Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224

Chapter 1

SAARC & TERRORISM Regional Organizations
The regional organization is used, it is defined as “A segment of world bound together by a common set of objectives based on geographical, social, cultural, economic or political ties and possessing a formal structural provided for in formal intergovernmental agreements”. Regional organizations are formulated within the specific regions like SAARC it is an organization of the south Asian countries and NATO it is an organization of the north Atlantic region.

SAARC as Regional Organization
The idea of the South Asian regional co-operation was mooted by the late president Zia-ur-Rehman of Bangladesh in 1982. He was keen to hold a summit meeting of the seven South Asian countries in order to deliberate on establishing an appropriate machinery to promote co-operation among the countries of the region.

Formation
South Asian Association of Regional Co-operation (SAARC) was formed in 1983. But was not until 1985 that it started seeking concrete results. The countries of South Asia, one fifth of the entire humanity are: Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, India and Sri Lanka. They share many common values that are rooted in their social, ethnic, cultural and historical traditions. Regional co-operation for the resolution of common problems and achievements of mutually shared goals in a region is generally accepted as an important mode of interaction across the territorial boundaries of a state. 1

Objectives of the SAARC
Objectives of SAARC include promotion of socio-economic developments within SAARC countries and also develop a productive relationship with regional and international organizations. Based on this, objectives can be categorized as under:

Inter-SAARC
1. To promote the welfare of the people of South-Asia and to improve their quality of life. 2. To accelerate economic growth. 1

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 3. To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in the social, cultural, technical and scientific fields. 4. To promote and strengthen collective self reliance among the countries of South Asia. 5. To contribute to mutual trust, understanding and appreciation of another's problems. one economic,

Intra-SAARC
1 To strengthen cooperation among themselves in international forums and with other developing countries. 2 To strengthen cooperation with other developing countries. 3 To cooperate with international and regional organizations. 2

Secretariat
The SAARC Secretariat was established in Kathmandu on 16 January 1987 and was inaugurated by Late King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal. It is headed by a Secretary General appointed by the Council of Ministers from Member Countries in alphabetical order for a three-year term. He is assisted by the Professional and the General Services Staff, and also an appropriate number of functional units called Divisions assigned to Directors on deputation from Member States. The Secretariat coordinates and monitors implementation of activities, prepares for and services meetings, and serves as a channel of communication between the Association and its Member States as well as other regional organizations. The Memorandum of Understanding on the establishment of the Secretariat which was signed by Foreign Ministers of member countries on 17 November 1986 at Bangalore, India contains various clauses concerning the role, structure and administration of the SAARC Secretariat as well as the powers of the SecretaryGeneral. In several recent meetings the heads of state or government of member states of SAARC have taken some important decisions and bold initiatives to strengthen the organisation and to widen and deepen regional co-operation.

Member Countries of SAARC
1. 2.

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan People's Republic of Bangladesh

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Kingdom of Bhutan Republic of India Republic of Maldives Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal Islamic Republic of Pakistan Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. 3

What is Terrorism?
“The threat of violence and the use of fear to coerce, persuade, and gain public attention.” 4 Terrorism has been defined as a “Specific weapon in the struggle for political power employed either by group of the extreme left or by the national minorities”.5

Brief History of Terrorism
In the past terrorism was there in many forms. Between the end of Second World War and the 20th century total 120 armed conflicts occurred. In 20th century a person was killed in every 21 second for 100 years from terrorist related activities. By the end of the 20th century, the world had witnessed several new and horrifying forms of terrorism, some even by the State, such as genocides, collectivization, purges, crimes against humanity and mass casualty incidents. Today, the terrorist is largely perceived as an unknown, obscure and shadowy murderer, sometimes a religious fanatic, who sets off bombs causing loss of life and great destruction in civilian population centers. It is very sad that Islam is being exploited to legitimize terrorist actions by different organizations, religious and spiritual leaders. They try to legalize these in the name of jihad. The origin of all these types of terrorism is mainly unstable Middle East region. Terrorist may belong to any religion though all the religion is against it. Currently Muslim fundamentalism has got wide publicity in the western media. Terrorism is carried out in many names besides religion including politics, freedom, environment, racial supremacy, animal rights etc. Terrorism and its motives are sometimes concealed and it is necessary to appreciate that the motive for a given terrorist act, whether declared by the terrorists, government or by media, may not always reflect the truth.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 There are no geographical boundaries for terrorism. Almost in all the region of the world with different magnitude terrorist activities are taking place. For combating terrorism existing police force alone can no longer combat the magnitude of terrorism. Elements of armed forces, Special Forces, national intelligence and security organizations are employed against terrorism. Government of many countries have signed and confirmed agreements, to suppress and combat terrorism as its magnitude is increasing gradually. After 11th September 2001 incident, many countries have intensified their antiterrorism efforts. Legislation is a useful mechanism for legalizing special preventative measures taken by the security forces. Anti-terrorism efforts have practically doubled in many countries. In United Nations many new Resolutions against terrorism were passed. Terrorism Prevention Branch is effectively implementing the efforts of UN against terrorism. During cold war era the face of terrorism was different. Those were mainly supported and manipulated by WARSAW pact countries in the form of guerrilla warfare. Then the Middle East problem came up and still it is continuing between Israel and other Arab nations. As a result whole Middle East is in a state of unrest and the other parts of the world are getting the heat of that. After the end of cold war new types of ruthless terrorism emerged which is characterized by religious, political, ethnic and social intolerance. General people normally come to know about the terrorist act through media after the incident. In today’s world some Islamic terrorist group or coalition are considered as most dangerous. These groups distort Islam to justify their actions. Their objective is to change the existing world order and establishment of Islamic state in the world by terrorizing the world. 6

Policies of SAARC Against Terrorism
SAARC summits have regularly brought out agreed statements, policies and recommendations on countering terrorism in the region. A summary of such statements is appended as annexure A to this paper. The SAARC regional convention on suppression of terrorism was signed on 4 November 1987 in Katmandu; an additional protocol to which was signed on 6 January 2004 in Islamabad. Despite these initiatives however, terrorism continues to be the biggest scourge that afflicts development in South Asia. An effective, common framework of action is

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 fundamental to the process of countering terrorism. The paper will be a set of policy recommendations that the SAARC should adopt in order to effectively address this problem.

