


2 elemente), acesta din urm // opus lui the former
the last = ultimul (din mai multe
elemente) opus lui the first
The late edition of this paper appears at 3 p.m. There is a later one at 5
p.m.
John and Tom are tall boys: the former is the captain of the basketball team
and the latter is a good footballer. Whats the latest news? (Care sunt
ultimele tiri?) His last novel is still unpublished.
(Ultimul su roman este nc
nepublicat.)
2

** old = btrn, vechi


btrn / vechi

older = mai btrn / vechi

the

oldest

= cel

mai

elder = mai n vrst


the eldest = cel mai n vrst
(despre membrii aceleiasi familii, folosit atributiv, opus lui younger)
!!!!! elder nu poate fi folosit inainte de than:
My brother is older than me. (Fratele meu e mai mare dect mine.)
My elder brother is a doctor. (Fratele meu mai mare este doctor.)
She is my eldest sister. ( Ea este sora mea cea mai mare.)
*** far

farther ( mai deprtat)


the farthest
- further ( mai deprtat)
- the farthest
suplimentar, adiional, n plus

I cant walk any farther / further. = Nu mai pot merge departe.


FORMAREA COMPARATIVULUI DE EGALITATE: as .. as
Comparativul de egalitate se exprim prin adjectivul la gradul pozitiv precedat i urmat de
conjuncia as :
My room is as large as hers. (Camera mea este la fel de / tot asa de
mare ca a ei.)
FORMAREA COMPARATIVULUI DE INFERIORITATE:
Adjectivul la gradul comparativ precedat de not so /as i urmat de as:
not as / so .. as = nu aa de ca ..
My homework is not as easy as yours. (Tema mea nu este la fel de
uoar ca a ta.)
The weather is not so bad as it was yesterday.
adjectivul la gradul pozitiv precedat de less than (procedeu folosit mai ales
cu adjectivele lungi i n exprimarea scurt):
less . than . = mai puin .. dect
My composition is less interesting than hers. (Compunerea
mea este mai puin interesant dect a ei.)

ATENTIE! * Nu uitai s folosii THAN (dect) la gradul comparativ, atunci cnd termenul
comparaiei este exprimat:
He is more punctual than the others.
** Exist o diferen ntre engleza formal i cea familiar:
Formal: than / as + I / he/ she/ we/ they + verb
Familiar: than / as + me / him /her / us / them
Formal
Familiar
You are as tall as I am.
You are as tall as me.
Bill is older than she is.
Bill is older than her.
He got angrier than we did.
He got angrier than us.
INTARIREA COMPARATIEI ADJECTIVELOR
MUCH / FAR asezate naintea adjectivului la comparativ:
BY FAR aezat dup comparativ
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This book is much more interesting than the other books he


has written.
far more interesting
more interesting by far
(Cartea aceasta este mult mai interesant dect celelalte cri pe care le-a scris.)
Construcia DIN CE IN CE MAI , TOT MAI = comparativ AND comparativ
It is colder and colder. (Este din ce n ce mai frig.)
The old man felt worse and worse. (Btrnul se simea din ce n ce
mai ru.)

Dac adjectivul este lung, se repet adverbul more /less i se intercaleaz AND:
His lectures are more and more interesting.
Your stories are less and less credible. (tot mai puin
credibile.)
Acelai sens se red n stilul oficial i n scris prin folosirea adverbului ever n faa
comparativului:
The books published in this country are ever more interesting.

COMPARATIVUL DUBLU ( cu ct + comparativ + cu att + comparativ )


THE + comparativ + THE + al doilea comparativ
The more I see him, the less I like him. (Cu ct l vd mai mult, cu
att mi displace mai tare.)
The bigger a house is, the more difficult is to look after. (Cu ct o
cas este mai mare, cu att este mai greu de ngrijit.)
The longer the days, the shorter the nights. (Cu ct sunt zilele mai
lungi, cu att sunt nopile mai scurte.)
SUPERLATIVUL DE INFERIORITATE: the least
This is the least important of our problems. (Aceasta este cea mai
puin important dintre problemele noastre.)
SUPERLATIVUL ABSOLUT se construiete cu ajutorul adverbelor very, too,
highly, extremely, utterly, fantastically, incredibly, terribly, etc +
gradul pozitiv al adjectivului:
They were confronted with extremely high temperatures.
THE + adjectiv la superlativ + OF / IN = pentru a exprima superioritatea sau
inferioritatea.
OF pentru a indica un grup de oameni sau obiecte.
IN pentru aindica un loc.
This is the oldest book in the library.
He is the naughtiest boy in the class.
This book is the best of /in the series.
Pentru a face o comparatie cu superlative putem folosi si o propozitie relativa, cu un verb la
Present / Past Perfect.
It is the least attractive of all the houses I have seen.

This is the best beer (that) I have ever drunk.


This was the worst film (that) he had ever seen.
He is the kindest man I have ever met.
!!! Aceeasi ide poate fi exprimata folosindu-se NEVER + comparativul:
I have never drunk better beer.
I have never met a kinder man.