You are on page 1of 71


26 June 2015

What is Wilayat? ...3
The Two Problems of Succession and Authority in Religious Sciences .......................................................................4
The Political Method of the Selection of the Caliph by Vote and Its Disagreement with the Shi'ite View (Part 2) ......6
The Political Method of the Selection of the Caliph by Vote and Its Disagreement with the Shi'ite View (Part 3) ......8
Who is the Family of the Prophet? .............................................................................................................................. 10
Imam Ali (A.S) as Guardian and Successor ................................................................................................................ 13
What Happened at Ghadir-e-Khumm? ........................................................................................................................ 15
Brief facts about Ghadir Event .................................................................................................................................... 18
Narrators of Ghadir-e khome event ............................................................................................................................. 21
Ghadir in Qur"an ......................................................................................................................................................... 22
QUR"ANIC VERSES: ........................................................................................................................................ 22
THE INCIDENT OF GHADiR: ......................................................................................................................... 22
A FEW DOUBTSAND THEIR ANSWERS: ..................................................................................................... 24
A REVIEW: ........................................................................................................................................................ 25
OUR ANSWERS: ............................................................................................................................................... 25
REASON: ........................................................................................................................................................... 26
THE VERSE OF PERFECTION OF RELIGION: ............................................................................................. 27
A FATEFUL PUNISHMENT: ........................................................................................................................... 27
Ghadir the Starting Point of Imamate to Guide Mankind ............................................................................................ 28
The Closing Sermon of God's Prophet on the pond of khome..................................................................................... 29
Our Opportunity to Obey the Prophet & Imam Ali ..................................................................................................... 42
Ghadir in respect of the Present Imam (a.s.) ................................................................................................................ 44
Peoples Oath Of Allegiance to Ali (AS.) ................................................................................................................... 46
Why is Imam Mahdi (A.J) also known as BaqiyatAllah? ............................................................................................ 47
Reappearance of Imam Mahdi ..................................................................................................................................... 48
Are We Truly Awaiting Our Imam? ............................................................................................................................ 49
The Verses of the Glorious Qur'an in the Praise of Imam Ali (A.S.) .......................................................................... 51
The Secret Number, Forty, in the Quran .................................................................................................................... 54
Imam Ali (a.s) in the words of non Muslim Scholars .................................................................................................. 56
Imam Ali in the eyes of Non-Muslims ........................................................................................................................ 70


The Only Person Born in Holy Kaba ........................................................................................................................... 71

What is Wilayat?
"Wilayat," derived from wila, means power, authority or a right of certain kind. In Shia theology, "wilayat" is the
authority invested in the Prophet and the Ahl-ul-Bayt representatives of Almighty Allah on this earth.
According to the late Murtaza Mutahhari, wilayat has four dimensions:
The right of love and devotion (wila-e muhabbat): This right places the Muslims under the obligation of loving the
The authority in spiritual guidance (wila-e imamat): This reflects the power and authority of the Ahl-ul-Bayt in guiding
their followers in spiritual matters.
The authority in socio-political guidance (wila-e ziamat): This dimension of wilayat reflects the right that the Ahl-ulBayt have to lead the Muslims in social and political aspects of life.
The authority of the universal nature (wila-e tasarruf): This dimension reflects universal power over the entire universe
that the Prophet and Ahl-ul-Bayt have been vested with by the grace of Almighty Allah.[ 1]
Using this division of wilayat's dimensions, I would like to point out the areas of agreement and disagreement among
the various Muslim groups.
[1] See, Murtaza Mutahhari, Wilayah: the Station of the Master (Wala ha wa wilayat ha), tr. Yahya Cooper, Tehran:
World Organisation for Islamic Services, 1982.
Taken from the book: Shiism,Imamate & Wilayat
By Seyyed Muhammad Rizvi


The Two Problems of

Succession and Authority in
Religious Sciences
In accordance with the Islamic teachings which form its basis, Shi'ism believed that the most important question facing
Islamic society was the elucidation and clarification of Islamic teachings and the tenets of the religious sciences. [1]
Only after such clarifications were made could the application of these teachings to the social order be considered. In
other words, Shi'ism believed that, before all else, members of society should be able to gain a true vision of the world
and of men based on the real nature of things. Only then could they know and perform their duties as human beingsin which lay their real welfare-even if the performance of these religious duties were to be against their desires. After
carrying out this first step a religious government should preserve and execute real Islamic order in society in such a
way that man would worship none other than God, would possess personal and social freedom to the extent possible,
and would benefit from true personal and social justice.
These two ends could be accomplished only by a person who was inerrant and protected by God from having faults.
Otherwise people could become rulers or religious authorities who would not be free from the possibility of distortion
of thought or the committing of treachery in the duties placed upon their shoulders. Were this to happen, the just and
freedom-giving rule of Islam could gradually be converted to dictatorial rule and a completely autocratic government.
Moreover, the pure religious teachings could become, as can be seen in the case of certain other religions, the victims
of change and distortion in the hands of selfish scholars given to the satisfaction of their carnal desires.
As confirmed by the Holy Prophet, Ali followed perfectly and completely the Book of God and the tradition of
the Prophet in both words and deeds. [2]
As Shi'ism sees it, if, as the majority say, only the Quraysh [3] opposed the rightful caliphate of Ali, then that majority
should have answered the Quraysh by asserting what was right. They should have quelled all opposition to the right
cause in the same way that they fought against the group who refused to pay the religious tax (zakat). The majority
should not have remained indifferent to what was right for fear of the opposition of the Quraysh.
What prevented the Shi'ah from accepting the elective method of choosing the caliphate by the people was the fear of
the unwholesome consequences that might result from it: fear of possible corruption in Islamic government and of the
destruction of the solid basis for the sublime religious sciences. As it happened, later events in Islamic history
confirmed this fear (or prediction), with the result that the Shi'ites became ever firmer in their belief. During the earliest
years, however, because of the small number of its followers, Shiism appeared outwardly to have been absorbed into
the majority, although privately it continued to insist on acquiring the Islamic sciences from the Household of the
Prophet and to invite people to its cause. At the same time, in order to preserve the power of Islam and safeguard its
progress, Shi'ism did not display any open opposition to the rest of Islamic society. Members of the Shi'ite community
even fought hand in hand with the Sunni majority in holy wars (jihad) and participated in public affairs. Ali himself
guided the Sunni majority in the interest of the whole of Islam whenever such action was necessary. [4]


1. Ya'qubt-. vol.ll, pp.105-150, where this is mentioned often.
2. The Book of God and the sayings of the Holy Prophet and his household are replete with encouragement and
exhortation to acquire knowledge, to the extent that the Holy Prophet says: "To seek knowledge is incumbent upon
every Mus lim." Bihar al-anwar of Majlisi, Tehran. 1301-15, vol.l, p.55.
3. al-Bidayah wa'I-nihayah, vol. VII, p.360.
4. Editor's note: The Quraysh was the most aristocratic tribe in pre-Islamic Arabia from which rose the Holy Prophet
himself. But the Quraysh, being the guardians of the Kaba, first opposed his prophecy and offered the greatest
resistance against him. Only later did they surrender to the new religion in which they have always continued to hold
a place of honour, especially the branch directly connected with the family of the Prophet.


The Political Method of the

Selection of the Caliph by
Vote and Its
Disagreement with the Shi'ite
View (Part 2)

The second caliph was killed by a Persian slave in 25/644. In accordance with the majority vote of a six-man
council which had assembled by order of the second caliph before his death, the third caliph was chosen. The
third caliph did not prevent his Umayyad relatives from becoming dominant over the people during his
caliphate and appointed some of them as rulers in the Hijaz, Iraq, Egypt, and other Muslim lands. [1] These
relatives began to be lax in applying moral principles in government. Some of them openly committed injustice
and tyranny, sin and iniquity, and broke certain of the tenets of firmly established Islamic laws.
Before long, streams of protest began to flow toward the capital. But the caliph, who was under the influence of his
relatives particularly Marwan ibn Hakam [2]-did not act promptly or decisively to remove the causes against which
the people were protesting. Sometimes it even happened that those who protested were punished and driven away.
An incident that happened in Egypt illustrates the nature of the rule of the third caliph. A group of Muslims in Egypt
rebelled against Uthman. Uthman sensed the danger and asked Ali for help, expressing his feeling of contrition. Ali
told the Egyptians, You have revolted in order to bring justice and truth to life.
Uthman has repented saying, 'I shall change my ways and in three days will fulfill your wishes. I shall expel the
oppressive rulers from their posts.'" Ali then wrote an agreement with them on behalf of Uthman and they started
home. On the way they saw the slave of Uthman riding on his camel in the direction of Egypt.
They became suspicious of him and searched him. On him they found a letter for the governor of Egypt containing
the following words: "In the name of God. When 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Addis comes to you beat him with a hundred
lashes, shave his head and beard and condemn him to long imprisonment. Do the same in the case of 'Amr ibn alHamq, Suda ibn Hamran, and 'Urwah ibn Niba'." The Egyptians took the letter and returned with anger to Uthman,


saying, "You have betrayed us!" Uthman denied the letter. They said, "Your slave was the carrier of the letter." He
answered, "He has committed this act without my permission."
They said, "He rode upon your camel." He answered, "They have stolen my camel." They said, "The letter is in the
handwriting of your secretary." He replied, "This has been done without my permission and knowledge." They said,
"In any case you are not cempetent to be caliph and must resign, for if this has been done with your permission you
are a traitor and if such important matters take place without your permission and knowledge then your incapability
and incompetence is proven. In any case, either resign or dismiss the oppressive agents from office immediately."
Uthman answered, "If I wish to act according to your will, then it is you who are the rulers. Then, what is my function?"
They stood up and left the gathering in anger. [3]
During his caliphate Uthman allowed the government of Damascus, at the head of which stood Mu'awiyah, to be
strengthened more than ever before. In reality, the center of gravity of the caliphate as far as political power was
concerned was shifting to Damascus and the organization in Medina, the capital of the Islamic world, was politically
no more than a form without the necessary power and substance to support it. [4] Finally, in the year 35/656, the
people rebelled and after a few days of siege and fighting the third caliph was killed.
1. Usd al-ghabah of lbn Athir, Cairo, 1280. vol. IV, p.386; aI-lsabah of lbn Hajar 'Asqalani, Cairo, 1323, vol.lll.
2. Tarikh-i Ya'qubi, vol.ll, p.150; Abu'l-Fida', vol.l, p.168; Tarikh-i Tabari, vol.lll, p.377, etc.
3. Tarikh- Ya'qubi, vol. ll;p. 150; Tarikh-i Tabari; vol.lll, p.397.
4. Tarikh- Tabari, vol.lll; pp.402-409; Tarikh-i Ya'qubi; vol.ll, pp.150-151.


The Political Method of the

Selection of the Caliph by
Vote and Its
Disagreement with the Shi'ite
View (Part 3)

The first caliph was selected through the vote of the majority of the companions, the second caliph by the will and
testament of the first, and the third by a six-man council whose members and rules of procedure were organized and
determined by the second caliph. Altogether the policy of these three caliphs, who were in power for twenty-five
years, was to execute and apply Islamic laws and principles in society in accordance with ijtihad and what appeared
as most wise at the time to the caliphs themselves. As for the Islamic sciences, the policy of these caliphs was to have
the Holy Quran read and understood without being concerned with commentaries upon it or allowing it to become
the subject of discussion. The hadith of the Prophet was recited and was transmitted orally without being written down.
Writing was limited to the text of the Holy Quran and was forbidden in the case of hadith. [1]
After the battle of Yamamah which ended in 12/633, many of those who had been reciters of the Holy Quran and
who knew it by heart were killed. As a result Umar ibn al-Khattab proposed to the first caliph to have the verses of
the Holy Quran collected in written form, saying that if another war were to occur and the rest of those who knew the
Quran by heart were to be killed, the knowledge of the text of the Holy Book would disappear among men. Therefore,
it was necessary to assemble the Quranic verses in written form. [2]
From the Shi'ite point of view it appears strange that this decision was made concerning the Quran and yet despite
the fact that the prophetic hadith, which is the complement of the Quran, was faced with the same danger and was
not free from corruption in transmission, addition, diminution, forgery and forgetfulness, the same attention was not
paid to it. On the contrary, as already mentioned. writing it down was forbidden and all of the written versions of it
that were found were burned, as if to emphasize that only the text of the Holy Book should exist in written form.
As for the other Islamic sciences, during this period little effort was made to propagate them, the energies of the
community being spent mostly in establishing the new sociopolitical order. Despite all the praise and consecration


which are found in the Quran concerning knowledge ('ilm), [3] and the emphasis placed upon its cultivation, the avid
cultivation of the religious sciences was postponed to a later period of Islamic history.
Most men were occupied with the remarkable and continuous victories of the Islamic armies, and were carried away
by the flood of immeasurable booty which came from all directions toward the Arabian peninsula. With this new
wealth and the worldliness which came along with it, few were willing to devote themselves to the cultivation of the
sciences of the Household of the Prophet, at whose head stood Ali, whom the Holy Prophet had introduced to the
people as the one most versed in the Islamic sciences. At the same time, the inner meaning and purpose of the teachings
of the Holy Quran were neglected by most of those who were affected by this change. It is strange that, even in the
matter of collecting the verses of the Holy Quran, Ali was not consulted and his name was not mentioned among
those who participated in this task, although it was known by everyone that he had collected the text of the Holy
Quran after the death of the Prophet. [4]
It has been recounted in many traditions that after receiving allegiance from the community, Abu Bakr sent someone
to Ali and asked for his allegiance. Ali said, "I have promised not to leave my house except for the daily prayers until
I compile the Quran." And it has been mentioned that Ali gave his allegiance to Abu Bakr after six months. This itself
is proof that Ali had finished compiling the Quran. Likewise, it has been recounted that after compiling the Quran
he placed the pages of the Holy Book on a camel and showed it to the people. It is also recounted that the battle of
Yamamah after which the Quran was compiled, occurred during the second year of the caliphate of Abu Bakr. These
facts have been mentioned in most works on history and hadith which deal with the account of the compilation of the
Holy Quran.
These and similar events made the followers of Ali more firm in their belief and more conscious of the course that lay
before them. They increased their activity from day to day and Ali himself, who was cut off from the possibility of
educating and training the people in general, concentrated on privately training an elite.
During this twenty-five year period Ali lost through death three of his four dearest friends and associates, who
were also among the companions of the Prophet: Salman al-Farsi, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, and Miqdad. They
had been constant in their friendship with him in all circumstances. It was also during this same period that
some of the other companions of the Holy Prophet and a large number of their followers in the Hijaz, the
Yemen, Iraq, and other lands, joined the followers of Ali. As a result, after the death of the third caliph the
people turned to Ali from all sides, swore allegiance to him and chose him as caliph.

1. Tarikh-i Tabari, vol.lll, p.377.
2. 27ahih ofBukhari, vol. VI, p.98; Tarikh-i Ya'qubi; vol.ll, p.113.
3. Ya'qubi, vol.ll, p.lll; Tabari; vol.lll, pp.129-132.
4. Editor's note: The word ilm means science in its most universal sense, like the Latin scientia, and applies to the
religious as well as intellectual, rational and philosophical forms of knowledge. Generally it is distinguished from
ma'rifah or irfan which is Divine knowledge and may be compared to the Latin sapientia. Certain Muslim masters,
however, consider 'ilm in its highest sense to stand above irfan since it is a Divine Quality, one of God's Names being
al-'Alim, He Who knows.


Who is the Family of the


Some people criticize the Shias for limiting the Prophets family to Imam Ali, Fatimah and their sons Hassan and
Hussein (peace be upon them) and excluding the Prophet s wives and uncles.
The Prophets sayings prove that his family members are only those five persons. Such sayings, narrated by some of
the Companions are mentioned in many Sunni books.
At-Tirmidhi mentioned in his book al-Sahih, vol. 13 p. 200 - Egyptian edition-, a tradition narrated by Umar
bin Abu Salama where he said that the Quranic verse, "Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from
you, O people of the House, and to purify you with a thorough purification. (33:33)," was revealed in Umm
Salamas house. Then the Prophet (PBUH) called for Fatimah, Hassan, Hussein and Imam Ali to come behind
him. He then covered them with a garment and said: "O Allah, these are my family. Keep away uncleanness
from them and purify them thoroughly."
Umm Salama said, 'am I with them?' The Prophet answered, 'You have your standing and you will be to a good end.'
The author mentioned other relations that are narrated by Umm Salama, Ma'qil bin Yassar, Abul-Hamra' and Anas
bin Malik.
Hereunder, we will mention some sources of the Prophets saying regarding the above-mentioned Quranic verse of
Purification concerning Imam Ali, Fatimah, Hassan and Hussein, that are recorded in Sunni books quoted from our
book Jami' Barahin Usul ul- I tiqadaat:
1. Narrated by Umar bin Atiyah, from Abu Sa id al-Khudri from Umm Salama (The History of Baghdad) vol.9 p.
2. Al-Hussein bin al-Hassan from Abu Sa id al-Khudri from Umm Salama (The Prophets wife) (The History of
Baghdad) vol.9 p. 126
3. Hisham bin Salim, from Wahhab bin Abdullah, from Umm Salama (Al-Mu jam ul- Kabir) p. 134.
4. Abdul-Malik bin Sulayman from Ata from Umm Salama (Al-Mu jam ul- Kabir) p. 134.
5. Sharik bin Namr, Ata', Umm Salama (Ma alimut-Tanzil) p. 213.
6. Muhammad bin Sawqa from someone from Umm Salama (Akhlaq un-Nabi) p. 116.
7. Abdullah bin Abu Riyah, from someone, from Umm Salama (Ath-Tha labi s Tafsir) Manuscript.
8. Abdullah bin Abu Riyah, Hakim bin Sad, Umm Salama (Ibn Kathirs Tafsir) vol.3 p. 483.