Protocol on Terrorism
The additional protocol to the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation's Regional Convention on Suppression of Terrorism has come into force with all the seven countries of the grouping ratifying it to wage a joint war’ against the scourge of terrorism. With the aim of having zero tolerance to terrorism in all forms and manifestations, SAARC foreign ministers felt that the additional protocol would help the member countries to meet the challenge of terrorism. "The additional protocol has now been ratified by all member very welcome development," Indian Foreign Secretary Shyam reporters as the foreign ministers began their one-day masting SAARC summit. In addition to facilitating exchange of information on the activities of elements and the funding process, the protocol would now cover measures which would enable SAARC countries to "work together on side as well", Saran said. The additional protocol, which enables member countries to take prevent and suppress financing of terrorist activities, was adopted Islamabad summit in January 2004. The protocol was comprehensive in nature as it had come post-9/11, Mr. Saran said. "A clear message must go out from the SAARC summit that tolerance for terrorism in any form or manifestation," he said. there is zero measures to at the terrorist specific the legal countries. This a Saran told ahead of the 13th

The Fifteenth SAARC Summit
The focus on combating terrorism was so heavy in the Colombo that other issues were overshadowed. Leaders terrorism as a stumbling block to peace and Indian and Afghan centric opinion on subcontinent, terrorism, rather innocent people of deliberations at no doubt identified

development in the region.

terrorism tried to portray Pakistan as a state-sponsored terrorism, was the direct aggression being launched against the

source of regional terrorism. The story, however, is the other way round. In consequence of the Indian government Jammu and Kashmir. 5

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 So far, as many as over 100,000 innocent Kashmir! People have through a systemic ethnic genocide simply because they resolution adopted on January 17, 1948, only 139 days Pakistan as independent Islamic State out of 1947. Again, the UNSC passed another resolution the following year to ascertain the fate and future of Kashmir through a public fair and free plebiscite under UN auspicious, which never became a reality even the passage of the long 60 years of brutal state run aggression and terrorism exercised by the Indian government by grossly violating the UN Charter, UNSC resolutions, and peoples' right to self determination and plebiscite. the SAARC's Colombo Declaration is absolutely right in peace and development in the region has been hampered by terrorism. Until terrorism was not uprooted, peace and development cannot be achieved. SAARC must address the root-cause of terrorism in Kashmir. Otherwise, the future of the region would remain bleak. UN also needs to implement its resolution on Kashmir. The event of August 11, 2008, not to speak of hundreds of thousands of other events, when over 100,000 Kashmiri’s marchers decides to cross the line of control (LOC) in protest of killing of Sheikh Abdul Aziz, a former chairman of all parties’ hurriyat conference (APHC), the other day. Killing and indiscrimination against the Kashmiri’s would never create room for peace and progress particularly between Pakistan and India. The Indian Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh and Afghanistan President Hamid Karzai understand that the root cause of the terrorism in the region is the one explained above. Second Taliban and Afghan dissident groups must be included in the state building process of Afghanistan. In fact, both Singh and Karzai also must understand that organized and state run terrorism was institutionalized inside India and Afghanistan so long as their own people were denied basic human rights. Moreover, ethnic terrorism in Sri Lanka and ideological terrorism in Nepal has been originated from inside India for one or the other reason over past several decades. As the national interest of several of these conflict ridden countries collides with each other, it seems difficult to adopt a comprehensive, collective, and legal approach toward terrorism as mentioned in the Colombo declaration. 7 Indeed, pinpointing that been buried

wanted to exercise after the creation of

their right to self-determination under a UN Security Council (UNSC) partition of India on August 14,

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224

Fighting Against Terrorism New Delhi, Jul 31:
Fighting terrorism will be topping the agenda at the 15th SAARC summit in Colombo later this week. The two day meeting will bring together leaders of eight countries from a region that is increasingly looking at democracy as the answer to its many problems. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh will travel to Sri Lanka on Friday, to attend the summit. Terrorism is expected to be high on the agenda in this meeting, considering the ‘vulnerability’ of the region to the scourge. Citing the Kabul embassy attack, official spokesman of the ministry of external affairs (MEA) Navtej Sarna said the incident “underlines how vulnerable South Asia is to the scourge of terrorism.” Briefing reporters on the Prime Minister’s visit emphasized the need for a “collective action” among SAARC countries to tackle the menace. He referred to the proposed agreement for SAARC Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters and said it would be effective in dealing with crimes in the region. The SAARC meet will discuss ways to deal with the scourge of terrorism, which has been affecting the eight member countries, particularly India, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. Besides these, SAARC also comprises Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives and Bhutan. On his arrival in Sri Lanka on Friday afternoon, Singh will meet President Mahinda Rajapaksa, and will also interact with some political leaders and groups of Indian origin from the country. At the two day summit which opens on August 2, India will hand over the baton to Sri Lanka. Among the others attending the meet will be President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom of the Maldives, Nepal’s caretaker prime minister GP Koirala, Bangladesh chief advisor Fakhruddin Ahmed, Pakistan Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani and Bhutan Prime Minister Jigmi Thinley. Also attending the SAARC summit will be observers from China, South Korea, Japan, Iran, the US and the European Union. Two other countries Australia and Myanmar, have sought observer status. Foreign ministers of the SAARC countries will end their two days of deliberations in Colombo Friday, thrashing out much of the contentious issues so that they become easier for their leaders to take forward. 8

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224

REFERENCES
1. Dr. Safdar Mehmood, International Affairs, A.H publishers, Urdu bazaar, Lahore, (1994), p.528. 2. khawaja Amjad Saeed, Economy of Pakistan, IBNE Hassan offset printing press, Karachi, (2003), p.37. 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Asian_Association_for_Regional_Coopera tion. accessed on 06/04/09, time 13:28. 4. Michael Cox and Doug Stokes, US Foreign Policy, Oxford University Press, (2008), p.358. 5. Musa khan Jalalzai, The Sunni Shia conflict in Pakistan, Mustafa Waheed Book traders, Lahore, (1998), p.21. 6. http://www.scribd.com/doc/13108021/Global-Terrorism-Bangladesh-Focus? autodown=txt. Accessed on 30/08/09 time 19:23. 7. Dr Noor ul Haq and Khalid Hussain, SAARC, Islamabad policy reseach institute, Pakistan, August (2008), pp.19-20. 8. http://www.financialexpress.com/news/fight-against-terrorism-to-top-saarcsummit-agenda/343075/. Accessed on 8/31/2009, time 9:30 PM.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224

Chapter 2

TERRORISM IN SAARC COUNTRIES
Terrorism
Terrorism Although Terrorism is not a new phenomenon; the term terrorism has neither a precise definition, nor one that is widely accepted. What is terrorism? The common understanding of this term is too vague, too broad, and too simplistic. For a long time, terrorism had remained categorized into two main variations: traditional, which is now identified as state terrorism, and revolutionary, which developed in protest against political and social injustice, and operated as a supplement to insurgency and rebellion in efforts to win freedom and bring about political and social change or as a response to state terrorism. In current academic discourse, terrorism is widely characterized as the ‘weapon of the weak’, as ‘violence for effect’ or as ‘violence for political purposes’. Richard M. Pearlstein argues, “Heated debates over how to define terrorism are a staple at any conference on terrorism. Even various agencies within the same government are unable to agree on a common definition of terrorism.” Precisely, despite the understanding of various types of terrorism, a consensus on the definition of terrorism remains absent. One researcher, in a review of writings on terrorism, found 109 discrete definitions. In facts, terrorism has changed its character and meaning in time and space. What was true for one terrorist group in a certain place at a certain time does not necessarily apply to another such group in another country, at another time, espousing another political position or tradition. As a result, a consensus on a definition of terrorism has been elusive. The conceptual problem posed over the years is best reflected in the famous statement: “one man’s. Terrorism is a global problem which prevails in many countries of the world but here we will discuss this curse in the SAARC countries. First we will discuss Terrorism in Pakistan.