10 | P a g e

9. Atiyah from his father from Umm Salama (Ibn Kathirs Tafsir) vol.3 p. 483.
10. Atiyah, from Shahr bin Hawshab, from Umm Salama (Ibn Kathirs Tafsir) vol.3 p. 483.
11. Sufyan bin Zayd, Shahr bin Hawshab, Umm Salama (At-Tirmidhis Sahih) vol.13 p. 248.
12. Zubayd, Shahr bin Hawshab, Umm Salama (Mawzzihul- Awham) vol.2 p. 281.
13. Abdul-Hamid bin Bihram, Shahr bin Hawshab, Umm Salama (Ahmads Musnad) vol.6 p. 298.
14. Dawud bin Abu Auf, Shahr bin Hawshab, Umm Salama (Al-Qawlul-Fasl) vol.2 p. 177.
15. Ajlah, Shahr bin Hawshab, Umm Salama (Ahmads Musnad) vol.2 p. 173.
16. Athal, Shahr bin Hawshab, Umm Salama (Al-Bukharis History) vol.1 p. 70.
17. Shu eib bin al-Minii', Shahr bin Hawshab, Umm Salama (Al-Bukharis History) vol.1 p. 70.
18. Ja far bin Abdur-Rahman, al-Hakam bin Sa id, Umm Salama (Al-Bukharis History) vol.1 p. 70.
19. Muhammad bin Shirin, Abu Hurayra, Umm Salama (Tafsir Jami ul-Bayan) vol.22 p. 7.
20. Awaam bin Hawshab, from his cousin, from 'Aa isha (Al-Qawlul-Fassl) vol.2 p. 215.
21. Mus ab bin Sheiba, Safiyyah, 'Aa isha (as-Sunanul-Kubra) vol.2 p. 149.
22. Awza i, Abu Ammar, Wathila bin al-Asqa' (Mustadrak) vol.2 p. 152.
23. Abdur-Rahman bin Amr, Shaddad bin Abdullah, Wathila bin al-Asqa' (Siyer A lamin-Nubala') vol.3 p. 212.
24. Al- A mash, Atiyah, Abu Said al-Khudri, (Jami ul-Bayan) vol.22 p. 6.
25. Abul-Hijaf, Atiyah, Abu Said al-Khudri (Al-Mu jam us Saghir) vol.1 p. 134.
26. Imran bin Muslim, Atiyah, Abu Said al- Khudri (The History of Baghdad) vol.10.
27. Ibn Umar al-Kirmani, Atiyah, Abu Said al-Khudri (Tabaqatul-Muhadditheen) p. 149.
28. Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Bakr, Isma il, from his father Abdullah bin Ja far (Al-Qawlul-Fasl) p. 185.
29. Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Bakr, Ibn Abbas (Arjahul-Matalib) p. 54.
30. Hammad bin Salama, Ali bin Zayd, Anas bin Malik (Ahmads Musnad) vol.3 p. 259.
31. Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Bakr, Hamid, Anas bin Malik (Al-Mustadrak) vol.3 p. 159.
32. Abaad bin Abu Yahya, Abu Dawud (p. 6), Abul-Hamra' (An-Najaari s Kuna) p. 25.
33. Yunus bin Abu 'Ishaq, Abu Dawud, Abul-Hamra' (Muntakhab Theyl al-Mutheyl) p. 83.
34. Mansur bin Abul-Aswad, Abu Dawud, Abul-Hamra' (Al-mu jam ul- Kabir) p. 134.
35. Abu 'Ishaq as-Subey i, Abu Dawud, Abul-Hamra' (History of Islam,) vol.2 p. 97.
36. Umayr Abu Arfaja, Atiyah (Usdul-Ghaba) vol.3 p. 413.
37. Al-Aufi, Amr bin Atiyah and al-Hussein bin al-Hassan, from Atiyah (The History of Baghdad) vol.9 p. 126.
38. Bukeyr bin Mismaar, Aamir bin Sad, Sad (Jami ul-Bayan) vol.22 p. 8.
39. Abu Balah Amr bin Maymun (Al-Mustadrak) vol.3 p. 132.
40. Yahya bin Ubayd, Attar bin Abu Riyah, Umar bin Abu Salama (At-Tirmidhi s Sahih) vol.13 p. 200.
41. Yahya bin Ubayd, Sahl bin Sad (Al-Isti aab) vol.2 p. 460.
42. Abu Hurayra, Sahl bin Sad (Al-Isti aab) vol.2 p. 56.
43. Bureyda al-Aslami, Sahl bin Sad (Al-Isti aab) vol.2p. 56.
44. Abdullah bin Umar, Sahl bin Sad (Al-Isti aab) vol.2 p. 56.
45. Imran bin al-Hussein, Sahl bin Sad (Al-Isti aab) vol.2 p. 56.
46. Salama bin al-Aqua', Sahl bin Sad (Al-Isti aab) vol.2 p. 56.
47. Ma qil bin Yasaar (At-Tirmidhis Sahih) vol.13 p. 248

11 | P a g e

Finally, the tradition concerning the Quranic verse of purification and its being specifically about them (Peace be
upon them), in the words of al Haddad al Hadhrami is one of the correct, famous, widespread, and well known
traditions upon which all the umma has agreed and seventeen of great Hadithists have confirmed that it was true.

12 | P a g e

Imam Ali (A.S) as Guardian

and Successor

The Shias are criticized for saying that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had recommended that the Imamate and the
caliphate were for Ali and his sons (A.S), and that the Prophets Companions had opposed his testament.
Among both Shias and Sunnis it has been established that the Prophet (PBUH) had appointed Ali to be the Caliph and
Imam after him. At the Well of Khum (Ghadir Khum), he proclaimed Ali to be his successor in the presence of groups
of Muslims coming back from his last Hajj. He made sure that everyone heard this in spite of the big crowds on that
day. The news had reached everyone and everywhere. The chain of transmission of the news of Ghadir Khum in Sunni
books has been uninterrupted and certain.
We have collected 256 sources of the tradition of al Ghadir from the books of our Sunni brothers in our book al-Jami'
li Barahin Usulul-I'tiqadaat. We had adequately explained that the tradition clearly meant to appoint Ali as leader and
Imam after the Prophet (PBUH). Here we quote it in brief:
Ibn Asaakir said in his book The History of Damascus vol. p.45: Abu Bakr Muhammad bin al-Husayn bin al-Marziqi
told us that abul-Hussein Muhammad bin Ali bin al- Muhtadi told us that abul-Hassan Ali bin Umar bin Muhammad
bin al-Hassan told us that al-Abbas bin Ahmad told us that Nasr bin Abdur-Rahman abu Sulayman al-Washa' told us
that Zayd bin al-Hassan al-Anmati told us that Maroof bin Kharbooth al-Makki told us that he had heard from AbutTufayl Aamir bin Wathila that Hudhayfa bin Useid said, "When Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had come back from
his last hajj (farewell hajj), he ordered his Companions to stop at some trees which were near each another in the
desert. He came and did his prayer under the trees. Then he stood up and said,
'O people, Allah the Most Kind the Omniscient has told me that no apostle lives to more than half the age of him who
had preceded him. I think I am about to be called (die) and thus I must respond. I am responsible and you are
responsible, then what do you say?' They said, 'We witness that you have informed, advised and striven.
May Allah bless you.' He said, 'Do you not bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is
His servant and Apostle, and that His Heaven is true, His Hell is true, death is true, the Resurrection after
death is true, that there is no doubt that the Day of Judgment will come, and that Allah will resurrect the dead
from their graves?' They said, 'Yes, we bear witness'. He said, 'O Allah, bear witness.' Then he said, 'O people,
Allah is my Lord and I am the lord of the believers. I am worthier of believers than themselves. Of whomsoever
I had been Guardian, Ali here is to be his Guardian.

13 | P a g e

O Allah, be a supporter of whoever supports him (Ali) and an enemy of whoever opposes him.' Then he said, 'O
people, I will go ahead of you and you will arrive at my Pond (in Heaven) which is wider than the distance between
Basra and Sana. It has receptacles as numerous as the stars, and two cups of gold and two of silver.

I will ask you about the two weighty things that I have left for you when you come to me to see how you dealt
with them. The greater weighty thing is Allahs book-the Holy Quran. One end is in Allah hand and the other
is in your hands. Keep it and you will not deviate. That other weighty thing is my family and my descendents.
The Most Kind the Omniscient had told me that both of them would not separate until they come to my Pond."
The aforementioned account has been a summary of the tradition.
The aforementioned account has been a summary of the tradition. Here because of articles textual length, we will cite
some of the sources along with the names of the Companions who had heard it from the Prophet (PBUH), as quoted
from the books of our Sunni brothers.
1) Narrated by Zathan, from thirteen persons, mentioned in (Ahmads book Musnad) vol. 1 p. 84.
2) Ziyad bin Abu Ziyad, from twelve persons, who had fought in the battle of Badr. (Ahmads Musnad) vol. 1 p. 88.
3) Sa id bin Wahhab, from five or six persons (an-Nassai's book al-Khasa'is), p. 21 and Ahmad's Musnad vol. 5 p.
4) Sa'id bin Wahhab and Zayd bin Yathigh, from twelve persons- Musnad, vol. 1 p. 118.
5) Zayd bin Arqam, from sixteen persons-Musnad, vol. 5 p. 370.
6) Abut-Tufayl, from many persons-Musnad, vol. 4 p. 370
7) Abut-Tufayl, from thirty persons- Musnad, vol. 4 p. 370.
8) Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Leyla, to twelve people- Musnad, vol. 1 p. 118.
9) Riyah bin al-Harith, from some of the Ansar- Musnad, vol. 5 p. 419.
10) Riyah bin al-Harith, from some people- Musnad, vol. 5 p. 419.
11) Sa'id bin Ubayda, from ibn Burayda, from his father, Ahmad's Musnad, vol. 5 p. 358.
12) Sa'id bin Ubayda from another direction- Musnad, vol. 5 p. 358.
13) Umar bin Maymun, from Ibn Abbas- Musnad, vol.1 p. 331.
14) Abu Ubayd, from Ibn Maymun, from Zayd bin Arqam- Musnad, vol.4 p. 372.
15) Abdul-Malik, from Zayd bin Arqam- Ahmad's Musnad, vol.4 p. 370.
16) From another direction to Atiya- Musnad, vol.4 p. 370.
17) Al-Bara' bin Aazib from a fifth direction- Musnad, vol.4 p. 281.
18) Al-Bara' bin Aazib from a sixth direction- Musnad, vol.4 p. 282.
19) Abu Maryam and one of Imam Ali's Companions-Ahmad's Musnad vol.1, p. 152.
20) Abu Hurayra, Anas and Abu Sa'id, from nine persons and others besides- Majma'uz-Zawa'id, vol. 9 p. 708.

14 | P a g e

What Happened at Ghadir-eKhumm?

Tabarani and others have recorded the following tradition as related by Zayd ibn 'Arqam and transmitted through
sources unanimously acknowledged to be reliable. Zayd says that the Messenger of Allah, Allah's blessings and peace
be upon him and his posterity, delivered a sermon at Ghadir-e-Khumm under a cloth spread as a canopy on two large
trees. He said:
"O my people! I am going to be recalled shortly and I must comply. I shall be interrogated and you also shall be
interrogated. What will you say then?" The entire audience answered: "We shall bear witness that you did convey to
us the message of Allah, and tried your best to guide us on the right path and always gave us good console. May Allah
bless you with a good reward." The Prophet proceeded: "Why do you not bear witness that there is no god but Allah
and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, and that Paradise is true, Hell is true, Death is true, Resurrection
after death is true, that the Day of Judgment will doubtlessly come and that Allah will raise to life the dead from their
graves?." They said: "O Yes! We bear witness to all this." Then he said: "O Allah! You also may witness." Then he
said: 'O my people! Allah is my Mawla and I am mawla of the faithful and I have superior right on and control over
their lives. And this Ali is the mawla of all those of whom I am mawla. O Allah! Love him who loves him and hate
him who hates him." He further said: "O my people! I will precede you and you also shall arrive at the pool of Kawthar,
the pool wider than the distance between Basrah and San'a', and there are on the pool as many goblets of silver as
stars. When you shall reach me I shall interrogate you about your behavior towards the two in-valuable assets after
my death. The major asset is the Book of Allah, the Mighty and Glorious, one end of which is in the hand of Allah,
the Exalted, and the other end of which in your hands. Grasp it tightly and do not go astray and do not change or
amend it. The other asset is my Progeny, who are my Ahl al-Bayt. Allah the Gracious and Omniscient has informed
me that the two will not part from each other before they reach me at the pool.

15 | P a g e

The Significance of Ghadir

By: Seyyed Ali Shahbaz

This day I have perfected for you, your religion, and have completed My favor on you and chosen for Islam as the
religion (Holy Quran 5: 3)What was that day on which God revealed this verse to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)? It was
the 18th of Zilhijja in the year 10 AH on the plain of Ghadir-Khum when the Almightys last Messenger to mankind
while returning from his farewell Hajj pilgrimage, stopped the huge gathering of pilgrims and declared his cousin and
son-in-law Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) as his successor, with the words: Man Kunto Mowlahu Fa Haza Aliyyun
Mowlah (For whomsoever I am master this Ali is his master).
The great Sunni scholar Allama Zahabi in his bookGhayat ul-Maram has confirmed the revelation of this verse on
the Day of Ghadir through six different chains of authority from the companions of the Prophet who were present on
the occasion and who along with the 100,000-plus congregation pledged their allegiance to Imam Ali (AS) as theAmir
ul-Momenin (Commander of the Faithful).
The 18th of Zilhijja is the day of felicities. It is the day on which Almighty Allah completed His blessings by
grantingWilayat al-Mutlaqa (absolute authority) to Imam Ali (AS) by designating him as the Prophets vicegerent.
In the Islamic of Republic of Iran we are celebrating the current solar calendar year (ending March 20) as the Year
of Imam Ali (AS) to mark the auspicious Day of Ghadir which occurs twice this year (the lunar year, according to
which religious occasions are observed is 11 or 12 days shorter than the solar year).
But why are most of the Muslim countries ignorant of the significance of Ghadir? The cause of this negligence is
politics and political developments, especially the unfortunate event of Saqifa Bani Sadah which took place in Medina
immediately after the passing away of the Prophet. Those who assembled at that gathering to elect a caliph, disregarded
divine commandments and practically broke their pledge of allegiance to Imam Ali (AS) on the Day of Ghadir over
two months earlier.
I do not want to delve into the controversies of the past, which have sadly kept theumma divided. But what I intend
to say is that the pledge of allegiance to Imam Ali (AS) was taken in broad daylight under the scorching midday sun
at Ghadir, where the Prophet had to halt on revelation of the verse:
O Messenger convey what has been revealed to you from Your Lord, for if you do not do so, you will not have
conveyed His message at all. And Allah will protect you from the (sedition of) people. (Holy Quran 5:67)
The urgency of the message is clear for any reader of the Holy Quran, because the matter dealt with the issue of
divine guidance, which has to be continued even after the Prophet, and could not be left to such flawed methods as
elections, selections or nominations.

16 | P a g e

We are living in the age of reason when man is penetrating the space and we ought to do research on the vital issue
ofwilaya. Since space does not permit me to go into details, I suggest that those still in doubt, should do some deep
thinking on the concept of divine guidance which started with Adam, and critically analyze the great number of books
which mention the event of Ghadir.

17 | P a g e

Brief facts about Ghadir


Ghadir literary means small lake or pond.(1) Ghadir is the name of a place that comes on the way from
Makkah to Medina.
It is 3 miles further than Johfa towards Medina. There existed a small pond at this place. Though geographically it
exists on the way to Medina but this place acted as an exit point for all the people going out from Makkah for all the
other places.
When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) halted at this place after his last pilgrimage to make his all-significant announcement
it was extremely hot at that time and it was close to mid-day. It was a wayside tract of barren land. There was no
shelter present over there at that time. In fact there existed merely small minor patches of shades provided by a few
acacia trees.
Date of event
The date is 18th Zilhajjah of the year 10 A.H. (10 March 632 CE)
Event Backdrop
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) asked his companions to call the Muslims in general to attend for a pilgrimage to the Holy
Kaaba. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) specified that he himself would also be there to attend for the pilgrimage and teach
the Muslims the rituals of the pilgrimage and convey his significant messages directly to all. The call for the pilgrimage
was made.

18 | P a g e

On his way to Makkah more than 70,000 Muslims joined him. By the fourth of Zilhajjah more than 100,000
Muslims had collected for the Haj with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.).
After the Last pilgrimage
After completing the last pilgrimage the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) along with the Muslims set out of Makkah. On their
way back the Muslims reached a place called Ghadir-e-khumm. The following verse was revealed to the Holy Prophet
O Apostle! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and if you dont do it, you have not
delivered His message (at all); and Allah will protect you from the people ...(2)

Delivery of the sermon

On receiving the above verse, the Holy Prophet stopped at that very place called Ghadir-e-khumm. He ordered his
companions to call back those of the Muslims who had gone ahead. He waited for those Muslims who had remained
behind to join them. He ordered Salman (a.r.) to prepare for a pulpit with the help of rocks and camel toolings. It was
prime noontime and Muslims had tied their heads and legs on account of the heat. Muslims had started to sit near the
temporary pulpit. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was at this place for about 5 hours. He recited nearly 100 verses of the
Holy Quran most of which were in the praise of Ali (a.s.). Seventy three times he reminded and admonished the
Muslims about their"s deeds and future.
The following is a part of the lengthy speech of the Holy Prophet(s.a.w.a.) which has also been narrated by the sunni
authorities repeatedly:
It seems the time has approached when I shall be called away (by Allah swt) and I shall answer that call. I am
leaving for you two precious things and if you adhere to them BOTH, you will never go astray after me. They
are the Book of Allah and my Progeny, that is my Ahlul Bayt. The two shall never separate from each other
until they come to me by the Pool (of Paradise).
Then the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) in an attempt to remind Muslims of his own authority over them said:
Do I not have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves?
Muslims answered unanimously Yes, O Messenger of God. This served as a stepping stone for the announcement
of his heir and vicegerent. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) held out the hand of Ali (a.s.) and said:
For whoever I am his Leader (mawla), Ali is his Leader (mawla).
The Holy Prophet then continued to say:
O God, love those who love him, and be hostile to those who are hostile to him.

19 | P a g e

Revelation of the verse 5:3

Once the Holy Prophet(s.a.w.a.) completed his speech this verse of the Holy Quran was revealed to him:
Today I have perfected your religion and completed my favour upon you, and I am satisfied that Islam be
your religion.
This verse explicitly mentions that only along with this express announcement of the vicegerancy by the Holy Prophet
(s.a.w.a.) can the religion of Islam be considered as complete and perfect. Without this announcement or because of
the disregard of this announcement the religion of Islam will be be incomplete & a half truth.
As indicated earlier many a times half truths are more dangerous than full falsehoods. Hence there is no doubt that ,if
the Muslims disregard this announcement, they will have to endure oppression and hardship both materially and

20 | P a g e

Narrators of Ghadir-e khome event

A). 110 companions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.)

B). 84 Successors (Tabiun)
C). Over 360 scholars to the present day (Most of them are sunnies)
1: Abaqat al-Anwar a book written in Persian by Allama Mir Hamid Husayn al-Musawi (d. 1304 AH) of India. Allama
Mir Hamid Husayn has devoted two bulky volumes (consisting of about 1,080 pages) on the isnad, tawatur and
meaning of the hadith of Ghadir.
2: Al-Ghadir in 11 volumes in Arabic by Allama Abdul Husayn al-Amini where he gives with full references the
names of 110 sahaba of the Prophet and also 84 tabi'un (disciples of the sahaba) who have narrated the hadith of
Ghadir. He has also chronologically given the names of the historians, traditionists, exegesis's and poets who have
mentioned the hadith of Ghadir from the first until the fourteenth Islamic century.

21 | P a g e

Ghadir in Qur"an

Love for the Messenger of Allah, attachment towards his Ahl Al-Bayt (pbut) and their obedience are the factors which
lead to success in this world and salvation in the Hereafter. Otherwise, man will stray off from the right path and enter
the lane which only ends at Hell, never able to get out from it. It is necessary for every man to go in search for the
truth, before he strays off. Where is the truth? What and who is the truth? It is the duty of every researcher to know
that as to who was appointed as successor by the Holy Prophet (pbuh) after him in this article, we shall deal with
Ghadir, only and only from the Qur"anic aspect.
While Qur"an is discussing about divinity, prophethood and the world hereafter, it also discusses Imamate from
different angles. Three Qur"anic verses were revealed in connection with Ghadir. Renowned interpreters have
discussed about these verses in their commentaries. It is necessary that when an interpreter discusses about a verse, he
has to talk about the conditions in which that particular verse was revealed, or else his commentary would be
incomplete and they would be accused of concealing the truth.
1) "O Messenger (of Allah)! Convey what has been revealed to you from your Lord. And if you do it not, then you
have not, delivered His message (prophethood), and Allah will protect you from the people. Surely Allah will not
guide the disbelieving people."(Surah Maidah, 5:67).
2) "This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed my favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a
religion."(Surah Maidah, 5:3)
3) "One questioner demanded the chastisement which must befall?(Surah Ma"arij:1)
The incident of Ghadir is a very famous and well-known event. We present it here in a concise form:
In the tenth year of hijri, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) planned for Hajj and informed all the Muslim clans and communities
to be ready for Hajj. Resultantly, a large number of the Muslim population prepared itself for Hajj. Historians give
varying figures about the participating pilgrims in that year"s Hajj from 1,14,000 to 1,24,000 or even more. Due to
the importance of this Hajj, it has been given various titles like Hajjatul Weda, Hajjatul Islam, Hajjatul Balaagh,
Hajjatul Kamaal and Hajjatul Tamaam.
(Al-Ghadir, Vol.1, page 29)
After performing the Hajj rites, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) left for Medina. When he reached Ghadeer-e-Khum, near
Johfa, the archangel Gabriel descended with the verse, "O Messenger Convey..." (Refer first verse).

22 | P a g e

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) on divine command, announced the leadership and mastership of Imam Ali (pbuh). He made
Hazrat Ali"s obedience compulsory and enmity towards him tantamount to enmity against Allah.
The details of the event are well known. Here, we intend to just drive home a few important points briefly. When the
Holy Prophet (pbuh) announced the Imamate and leadership of Hazrat Ali (pbuh), the following verse, "Today, I have
perfected..." (Refer second verse) was revealed. After which, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) hailed, "Allah is Great. Religion
is perfected, bounties are completed and Allah is satisfied with my messengership and Ali"s leadership."
Then the people started complimenting them. The incidents concerning both the verses i.e. Sura Maidah: Verse 3 and
67 are now clear. Then, the verse was revealed, one demanding ..." (third verse) the event of descent is as follows:
Sa"labi in "Noorul Absaar", page 11. while giving references of great sunni scholars like Shiblinji of Egypt and others,
writes, "The Holy Prophet (pbuh), gathered the people on the day of Ghadir and raising Ali"s hand, proclaimed, "Of
whomsoever I am the master, Ali is his master too." Word spread around and when Harith Bin Noman-e-Fehri heard
about it, he came on one side, and asked, "O Muhammad you asked us to give witness of Divinity and (your)
Messengership, we gave (unhesitantly). You ordered for Praying, we performed. You ordered us for Hajj, Zakat and
fasting, we acted upon it. After all these command, your are not yet contented and now you want to appoint your
cousin over us as our leader by saying, "Of whomsoever I am his master, Ali is his master too, Is this a divine command
or is it from your side?"
The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: "I swear by Allah except whom there is no God, this command is indeed divine." On
hearing this, Harith turned, started going back to his camel, and was grumbling "O Allah if the word of Muhammad
is true, then stones rain upon me or deliver unto me a severe chastisement." Harith had hardly reached his mount,
when a boulder fell from the sky crushing him to death. Then this verse was revealed. "One demanding demanded the
chastisement which must befall."

(Al-Murajeaat, page 354 Urdu)

All the incidents that we have narrated under the context of these three verses of Qur"an can be found in many famous
Sunni commentaries. Some of them are as follows:

Tabari (d. 310 A.H.)


Sa"labi (d. 427/437 A.H.)


Waahedi (d. 468 A.H.) (Asbaabun Nuzool was his famous exegesis)


Abu Muhammad Baghawi (d. 516 A.H.)


Qurtubbi (d. 567 A.H.)


Fakhre Raazi (d. 606 A.H.) (Tafseer-e-Kabeer)


Qazi Beizaawi (d. 685 A.H.)


Bin Katheer Shaami (d.774 A.H.)


Neshapuri (d. 8th century A.H.)

23 | P a g e

10. Jalaaluddin Soyuti (d 911 A.H.)

11. Abus Saood Al-Emaadi (d 972 A.H.)
12. Khateeb Shermeeni (d. 977 A.H.)
13. Qazi Shokafi (d. 1183 A.H.)
14. Aloosi Baghdadi (d. 1270 A.H.)
Apart from the above mentioned interpreters, many other commentators and Qur"anic scholars have mentioned these
three verses while discussing about Ghadir. Some of the famous Qur"anic scholars are as follows:

Qazi Abu Bakr Baaqelaani Basri (d. 403 A.H.) (Kitab-ul-Tamheed).


Qazi Abdur Rehman Eejee Shar"ee (d. 756 A.H). (Al-Mawaaqef).


Sayed Shareef Jorjaani (d. 816 A.H.) (Sharhul Mawaaqef)


Beizaawi (d. 685 A.H.)


Taftaazani (d. 792 A.H.) (Sharhul Maqaasid)


Allauddin Qushchi (d. 879 A.H.) (Sharhe Tajreed)

For a detailed list of traditionalists, commentators, scholars and narrators who have recorded the event of Ghadir, refer
to "Al-Ghadir" Vol. 1, by Allama Amini.
Fakhre Raazi, in volume 3, page 635 of his "Tafseer-e-Kabir," has brought ten explanations and possibilities on the
revelation of the "VERSE OF CONVEYANCE" to him, the tenth possibility is that this verse was revealed in
connection with Ghadir. Here, we bring to you all of the ten probabilities put forward by him.
This verse is about:

The story of the Jews


The wives of the Prophet (pbuh)


The story of Zaid and Zainab.


Jehad because the Holy Prophet (pbuh) was fearing the hypocrites. Hence this verse was revealed to remove his

fear and encourage him.


Fear of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) concerning the polytheists.


In Hajjatul Wada, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) asked the people, "Did I not show the rites and rituals of Hajj?" The

people replied in the affirmative. So, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said, "O Allah, be Witness. Then verse was revealed.

About the Bedouin Arabs who wanted to kill the Holy Prophet (pbuh).


To remove the fear of the Jews and Christians in the Prophet"s heart.


About the event of Ghadir.

After writing these ten probabilities of revelation, Fakhre Raazi says that although there are many interpretations of
this verse, the most likely one is about the fear of the Jews and Christians in the Holy Prophet (pbuh)"s heart.
Therefore, God revealed to him that He would save him from the deceptive designs of the people of the book and that
he should continue propagating the divine message to them
(Al-Ghadir vol. 2, page 109).

24 | P a g e

Fakhre Raazi has come to this conclusion only because the proceeding and proceeding verses of this verse are about
the people of the book (Jews and Christians). Therefore, according to Fakhre Raazi, this should also be about them
otherwise this verse will be rendered meaningless.
What a pity! To jump to such a conclusion is Fakhre Raazi"s own deviation and deduction because he has tried to
understand the concept and spirit of the verse without the help of authentic and reliable traditions.
(1) Fakhre Raazi"s view can easily be rejected in the very first stage because it is not necessary for a Qur"anic verse
to be connected to its preceding or proceeding verse. There are innumerable examples in the Holy Qur"an which
prove our point. It is also proved that Qur"an is not arranged in the order of the verses. We are very confident in this
regard because there are many Meccan verses which are included in Medinite chapters and vice-versa.
To prove our point, we quote Suyuti: "There is unanimous conformity on this view that the arrangement of Qur"an is
"Tawqeefi" (i.e. on Allah"s and His messenger"s command) and there"s no doubt whatsoever in this regard. Therefore
a group of scholars of Qur"anic interpreters, especialy Zarakshi (of Durr-ul-Burhaan), Abu Jafar Zubair (of Munasebaat) have supported this view strongly.
Bin Zubair writes, "The verses were arranged in the chapters on the Prophet"s command. He (pbuh) had even gone to
the extent of teaching the companions how to place a verse, between which verses, etc."
(Al-Itqaan, vol. 1, page 24)
(2) Fakhre Raazi"s argument that the Holy Prophet (pbuh) feared the Jews and the Christians also seems highly
illogical. Because the Holy Prophet (pbuh) should have feared the Jews either in Mecca or just after be"sat or
immediately after migration. Not in the last year of his life, because in that period the Muslims had become very
powerful and held sway everywhere. Islam was the word throughoutArabia. Muslims had conquered one and all, be
it Jews or Christians. After the victory of Khaibar, two powerful Jewish tribes called Bani Quraitanah and Bani AlNazeer were brought to their knees. They could not even co-ordinate amongst each other. Therefore, to get scared of
the Jews at the time of Hajjatul Wada, seems highly improbable for the Holy Prophet (pbuh).

25 | P a g e

From the two proofs mentioned above, it is clear that Fakhre Raazi has ignored the tradition and used his own
opinion to interpret the Qur"anic verses. Also, contented with his ignorance, he has put Ghadir as the tenth
probability of the verse of conveyance.
Qurtubbi and Asqalaani, two great interpreters have accused the Shi"as in regard with the verse of conveyance.
Qurtubbi in his commentary vol. 6, page 242, writes about the verse," It is the duty of Prophet (pbuh) and the learned
scholars of his community, not to hide or conceal any divine verdict and God knew that the Prophet (pbuh) would
never conceal any of His commands. For, there is a tradition in Sahih Muslim narrated by Ayesha via Masruq that she
said to him: "Whoever says that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) has hidden even a part of revelation, he is telling a lie
because Allah says in the Qur"an "O messenger Convey..." May God curse the Raafezis (Shi"as) because they say
that the Prophet (pbuh) concealed some important revelations which he should"ve said and never conveyed..."
Similarly, Ibne Hajar Asqalaani in his commentary, "Fath-ul-Bari vol. 7, page 101, while expressing his enchantment
for accusations writes, "The Shias say that the Holy Prophet (pbuh) hid divine revelations due to dissimulation
How we wish that these two gentlemen had brought even single evidence from Shi"a source in support of their charge.
But where could they obtain these proofs from? Because they can never find such beliefs in any Shi"a book. Therefore,
they have used impeachment and indictment as their potent weapon.
We are making the whole Islamic world aware that these two gentlemen have resorted to false accusations and tried
to keep the true picture away from the people thereby prejudicing the minds of the following generations against the
Shias and Shiite beliefs. To take the incident of Hajjtul Weda lightly and not giving it its due importance is a clear
cut sign of malice against Hazrat Ali (pbuh) can never be a believer.
The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said,
"O Ali ! None loves you except a believer and none hates you except a hypocrite."

Jaameul Usool of Ibn Atheer Jozi vol. 9, page 473


Dhakhaaerul Uqba of Muhebbuddin Tabari, page 91

26 | P a g e


Aaloosi in his book, "Rooh-ul-Ma"aani" vol. 2, page 249, displaying his malice against Hazrat Ali (pbuh), writes:
"The Shias narrate from Abu Saeed Khidri that the verse of perfection of religion was revealed at Ghadeer-e-Khum
after the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said, "Of whomsoever I am the master, Ali is his master too." Then he (pbuh) said,
"God is Great. For the perfection of religion, completion of bounties, and the Lord is satisfied with my
messengership and Ali"s mastership after me." It"s not a secret that this story has been fabricated by the Shia"s and
this itself is a proof for its weakness. We cannot say that Aaloosi has uttered such inane words due to his ignorance
and lack of information because he is well-aware of the chains of narrations of the Ghadir tradition. But, his attempt
to conceal the facts clearly stinks of malice against Hazrat Ali (pbuh) and Ahle Bayt (pbuh) even though truth had
dawned upon him.
Will any courageous Sunni scholar please stand up and inform Mr. Aaloosi that Hadith of Ghadir has been recorded
by innumeable Sunni traditionalists and commentators narrating not only from Abu Saeed Khidri but from other great
companions like Abu Huraira, Jabir Bin Abdullah Ansaari, Bin Abbas etc.
Lastly, we would like to throw some light on the third verse.
Regarding the first verse of Surah Ma"aarij, "One questioner.,..." all the scholars, Shi"a and Sunni are unanimous in
their opinion about its commentary which we have mentioned earlier in this article. Here, we would only like to add
thatAllama Amini in his Al-Ghadir, vol. 2, page 127-137 has noted down the name of twenty-nine famous
interpreters who have narrated the story of a "fateful punishment."
Some of them are as follows:

Haafiz Abu Obaid Hirwi


Abu Bakr Naqqash Mosili


Abu Ishaq Sa"labi Neshapuri


Sibte Ibne Jauzi Hanafi


Shaykhul Islam Hamwini


Abu Bakr Yahya Qurtubbi


Ibn Sabbagh Maleki Makki


Shamsuddin Sherbeeni Qaheri Shafeii


Sayed Momin Shablanji

10. Shaykh Mohammad Abdoh

In this article, we have just hinted at the Qur"anic verses, views of its commentators and their mistakes. But
interpreting Qur"anic verses without the help of the Prophetic and Imamate traditions is like imagining a day without

27 | P a g e

Ghadir the Starting Point of

Imamate to Guide Mankind

On the day of Feast of Ghadir Khum, people came in groups to renew their pledge of allegiance with the Prophet
(PBUH) and swear allegiance with Imam Ali and also to congratulate Imam Ali on his appointment as successor to
the holy Prophet.
Gabriel descended saying I swear by God I have not seen any scene as magnificent as this. He confirmed the situation
of his cousin! Paid him a pledge of allegiance that only the unbelievers of God and His Prophet may break and cursed
those who break it!
In addition to declaring Imam Ali as his successor, the Prophet planned a line of succession on the day of Ghadir,
which disappointed the enemies until the Last Day. The religious mission was completed on this day: This day have
I perfected for you your religion and completed my favor on you and chosen for you Islam as religion. (5:3) God was
pleased with the Prophetic mission. Religion would become complete with Prophets declaration of the whole religion
in that gathering, including Imamate and Velayat.
Islam was completed because of confirmation of a succession line. On that occasion, not only Ali was declared as the
successor of the Prophet but also the glorious line of Imamate and Velayat was introduced to the world. Ali became
the Imam of all believers. God chose Islam to remain until the eternity because succession of Imam Ali disappointed
the enemies who thought Islam may fade by the departure of the Holy Prophet. The Prophet (PBUH) declared the line
of Imamate so that the religion of God may remain for times to come.
He introduced his line of succession from the children of Ali to be followed for salvation.
The Prophet (PBUH) declared repeatedly loving Ali and his children means loving me, and, hostility towards
them is hostility towards me.