Terrorism in Pakistan
Pakistan has suffered from the killing of noncombatants by both state and non-state actors with the latter group often based both inside and outside the present-day country. There was massive loss of non-combatant life during partition of British India and creation of Pakistan. Strife between Shia and Sunni Muslims and persecution of Ahmediyyas occurred as early as the 1950s. A great many civilians 9

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 were killed during the 1971 "Bangladesh Liberation War" by Pakistani army. Currently however, the biggest threat to the state and citizens of Pakistan emanates killing civilians and policemen to achieve their political ends, origination of which can be attributed to General Zia ul-Haq's controversial "Islamization" policies, the president of the country in the 1980s. His tenure saw Pakistan's exceeding involvement in Soviet-Afghan War, which led to greater influx of ideologically driven Afghan Arabs in the tribal areas and the explosion of kalashnikov and drugs culture. The state and its intelligence agency Inter-Services Intelligence in alliance with the United States and Central Intelligence Agency encouraged the "mujahideen" to fight the proxy war against the Soviet Union, most of which were never disarmed after the war. Some of these groups were later activated under the behest of the state in the form of Lashkar-e-Taiba, Harkat-ul-Mujahideen and others were encouraged like Taliban to achieve state's agenda in Kashmir and Afghanistan. The same groups are now taking on the state itself. 1 There are three major categories of terrorist supported groups are small special interest who set off bombs on utility towers. Terrorist groups operating in the world today: groups such as the politico-religious militant, the group in this category usually have not have the contacts or support non-state supported, state supported and state directed groups. Non-state groups, who blow up and set fire Mosques and private buildings, or the,

limited capabilities and do not have the infrastructure needed to maintain group for a sustained period of time. They also do because they lack the skills and training that

that groups in the other two categories enjoy and their members are often caught intentionally terrorist have received for 1997. contact logistical that has proved its ability to example, scores members of religious groups in Pakistan were arrested in However, a small dedicated special intent group generate widespread publicity for its cause may have the opportunity to make this status. State sponsored groups received training, weapons, and their and administrative support from sovereign

with groups in the other categories and as a result may find itself elevated from nations. Terrorists in Pakistan collect their

fund through robbery and kidnapping for ransom. The sponsoring nation will then deliver the weapons and materials purchased by the group. Using any means available, including its national airline or shipping service, or through the illegal use of diplomatic containers.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 In Karachi, more than 200 people have died in 1997 in brutal ways. Six children have perished: five of whom were strangled, and the corpse of a 12 year old was discovered on a garbage dump with a note accusing him of being a police informer. In Punjab, 160 people have died violently since the start of 1997, including doctors, lawyers, and senior government officials. In 1997, during Independence Day festivities in Karachi, police fired into a crowed that became over excited after listening to the Prime Minister speech. Two men, both unarmed, were killed. Karachi’s woes are long-standing and seemingly intractable.
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Ethnic Movements in Pakistan
There are four ethno nationalist movements in Pakistan: Mohajir, Pakhtun, Sindhi, and Balochi. Mohajir and Pakhtun nationalism belong to the inner circle. Sindhi and Baloch nationalisms belong to the outer circle. Together they pose a challenge to what is understood as Punjabization of the state. Mohajjr ethnicity is about redistribution of financial and institutional resources in such a way that the increasing alienation of Mohajirs from the decision-making organs of the state comes to a halt. This is a movement aimed at arresting the perceived and actual decline of Mohajir representation both in policy formulation in the short run and in shaping the profile of Pakistani nationalism in the long run. Power-sharing is at the heart of the whole issue as far as nationalist aspirations of Mohajirs are concerned. This led to adoption of a strategy of mass mobilization along the lines of polities' of identity. In this context, the approach of the Mohajir leadership to problems of issue formulation is constrained by the indiscriminate nature of public policy. Within the framework of the administrative unit of Sindh, where a policy is generally implemented, and often formulated, the Mohajir politics addressed a well-defined and demarcated ethnic community. The Mohajir elite came largely unscathed out of the intense fight between its political leadership represented by the MQM and the state at large. This was due to the fact that the party sought to represent the economic and political interests of the Mohajirs while it gradually drifted away from the larger ideological, social and cultural .commitments of its own-constituency. The party bosses assumed total leadership and committed themselves to positions such as changing the geography of the country. There was no clear. Mandate for these positions. The Mohajir elite found an alibi for its marginalization in the status quo orientation of mainstream politics. Overall, the Mohajir's strategy is defensive

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 inasmuch as he wants to safeguard his current position in the face of economic, demographic, administrative and overall cultural pressures which seek to marginalize him in the body politic of Pakistan. It revolves around staying inside the state against adverse pressures. On the contrary, the Pathan's strategy is accumulative and acquisitive. There i s no real mismatch between the demographic and administrative identity of the NWFP. In this context, the demand for provincial autonomy made sense, as did the demand for equitable distribution of national resources. After independence, the Pathan elite have made considerable gains in terms of penetration of the state apparatus as well as the national economy. Unlike the Mohajir nationalist leadership, the Pathan nationalist leadership does not face the challenge of in-migration. of other linguistic groups into the NWFP. Therefore it is not constrained to first set its own house in order to operate at the national level. During the height of the Afghan war, Afghan migrants created problems of law and order, economic stress and political violence. However, that did not create a new ethnic group or inter-ethnic conflict beyond skirmishes and clashes here and there. The Pathan intelligentsia has a self-image of being politically progressive. It demands an open and decentralized federal structure, parliamentary democracy and effective representation in jobs and services. On the other hand, the media carries the profile Pathans as aso cially conservative people in terms of repressive, customs, pertaining to family and tribal life. T h is se ts th e mapart from Mohajirs who have a relatively tolerant family l if e and thehighest rate of female literacyin the country. Electoral politics in S in d h is m i n i m a l i s t .Thus, p o litic al parties with a large support base across the a tio n such as the PPP. And even the PML(N) to a lesser extent, are often n trusted w i t h votes. N ationalistparties p u rsu in ga maxima list strategy of operatingon th e e t h n o - j in g o is ti cli n e s are by passed. Pragmatism takes precedence idealism. over Hitching up to what is perceived as remote a lie n state machinery is considered a better and strategy than staying out in the cold, with no channels of communication at hand to activate. T his m in im a listapproach was once popular with the Baloch. N ation alists,not in the sense of seeking to become part of the mainstream politics but i n . terms of forging an llia n c e a across theethnic divide with the Pathan nationalist leadership. Together, the two posed a considerable challenge to the establishment from the platform” of the NAP during the 1970s.
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Afghanistan and Pakistan as the main launching pads for militancy. The Pak-Afghan border is ideally suited for running secret bases and training camps for militants. 12

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 In Pakistan, several militant organizations were banned and their accounts frozen over the past couple of the years. The overthrow of the Taliban regime closed their principal nursery in Afghanistan and recently a similar situation developed in Wana. The militants now motivated as much by their revulsion of the state policies, who they think abandoned them, as also by their own agenda, are out rightly against the present government. President Musharraf lashed out against the religious extremists in his most bitter outburst. In a speech (June 2001) to leading religious scholars, he declared: “is there any doubt that we have been left behind although we claim islam will carry us forward in every age, every circumstances and every land…. How does the world judge our claim? It looks upon us as terrorists. We have been killing each other. And now we want to spread violence and terror abroad. Naturally, the world regards us terrorists. Our claim of tolerance is phony.” The religious hardliners were stunned by the tone of his argument. Since there is an ongoing war against terrorists in Pakistan, the sporadic wave of violence could be the acts of sectarian militants furious at the recent arrests of their comrades. Some of the incidents came in the wake of increasing Muslim extremist opposition to the Musharraf regime current engagement in the war against terrorism. 4 After Musharraf joined the war on terrorism, his government at first cracked down on extremist groups. The most radical, including the Jaish-e-Mohammed Taiba were banned, their leaders and many followers were arrested. groups have resurfaced under different names, have been able to Indian- controlled territory. Even though Musharraf strongly extremism, he and his Pakistan army and Lashkar-eThe banned agitate openly for opposes Islamist on India.

violent action, and are accused of supporting continued terrorist attacks in colleagues favor a hard line policy on

Kashmir and believe that they need the militants to maintain pressure infiltration.

Musharraf has thus been unwilling to rein in "jihadis" despite his promise to stop

Security Challenges
Pakistan recognized and supported the Taliban regime until Muharraf reserved course after September 11, 2001. Abandoning the Taliban marked a defeat for Islamabad’s “forward” policy of transforming Afghanistan into a client state to provide “strategic depth” against India. Even though Islamabad is not happy with the strong Tajik position in the Karzai government, it has desisted from officially sponsoring disgruntled Afghan Pashtuns. Yet in the border areas of the NWFP and

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 in FATA, where the central government’s control is weak, pro-Taliban elements have been able to find sanctuary and have used FATA as a base of stir trouble in the Pashtun-dominated southern and eastern parts of Afghanistan. The situation has substantially worsened since the MMA with its ties to the Taliban came to power NWFP. The surge in attacks from Pakistan’s tribal areas caused a serious deterioration in security, set back reconstruction, and weakened the position of the Karzai government even further in the Pashtun areas of Afghanistan. For their part, the Afghan authorities have blamed Pakistan for failing to prevent the use of its territory by pro-Taliban elements. Relations were further shaken when an angry mob attacked the Pakistani embassy in Kabul. In an effort to prevent additional trouble, the US, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have recently established a commission to address security issues. For its part, the United States should make crystal clear to Musharraf that ISI support for cross-boarder attacks against Afghanistan is unacceptable.
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Sectarian Terrorism
The pattern of sectarian killing in 1997 is very different to what is used to be. Initially the targets of sectarian violence were predictable, now it is free for all situations. A directionless administration is falling apart in the wake of a series of bloody terrorist attacks. The government and the police insist that the killing are purely sectarian motivated and out rightly dismiss the claims of religious parties that vested interests are involved in the massacres. Police report say that militant cadres of organization like Sipah-e- Sahaba Pakistan, Lashkar-e- Jhangvi and Sipah-eMohammad of Pakistan, are comprised of militant youths, the drug mafia, tradesmen and local toughts looking for socially acceptable roles in society. They attribute the rise in violence to a sharp decline in the moral and political authority in the state apparatus. During martial law, religious and sectarian groups of a particularly sect were patronized, while General Zia ul haq’s attempts to establish an institutional frame work for islamization gave birth to increased shia activity and Tehrik-e-nifaz-e-Fiqah jafria (TNGJ) was established in 1979. when TNGJ, under the dynamic leadership of Allama Arif Al Hussaini, assumed a political role in Pakistan, Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP) was launched in (1984) by Maulana Haq Nawaz Jhangvi with open support of the Deobandi sect and moral and material support from Saudi Arabia and then government of Zia ul Haq.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 Maulana Jhangvi, an ordinary Maulvi of a local mosque, gained prominence when, with the tacit help of the administration, he persuaded poor people to send their yound sons in his deeni Madrassahs free of cost. Jhang offered a congenial atmosphere for shia-sunni confrontation against the backdrop of sectarian frenzy which was regular feature during Moharram. Haq Nawaz jhangvi’s headquarter at Jamia masjid Piplianwala an Jhang was known as the headquarter of the anjuman Sipah-e-Sahaba, after shia organizations had become viable pressure groups in Pakistan. One intelligence report points out that these developments not only necessitated the SSP to emerge as a strong anti shia organization, but also inspired the Saudi government to support the Deobandi school of thought in Pakistan against the increasing Iranian sponsored shia activity. An organization (Sunni-Tehrik) which was not involved in religious terrorism till 15 October 1997 is now being dragged into the field. However several innocent religious students were ruthlessly killed in Multan. After that, the city was immediately handed over to the para-military forces.
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Terrorism in India
Since its independence in 1947, India has been facing the problem of insurgency and terrorism in different parts of the country. For the purpose of this column, insurgency has been taken to mean an armed violent movement, directed mainly against security forces and other government targets, to seek territorial control; terrorism has been taken to mean an armed violent movement directed against government as well as non-government targets, involving pre-meditated attacks with arms, ammunition and explosives against civilians, and resorting to intimidation tactics such as hostagetaking and hijacking, but not seeking territorial control. 7

An Assertion of Indian-ness
Ayodhya, in Uttar Pardesh, was until 13 years ago the site of the 16 th century Mosque. It is believed by Hindus that the site is the place where the god Ram, an incarnation of Vishnu was born. There had been Hindu nationalist rallies at the site for several years previously: but in 1992, whipped up by BJP politicians, 200,000militants stormed the mosque and reduced it to rubble.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224

Gujarat Riots
In the late February 2002, Ahmedabad, capital of the West Indian state of Gujarat, Was rocked by communal violence. The city turned into a battlefield, as Hindu mobs came out in streets on a killing and looting spree. About 2,000 people, mostly Muslims, were killed in two weeks carnage, scores of families burnt alive, about 1.5 lakh displaced people forced to seek shelter in makeshift camps, besides the loot, arson, target killings and atrocities, and gang rapes. The curfew and the shoot at sight order was failed to deters the rioters as press reports suggested the law and order machinery had collapsed, police was nowhere to be seen and the streets were under the control of Hindu mobs. Within 48 hours the death toll reached 300.besides Ahmedabad, several other Gujarat cities like Baroda, Surat were also hit by rioters. Politics and excesses in the name of religion make a very explosive mix. Those who profess to be officially secular also exploit these excesses for narrow political gains. The demolition of Babri Mosque in the India was carried out while the “Secular” congress govt played a kind of passive role in the face of excesses committed in the in the name of religion. In the 1980s support for Hindus revivalist ideology was no longer limited to the RSS, BJP and Arya samaj circles but had now Spread throughout the general populace of northern India. Deoras distinguishes between religions raised from India the Hinduism, Sikhism, and Budhism, and “outside” religions like Islam and Christianity. The division between “native” and foreign in naming Muslims, Christians and Communists as three internal threats to India.