28 | P a g e

The Closing Sermon of God's

Prophet on the pond of khome

1. Praise belongs to Allah, Who is Sublime in His Oneness, and He is with all beings in His Loneliness. Glorious is
He in His Domination, and He is great in His Foundations! His Knowledge encircles all beings without taking a move
or having a dwelling; He subdues everything with His Power and Reasoning! He has eternally been praised, and so
will be praised forever! There is no end to His Greatness, Dignity and Grandness; He is the Originator, Resurrector,
and to Him all things return.
2. He is the Maker of the heavens, as well the expander of the Earth, and He is Ruler over them; He is [beyond all
beings], and He is Glorified and Sanctified. So is He the Lord of the Angels, and the Spirit! He favors all creatures
that He has created! His Grace is expanded to all that He has created. He perceives the eyes [of all beings], while no
eyes can see Him; He is the most Generous, Patient and Calm. His Mercy cuddles the whole entity; He favors them
with His Bounty. He is Serene in His revenge, and is Patient to the pain-deserved!
3. He is Aware of the secrets, and is discerned of thoughts, the covered are discovered to Him, and the hidden manifest.
It is His to hold everything, and dominate it. The Source of strength is He, and is Powerful over everything. There is
no comparable unto Him.
It is He Who has created things out of absolute 'Nil'. He is Immortal, Alive, and is the Spreader of Justice; there is no
deity but Him, the Wise Almighty.
4. No eyes can see Him but he perceives all eyes; He is aware of the secrets [of men], and is informed of all things.
No one can attribute Him by means of seeing, and no one can appreciate His Being by His concealment or
manifestation, but only what the 'Glorified' wills us to know.
5. I testify that He is Alone God, the One Whose Sanctity has filled up the whole world; and His Light has
prevailed the Eternity! Without any counselor He enacts His proper Command, and has no ally in His
Providence; and without aid, He does His plans and measures.
6. Without an initial plan for creation, He has shaped and fashioned all beings with help of no one with no effort,
not thinking about, and without having had recourse, He has brought the world to being from Nil, His will has
brought them to existence.
Thus, He is God, the Almighty; there is none as a deity but Him! It is He Whose Artistry is solid and firm, and [the
Structure of His] Work is fair! He is Just; He does not commit oppression, and He is so generous that to Him return
all things.

29 | P a g e

7. And I testify that He is God that all beings humble before His Dignity, and all are debased before His Glory;
everything bows as submission before His Power, and all things are in state of humility before His tremendous and
impressive Majesty!
8. He is the King of all beings, and the roller of the encircling heavens, He submits the sun and the moon to His bid
to move just according to a time limit. He rolls up the night in the day; moreover, He wraps up the day into night
which each goes rapidly: one after other, (The Heights: 7/54). He is the destroyer of any oppressive tyrant, and the
eliminator of the rebellious, insurgent demon!
9. There is neither an opponent for Him, nor is anyone equal to Him. He is the One Who needs none! He is not born,
and He has not given birth to anyone, there is nothing comparable unto Him; (The Sincerity: 112). He is the Unique
God, and the Glorious Lord. He wills, and carries out! He intends, and ordains, He is All-Knowing, and thus, He
calculates [things]. He gives life and sends death. He impoverishes [one] and enriches [another], He sends mirth or
makes one cry; He draws closer or moves away; He forbids [one] then grants! To Him belongs the Sovereignty, and
to Him go all praises and lauds! And He is Capable of [doing] everything.
10. He merges the night into the daylight, and the daylight into the nigh. There is no God but Him, Who is Glorious
and Forgiving. He answers the appeals and fulfills prayers, grants abundantly and counts the numbers of breaths; He
is the Lord of Jinn and Mankind, nothing is baffling to Him.
The cries of the criers do not distress Him, nor does the insistence of those who insist, bother Him! He is the Guardian
of the pious, and the Assistant of the righteous; the Guardian of the believers, and the Lord of the universe! He deserves
to be praised and glorified by all those have been created.
11. I greatly thank, and eternally praise Him: not only in tranquility or in hardship, nor in extreme difficulty, but also
in peace and serenity. I believe in Him and His Angels, in His Scriptures, and His Messengers! I heed His Commands
and obey Him. I hasten to do whatever pleases Him, and I submit myself to His Command for I am inclined to obey
Him, and I fear His chastisement. For indeed: He is such a God that no one remains safe from His Astuteness; and no
one fears His Injustice (for there comes no injustice from Him)!
12. And now, I confess to my servitude to Him, so do I confess to the Divinity of His: and I carry out my duty
concerning the Revelation has announced to me, in fear that if I were not to execute it, such a torment might
befall on me that no one could eliminate it even though having a great astuteness, and his friendship be sincere
[to me]! There is no God but Him, for He has announced to me that if I do not proclaim to you [the Fact] that
concerning Ali, (peace be upon him) has been stated to me, I have not fulfilled my mission as a Messenger of
God. And God has guaranteed me of His protection against the people's corruption, for God is Generous, allSufficient.
So, God has revealed to me thus:
In the name of Allah (Who's) the most Merciful Bountiful
(O Messenger of Us)!
Announce this Message that; to you
Being sent from your Great Lofty Lord:
[Regarding Ali and Command of Ali]
Or else, then you have not carried
Your own task as a right Messenger of His;
DEFENDER, from reproach of men, God is. (The Table: 5/67)

30 | P a g e

13. O people! I have not been neglectful about publicizing what has been delivered to me by God. Now, I am to
explain to you the cause of the Revelation of this Verse: Gabriel, bearing His Command, came down to me thrice from
Peace, the Creator for only He is [the source of] Peace he brought it to me that to stand amid this vast mass and
deliver God's Command.

Now, I announce you the colored or white that: Ali, the son of Talib, is [A.S] a brother to me, and he is my
executor, and successor to lead my people as an Imam after me! His relation to me is as Aaron to Moses is,
except for no other messengers will follow me. After God and His Messenger, Ali is going to be your Conserver,
and God has sent down a Verse saying: Verily, your Guardian is Only God, His Messenger and the believers
who pray and pay alms while are bowing down, (The Table: 5/55). Surely it is Ali who did set up prayer, and
while bowing [down to pray], paid out alms, and always sought the Will of Almighty God.
14. And I asked Gabriel to beseech Almighty God so that He may discharge me from this duty of mine, because I
well knew the scarcity of the virtuous, but the excess of the deceivers; and the vices of the blamers, as well who scald,
and the deceit of those who insult Islam those whom God has defined in His Book that: They say what does not
exist in their hearts, and they take it of very little importance, while it is of the utmost importance to God, (The Light:
15. Also because the frauds have always annoyed me, and have called me: He is all ears, listening to every word! [It
was] just because of Ali's following me, and because of my deep attachment to him, and my fond attention toward
him, and because of my approval of him. It was until then God sent this Verse down saying: And of those some annoy
Messenger and say, "He is only an ear." [But o Messenger] say: "An ear, yes, but it is good for you; for he [listens
but to the Revelations of God], which is of your benefit. [He] believes [in God], and trusts [the believers] taking
them all the serious righteous. Surely for them is a painful chastisement (The Repentance: 9/61).
Had I wished, I could name those who use these words, or I could point them out to you one by one; and had I wished,
I could lead you to them but I swear to God that I have behaved gracefully and generously towards them.
16. But, despite this, God may not be pleased with me if I do not let you know what has been revealed to me, about
Ali, [then he recited God's Words]:
O Messenger! Announce what has been sent down to you from Your Lord [about Ali, (peace be upon him). And if
you do not then, you would not have fulfilled your duty as the Messenger of God. Surely God protects you from the
annoyance of the mischievous people; (The Table: 5/67).
17. O People! Know that this Verse is about him: so perceive it thoroughly and know that God has picked him as
your Defender, and appointed him as your 'Leader'. His obedience is bound to the Immigrants, the Allies, and those
who obey them in fairness; so is for the villagers and the citizens, the non-Arabs as well the Arab clans, and for the
free men and the servants; for all young, old, black and white, and for every Monotheist whosoever!

31 | P a g e

You are bound to achieve his decision and word, and to obey his instruction! Whosoever opposes him is damned; and
whosoever obeys him and regards, receives the Grace of God. God delivers and forgives whosoever gives ear and
obeys him!
18. O people! It is my final rising in such a [huge] gathering. Thus, listen, and then obey well [the Words of] God!
And submit yourselves to His Command! For God Almighty is your Master and your Lord; and after God, your Master
is the Messenger of God, the Prophet, who is at present calling out to you. And after me, according to the Divine
Command, Ali is your Master, and your Leader, [Imam]. Then after him, the Leadership will be preserved, and
perpetuated in my progeny, by his lineage, until the Day of Judgment when you come to encounter your God and His
19. Nothing is lawful but whatever God and His Messenger, and the Imams permit; and nothing is forbidden to you,
unless God, and His Messenger, as well as Ali, and the next Imams forbid it. God, glory to Him in the highest, has
stated to me all about permissible and the forbidden, and whatever lawful and unlawful that God has taught me in His
Book, I have put it all in Alis disposal.
20. O people! Prefer [the superiority of] Ali to others, for there is no knowledge that God has offered me, and then,
I have offered it to Ali, the Leader of the believers all knowledge of mine has been transferred to him. He is the The
clarifying Leader (Imam-e-Moabin); so doubtless that it is said in (Yaasin: 36/12), Thus We have accounted, the
knowledge of all things in the Exposing Book of Guidance!

21. O people! Never forget him, and do not deviate from his Leadership, and do not violate his guardianship.
He is one, who guides you to path of Truth, and he himself does all what he discloses; he ruins lies, deceits, and
he bars artifice. Never can the reproaches of who blame [annoy and bother, or] cease him in his way!
22. He is the first man to believe in God, and to His right Messenger who believed was Ali; no one has ever beaten
him In His Doctrine!
It was he who put his soul in danger for the sake of Messenger, and he adored him. It was he who was always next to
the Messenger of Almighty God, and prayed God along with Him it was no one but Ali.
23. Ali is the first man to establish prayer with me. I informed him of Gods Command that to lie on my bed, [on the
Night of Immigration], so did he accepted to sacrifice his soul for me.
Bid him I, to lie in bed of mine, the Night
Threatened hazard me he did with delight,
He did sacrifice soul of his for me, and
Away journeyed I, dim within, off the Land.
24. O people! Honor him greatly; for God Almighty has honored him do accept the Bid, for the Almighty God
has chosen him as the Imam.

32 | P a g e

25. O people! He has been picked as Imam by God; therefore, He does not accept the repentance of the deniers. It is
the absolute Gods will on those opposing Truth. Beware of opposing him in ill-will, or you will be caught up by the
Fire whose fuel is stones and stone-men that have been prepared for all faith-rejecters!
26. O people! I swear to Almighty God that the bygone messengers have announced Fact, about my coming: now
here, I am proof for the whole world on the earth, and in the heavens. Accordingly who doubts about my rightfulness,
he will be among the early ignorance. And one who doubts about my todays percept, will doubt the entire
REVELATIONS, and one who doubts about one of the Imams, he doubts not one of them but all! And the denier:
i.e. those who doubt Us, will be dwelt within the Fire.
27. O people! God has extremely honored me, and bestowed His immense favors upon me, and know that, There is
no deity but Him! And know that all praise, through all Eternity, and in all occasions belongs to Him only.
28. O people! Honor Ali, for he is indeed the best of men next to me among you, men and women! This will continue
until the creatures exist on land and until God sends His provision to man! May one be damned, may damned thus!
May one be buried in Wrath, in Divine Wrath: who refuses [listening to] my say, or agrees not with what I have just
Know that Gabriel brought me this news of God, [saying]: "One who rises against Ali, and does not accept his
Leadership, then, let My wrath, and My course fall upon that type. It is just for a man to see what [good or bad] he
has forwarded for his tomorrow Next Day. Thus, fear God, for by opposing Ali, lest your foot may slip after it is
planted and found root! For indeed God is Aware of everything you do!
29. O people! He is indeed the one next to God, and God has remarked about whom, in His Lofty Book, and He has
stated about those who oppose him: Alas! How negligence I was at neighborhood of Allah!
30. O people! Do deeply reflect on the Holy Qur'an, and try to catch the Verses sense and comprehend, then try to
observe the even Verses of its, but do not dazzle at resembled Verses. By God! Whatever is deeply rooted in it, and
the true meaning and the sense of its cannot be well explained to man, except by this man that I am holding his hand
high; now I announce that: Whomsoever I am master to, so is this Ali to him master!
And he is none but Ali, the son of Talib, my brother, my successor and my help, whose Leaderships Decree, has been
sent to me from God, Almighty:

31. O people! It is obvious that Ali and my pure descendants born in this family represent the minor benefit,
and the Qur'an represents major. Either of these two heralds, and relates to another, or they are in harmony
with one another: they will not separate from each other until they come to me at Koathar, (on that Certain
Day)! Let it be known that: they are the Trustees of God among His creatures, and are rulers by His Command
on the earth.
32. Thus, know that I have done my duty, and let it be known that I have conveyed the communiqu, and made you
hear the truth, and brightened you about. Let it be known that it was God Word and I repeated it on His behalf:

33 | P a g e

33. Thus, let it be known that except this brother of mine, no one can be called the Lord of the Believers, who is here
[as] a brother with me. And let it be known that: after I am gone, the title of, The Lord of the Believers is not allowed
to be used by any one except for him!
34. Then he added: O people! Who is to you, in most privilege than you yourselves? They said, It is God, and His
prophet you. So he said, Now let it be known that, Whosoever I am a master to, so is Ali his master. Then he
added: O Lord: please love those who love his Authority, and be the enemy to one who is his enemy. And assist one
who helps him, but do not support one who holds him apart.
35. O people! This is Ali, [as] my brother, executor and so is he my [aide and] Knowledge keeper! And he is my
successor for my people who, believe in me, and he is my successor who aided me in the interpretation of the Book
of God, and he is the one who will invite people to that. He puts into practice whatever pleases God, and he makes
war against the enemies of His. And he befriends those who believe in Him, and forbids the things outlawed by Him.
36. It is he, who is the successor of the Messenger of God; the Lord of the Believers, and the Imam who guides
[people] by the Command of God; and by His Command, he destroys those wicked who break their oaths, the vicious
who turn away from goodness and righteousness and those heretic who ran away from the religion!
37. God Almighty States: My Word of Promise never displaces.
O Lord! Thus I say according to Your Command: O Lord! Love those who love this Ali, and be foe to them, who
are the foes of Ali, assist those who enjoy assisting Ali and abase him who declines to help this Ali. Do curse
whosoever disavows him, and send Your Wrath upon them!
38. O Lord! When You Yourself appointed Ali as the Guardian, You sent down this Verse about him and announced:
Today, I have perfected your religion for you, and I have completed my Blessing upon you, and I have approved
Islam as Religion for you; (The Table: 5/3). And also You stated: In fact, religion in sight of God is Islam, (The
Family of Imran: 3/9); You also stated: And whoever chooses any religion other than Islam, it will not be accepted
from him, and in the Hereafter, he will be among the losers, (The Family of Imran 3/85).
39. O Lord! I take You as a Witness that I uttered people Your Command.
40. O people! God, glory to Him in the highest, has completed Religion with the Leadership of Ali. Thus, those who
do not show their submission to him, and his successors, who are my progeny, and born from his lineage and are going
to continue until the Day of Resurrection, their actions will become useless in this world and in the world to come.
And they shall remain in the Eternal Flame, so that not a single torment will be reduced from them, and no delay is
granted to them. (The Cow: 2/161)
41. O people! This Ali is the most useful, and deserving, and the closest, as well is the dearest one to me! God Almighty
and I are most pleased with him. Not a Verse of God's Satisfaction yet has been revealed, unless he is the subject of
it, and He did called out to the believers, unless he was the first among to be called out! And there has been no Verse
of praise unless Ali was meant. And in Chapter (Man: 76/1), Hl t Illl Ens n, Has a period of time not come
over man ) God has mentioned heaven only for him; He has not revealed it or praised anyone but him.
42. O people! He is the helper of the Religion of God,
So is he the defender of the Messenger of God;
He is the most pious, pure, and a sincere guide
To the Straight Path, to God he will guide.
Your Messenger is the best Messenger,
And his executor is the best executor,

34 | P a g e

So are his descendants the best executors!

O people! The descendants of every prophet continue with his discordance, but my breed yet will be perpetuated
with Ali's descendants, who are the believers Leader [and Attendant]!
43. O people! Indeed, with his jealousy, Satan chased away Adam from Paradise, thus, for God's sake, be not jealous
of Ali, lest your deeds are rejected, and your steps slip. Adam was sent down to the earth for a single fault, while he
was, in fact, the chosen one, by God; thus, how will it come to you? While you are no other than yourselves; and the
enemies of God are also among you!