Sikh Militancy
India has seen the rise of an extremist Hindu nationalism and Sikh militancy. There has been a growing hardcore of extremists in the state of Punjab and elsewhere within India and outside of India as well who want not simply local autonomy within the country and recognition as a distinct non-Hindu religious community but, rather, a separate state in the region to be known as “Khalistan.” These militant separatists represent only a small minority but they have widespread influence on the political life of the state of Punjab and continue to terrorize both Sikh and Hindu population of the state. Several thousand people died in nearly 10 years of militancy and India’s Sikhs effectively became alienated from mainstream society.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 Although the post independent phase of separatist violence in Punjab has its roots in Punjabi suba movement of the early 1960s, it was renewed interest in the inequity in centre-state relations and finally the army assault on the Golden temple in June 1984 with turned the marginal Khalistan movement into a significant and eventually a violent uprising. There are many Sikhs who still feel bitter about the way they were targeted after Mrs. Gandhi’s assassination and the inaction, or the complicity, of the congress politicians as the riots developed. 8 On 13 December 2001, Islamic militants attacked the Indian parliament in Delhi. Fourteen people killed, including five of the assailants. Claiming that the Islamic militant group Lashkar-e-Taiba was responsible for the attack, Indian leaders issued an ultimatum warning of dire consequences in Pakistan failed to close down the offices of the Lashkar-e-Taiba and those of another militant group, the Jaish-eMohammed. Although Musharraf probably did not order to authorize the attack, India cut off the communications with Pakistan. The Indian ambassador in Islamabad was recalled to Delhi, road and rai! Links were airlines were banned from using moved to the border. According to Indian Defense Minister George was 'raring to go'. He also Fernandes, the Indian military Pakistan would because warned Pakistan not to consider using nuclear Abdul Sattar was quoted as saying that his closed; and Pakistani were Indian airspace. At the height of the ensuing

crisis, over half a million troops, about two-thirds of them Indian,

weapons, saying: 'we could take a strike, survive, and then hit back be finished'. Pakistan Foreign Minister

anxieties were 'mounting not only by the day but by the hour'. Perhaps

of concerns about the possibility of an Indian strike on Pakistani airbases, the Pakistani Air Force practiced landing and taking off from the IslamabadLahore highway. Fortunately, the Indian Government did was banning the Lashkar-e-Taiba and the Jaish-e-Mohammed, settled down somewhat. In May 2002 within two weeks, soldiers posted in the region. Once again India claimed that the attacks were crossed from Pakistan perpetrated by gunmen who had one of the attackers.
9

not launch an attack, and the situation

in part because of General Musharraf's statement on 12 January 2002 that he two attacks were carried out in Kashmir

the first of which was on the wives and children of Indian

'three or four days' before. As proof, it claimed that a

chocolate bar made in Pakistan was found in a pocket of

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224

Mumbai Terrorist Attacks
Whereas extremism and insurgency are internal problems of mostly a transnational crime. It needs to be dealt with bilateral and multilateral cooperation is required. for a joint investigation of Mumbai accepted Pakistani suggestion for receiving the Indian dossier India, terrorism is jointly, for which

Pakistan has, therefore, asked

terrorist attack. Indian leaders have not reasons best known to them. However, after

on Mumbai attacks, Pakistan asked for details,

mostly pertaining to the identity of terrorists to bring the murderers and their accomplices to justice. In addition, Pakistan has also asked for information about the killing in the Mumbai attacks of Hemant Karkare, the chief of the Indian anti-terror squad. He was investigating Samjhota Express train terrorism that happened on February 2008 in "which 68 people, mostly quick Pakistan and the release of sketches of out." India has a history of Pakistanis, died on the Indian soil. Indian authorities and the media! Were to assert that the evidence overwhelmingly pointed towards ISI (Inter-Services Intelligence). With the immediate the suspects, it seemed that Indians had it all figured

blaming Pakistan and the ISI lor the occurrences in their country. In fact, contrary to India's blame on Pakistan, Hemant Karkare's investigation reveals that a serving officer of the Indian Army, Lieutenant Colonel Prasad Shrikant Purohit, in collaboration with other Indian extremists, was involved. The Indian Maharashtra Police had told an Indian court that "Prohit procured 60 kg of RDX from Jammu and Kashmir in the year 2006, part of which is suspected to have been used in Samjautha Express train explosion and Malegaon blasts." This raises certain probing questions such as: Why "Karkare, Salaskar and Ashok Kaamte, the three Police Officers of the were killed in the (Mumbai) terror attacks"? In any case, such terrorist acts breed hatred and help hateKashmir issue on the back burner. They objective for the present.
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ATS (Anti-Terrorist Squad) mongers to sabotage

the peace process between die two neighbors India and Pakistan and put the seemed to have achieved their

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224

Terrorism in Afghanistan
In the early 21st century there were indications that terrorism, which had previously taken the form of isolated assassinations or bombings, was becoming endemic and had acquired a formidable international dimension. On 11 September 2001 two hijacked aircraft destroyed the World Trade Centre in New York, with the loss of nearly 3000 lives. The immediate result was an economic crisis, particularly in air travel, heightened security precautions, a search for Osama bin Laden who had encouraged the strike, and an American led attack upon the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, to root out members of al-Qa'eda. This was followed in 2003 by a three-week campaign in Iraq which overthrew Saddam Hussain. Disagreements on policy produced severe strains within the United Nations and NATO. In July 2005, a coordinated terrorist attack upon London killed more than fifty people. 11 This book is about relationships: between the West and the Islamic world, between the various movements in the Islamic world and within Afghanistan, and between the people of Afghanistan as they respond to the experiences that have ovens-helmed them since the 1978 coup and the subsequent Soviet invasion. It is an attempt to understand a picture that becomes ever more complex the more one pursues its various strands. The Taliban are but one manifestation of the impact of the Afghan conflict but they bring into focus a web of factors spanning the interface between Islam and Christianity, developments, within Islam as a religion and as the basis for a political ideology, international power politics and the international economy. Every effort to clarify the situation raises further questions, and there are no easy labels with which’ to define the Taliban. However, when they took Kabul at the end of September 1996, and whether by design, accident or as an act of revenge quite independent of the Taliban ex President Najibullah and his brother were hanged in a public square, the image they presented was stark and simple. Their subsequent declarations banning female access to education and employment, their imposition of strict dress codes on both women and men, and their dramatic military conquests brought to the surface all the negative stereotypes about Islam that have beset both international relations and rare relations within Europe. The high level of media attention and the punitive approach the Taliban adopted towards the population of Kabul made it difficult for the international community to

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 avoid taking a stance. However, both they and the international agencies were made keenly aware of the evident popularity of the Taliban in many of the areas they had conquered, even though their popularity in Kabul was far from assured. It was therefore impossible to go for outright condemnation and a severing of relations. A way had to be found of engaging in dialogue in the hope that policies that were more consistent with i n t e r n a t i o n anorm sr u l e r be n e g o t i a t e d . l This book is one among many efforts to facilitate this process, byseeking to establish, as much as can reasonably be achieved within a book of this sizes, an objective understanding of the current situation. It therefore looks at what the Taliban believe and how this set of beliefs has manifested itself in the different parts of Afghanistan and in relation to different elements in the population. It also, very tentatively, explores the many possible influences, both cultural and religious, that appear to have fashioned Taliban policies and their implementation. In order to do this one has to look at the wider geopolitical picture and at Afghanistan's role in the world economy, and to take on board the country's ethnic, religious and linguistic mix and the nature of its terrain. All these have influenced the behavior of the Taliban. Similarly, their behavior has generated a set of responses ammo Afghanistan's neighbors as well as in the West, with potentially Conflicting agendas operating within each neighboring state. These agendas have included the very considerable interests relating to Afghanistan's role as a major producer of opium, its direct involve ment in the processing of heroin, its potential as a conduit for Central Asian gas and oil and its heavy involvement in smuggling. It is also important to consider the major problems the Taliban movement has created. How, for example, should the international community respond to abuses of human rights, such as the denial of female access to education and employment, in considering issues such as international recognition? How should it compare this abuse with the extreme forms of physical abuse committed by many govern ments that have been accorded international recognition? Should it take a stricter stand in relation to physical abuse, worldwide? How should humanitarian agencies respond to human rights abuse? In seeking to engage and negotiate with a movement such as the Taliban, what benchmarks should one be using? Are the UN Human Rights Conventions appropriate or are they, as the Taliban state, based on Western value systems? 20

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 Should one take the view that radical movements can be a symptom of the state of a society and that one should respect their philosophies as a manifestation of popular belief, or should one look to the views of moderates and Liberals within the population to guide one’s negotiating position? Should one be influenced by what Islamic scholars are saying as to what is or is not consistent with the Qur'an and the reported sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, the Hadith? Should one look to women within the population of Islamic scholars and other intellectuals to indicate what may be reasonable norms? Alternatively, should one draw on the perspectives and values of those living in the rural areas of Afghanistan, both women and men? In so doing, how does one take on board the diversity of perspectives and values from village to village, province to province and one ethnic group to another?
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Religious Terrorism
It is terrorism by those whose motivations and aims have a predominant religious character or influence. According to Adnan Wadera Gangster, religious terrorism consists of acts that terrify, the definition of which is provided by the witnesses the ones terrified and not by the party committing the act; accompanied by either a religious motivation, justification, organization, or world view. Religion is sometimes used in combination with other factors, and sometimes as the primary motivation. Religious terrorism is intimately connected to current forces of geopolitics. According to Bruce Hoffman, to be considered religious terrorism the perpetrators must use religious scriptures to justify or explain their violent acts or to gain recruits and there must be some sort of clerical figures involved in some leadership roles. In the modern age, after the decline of ideas such as the divine right of kings and with the rise of nationalism, terrorism more often involved anarchism, nihilism and revolutionary politics, but since 1980 there has been an increase in activity motivated by religion. Former United States Secretary of State Warren Christopher said that terrorist acts in the name of religion and ethnic identity have become "one of the most important security challenges we face in the wake of the Cold War. Stephen Weinberg has argued that religion is the most important factor, famously saying "for good people to do evil things, that takes religion". However, Robert Pape, Rogers et al, Nardin, and

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 Juergensmeyer have all argued that religion should be considered only one incidental factor, and that so-called "religious" terrorism is primarily geopolitical. 13

The Sunni-Shia Conflict in Afghanistan
We will discuss the origin and history of Shia'ism in Afghanistan. The Shia population of Afghanistan, according to David Busby, consists of three principles ethnic groups. The first are the Mongol Hazaras who inhabit the central Hazarajat region located near the Iranian border with some tribes settled in eastern Afghanistan. The majority of this sect lives in Jaghuri district of the Ghazni province and in central Kabul, Herat, Kandahar and Western Kabul arc also the main center of Shi'ism. Qizilbash and Turkmen Shia tribes are settled" in the southern and western parts of the country. In., contrast to the urbanized Qizilbash. According to David Busby, the tribally organized Hazaras are one of the poorest groups inhabiting the mountainous region characterized by long, cold winters and a paucity of arable land. Qizilbash and Hazaras also differ in their traditional understanding and practice of Islam. Given their social position and high literary abilities, the Qizilbash produced a number of scholars. The traditional practice of Islam among the Hazaras seems to have been different. According to Muhammad Hassan Kakar, during the past Shia of Afghanistan did not have separate mosques nor did they observe Muharram ceremonies in their Imam Baras. Hazaras informant's dispute the idea that they had no mosques but admit that because of the impoverished conditions prevailing in the Hazarajat most villages had to combine the activities of the Takya Khana and mosque in one building. Although the Qizilbash and Hazara represent very different societies and traditions, their histories became intertwined with the outbreak of the so-called Hazara war (1891-93). This conflict was one of a number that broke out in various parts of what was to become the nation of Afghanistan during the reign of Amir Abdul Rahman Khan, but the Hazara campaign differed from the battles waged against other groups in that they were formulated specifically in sectarian terms. Thus the Amir secured a fatwa from the chief religious authorities in Kabul declaring the Hazaras and all other Shias to be infidels. Stipendiary mullahs were roped in for the prospect of Jihad against the Sect. They were told that all the property of the Shias retrieved by the Muslims would be booty.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 Abdul Rahman Khan's reasons for premising his campaign on sectarian grounds appear to have been essentially pragmatic, since according to Islamic precedents. Amir Abdul Rahman Khan made some mistakes regarding sectarianism and ethnicity during his reign. This situation changed dramatically, however, once the conflict was transformed into a religious war in contrast, the Shia sect declared open war against the Sunnis throughout the country. According to David Busy, the Qizilbash found them implicated in this conflict, for the Amir suspected that both they and mujtaheds of Mashhad were responsible for Hazara intrasignence towards their Sunni rulers. Lacking specific proof to back up his suspicions, Abdul Rahman launched a campaign of persecution, against the Qizilbash on the pretext that Shias generally were guilty of blasphemy in their devotion toward Ali and neglect of the other companions of the Prophet (PBUH). Beyond this, Amir also outlawed the traditional Muharram ceremonies and allowed Shias to operate only three Takya Khanas in Kabul. Later, after an apparent assassination attempt by a mentally unbalanced Qizilbash boy, even more restrictions were applied including the abandonment of the Shia faith, conversion of all Takya Khanas to mosques, and the appointment of Sunni mullahs to ensure mosques attendance by Qizilbash and other Shias living in Kabul. With the increasing consolidation of the Afghan state after the ascension of Zahir Shah to the throne in 1933, the focus of Shia political protest began to move from: the country to the city. It must be mentioned here that Amir Habibullah Khan did not, touch the Shia community, but. When the Ahmadia movement penetrated into Afghanistan and a prominent pir of the Khost province, Sahibzada Abdul Latif, converted to Ahmadism, the' Amir cracked down on the Ahmadis and Sahibzada Abdul Latif was stoned to death. This does not mean that the Hazarajat was entirely pacified, but the forms of protest changed, becoming once against more localized and sporadic as well as less overtly religious in formulation. Thus most of the remembered incidents of policies protest from 1933 until now are called "yoghi" (bandits) characteristically, these were men who, after getting into some kind of trouble with the government, fled to the mountains and then took up arms against government despotism and the abuses of Pushtun tribes who were protected by local government officials in this regard. 23
A

declaration of Jihad not only legatine military

action. but also helped to attract tribal levies who were promised their share of the booty