44. Know that no one becomes Ali's enemy, but who is cruel, and no one accepts his Leadership but one who is
prospers and pious, and no one, but a virtuous believes him. I swear to God that the Chapter of (wl-sr:
103/1-2) has been sent down in regard with Ali, [which goes as]: In the name of Allah (Whos) the most Merciful
By the Era, (i.e.wl-sr), that man is indeed at a loss. Except for those, as Ali, who believes, and is first class.
45. O people! I took God as my Witness that I have delivered His Message to you, and The duty and the mission of
a Messenger is but to make known God's Messages and to proclaim them the things crystal clear! (The Spider: 29/18,
The Light: 24/54).
46. O, people! Be heedful of God in such a way that He deserves, and try to be honorable Muslims and then die. (The
Family of Imran: 3/102).
47. O people! Believe in God and believe in His Messenger and in the Glorious [Book] which has been sent down
with him, (Haggling: 64/8), before We blot out the faces and turn them backwards; or curse them as We cursed the
People of the Sabbath [The Jews who were to act wittingly against God] (The Woman: 4/47).
I swear to God that the true sense of this Verse is referred to a group of my companions whose names I know, but it
is pity, I have been asked not to reveal their identity. Thus, behave you according to your hearts pleasure whatever
you feel: of love or hatred towards Ali.
48. O people! The Light, by God Almighty, is put inside me, and then inside Ali, and then inside his lineage, until
Mahdi, the Upright, who shall demand the Divine Right as well our right. For God has put us as an irrefutable Proof,
before those who are careless, and disprove us; who are throughout the world as: traitors, usurpers, sinners, tyrants,
and oppressors!
49. O people! I announce that I am Gods Messenger and before me, there were also other messengers. So, what if I
should pass away, or be killed? Will you return backwards turn on your heels? For one who turns backward, will
not harm God, and God will reward those who are thankful and patient! (The Family of Imran: 3/144).
50. And know that indeed Ali, and after him my progeny, all from his linage, are perfect and deserve being

35 | P a g e

51. O people! Do stop, and do not impress me the Islam you have embraced for your own, (The Chambers: 49/17),
such action will indeed damage all your acts; and Almighty God will be annoyed with you. Then He will involve you
in the Flame of Fire and the melted bronze, (The Mercy giving: 55/35), that is kept in store for you. For indeed God
is on the look-out for you! (The Daybreak: 89/14).
52. O people! Soon after me, there will come to you some leaders, who will call you enter the Fire, then, on that Day
of Judgment, there is no assistant to rise for their aid! (The Narration: 28/41).
53. O people! Know that both God and I detest such crowd.
54. O people! These men along with their disciples, and their companions and their followers, will be thrown in the
lowest part of the Fire; see how horrible is the place of such proud! (The Bees: 16/29).
55. Know that they are the followers of Manuscript, thus, now each of you should look at his own manuscript.
56. O people! Now, I leave to you, [as documentation], the issue of the Leadership, and the succession, and its
perpetuation in my lineage until the Day of Resurrection; I have passed on to you what I have been said to
disclose, so that it becomes as a clear argument for those who are present and those who are absent; for thosewho are here or not here-and those who are born, or even not born. Thus, those present today, should make
this news known to those who are absent, that is, fathers [should tell it to] their sons, until the Day the
Resurrection rises!
57. But soon after I am gone, there will be some who shall unfairly take the Leadership by force, then replace it with
Monarchy. May God damn the usurpers and those who take [the trusteeships] by force, but, of course, when, at that
moment, God unleashes the infernal Fire, and melted bronze on you, the jinn and Mankind, you will not have a helper
to be kind to you! (The Mercy giving; 55 / 31-35).
58. O people! God will not leave you on your own, except He has separated the pure from the impure; and God will
not let you know of the Unseen, (The Family of Imran: 3/179).
59. O people! There shall remain not a single land, which has not been destroyed by Gods Will before the coming of
the Resurrection Day, it is for the abjurations and the denials that their inhabitants will have pronounced, and their
places will be under the government of his holiness Mahdi, and God Almighty fulfills His Promise!
60. O people! Before your era, the most people of the older times went astray, and it was Gods will to destroy them
all, and again it will be He Who will eliminate the on-coming generations. God Almighty, in His Book, has stated:
Did We not destroy the despots of the old? So shall We do with the later generations after them. Thus We deal with
the men of errors. Ah! Woe that Day, to the Rejecters! (The Emissaries: 77/19).
61. O people! God has stated me His exemption and restriction of certain things, and I also, by Divine Command,
have ordained Ali the knowledge of it, and forbidden him [some things]. And [thus] the knowledge of ordaining and
forbidding, remains with him; therefore, listen to his commands, so that to be safe, and obey him so as you may get
on the course. Accept his Warning, so that to find the right direction, and walk on towards his ultimate destination!
[Thus, beware] so as not to draw away from His Path into the diverted paths! (Livestock: 6/153).
62. O people! I am the Straight Path of God, whom He has ordained you to follow; and after me, it is Ali, and
then my discordance, who shall be the Leaders of the Guidance and will guide you to the righteousness and
Then the Messenger of God announced:
In the name of Allah, (Who's) the most Merciful Bountiful

36 | P a g e

Praise be to God only Lord of the worlds,

The Source of Grace, Mercy, Fair, and the Force,
Ruler of the Day when Repayments begin,
Owner of the Day when the Decrees given!
Alone You we worship, You only the Wise,
From You the Sublime we ask for the rise,
Lead us into Direct Path of all the roads,
The Path of the Right, for repayment, You chose,
Not of those who were dishonored, neither those
Disowned by Your anger; thrown off the course! (The Opening: 1-7).
And then he continued:
This Verse has been sent down regarding me, and the Imams are appointed and included in it. They are Gods Friends,
and indeed they do not fear nor will they grieve! (Jonah: 10/62).
Ah, of course the party of God is victorious! (The Heavenly Food: 5/56).
63. Know that the enemies of the Imams are nothing but ignorant, who have been led astray from the Direct Path; they
are the Demons allies, who bring nothing to people but bothering, insignificant and useless things, (Livestock: 6/112).
64. Know that God, in His Book, has expressed about the friends of the Imam, thus: (O Prophet,) you find not a
people believing in God, and the Last Day, yet showing love for those who oppose God, and His Messenger even if
they are their own fathers, sons, their brothers or anyone from their family connection. With such [people], God has
engraved faith on their hearts. Assisted them with the spirit of His Own, and He will admit them into the gardens
where streams flow by their trees, to live in [forever]. God will be pleased with them, and they are pleased with Him.
They are the lovers of God. Ah! Victorious are the lovers of God! (The Pleading Woman: 58/22).
65. Know that the friends of the Imams are those believers who have been described in the Quran, as: Those who
have believed and not cloaked their faith in transgressing will feel more secure and will be guided. (Livestock: 6/82).
66. Know that their friends are those who have achieved firm faith, and they have never doubted. (The Chambers:
67. Know that the Imams friends are these who shall enter Paradise in peace, in great security, and the Angels will
move humbly to their encounter to greet them thus: Peace upon you! You are purified, so then enter forever into
Paradise! (The Rocky Tract: 15/46).
68. Know that Paradise is the reward of their friends, where they shall receive extra provision. (The Believer: 40/40).
69. Know that their enemies will enter the Fire, (The Woman: 4/10),
70. and will hear the moaning and groaning flames, while the infernal Flames roars and blazes; they will hear afflicting
horrible cries. (The Kingdom: 67/7).
71. Know that God has stated about their enemies, Every time, when a nation enters the Fire, it will curse its own
kind, as the Quran says, Until when they have all caught up with one another, the last ones will say about the first
ones: Lord, these (people) have misled us, so give them double chastisement from the Fire! [O Prophet,] say: Each
will have double, but you do not realize it. (The Heights: 7/38).

37 | P a g e

72. Know that the enemies of the Imams are those about whom God has stated as this: When a group of them
is cast into Fire, the Hell keepers, will ask them: "Did a Warner not come to you?" They will reply: yes indeed,
a Warner came to us, but we denied any of them, saying: God has not revealed you anything and you are in a
gross error. Then they say: Had we listened to their advice and used our reason, we would have not been
among the inhabitants of this Hell!
After confessing their sins, it will be said to them: So away with the abiders of the blazing Fire! (The Kingdom:
73. Know that their friends fear their Lord in secret, thus, there will be immense reward for them. (The Kingdom:
74. O people! How great is the gap between the Fire, and the great reward!
75. O people! God has damned and degraded our enemies but, He loves and praises our [close] friends.
76. O people! Know that I am here to warn you, and Ali is the man who will guide you!
77. Know that, I am a Warner and Ali is a Guide.
78. O people! Know that I am a Messenger, and Ali is my immediate successor.
79. O people! Know that I am the Messenger, and Ali is, after I am gone, my successor, and the holy Imams following
him, his descendants are all of them.
And let it be known that I am their father, and they are Alis lineage, one after another!
80. Know that the last Imam, Mahdi, the Upright, is from us,
He shall dominate over the entire religions.
Lo! As he shall take revenge from the oppressors, therefore,
he is the victorious destroyer of the castles!
Lo! He is the conqueror of all the-lack-of-religion, and their Guide!
81. Lo! He takes revenge for blood shed from the men of God!
Lo! He will assist the religion of God!
82. Know that, upon great measure, he shall seize [the Divine Knowledge] from the deep sea!
Know that! He shall reward every well-informed, by measure of his knowledge, and does so with the uninformed, by
the measure of his ignorance!
Lo! He is great, and has been chosen by God!
Lo! He is the heir of all Knowledge, and he seizes upon all comprehension.
83. Know that he breaks the news from His God, and elevates the Divine Verses [in proud]!
Know that he is upright and pride.
Lo! It is he that the entire authorities have been given to.
84. Lo! All bygones had foretold of his "Revelation".

38 | P a g e

85. Lo! It is he who shall remain as an irrefutable Proof, for there will be, after him, not any proof. Faith and honesty,
and light and glint are with him only.
86. Know that no one could defeat him, and those who are facing him, wont be assisted.
Know that! He is the representative of God on Earth, so is he the Judge among His creatures, and he is the Honest
Trustee of His over the hidden and manifest.
87. O people! I have illuminated you of Gods Meaning, and made you comprehend everything, and after I am gone,
it is Alis duty to make you know [how to do your duty].
88. Now, after my sermon is ended, I shall invite you, as a sign of your faithfulness, to shake my hand, then Alis
hand, as a sign of surrendering to him and accepting his Leadership!
89. Know that I have sworn with God an allegiance and Ali has sworn with me an allegiance; and now, on
behalf of God the Mighty, Majestic [Himself], I shall ask for your allegiance with Ali: [O Messenger!] For
sure, those who swear allegiance with you, in fact, they swear allegiance with God: God's Hand is above their
hands; for any person, who breaks his oath, he does harm to his own soul; and anyone who fulfills his oath with
God, he will be bestowed a great reward by God."
90. O people! Pilgrimage to the House or visiting it is among God's religious rites; so let the pilgrims to Hajj or
Umreh go round about them more. Anyone who voluntarily does some more good and decent deeds, God is indeed
All-aware Appreciative. (The Cow: 2/158).
91. O people! Set out for the Pilgrimage in the House of God! For no one would enter the Gods House, without
becoming free of needs, and rejoicing; and no one would turn away from It, without becoming poor and abolished!
92. O people! No believer shall stop at the Regions [of Arrafat-Mash'ar and Mina to fulfill the rites], unless God
forgives his previous sins, but fate is that when his Pilgrimage, [Hajj], is completed, he makes a new start.
93. O people! Upon the Hajj pilgrims, the pilgrims are bestowed help, and they are compensated whatever they spend,
for indeed, God does not waste away the reward of the virtuous!
O people! Journey to visit the House of God as pilgrims, with a perfect faith, and with a great grasp and knowledge!
And do not ever come back from such holy Land, unless feeling quite repentance [in heart], and promising to stop
committing sins:
94. O people! Perform prayer, and pay the due welfare tax, as God Almighty has ordained you to act; but if a long
time has passed, and you have neglected or forgotten [them], then, Ali is your master, and he shall explain to you what
to do. He is the very man that God Almighty has set up as His certain trustee after I am gone. He is from me, so am I
from him.
He, as well as all those who will come to the world from my lineage, will answer to all your needs, and will let you
know whatever you do not know.
95. Know that the count of permissible and forbidden things is much more than I could reckon, and to present them
to you in one single session: [but only know that] the permissible things are ordained to you, and the prohibited things
are forbidden.
Therefore, I have been commanded to take your allegiance, and that you swear it with me, and shake hands with me,
so that what I have declared you about Ali, the Lord of the believers, on God's behalf, and his successors who will
follow him. The ones who shall be coming from my lineage, but also from the Leadership and his lineage; this
Leadership is designated alone for them; and the last Leader will be His Holiness Mahdi, until the Day he shall
meet the Lord of the Providence and Fate!

39 | P a g e

96. O people! In regard with all permissible things I have guided you to follow, and the forbidden things that I have
prohibited you, there is no change at all, nor have I ever transformed them to other detail. Remember it well, keep it
in your mind, and talk about this subject, and give councils to one another about it and try not to change, nor transform
I repeat what I have just told you: perform your prayer, and do pay the due welfare tax, encourage one another to do
deeds which are good, and forbid whatever is forbidden and not good.
97. But let it be known that the greatest act of goodness is to understand deeply what I have just expressed, and to
relay this to those who have not been present here today, and to invite them to accept this from me, and to forbid them
to oppose or object to me! For, this is a Command coming from God Almighty, and from me; and no invitation to do
good, nor any prohibition of unlawful deeds will be accomplished or done, unless with the presence of an innocent

98. O people! The Holy Quran makes it known to you that the Imams, who shall come after Ali, will be his
progeny descendants, as I told you before, they are Alis or my dependants all are from him and I. For He
has put it in His Book thus: He assigned the creed of Leadership among those who will follow him, (The
Ornament: 43/28). I have also said that as long as you seize these two, the Imams and the Quran you shall
you go astray!
99. O people! Take care of your piety, [again] piety! And beware of the Hour of the Resurrection Day, as God Himself
has said: The Shaking of that awful Hour is a terrible thing (Pilgrimage: 22/1).
100. Do remember the Death, and the Divine Balances, and Reckoning in the presence of the Lord of the Reward,
and Punishment! Whosoever brings good deeds with him, shall receive his share of Reward, and whosoever with him
brings his sins, will not have any share [to enjoy] in Paradise.
101. O people! You are too many to shake hands with me now! On the other hand, my Lord has commanded me to
receive your oath and "word regarding with Ali, Lord of believers, that I have declared; and about the Imams who
shall come after him, as well those from my lineage and his lineage then as I already defined it to you: they are my
descendants, and are his lineage.
102. Therefore, say it altogether: We did indeed hear your word and obey thus, and we are quite pleased, and shall
submit us to what you have made known to us, with respect from our Lord, and from your part, about this subject of
Ali, the Lord of the believers, and the Imams who will be born from his Breed. We swear allegiance with you, with
our hearts, souls, tongues and our hands that we will live with this belief, and leave this world with this belief, and so
will we rise on the Day of Judgment!
And we will not change it, nor will we transform it; we will not have any doubt, nor will we deny it; we will not let
doubts or hesitations enter our heart, nor will we turn away from this oath, or break our covenant regarding what you

40 | P a g e

have advised us with the Divine Preaching, Ali, Lord of the believers, and the Imams who will come after him; Hassan
and Hussein; and the ones whom God has appointed to come after them.
Thus, a pledge and a covenant have been taken from us, and we have done it with our hearts, souls, tongues, minds
and hands. Then, one who was able, pledged by shaking hands, but if not, with his tongue. And never shall we change
this oath, or God may not Witness any transformation from us...! We shall make this news from you known to all
those who are [either] close to us, or far from us: to our kids and relatives; and we shall take God as our Witness! And
God is Sufficient in this evidence, and you are, in this oath, our witness.
103. O people, what do you say now? God indeed hears every single call, and is aware of any hidden thought going
on in your minds! Thus, whosoever receives guidance, it is for his benefit, and whosoever goes astray, it is only to his
deficit. (The Throngs: 39/41).
And those who swear allegiance to you, they swear allegiance to God, for God's hand rests above their hands, (The
Victory: 48/10).
104. O people, now, swear allegiance with God, and swear so with me; and swear allegiance with Ali, the Lord of the
believers, and do swear allegiance with Hassan and Hussein, as well with the Imams who will surely follow them
those who hold ceaseless commands in this world and the world to come.
God certainly destroys those who tread on their oath, but He bestows His Grace upon those who are loyal and true.
Therefore, one who breaks his oath, he abuses his soul, but one who fulfills his oath with God, God bestows on him a
great Reward [of His]! (The Victory: 48/10).
105. O people! Repeat what I have told you to do, and greet Ali, as a great man who is The Lord of the believers,
and confess: We heard and obeyed! O our Lord, so, we beg Your Forgiveness, and our return is toward You! (The
Cow: a part of 285).
And say: All praise is to God Who led us to this; or else, we would never have been guided if God had not led us on.
Surely the messengers brought (us) the Truth. (The Heights: 7/43).
106. O people! The virtues of Ali, the Son of Talib, with God Almighty, Who has counted in the Holy Quran,
are in certainly too many for me to cite them to you in this gathering! So, you should approve and confirm
those who ground you of these qualities, and have the grasp of them!
107. O people! Whoever obeys God and His Messenger, and Ali, and the Imams, whom I have mentioned to you
earlier, will achieve the greatest salvation! (The Coalition: 33/71).
108. O people! Those who anticipate, [being the first candidate], to swear him allegiance and to accept his
Guardianship, and to greet him as the Lord of the Believers, will attain Salvation, and will dwell in the Gardens of
109. O people! Say such a word that it satisfies God, for even if you, and all dwellers on the Earth, become unbelievers,
no harm approaches God.
110. O God! Forgive those believers who believe in what I have commanded them to! And be wrathful against all
those who deny, and the heretic sinners and:

41 | P a g e

Our Opportunity to Obey the

Prophet & Imam Ali
Here we see that people get the opportunity to obey the present Imam even if he misses the time of the previous Imam.
People got the opportunity to obey and serve the Imams of their respective times. Similarly we have got the opportunity
to obey and serve the 12th Imam (aj).
By this we can undo the past errors of the previous generations. We may wonder that Ali (a.s.) cannot be followed
directly now because of his absence and the obedience required vis--vis the event of Ghadir cannot be apparently
accomplished. But the truth is we can still accomplish, that obedience; by finding out & obeying the orders of the 12
successors & by submitting to the orders of the Imam (aj), the final vicegerent of Ali (a.s.),who is sitting at the position
of Ali (a.s.) today.
For increased benefits of the Imam (aj) we should be true expectants of the re-appearance of the Imam (aj). For with
the re-appearance of the Imam (aj) we will receive justice and all the past errors will be set right by the Imam (a.s.).
But be the true expectants of the Imam (aj) we should at least take care of the following:
1. Acquire Marifat -True recognition of the Imam (aj) - Since everything starts with the true recognition without which
it is impossible to proceed and obey him.
Acquire Marifat -True recognition of the Imam (aj)

2. Learning our duties and submitting to the words of Imam (aj) - We must first learn our duties and then also find out
& follow the words of the Imam (aj). If we do not follow the words of the Imam (aj) then what will be the difference
between us and those who disobeyed the words of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) proclaimed at Ghadir?
3. Educating others about religion - Since Imam (aj) will be acting on a society basis and not only on an individual
basis, it is necessary that we educate others so as to form a more conducive society for the Imam (aj).
4. Awaiting the reappearance - we should await every moment that the Imam (aj) will reappear and hence should be
prepared to participate in the revolution of Imam (a.s.).
Awaiting the reappearance - we should await every moment that the Imam (aj)
5. Pray for the relief - There are 2 benefits in this praying, one is that before the social relief happens, our own
individual relief will take place immediately. Second is that ,we will have our vital role to play in the social relief

42 | P a g e

43 | P a g e

Ghadir in respect of the

Present Imam (a.s.)