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 An ammunitions sump exploded in Ojhri Camp near Islamabad, raining missiles and sharpened on the civilian’s population. Many died, the opposition protested and the Junejo government initiated an investigation. This "ammunition dump" turned out to be the headquarters of the Inter services Intelligence Afghan Operations. Weapons and ammunition had always been stored in Ojhri camp in a manner that violated all rules of safety and security. The United States and Pakistan prepared to flood the Mujahideen with weapons just before the accords were signed. On May 29, 1988, before Junejo could issue the orders, Zia dismissed the government and called for new elections. (14) Soon after George W. Bush took office in 2001, continuing and intensifying the he made clear his interest in muted criticism of Clinton opening to India. New Delhi quickly n on global climate change and reacted India promptly offered its full Delhi feared

showed interest in reciprocating. The Vajpayee government U.S. opposition to the Kyoto Protocol

positively to President Bush's controversial missile-defense initiative. When alQaeda terrorists struck on September 11, 2001, cooperation in the war on terrorism. After Pakistan joined the antiterrorist Islamabad. Even though the United States the improved relationship has not

coalition and turned on its former Afghan Taliban allies, New Washington would again “tilt” toward been derailed.
15

has only partially allayed these concerns,

Taliban and Gender Policies
One of the most unfortunate causalities of the defeat of NATO and Taliban’s come back would be a woman of Afghanistan. Having experienced the wrath of religious extremism once in the form of barbaric laws torturous to the women folk in Afghanistan, the success of Taliban would be yet another episode of sub-human treatment of women. However one defines the Taliban creed, they are clearly at the conservative end of the spectrum. The rigidity of the Taliban gender policies could be seen as a desperate attempt to keep out the “other world” and “to protect” Afghan women from influences that could weaken the society from within. What was done during the first reign of Taliban would be repeated if Taliban control Kabul again. Women would be totally deprived of the right to education as happened during the Taliban regime; they would not be allowed to work as

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 happened during Taliban regime when women were ordered to remain in their houses and employers were threatened with dire consequences for taking up female employees; their right to travel would be denied. Taliban do not allow a woman to venture out of the house alone and unaccompanied by a prescribed male member of her immediate family; their right to health no woman could see a male doctor, family planning is outlawed, woman could not be operated upon by surgical team having a male member; their right to legal recourse a woman’s testimony was worth half a man’s testimony. Taliban banned all women’s recreational and sporting facilities, women singers were not allowed to sing their female voices “corrupt” males. Beating up of women for “disciplinary” reasons on the slightest pretext is allowed in Taliban’s Islam.
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Introduction to Twin Towers Attack (9/11 Attacks)
In this chapter discusses the nature of terrorism and examines the US experience of terrorism, especially in relation to the 9/11 attacks and the resulting global war on terror. It assesses the conduct of the warin the context of regime termination in Afghanistan and Iraq, the survival and evolution of the Al-Qaeda movement, and the problems that arose for the United States over the first six yearsof the conflict. At 8:46 a.m. on 11 September 2001, American airlines flight 11, a boeing 767, crashed into the north tower of the world trade center in New York. The immediate belief was that this was a horrifying accident, not least because there had been a similar incident in 1945 when a military aircraftcrashed into the Empire State Building. However sixteen minutes after the north tower was struck, United Airlines flight 175, also a boeing767, struck the south tower. This was followed at 9:37 a.m. by American Airlines flight 77, a boeing 757, crashing into the department of defense headquarters, the Pentagon, in Washington. Just under half an hour later, united Airlines flight 93, also boeing 757, crashed into a field in Pennsylvania, after passengers had attempted to take over the plane from hijackers. Both of the world trade center towers collapsed and the toll in the New York, Washington, and Pennsylvania was 2,973 people killed and 24 missing persumed dead. All four planeshad been takenover by people associted with the redical islamist group Al-Qaeda, and the Bush administration made clear its intention to bring those behind

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 the attacks to justice. This would clearly involve punishing the Taliban regime in Afghanistan if it did not cooperate, since it was harbouring the leaders of Al-Qaeda. 17

Terrorism in Bangladesh
The security environment of Bangladesh is and was always peaceful in comparison to many other countries of this region. In respect to terrorist activities the country was in very low profile threat. If we consider the population density and diversity of the population the incidents are very normal and negligible. Last few years terrorist activities in this country got new dimension. Initially those were in very primitive type and gradually things are becoming complex, difficult to encounter control neutralize. Incident of 17 august 2005 was a massive shock in our peaceful existence and it reminded us that we need to do something to stop and finally come out of this evil cycle. Though the number of incident was more but the magnitude and the casualty was not that much. We may still call this as the beginning of the coordinated terrorist activities and with our utmost sincerity and devotion the country still can come out of this unwanted and unpleasant situation. In last six years we are observing bomb incidents in the country and the trend was going up. It was curved down by the appropriate authority and the sincerity of the law enforcing agencies of the country by adopting adequate counter measures. In the beginning there were many unexploded bombs placed in different places. Explosives were there but the bombs were not functional. Some bomb threats were also there but the casualty related to this types of incidents were not significant. Ten persons were killed in the bomb incident that took place in 6 March 1999. We may take that as the beginning of successful terrorist attempt to destabilize existing peace and tranquility. Unlike other countries of the world the terrorist activities like this type of bomb incidents will have devastating effect in our country. Our country is over crowded and densely populated. If some incident of this type takes place number of casualty will be more and destruction of properties will be also more as everything is constructed in a smaller area. Then there comes the secondary hazard. All these will actually act as problem multiplier because we don’t have sufficient equipment and trained manpower to combat this type of situation. This article will primarily focus on bomb related terrorist activities highlighting the major incidents occurred during the period from 1980 to 2000’s in global perspective. There after recent trend of growing terrorism in Bangladesh especially bomb related