After all the painstaking efforts we are unmistakably able to conclude that the present problems of the Muslim Ummah
are originally due to the mistakes and falsehood of the previous generation and not the present.
This root of all falsehood is the disregard of the Holy Prophets (s.a.w.a.) words when he appointed Ali (a.s.) at
Now if we would like to correct the error that had taken place in the earlier times, then Allah (s.w.t.) has given
opportunity to us. After Ali (a.s.) there are 11 more vicegerents. Like the tradition specifies:
Sheikh Sulayman Balkhi Hanafi in his Yanabiul-Mawadda, ch. 76, reports from Faraidus-Simtain of Hamwaini,
who reports from Mujahid, who reports from Ibn Abbas, that a Jew named Nathal came to the Holy Prophet and
asked him questions about Tawhid (Unity of Allah). The Holy Prophet answered his questions and the Jew embraced
Islam. Then he said: O Holy Prophet, every prophet had a wasi (vicegerent). Our Prophet, Moses Bin Imran, made a
will for Yusha Bin Nun. Please tell me who is your wasi? The Holy Prophet said:
My vicegerent is Ali Bin Abi Talib; after him are Hasan, and Husain and after them are nine Imams, who are
the successive descendants of Husain.
Nathal asked the Holy Prophet the names of those Imams. The Holy Prophet said: After Husain, his son, Ali, will
be the Imam; after him his son, Muhammad; after him his son, Jafar; after him his son Musa; after him his son, Ali;
after him his son, Muhammad; after him his son, Hasan; after him his son, Muhammad Mahdi will be the last Imam.
There will be twelve Imams.
In addition to the names of the nine Imams, this hadith further states that each would succeed as Imam after his father.
Nathal made further inquiries, and the Holy Prophet described the manner of death of each Imam.
Then Nathal said, I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that you are His Holy Prophet. I bear witness that
these twelve holy Imams are your vicegerents after you. What you have said is exactly what is recorded in our books
and in the will of Moses.
Then the Holy Prophet said:

44 | P a g e

Paradise is for him who loves them and obeys them, and Hell is for him who is hostile to them and opposes
Nathal then recited some couplets to the effect that May Allah, the Exalted, shower His blessings upon you, chosen
Prophet and pride of the Bani Hashim. Allah has guided us by means of you and the twelve holy men whom you have
named. Certainly Allah has purified them and preserved them from impurity. He who loves them is successful. He
who hates them is the loser. The last of the Imams will quench the thirst of the thirsty. He is the one the people will
wait for. Prophet of Allah, your progeny is a blessing for me and for all the believers. Those who turn away from them
will soon be thrown into Hell.

45 | P a g e

Peoples Oath Of Allegiance

to Ali (AS.)

After his speech, the Messenger of Allah(S.A.W.) asked everybody to give the oath of allegiance to Ali(A.S.) and
congratulate him. Among those who did so was 'Umar b. al-Khattab, who said: "Well done Ibn Abi Talib! Today
you became the Leader (mawla) of all believing men and women."

Number of People in Ghadir Khumm

Allah ordered His Prophet(S.A.W.) to inform the people of this designation at a time of crowded populous so that all
could become the narrators of the tradition, while they exceeded a hundred thousand. Narrated by Zayd b. Arqam:
Abu al-Tufayl said: "I heard it from the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.), and there was no one (there) except that he saw
him with his eyes and heard him with his ears."

46 | P a g e

Why is Imam Mahdi (A.J)

also known as BaqiyatAllah?

In numerous traditions, it is stated that the term BaqiyatAllah in verse 86 of Surah Hud is a reference to the person
of Imam Mahdi (A.S) or some of the other Imams (A.S). For example, the book Ikml al-Din narrates the following
from Imam Baqir (A.S): The first words which the Mahdi (A.S) will speak after his rise will be this verse: What
remains of Allahs provision is better for you, should you be faithfulHe will then say: I am the BaqiyatAllah and
his proof and his caliph amongst you. After that, no one will greet him except that he will say: Peace be upon you


oh BaqiyatAllah Fe Arzeh. (
In regards to the verses of the Quran, it is true that while a verse may have been revealed in regards to a specific
situation, it can also pertain in a general sense to other issues as well. This can extend and apply even in to other
centuries in regards to various issues which are general in nature. It is correct that the aforementioned verse is
specifically referring to the people of Shuaayb and the term BaqiyatAllah is referring to lawful divine benefit; yet at
the same time, anything or anyone that is beneficial from God can also be considered as BaqiyatAllah. All of the
prophets and divine leaders are a form of BaqiyatAllah. All of the truthful leaders who fight against the enemies of
humanity can be considered as a form of BaqiyatAllah, this similarly applies to the soldiers and fighters who strive
in such a path.
Since Imam Mahdi (A.S) is the last leader and his battle will be the final revolution in the history of mankind,
it makes sense that the term BaqiyatAllah applies to him and he is indeed worthy of such a title. In addition, he
is what remains of the Prophet (PBUH) and the rest of the Imams (A.S).

47 | P a g e

Reappearance of Imam

Imam Mahdi is a divine figure who is on occultation and will reappear at the end times to establish justice in the world.
He will establish a just government and will prepare the grounds for mans perfection in all dimensions. There are
many traditions (hadith) handed down both by Sunni and Shia scholars regarding his occultation and reappearance.
According to many traditions the Imam will reappear at a time when the world is full of oppression and suppression.
He will reappear to save the world from oppression and establish justice.
Also there are some traditions on the way of his governance. Some of the features of his government are discussed
Salman Farsi quotes the Holy Prophet (PBUH) as saying: O people! Didnt I preach you for Mahdi? they
replied: Yes! He then said: Bear in mind that the Almighty God will rise a righteous and judge man in my
Ummah who will establish justice and equity in the entire world at a time when it is overwhelmed with
oppression. He is the ninth son of my grandson Hussein (A.S). His name and sobriquet is the same as mine
(Nour Software).
Imam Mahdi (AJ) will undoubtedly have a comprehensive plan on his reappearance. His plan will include programs
and strategies to eradicate oppression and establish justice and peace. During his rule the people will live in peace and
Imam Mahdi Will Follow Holy Prophets Method
Commenting on Imam Mahdis method of governance, Imam Sadiq (A.S) says: He will act like the Holy Prophet
(PBUH) and follows his method. He destroys every oppressive system as the Holy Prophet demolished the foundation
of ignorance era and establishes Islam from the very beginning based on the teachings of the Holy Prophet. [2]
Translated by: Sadroddin Musawi
1. Nour Software, Al-e-Muhammad, Translated by Salim Ibn Qies Helali, P. 679.
2. Nour Software, Ghaibat al-Namani, Translated by Ghaffari, P. 326

48 | P a g e

Are We Truly Awaiting Our


As the devotees of our beloved occulted Imam (may Allah hasten his reappearance), we often speak about the idea of
awaiting our Imam. There are many narrations which confirm that exercising Intidhar Al Faraj (awaiting the relief) is
the best and most important type of worship. It is the best form of Jihad, and Imam Ali (peace be upon him) has said,
"Await the relief, and do not become desperate from the Spirit of Allah, as the best of deeds near Allah is Intidhar AlFaraj...and he who waits regarding our matter is like one who sacrificed his blood for Allah."
What does it mean to Await?
In the context of our Imam, to await him really means to be prepared for his return. For example, if you are expecting
a VIP guest at home, you will surely prepare yourself and your home and be ready to greet him when he arrives.
However, if your guest appears at your door and finds the lights out, sees you in your pajamas, and finds your home
in a mess, then it is a sign that the host was not awaiting or preparing for the guest's arrival.
There are five key elements of Intidhaar that must be implemented for it to become a reality:
1. To become discontent about the current situation and circumstances which will lead us to oppose and criticize.
2. To have a clear vision of our aim and an adamant desire for the establishment of the Imam's divine government.
3. To have strong and unwavering faith in the reappearance of our Imam and his great role in manifesting Divine
justice and rule. As believers, we may bear the knowledge of his reappearance and its signs, but it is a totally different
ballgame to actually believe in that concept without an atom of hesitation or doubt.
4. To have Tasdeeq in the return of the Imam means a high level of certitude that it will happen, which will then cause
us to supplicate and request its hastened occurrence.
5. Another important quality which the followers of our Imam should possess is loyalty and steadfastness to the
Divine cause of our Imam. This sense of loyalty will cause us to be patient in the midst of trials and tribulations
in this world. It will lead to perseverance which Imam Hussein and Lady Zeinab (peace be upon them) taught
us in the Karbala tragedy, that no matter how much hardship we face, we must never lose hope in Divine relief.
We should not be among those who will lose their faith and return back on their covenants at the time of the
reappearance of our Imam. While the devotees of the Imam are exercising patience, this patience should be
accompanied by active cooperation with the other devotees of our Imam to defend the system of Wilayah by all means,
until Allah wills for His ultimate mercy to be manifested in the reappearance of the Imam.

49 | P a g e

We are encouraged to recite in Duaa Nudba, "When shall we abridge the gap that separates us from the vision so that
we may refer to the authority? How long shall we keep waiting for your pleasing satisfying essence and quality?
Already the period of expectation has lasted too long! When shall we receive our share from you and have our minds
set at rest? For we have fixed our eyes upon you and strive with perseverance. When shall we be happy, and see your
beautiful form and fine aspect?"
6. When we have reached the point of certitude coupled with yearning to our Imam, which leads to beseeching
our Lord in this regards, we will then DO something about it! Our feeling of longing for our beloved Imam will
cause us to take actions to support his government and set the stage for it. We will prepare ourselves spiritually
and religiously, so that we can serve under him and raise our children to become his committed soldiers. In
fact, our level of certitude is proportionate to our willingness to act in support of that purpose.

50 | P a g e

The Verses of the Glorious

Qur'an in the Praise of Imam
Ali (A.S.)

Glorious Quran Chapter 3 Verse 61

And unto him who dispute with thee therein after the knowledge hath come unto thee, Say! ( O' Our Apostle
Muhammad (Unto them) come ye, let us summon our sons, and (ye summon) your sons, and (we summon) our women
and (ye) your women, and (we summon) ourselves and then let us invoke the curse of God on the liars!
This verse refers to the famous event of ' Mubahala ' which took place in the year 10 A.H against the Christians of
Najran. A deputation of 60 Christians of Najran headed by Abdul Masih their chief monk priest came and discussed
with the Holy Prophet ( pbuh&f ) the personality of Hazrat Isa ( as ).
The Holy Prophet ( pbuh&f ) told them not to deify Jesus for he was only a mortal created by God, and not God
Himself. Then they asked who the father of Jesus was. By this, they thought that since he was born without a father
the Holy Prophet ( pbuh&f ) would helplessly accept Jesus' father being God himself. In reply to this question was
revealed the Verse.
Verily, similitude of Jesus with God is as the similitude of Adam; He created him out of dust then said He unto
him BE, and he became.
When the Christians did not agree to this line of reasoning, then this verse was revealed enjoining upon the Prophet
(pbuh&f ) to call the Christians to Mubahala. To this the Christians agreed and they wanted to return to their place
and would have the Mubahala the next day.
Early next morning the Holy Prophet ( pbuh&f ) sent Salman al Faresi ( May Allah be well pleased with him ) to the
open place, fixed outside the city for the historic event, to erect a small shelter for himself and those he intended to
take along with him for the contest. On the opposite side appeared the Christian priests, while at the appointed hour
the Christians witnessed the Holy Prophet (pbuh&f ) entering the field with Imam Hussain ( as ) in his lap, Imam
Hasan ( as ) holding his finger, and walking beside him, Lady Fatima ( as ) and followed by Imam Ali al Murtaza ( as
The Prophet ( as ) on reaching the appointed spot stationed himself with his daughter, her two sons and her husband,
raising his hands towards the heaven said: Lord these are the People of my House. The baby in the lap of the Prophet
(pbuh&f) was his young grandson, Imam Hussain (as), the child walking holding the Prophet's ( pbuh&f ) hand was

51 | P a g e

his first grandson, Imam Hasan ( as ), the Lady behind him was daughter, his only surviving issue was Fatima ( as )
the mother of the two children and the one who followed the Lady was his son in law, the husband of Fatima ( as ),
addressed the huge crowd of the people who had gathered on the spot, and addressed them saying o By God, I see the
faces which, if they pray to God for mountains to move from their places, the mountains will immediately move!
O believers in the Jesus of Nazareth, I will tell you the truth that should ye fail to enter into some agreement with
Muhammad and if these souls whom Muhammad has brought with him, curse you, ye will be wiped out of existence
to the last day of the life of the earth!
The people readily agreed to the advice counseled by their Leader. They beseeched the Holy Prophet ( pbuh&f ) to
give up the idea of the agreed Mubahala and requested for themselves to be allowed to continue their faith, offering
to pay ' Jizya '.
Al Tabari, Commentary of the Quran, v 2 p 192 -> 193
o This historic event of a unique triumph of Islam is taken by the Shias as a religious thanksgiving festival of the
triumph against falsehood. Some of the significance of this event are as follows:
This event unquestionably establishes the truth about the spiritual purity of the Ahl al Bayt
It proves beyond any doubt as to who are the members of the house of the Prophet ( pbuh&f )
The seriousness and the solemnity of the occasion demands absolute purity, spiritual as well as physical in the
individuals to serve in the fateful occasion for the Holy Prophet to present them to God as the best one of His creation
to be heard in the prayers of Truth!
Sunni references:
Ghayatul Maryam, p 300
Sahih Muslim, v 4 p 1285 ( English Edition), the tradition is as follows:
o ...( The third occasion is this ) when the following verse was revealed : Let us summon our children and your
children. Allah's messenger (pbuh&f) called Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Hussain and said : O Allah, these are my
family ...
Glorious Quran Chapter 3 Verse 103
And hold ye fast by the cord of God All together and be not divided ( among yourselves ) ...
Some Sunni scholars and commentators agree that the above verse reflects on the Ahl al Bayt. Here are some
references Thalabi records on his Commentary Tafsir al Kabir from Aban ibn Tabligh that he heard Imam Jafer as
Sadiq ( as ) say:
o We are the Rope of Allah about whom Allah has said: Hold fast to the Rope of Allah ...
Shafi'i is reported by Abu Bakr ibn Shabah al Din in Rishfaht al Sadi to have said:
o When I saw People carried off
o Their departure to the sea of error and ignorance
o In the name of Allah I boarded the ship of Salvation
o That is the Ahl al Bayt of Mustafa, the Seal of Prophecy
o And I caught hold of the Rope of Allah, that is their Love
o As He commanded us to hold fast to the Rope!
A tradition from the Holy prophet ( pbuh&f )

52 | P a g e

o I will soon be called away and will have to depart from you, but I leave among you Two ( 2 ) weighty things,
the Book of Allah and my descendants. The Book of Allah is like a rope which extends from the heavens to the
earth, and my descendants are my people of the house ( my Ahl al Bayt ). The Subtle and the Aware tells me
that the two ( 2 ) shall never part company until they come to me at the Pool. So take care how you treat them
after me.
As recorded in
Musnad of Ahmed Hanbal, v 3 p 17
Musnad of Ahmed Hanbal, v 3 p 26
Sahih of al Tirmizi, tradition no. 874
Kanz al Ummal, v 1 p 47, tradition no. 945 ( for the above hadeeth )
Ghayatul Maryam, p 242
Yanibul Muwaddah, p 118 -> 119
Sawaiq al Muhriqah, v 1 chapter 11
Safinatul Biharij ( Recorded by Allama Qummi from Allama Zamakhsari ) p 193
There is a lot more information than what you find above, however, the above is only a summary.
Source: Alhassanain

53 | P a g e

The Secret Number, Forty, in

the Quran

In Religion
Number Forty is a special number in the religious and Islamic culture.
The significance of the age of forty is undeniable, as Prophet Muhammad said, When one gets forty God tells
his two guardian angels, From now on, be strict on him and note every small and big deed he does. This
shows that ones personality is formed before he becomes forty years old and every inner change will become
harder after that.
In Mysticism
Muslim scholars, especially mystics, consider forty as a significant number in the fields of self-purification, finding
ones talents, and reaching moral heights.
In the Quran
The number forty has been mentioned with three different virtues in the Quran:
1. We have enjoined on man kindness to his parents: In pain did his mother bear him, and in pain did she give him
birth. The carrying of the (child) to his weaning is (a period of) thirty months. At length, when he reaches the age of
full strength and attains forty years, he says, "O my Lord! Grant me that I may be grateful for Thy favor which Thou
has bestowed upon me, and upon both my parents, and that I may work righteousness such as Thou mayest approve;
and be gracious to me in my issue. Truly have I turned to Thee and truly do I bow (to Thee) in Islam." (Al-Ahqaf: 15)
2. Allah said: "Therefore will the land be out of their reach for forty years: In distraction will they wander through
the land: But sorrow thou not over these rebellious people. (Al-Maida: 26)
3. And remember We appointed forty nights for Moses, and in his absence ye took the calf (for worship), and ye did
grievous wrong. And We appointed for Moses thirty nights, and completed (the period) with ten (more): thus was
completed the term (of communion) with his Lord, forty nights. And Moses had charged his brother Aaron (before he
went up): Act for me amongst my people: Do right, and follow not the way of those who do mischief. (Al-Baqara:
The Interpretations
There are different interpretations of the above mentioned verses concerning the number forty.
Verse 15 of Al-Ahqaf Surah could be related to the perfection of man at the age of forty. However, most interpreters
believe that a man gains perfection at thirty three.

54 | P a g e

Imam Sadiq believed that man gains perfection at the age of thirty three and he will remain the same till he gets forty.
Anyway, many others believe that ones mental ability is perfect at the age of forty, as Muhammad was appointed the
prophet of God in the same age.
What is the Secret of Forty?
Some scholars like Sadr-al-Motalein Shirazi maintain that only Prophets and messengers of God know the secret of
the number, forty.
There are some sayings indicating that God has made Adam out of soil in forty days. It took man forty days to turn
from what it is to a divine creature. Therefore, in order for one to get back to his divine nature, one needs forty days
of time.
Prophet Muhammad also said, Whoever memorizes forty sayings in regards to religion, will be considered as
a sage on the day of judgment.

55 | P a g e

Imam Ali (a.s) in the words of

non Muslim Scholars
The attributes of Ali (pbuh)

Out of the persons who have narrated the attributes of Imam Ali son of Abu Talib the author of Zakhairal-Uqba writes
thus: "His stature was moderate and slightly short. His skin was of wheaten colour and his beard was white and long.
His eyes were large and black. He had a cheerful face and was good-natured. His neck was long like a goblet made of
silver. His shoulders were broad. The joints of his hands were like those of a roaring lion, because his hands and wrists
were completely joined with each other and distinction could hardly be made between them. His hands and fingers
were strong, moderately fat and fleshy. His calves were fleshy and their lower part was thin. His arms were also fleshy
in a similar manner. He walked calmly like the prophet. However, as and when he proceeded to give a fight he walked
briskly and did not turn his head to see anything else. His bodily strength was unimaginable. He usually picked up the
fighters whom he laid his hands on and threw them on the ground without any difficulty or effort, as if they were small
children. And if he held the arm of any warrior in his hand the latter could not even breathe. It is well-known that he
did not fight with anyone whom he did not vanquish, even though he might have been very strong and a renowned
champion. At times he picked up a big gate, which a number of strong persons could not even close, or open, and used
it as a shield to defend himself. On some occasions he threw away with one hand, a stone, which could not even be
shaken by a number of men. At times he roared in the battlefield so loudly that the bravest men got frightened although
their number might be quite large. He possessed such a great power to bear hardships that he did not fear any harm
from heat or coldness. He used to wear summer clothes in winter and winter clothes in summer.

56 | P a g e

Once a man lodged a complaint against Ali with Umar who was then the caliph. Umar summoned both of them and
said: "O Abul Hasan! Stand side by side with the other party. Signs of displeasure appeared on the face of Ali.
Thereupon Umar asked him whether he did not wish to stand by the side of the other person. Ali replied: "No. That is
not so. However, I have observed that you have not maintained equality between me and my opponent. You have
addressed me with my Kuniyah and thus shown me respect whereas you have not meted out the same treatment to
him. (1)
It is very difficult to explain fully the nature and habits of human beings and especially of great personalities because
personal qualities of men are related with one another and every one of them influences others. Every quality is related
with another quality and every habit is the cause of another habit and the result of a third one, or two of them are effect
of another and so on and so forth. Hence, I propose to study a few of the personal qualities of Ali from different angles
and to compare them within one and the same personality so as to arrive at some conclusions by means of this
intellectual analysis. In the first instance I shall briefly present the various qualities of Ali by deducing them from his
simple dealings and well-known actions so that his nature, habits and disposition are known and our detailed
discussion in the following chapters may be limited to those qualities and characteristics.

We now commence the discussion with reference to his acts of worship:

Ali was well-known for his piety and continence. He did many things for his own self as well as for his own people
and others, as he was extremely pious. I believe that Ali"s piety was not the outcome of circumstances like that of
other pious persons, who engage themselves in worship on account of the weakness of their souls, or to escape the
vicissitudes of life and to keep aloof from the people, or in imitation of their ancestors, and the effects of the events
of life confirm it, because as a rule people accord respect to ancestral customs and traditions. (2)
The fact is that the piety of the Imam Ali was based on a firm footing and was linked with the mutual tie that exists in
all parts of the creation and has bound the sky and the earth with each other. His worship was in fact a continuous
effort and a campaign against mischief for the sake of human life and prosperity. He fought against all aspects of evil
and wickedness. On the one hand he fought against hypocrisy and selfishness and on the other hand against
dastardliness, abjectness meanness, helplessness and other bad qualities that the people had acquired during those evil
days. According to Ali the essence of piety is to sacrifice one"s life for the sake of truth and justice. He has said: "Your
faith should be at such a level that you should prefer truth to falsehood even though it may cause you loss and falsehood
may bring you gain".
His piety was of the same type as defined by him. He was martyred on account of this very truthfulness, and if it be
possible to give the title of "Martyr to living persons it may be said that even while alive he was a martyr in the path
of truth and righteousness.

57 | P a g e

If a person studies the piety of the Imam carefully it will become known to him that even in politics and
governments he had a special method in the matter of worship which he pursued firmly.
When he stood before the Almighty God he made his supplications with full attention, just as a poet is lost in the
beauties of nature. The following remark of Ali is very instructive for those who worship God and observe piety: "One
group worships God to be favoured with His blessings. This is the worship of the tradesmen. Another group worships
Him on account of His fear. This is the worship of the slaves. A third group worships Him by way of thanksgiving.
This is the worship of the free man".
Unlike many persons the Imam s worship was not on account of fear, and it was also not a tradesman-like worship
with the hope of acquiring Paradise. On the other hand when great men stand before the Almighty God they find
themselves meek and obliged to consider themselves His worst slaves. The basis of this worship is reason, conscience,
and spiritual perfection.
One who accords the same position to worship as was accorded by Ali will certainly view life in the same manner in
which it was viewed by Ali. Such a person does not seek life for worldly gains and transient pleasures. On the other
hand he seeks it to attain high morals and to achieve the ends which are compatible with his nature. It was for this
reason that Ali chose piety in the world and did not seek fame and ostentation. He was true in the matter of piety in
the same way in which he was true in the matter of his actions, words and intentions. He was disinclined towards the
pleasures of life in the same way in which he was disinterested in rulership, and other things, which were so much
coveted by others. He lived with the members of his family in a hut which was also his seat of government. His
rulership was not in the form of kingship but in the form of caliphate. He ate barley bread prepared from the flour
ground by his wife. Of course his governors and officials availed of the luxuries which became available from Syria,
Egypt and Iraq. Often he did not make his wife take the trouble of grinding the mill and did this job himself. Although
he was the Commander of the Faithful he ate bread which was so dry and" hard that it could be broken by pressing it
with the knee. When it was very cold during winter he did not have any clothes for that season and contented himself
with thin summer clothes.

Haroon son of Antara relates thus from his father: "I went in the presence of Ali in Khurnaq Palace in winter season
and saw that he was wearing an old cloak and was trembling with cold. I said to him: "O Commander of the Faithful!
God has fixed a share for you also in the public treasury and in spite of that you are living in this condition". He
replied: "I swear by God that I do not take anything out of your (i.e. public) property and this cloak is the same which
I brought from Madina".
He spent his days in the small house with perfect contentment till he was martyred at the hands of Ibn Muljim.
Although he was the caliph there was none amongst the Muslims who lived as simple and contented a life as he

58 | P a g e

In fact this lack of interest on his part in worldly comforts was related with his valour. Some persons think that these
two qualities are apart from each other, but this view is not correct. Really speaking his valour consisted of the
greatness of his soul and his efforts to achieve great objects and to help the poor and the needy without caring for his
own benefit. The fact is that he was not prepared to enjoy the pleasure of life while living in a city in which many
helpless and indigent persons were also residing.
Umar son of Abdul Aziz was a caliph of the family of Bani Umayyah. This family was inimical towards Ali, slandered
him and abused him from the pulpit. In spite of this he was obliged to remark thus keeping in view the sublime conduct
of Ali: "The most chaste and pious person in the world was Ali son of Abu Talib.
It is said that Ali did not place either a stone on a stone or a brick on a brick and did not also join a reed with a reed.
In other words he did not construct for himself even a house made of reeds. Although the White Palace had been
constructed for him he did not occupy it because he did not wish to live in a house which was better than the huts
made of wood occupied by the poor people. The manner in which Ali led his life is reflected in his well-known remark:
"Should I content myself with this that the people call me the Commander of the Faithful and I should not share the
vicissitudes of life with them?
Ibn Athir has narrated that when Ali married the Prophet"s daughter Fatima their bed consisted only of the hide of a
sheep. They used it as a mattress during night and placed fodder on it during the daytime to feed their camel. They did
not have more than one servant. During the caliphate of Ali some property was received from Isfahan. It was divided
by him into seven parts. It also included a loaf of bread and he broke that also into seven pieces.

Manliness was incarnated in Ali in all respects and included every quality necessary for it. Broad mindedness and
forgiveness are the necessary concomitants of manliness and they were ingrained in the Imam s nature. It was on this
account that he did not even think of harming any person although he might have harmed him, and did not oppress a
person about whom he knew that he wanted to kill him. Bani Umayyah abused and slandered him hut he did not
retaliate in the same manner because magnanimous persons do not abuse a person who abuses them. Imam Ali
prohibited his own companions from abusing Bani Umayyah. At the time of the Battle of Siffin he was informed that
some of his companions were abusing Bani Umayyah, upon this he said: "I do not like that you should be one of those
who use abusive language. However, if you mention their misdeeds and their behaviour you will be justified in doing
so and will be pronouncing an ultimatum. In reply to their abuses you should say: "O Lord! Protect our blood as well
as theirs. Relieve our and their hearts of deviation, and guide us so that he who has not recognized the truth should
recognize it, and he who is involved in injustice and deviation should forsake it".
He has no peer in history in the matter of forgiveness and connivance, and there are innumerable incidents which
throw light on these qualities of his. It is said in this connection that on the occasion of a battle he gave inter alia the
following instructions to his soldiers: "Don"t kill an enemy who runs away. Don"t withhold assistance from one who
is helpless and wounded. Don"t strip any one. Don"t take the property of anyone by force".

59 | P a g e

At the conclusion of the Battle of the Camel he offered funeral prayers for the enemies who had been killed and prayed
to God for their forgiveness. When he gained control over his fell enemies like Abdullah son of Zubayr, Marwan son
of Hakam, and Sa"id son of Aas, he forgave them, behaved with them kindly and prohibited his companions from
punishing them although he was in a position to give them a harsh treatment, and they too did not hope that they would
be set free. Another example of his connivance is this that when he gained the upper hand on Amr Aas he turned his
face aside and let him go, although he was by no means a lesser danger for Ali than Mu awiya and remained inimical
towards him even after this kindness. When he saw Zulfiqar (Ali"s sword) on his head he committed a particular act
and hoped that if he did so Ali would shut his eyes and leave him (3). If Ali had killed Amr bin Aas at that time fraud
would have been eliminated and Mu"awiya"s army, too, would have been destroyed.
In the Battle of Siffin Mu"awiya and his supporters decided to overcome Ali by subjecting him and his companions
to thirst. For some days, therefore, they blocked his way to the Euphrates and threatened that they would not allow his
army to utilize the water and would make them die of thirst. However, Ali"s army launched an attack and gained
control of the bank of the river. But Ali behaved with Mu"awiya in a different manner. Notwithstanding the fact that
he could stop supply of water to the Syrian army as a measure of retaliation he allowed them to utilize water in the
same way in which his own men were utilizing it.
Once he was given to understand that two persons were accusing Ayesha of having started the Battle of the Camel
and of plotting to kill him. He ordered that each of them might be administered one hundred lashes by way of
After achieving victory in the Battle of the Camel he sent Ayesha back to Madina with due honour and respect. He
accompanied her up to a few miles distance and also sent some persons with her so that they might serve her on the
way, and she might reach Madina comfortably.
In spite of his being so brave Ali avoided being oppressive. The narrators and historians are agreed that he hated
warfare and did not resort to it except when no other alternative was left. He always tried that matters might be settled
with the enemies without bloodshed and fighting. He used to advise his son Hasan not to invite anyone to fighting. He
was always sincere in what he said and followed the policy which he recommended to his son till he was obliged to
act otherwise.

For example when Kharijites were equipping themselves for warfare the companions of Ali suggested to him that he
should attack them (i.e. Kharijites) before they became ready to wage a war. Ali, however, replied: "I shall not start
fighting till they begin the battle themselves". His faith and human attributes compelled him to keep the people from
deviation by means of advice. One day he was delivering a sermon to a gathering and many Kharijites who considered

60 | P a g e

him to be an infidel were also present and were hearing him. One of them who was wondering at his sweet language
and eloquence said: "May God kill this infidel! How wise and intelligent he is! The followers of Ali wished to kill
that man. He, however, said to them: "He has done something wrong with his tongue. You should, therefore, either
take revenge from him with the tongue or forgive him".
We have already mentioned above that Mu"awiya"s army blacked the path of Ali"s army to the Euphrates so that they
might surrender on account of thirst but when Ali gained control of the bark of the river he did not stop Mu"awiya"s
army from utilizing the water. Many other similar incidents took place so far as Mu"awiya was concerned, but it is
not possible to give their details here. All these events show that as demanded by his angelic soul he was kind even to
his enemies and was just and magnanimous to all. A historian narrates thus with reference to the Battle of Siffin: "A
man named Kareez son of Sabah Humeri came out of Mu"awiya"s army into the battlefield and said standing between
the armies. Is there anyone who may come and fight with me? one of the soldiers of Ali"s army went to combat with
him and was killed. He again asked for an adversary. Another man went but he too was killed and still another person
also met death at the hands of Kareez. When he demanded an adversary for the fourth time none went to oppose him.
The men in the first row stepped hack. Ali felt that there was a danger of his army becoming demoralized. He,
therefore, went himself to give a fight to Kareez and killed him. Then he killed another man and thereafter a third man
also met the same fate. After having killed three warriors Ali said loudly these words which were heard by all: "If you
had not started the battle we would not have fought with you". Having said this he returned to his place".
It is also related in connection with the Battle of the Camel that when the enemies gathered for an attack, Ali also
arrayed his troops hut said to them: "Don"t throw an arrow nor make an attack with a spear or a sword until we have
first invited them to peace". He did not wish that a battle should take place resulting in blood shed and loss of life.
After a moment some one belonging to the opposite army shot an arrow which struck a companion of Ali and killed
him. Ali said: "O Lord! Bear witness". Then another arrow came and killed another man. He said again: "O Lord!
Bear witness". Then an arrow struck Abdullah son of Badil and his brother brought him before Ali. Ali again said "O
Lord! Bear witness". And then the battle started.
To shun cruelty and oppression was a moral principle of Ali and formed part of his nature and disposition. He never
broke covenants and was not inimical towards his former friends unless they themselves broke the covenants and
showed enmity in reply to kindness.

The best form of friendship and the meaning of fidelity is that a warrior, while standing in the battlefield should look
at the former friends who may have come to fight in the capacity of enemies, with the same brotherly eye, should
invite them to peace and remind them of former love and friendship, so that they may possibly refrain from breach of
covenant and treachery, or should take away the arms from their hands and solve the difficult problems by negotiations
and peace talks. Fighting with a former friend should not he started all at once, because it is possible that he may be
reminded of former relations and may refrain from fighting and opposition.

61 | P a g e

If keeping promises and regard for former friendship had not dominated the spirit of Ali he would not have depended
on them for warding off the enemies.
The Imam"s firmness in keeping the promises is evident from the treatment which he meted out to Zubayr son of
Awam and Talha son of Ubaidullah. These two persons separated the Imam s friends and helpers from him and took
them to his enemies. They also misguided Ayesha and made her come up as opponent of Ali.
Those who were present on the spot whether they were friends or enemies, have reported that when Talha and Zubayr
decided to fight against Ali, broke the oath of allegiance and displayed their evil intentions in the Battle of the Camel,
Ali went to them bare-headed and without wearing any armour or coat of mail, meaning thereby that he had come
with peaceful intentions. He then called Zubayr saying: "O Zubayr! come to me . Zubayr came fully armed. When
Ayesha heard about it she cried: "What a pity it is that there should be a combat"!
She said this because she knew that whoever went to fight against Ali would be killed, however brave and strong he
might be. And it may be said with certainty that Zubayr could not have saved himself if he had fought with Ali.
However Ali embraced Zubayr. Ayesha and her supporters were very much upset to see this. Ali said in a tone of love:
"O Zubayr! Why have you come to fight against me? Zubayr replied: "To avenge the murder of Uthman". Ali said:
"May God kill that person who has been responsible for the murder of Uthman".
Then Ali reminded Zubayr of past companionship and brotherhood and wept a number of times while talking.
However, Zubayr was bent upon fighting and opposed the Imam till he (i.e. Zubayr) was killed. Ali, who attached
great importance to the tie of friendship, was very much grieved when Zubayr met his death. Ali did not withhold his
suggestions from the former caliphs and assisted them in their words and actions. (4)
Although this magnanimous person was steadfast in his friendship, his friends did not accord due respect to
his friendship, because they did not expect that he would act contrary to his nature and let their hands loose to
usurp the rights of others.

Imam Ali has been reported to have said: "Even if all the seven regions of the world and whatever is under the sky is
offered to me so that I may disobey God and take away unjustly the husk of barley from an ant I shall not do so. In
my eyes this entire world is inferior to a leaf which may be pressed in the mouth of a locust".
In this matter Ali"s words and actions conformed with each other. He was not like others who indulge in tall talk
which their actions belie. He was prompted to say these words by his nature which formed the basis of his character.
Ali was more kind to the people than anyone else and refrained from harming any person. He became obvious of his
own self in order to assist others and considered this self-abnegation to be a part and parcel of his life. His entire life
was dedicated to the support of the oppressed and the helpless so that he might realize their rights from the tyrants
who considered themselves entitled to usurp the rights of others on account of noble descent and racial discrimination.

62 | P a g e

Ali opposed the Quraysh and fought with them, because they coveted the caliphate for the sake of personal gain and
in order to acquire position, wealth and rulership.
He renounced the caliphate and even the worldly life and forsook everything because he could not act like worldly
persons and could not agree to allow them to exploit the weak and the helpless.
Ali was so kind to the common man that when his brother Aqeel requested him to give him something more from the
public treasury" than, his due share, he turned down his request and as a consequence thereof Aqeel went away to
Mu"awiya. Ali tolerated separation from his brother but did not agree to give him anything from the public treasury
of the Muslims without entitlement.
Ali was like a kind father for all human beings. He gave directions to the officers and governors to behave with
the people gently. He behaved harshly with those who oppressed the people and warned them severe
The following directions given by him reached the ears of the governors continuously: "Redress the grievances of the
people and meet their needs because you derive our capital from them. Do not deprive anyone of what he needs, and
do not obstruct him from attaining his object. Do not sell the summer or winter dress of anyone to realize revenue. Do
not take away from any person a quadruped which is required by him for his buisness and do not whip a person for
even a penny.
Alii was the person who wrote an excellent testament tor Malik Ashtar Nakha"i at the time of appointing him the
governor of Egypt and the adjoining areas. He wrote: "Do not live with people like ferocious animals, and do not treat
their sustenance to be war booty, because the Egyptians fall under one of the two categories: either they are your
brethren-in-faith from the point of view of religion or your equals because of their being human beings. Ignore their
shortcomings and forgive their mistakes, just as you hope that God wi1l forgive your crimes and sins. Do not regret
your forgiving a person and do not insist upon awarding punishment
He added: "Prohibit hoarding". Ali strictly forbade hoarding, which was the main reason for Mu"awiya and his party
opposing him, because they wanted the country, the wealth and the war booty for themselves whereas Mi wanted them
for all human beings.
Ali was so kind to" human beings that, as we shall mention in detail later, he ordered that his murderer, the wicked
Ibn Muljim might be treated kindly.
In the recommendations made by him to his sons Hassan and Husayn he said: "Be enemies of the oppressors and
supporters of the oppressed". He also said: "Be enemies of the oppressor even though he may be your near relative

63 | P a g e

and support the oppressed person even though he may not be related to you and may be a stranger". He always
endeavoured to punish the oppressors and relieve the people of their wickedness. To achieve this purpose he used his
heart, tongue, sword and blood. He always remained a helper of the oppressed and an enemy of the oppressors.
Following this path he never relaxed till the end of his life.
One should not be surprised that Ali was just. It would have been a matter of surprise if he had not been just. The
instances of his justice, which have been narrated, are the most valuable assets in human history and man should be
proud of them.
His brother Aqeel asked him to grant him a special pension out of the public treasury, but he refused to accede
to his request saying: "It is not my personal property that I may give it to anyone I like. There are also other
helpless and needy persons, who are more deserving than you are, and I must be mindful of them". Aqeel said:
"If you do not allow me a pension out of this property I shall go to Muawiya".
However, Ali did not care for what he said, and did not revise his decision.
His brother went away and joined Mu"awiya and used to say: "Mu"awiya is better for my world", Mu"awiya"s
treatment satisfied him, because the public treasury was a tool in his hands with which he strengthened his kingdom,
achieved his objects and wanted to revive the past politics and importance of Bani Umayyah.
The Imam did not claim any privileges vis-a-vis his subjects and appeared in the courts as their equal. This was so
because the spirit of justice had penetrated into the depth of his heart.

Once Ali saw his coat of mail in the possession of a Christian. He took him in the court of a judge named Shurayh so
that he might give a decision regarding its ownership. When both of them appeared before the judge Ali said: "This
coat of mail is mine. I have neither sold nor gifted it to anyone". The judge asked the other person: "What have you
to say about the claim made by the Commander of the Faithful? The Christian said: This coat of mail is mine. In spite
of this, however, I do not consider the Commander of the Faithful to be a liar then the judge Shurayh turned to Ali
and said: "Can you produce any witness who should depose that this coat of mail is yours? Ali smiled and said:
"Shurayh is right. I cannot produce any such witness".
The judge gave a judgment in favour of the Christian who took the coat of mail and departed. The Commander of the
Faithful kept looking at him from behind. After having gone a few steps, however, he returned and said:
"I testify that such an order resembles the order of the prophets, because one who is the Commander of the Faithful
has appeared along with a person like myself in the court of the judge who is also his subordinate and the judge has
given a judgment against him". (5) Then he added: "O Commander of the Faithful! I swear by God that this coat of
mail is yours and my claim was false".
Later the people saw that Christian serving in the army of Ali as a faithful soldier and he fought most enthusiastically
against Kharijites in the Battle of Nahrawan.

64 | P a g e

Ibn Abi Rafe" has narrated thus: "I was the administrator of the public treasury during the period of the caliphate of
Ali and was also his scribe. The property received from Basra for the public treasury included a pearl necklace. The
daughter of Ali sent word to me saying: "I understand that there is a pearl necklace in the public treasury which is
controlled by you. Send that necklace to me on loan so that I may wear it on Eid al-Azha day. Thereafter I shall return
I sent the necklace to her on the conditions that she would be responsible if it was lost or damaged, and that she would
return it within three days. She accepted these conditions.
By chance the eyes of the Commander of the Faithful fell on the necklace and he recognized it. He asked his daughter
as to where she had obtained it from. She replied: "I have taken it on loan from Ibn Abi Rafe" the in charge of the
public treasury to wear it on Eid al-Azha day and have promised to return it to him within three days".
The Commander of the Faithful summoned me and said; "Do you consider it lawful to commit breach of trust with
the Muslims"? I replied: "May God forbid that I may commit treachery with the Muslims". Thereupon he said: "Then
why did you lend such and such necklace to my daughter without obtaining my permission and without the
concurrence of the Muslims"?
I replied: "O Commander of the Faithful! She is your daughter. She borrowed it to adorn herself and guaranteed its
safe return so that 1 might restore it to its proper place". Ali said: "Take it back today and do not do so in future
otherwise I shall punish you".
When Ali"s daughter came to know about it she said to him: "O father! I am your dear daughter. Who else is more
entitled to wear this necklace"?
Ali replied: "O daughter of Abu Talib! Don"t deviate from the right path. Can you tell me how many Muhajir and
Ansar women adorn themselves with such necklaces"?
Eventually I took back the necklace from the daughter of the Commander of the Faithful and restored it to its proper
Ali observed justice even in small and insignificant matters. If it became necessary for him to divide something with
others he gave the right of selection to the other party so that people might not think that discrimination was being
made in the matter of division between the persons in authority and the subordinates.
One day he went to the shop of a draper named Abu al-Nawar accompanied by his slave and purchased two dresses.
Then he asked his slave to choose one out of the two dresses. The slave picked up one of them and Ali retained the
other. (6)

All the orders and letters that he sent to the governors and other officials rotate on the pivot of justice.

65 | P a g e

Ali"s near ones as well as others joined hands in opposing him. It was on account of the fact that he did not give them
preference from the point of view of equity and justice, and did not grant any concession to his relatives. He was not
influenced by anyone and accepted only the right things from others.
When Uthman son of Affan became caliph, he gave full freedom to his relatives, friends and associates to accumulate
wealth, and he followed those who gave him wrong advice. Marwan had the greatest influence on him. He did not
benefit from the wise recommendation which Ahu Bakr had made to Umar. Abu Bakr had said:
"Don"t be in proximity to those persons who are eager to fill their bellies and acquire position and wealth. Don"t be
enamoured of the fact that they have associated with the prophet and served him. Assess the nature of every person
and find out what sort of man he is".
Ali hated such greedy persons. Hence when he became the caliph he decided to deal with them justly. He therefore
dismissed some of them and checked the greed of others for position and wealth.
There was a group of persons who wanted to give the principles of Islam a new form and make them a means of
acquisition of position and wealth and to treat the Islamic territories a hereditary property of their family. Ali fought
against them and said to them in loud words: "I know what can keep you from rebellion and mischief, but the thing
which is a source of happiness for you is the means of evil for me". The stage at which Ali"s dealing with such people
reached is well-known. When the oppressors were defeated they resorted to deceit and the spirit of justice succeeded
in the hearts of Ali and his followers, although apparently they were the sufferers. When Ali met martyrdom at the
hands of Ibn Muljim, a Nakh"ii woman named Ummul Haisham wrote an elegy for him. A verse of that elegy goes to
show the opinion of the people about his character and justice: "He established truth and entertained no doubt about
it. He behaved justly with his kinsmen as well as strangers".
Sincerity and intrepidity are the qualities of great men and they were possessed by Ali par excellence. Sincerity,
truthfulness, intrepidity and manliness and all other similar qualities are inter-connected. Hence he did not express
anything which was opposed to his real intention and determination. He did not practice deceit, although he knew very
well that by doing so he could get rid of the mischief of the enemies.
What has been said above about the truthfulness and character of the Imam fully proves his sincerity and intrepidity.
One of his principles and morals consisted of simplicity in everything. He hated formality very much and used to say:
"The worst brother is he for whom one has to involve oneself in trouble". He also used to say: "If a believer observes
formality with his brother it means that he has separated himself from him. If he expressed an opinion or tendered an
advice or gave some present, then this act of his was not tainted with ostentation. This habit was so much ingrained in
his nature that the selfish people could not make him act according to their wishes, and the flatterers should not hope
to attract his attention. These people used to say that the Imam was hard-hearted, ill natured and proud. However, the
Imam was neither hard-hearted nor ill natured nor proud. On the contrary, as demanded by his nature, he said whatever
he had to say without any formality or deceit.
A large number of persons who gathered around him coveted personal gains. Ali became suspicious about them and
did not conceal his misgiving. Expression of his views about them cannot be called pride or rudeness.
Ali hated pride and was absolutely free from egotism. He also forbade his children, companions and officials to show
pride and practice egotism. While giving them advice he used to say: "Shun egotism. You should know that egotism
is a bad quality and a calamity for reason He hated formality. He also restrained the people from going to the extreme
while praising him and told them: "I am lesser than what you say".

66 | P a g e

At times it so happened that he considered the person concerned to be his enemy. On such occasion he did not refrain
from mentioning the mental condition of that person of which he was aware and told him: "I am better than what you
believe about me in your heart".

Ali disliked some of his friends exalting him too much in the same manner in which he disliked his being belittled by
his enemies. He has said: "Persons of two types have been destroyed on account of their attitude towards me - The
friends who have exaggerated my qualities and the spiteful enemies". He neither showed pride nor humiliated himself
unnecessarily; he presented himself as he was. He was free from affectation and hypocrisy. It is difficult to find a
straightforward man like him. He purchased a bagful of palm-dates and was carrying them home. Some persons
observed this and volunteered to carry the bag for him. He, however, told them frankly that the head of the family was
more responsible to carry it.
It is said erroneously that artificial humility and meekness constitute good qualities. In fact it is falsehood and mere
affectation that one should pose to he inferior to what one actually is. Ali was not humble in that sense and he was
also not proud. He displayed himself as he actually was without any meekness or pride, because these two things are
not the qualities of manly persons. The writer of "Abqari"atul Imam" says: "Ali entered the battlefield bare-headed to
fight against the enemies where as they were completely covered with steel and iron. How can it be said that this
action of his was based on hypocrisy"?
Another attribute of Ali was his noble disposition. He did not entertain grudge in his heart against anybody, even
though he might be his fell enemy. As we have already mentioned he directed his Sons and friends not to kill his
murderer (Ibn Muljim). Although Talha had come as an enemy to kill him, he wept on his dead body and recited a
heart-felt elegy for him. Although the Kharijites were his deadly enemies and had fought against him, and his murderer
was also one of them, and in fact they had not given him lesser trouble as compared with Mu"awiya and Amr bin Aas,
but he advised his friends and followers not to fight against them. He gave this direction because he knew that those
people had fallen prey to misunderstanding and had been misguided.They were seekers of truth but had been mistaken
in the matter of its assessment as opposed to Mu"awiya and his companions who were seekers of falsehood and
succeeded in acquiring it.
Nothing can be seen in the biography of Ali which may go to show that he was revengeful. In all circumstances he
showed truthfulness, honesty", straightforwardness and swordsmanship.
Magnanimous persons are not revengeful and do not also tolerate injustice and oppression. They get annoyed with
one who oppresses others.
Although Ali did not entertain any" grudge in his heart against anyone, he had to face a spiteful group. His meaningful
words show how grieved he was. His grief was such as arose from sympathy and kindness. He was grieved to see that
people harmed themselves.

67 | P a g e

Another quality ~which distinguished him from others and ~vas complementary to his other attributes was his perfect
faith in his actions and beliefs, and whenever he did anything he believed in its correctness and in his being on the
right path. When he decided to fight against Amr son of Abd-awudd, the famous champion of Arabia he was warned
by the prophet and his companions about the consequences. He however, decided to fight because besides being brave
he possessed enthusiasm to support Islam.
We repeat that when the enemies had encircled Ali from all sides he busied himself in offering prayers without there
being any guard to protect him from the mischief of those enemies, and consequently Ibn Muljim succeeded in
wounding him with his poisoned sword. This very thing is a great proof of the fact that he was certain of the correctness
of what he did, because a righteous person does not fear anything.
All the words and acts of Ali go to prove that he had perfect and firm faith in his actions. This was so because all his
actions emanated from wisdom and capability. (7)

When the people were divided into two groups in their attitude towards him (i.e. friends and enemies) he did not
become afraid of the enemies and did not lay down arms before them, because he had perfect taith in his own
truthfulnss and justice and correctness of his actions. It was in this context that he said: "Even if I strike on the nose
of a believer so that he may become my enemy he will not become my enemy and even if I shower all the bounties of
the earth on him so that he may become friendly towards me he will not become my friend". He has also said in this
behalf. "I am not afraid of fighting against these people alone even though the entire world may join their army".
When he came to know that a group of the people of Madina had joined Mu"a-wiya he wrote to Sehl son of Hanif the
governor of Madina: "I understand that a group of the inhabitants of your city has secretly joined Mu"awiya. However,
you should not be worried on this account that some persons will leave you and will not assist you. I swear by God
that these persons have not forsaken injustice and oppression and have not stuck to equity and justice".
1-The Arabs did not consider it proper to address the respectable persons with their real names. In case, therefore,
they wished to accord respect to someone they addressed him with his Kuniyah.
2-According to the Christians worship" consists of sequestered and monastic life. However, monasticism is not
permissible in Islam. It was for this reason that the pious Muslims neither avoided effort in life nor kept aloof from
other human beings. On the other hand at times they heroically staked their very lives even when it was expedient to
remain silent (and they do so even in these times.)
3-It is said that when Amr b. Aas came to fight against Ali in the Battle of Siffin he was very much afraid. He could
think of no other alternative except that he should lie on the ground and uncover his private parts so that Ali might
shut his eyes, and he himself might escape. He, therefore, did so and thus saved his life.

68 | P a g e

4-Ali assisted the caliphs because every action of his was for the sake of the benefit of Islam and he did not let the
interests of the religion suffer in order to acquire his own right.
5-In the free countries of the modern world the court and judges have been made permanent and none can remove
them from their office. This has been done, so that they may take decision without any fear or favour, and may give
judgment against influential persons and even against the members of government.
6-Such incidents show that the leaders of the faith were very mindful of the rights of their subordinates. Those who
make a show of supporting the helpless persons, and accuse religion of being an impediment in the matter of weak
persons getting their due rights have not done as much for their subordinates as Imam Ali did.
7-Its reason was that Imam Ali was infallible and he said and did everything in accordance with the inspiration and
traditions of the prophet of Islam. Hence, he did not entertain any doubt about his views and actions.
The Voice of Huma Justice, by George Jordac.

69 | P a g e

Imam Ali in the eyes of NonMuslims

"Ali was so popular even among the non-Muslims that when he died, all the Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians
of Kufa, particularly their women and children who were personally looked after by Ali, lamented his death
and wept as one does for ones father.
Mourning was observed even in Jerusalem and the Lord Bishop also could not restrain his tears."(Prof. M. G.
Reynolds Book on Islam, Chapter 3.)






When Ali was leaving his abode, observes S. Ockley in his famous work, The History of the Saracens, the
household birds began making a great noise and when one of Alis servants attempted to quiet them, Ali said, "Leave
them alone, for their cries are only lamentations foreboding my death."








"During the reigns of the Ummayyad Caliphs his blessed resting-place could not be disclosed, and so it was also
under the Abbasids until the reign of Harun-ar-Rashid. But in the year 175 A.H. (791 A.D.), Harun happened to go
hunting in these parts, and the deer he was chasing took refuge on a small piece of raised ground. However much he
asked his hunting dogs to capture the quarry, they refused to go near this spot. He urged his horse to this place, and
the horse too refused to budge; and on this, awe took possession of the Caliphs heart, and he immediately started to
make inquiries of the people of the neighborhood, and they acquainted him with the fact that this was the grave of
Hazrat Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib, the cousin and son-in-law of the Holy Prophet. Harun ordered a tomb to be erected
over the grave and people soon began to settle down in its vicinity."
(The Shrine of Ali at Najaf from, "The Shiite Religion", by Dwight M. Donaldson)

70 | P a g e

The Only Person Born in

Holy Kaba

the 13th of the month of Rajab, twenty-three years before the migration of the Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) a child was
born in the family of Abu Talib, the light of whom kindled the whole World. Kunaab Mecci narrates about his birth:
"We and Abbas (Ibne Abdul Mutalib) were sitting together when suddenly we saw Fatima bint-e-Asad moving
towards the Kaba in the condition having delivery pain and saying "Oh God I have faith in you and the Prophet (i.e.,
Abraham) who by your command laid the foundation of this house. O God! I swear you by the same Prophet
Mohammad (pbuh) and swear you by the child in my womb make this birth comfortable and easy for me."
This was the time when all of us saw with our own eyes that the wall of Kaba broke apart and Fatima bint-eAsad entered into the Kaba. Then the wall again united.
We ran terrified and trembling to our houses to send our women into the Kaba for the help and assistance of Fatima
bint-e-Asad. We did our best but the door did not open. This event surprised all the people of Meccah.
The women of Macca were anxiously counting moments to meet Fatima bint-e-Asad till the time she came out of the
Kaba along with a beautiful baby, saying, "God has chosen me from among the ladies of Macca and He made me His
guest in His house and gave me meals and fruits of the heaven to eat.

The ladies who were surrounding her in the form of a circle and escorting her to her home asked her, "What
name have you given to this child?"Fatima bint-e-Asad said: "When I was in the Kaba, I heard a hidden voice
call," Name this child "ALI".
Yes! We are talking about Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) the pious man whose childhood and infancy period lasted in
such a pure and chaste way that he himself stated in Nahjul Balagha, "The Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) used to pick
me in his lap and embrace me and chew the food and put it into my mouth."

71 | P a g e