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 incidents will be covered to reveal few measures for combating such incidents effectively. 18 Now in the contemporary Bangladesh, most of the academics within the country and outside it see an even more notable link between the growing phenomenon’s of Bangladeshi fundamentalism and the war on “global terror.” Quite a few of Jehadi groups and chieftains in Bangladesh claim to have returned from Afghanistan to continue their “holy war” at home. “We will all become Taliban, and Bangladesh will become Afghanistan” so runs their favorite slogan. Nothing could have strengthened fundamentalism so much as the Bush wars for “liberation” of Afghanistan and Iraq. The death of former finance minister Shah A.M.S. Kibria and fur others in a grenade attack in Habiganj on 27 January 2005 did send fresh shock waves through the country and beyond. The opposition Awami League has attributed the assassination to Islamic “fundamentalists” to enjoying the patronage of the government of Prime Minister Begum Khalida Zia of the BNP. The fundamentalist organizations including those linked with global terrorism have established themselves in Bangladesh, whereby they have found ready adherents. Some evidence of this trend are: 1. The jehad movement of Bangladesh under its Emir Sheikh Abdul Salam Muhammad is linked to Osama Bin Laden. He jointly signed “Fatwas” in 1988 with Bin Laden calling for jehad against USA, Israel and India. 2. Terrorist operations from Bangladesh are included in Bin Laden’s training of groups for chemical warfare. 3. existence and open functioning of pan-Islamic fundamentlist like the Lashkare-Tayba, International Islamic federation of students, Front organizations of Osama Bin Laden, Saudi organizations like Rabita Alam-e-Islami and various jamaats. 4. Plans to bomb the US embassy in New Delhi and the US consulates in Kolkata and Chennai were hatched. Coordinated and facilitated by many of the above. This plan was aborted by the timely arrest of the chief Bangladeshi operative, Abu Nasar, by New Delhi police. The increasing influence of Al-Qaeda in Bangladeshi society is a cause for concern to the rest of the region, attempting to counter the threat of militancy in South Asia. The most prominent among Al-Qaeda allied groups are Harkat-ul-Jehad-al-Islami (HuJI) and its student wing, Jama’atul Mujahidin (JuM). Another training camp of militants 27

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 was unearthed in Rangunia sub-district in Chittagong. The law enforcement agencies also confirmed that several other training camps were active in the hilly areas of Hathazari. Some of the radical groups like Jagrata Muslim Janata Bangladesh (JMJB) is personally active in the northern districts of Bangladesh. This group too believes in extremist ideology similar to that of Taliban. In the name of tackling the Maoist threat, they are trying to push their hidden agenda. The big name doing the rounds these days in Bangladesh and who seems doggedly pursuing “Talibanic tactics” is none other than Bangla Bhai whose real name is Siddiqul Islam alias azizur Rahman. He is operation commander of new Islamic militia Jagarata Muslim Janata Bangladesh (JMJB), headed by Maulana Abdur Rahman. Maulana Abdur Rahman is JMJB’s spiritual mentor. Though he claims his outfit is engaged in social welfare, according to Haroon Habib (Frontline, 2 July 2004), the Maulana pursues extremist ideologies. His “Islamic court” executes those who profess secularism. The biggest advantage, which the Maulana and Bangla bhai have, is state patronage. According to an editorial in the Bangladesh observer, whenever religious attacks are carried out in the name of cleansing the minorities there is an “unmistakable indication of sympathy towards the attackers” by the administration. In sum, the study shows that both the state and large sections of the population of Bangladesh have been using Islam for political purpose.various groups of nationalists, sections of the Ulema representing both the political and non-political organizations, and even numbers of the armed forces from time to time champion the cause of Islam some of them by openly demanding the transformation of the country into a Shri’a based “Islamic state,” and some by opposing liberal democratic and secular institutions. These extremist groups are pretending to be saviours in Bangladesh as the state has failed to provided law and order; the continuous deterioration of the situation has provided a suitable condition for the extremist forces to enhance their hold on society. They are gradually abrogating some of the functions of the state and at the same time are pushing their own hidden agenda. 19 The fault line in Bangladesh politics is rise of religious extremism and acts of terrorism. On August 17, 2005, an orchestrated bombing took place in the all districts of Bangladesh in which 459 detonators were used. Two people were killed and several others injured in these terrorist acts. Jama’atul mujahidin Bangladesh was held responsible for the August 17 bomb

28

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 explosion. JMB was banned by the Bangladesh government on February 3 but those from that group who were arrestedon bombing charges have now come out of prison. The growing influence of Islamic extremist group is considered a major destabilizing factor in Bangladesh. The AL and other opposition parties blame BNP of patronizing religious extremism by giving a free hand to Jamaat-i-Islami, its ally in the government. Opposition leader Sheikh Hasina recently described BNP Jamaat alliance as ‘Nationalist Jamaat family’ arguing that there will be no chance for them to escape public wrath. she asserted that BNPJamaat alliance has destroyed the country’s stability and economy. As a matter of fact, now there is no security of public life and property. Sensing their debacle, the Khaleda-Nizami coalition is out destroy democracy rigging the next to elections." Selig S. Harrison, n American expert on South Asian Affairs in his article, "Bangladesh a new hub for terrorism" that recently appeared in The Washington says ost P that "Prime Minister Khaleda Zia looked the other way as io Jamaat has systematically filled sensitive civil service, police, intelligence and military posts with its sympathizers, who have in turn used the other way as Jamaat-sponsored guerrilla squads alerted after Taliban have operated with increasing impunityiany rural and urban areas." in Although Jam aat-i-Islam i of Bangladesh has been held responsible for fanning com m unal hatred and targeting the Ahm adya com m unity, there are other religious organizations like JM B, Jihad party Hizbut Touhid, Harkat-ul-Jihad and Hizbut Tahir who are believed to have network of terrorist groups involved in the targeting secular M uslim s, Hindu and religious m inorities. But the Jam aat is perceived to be m oderate Islam ic party as com pared to other m ilitant groups. The Jam aat is considered as the m ost organized political force in Bangladesh, which has expanded its sphere of influence because of its coalition with the BNP. Although the Jam aat is criticized by the Awam i League of prom oting religious extremism in Bangladesh, in the past Jam aat has cooperated with AL. The recent political earthquake in Bangladesh took place when form er president Hussain M uham m ad Ershad decided to join the BNP-led alliance after m eeting Tariq Zia, an im portant leader of the ruling party and son of Prim e M inister Khaleda Zia. Ershad was held responsible by Khaleda Zia of assassinating her husband in Chittagong in M ay 1981. Although, he denies the charge, he is facing scores of cases, which were filed against him during the first BNP governm ent
20 (1991-1996).

In March, 2003, Bangladesh’s counter-terrorism units backed up by intelligence agencies arrested two of the countries leading Islamist terrorist leaders from their hideouts. Sheikh Abdur Rahman, the chief of Jama’atul Mujahideen Bangladesh 29

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 (JMB), and the notorious Bangla Bhai, the chief of the Jagrata Muslim Janata Bangladesh (JMJB), were captured in spectacular fashion within days of each other. The men have historic links to the Jamaat-e-Islami and its student front Islami Chhatra Shibir. During the raid to captured Sheikh Abdur Rahman authorities found books written by Mawdudi and Golam Azam, the former leader of Jamaat Bangladesh in his possession. The raid also unearthed blank checkbooks of Saidur Rahman, who has links to Jamaat and is a former Jamaat-e-Islami leader. The cheque books were issued by the Islami Bank Bangladesh (IBBL), which is closely affiliated with the Jamaat and the Islamist movement. IBBL has been involved in financing militants and terrorist attacks. Delwar Hossain Saidee, a prominent Jamaat MP, is on the Shariah board of the IBBL. In August 2003, JMB militants were seized in the home of Montezar Rahman, a Jamaat leader in Joypurhat. This was the first indication that Jamaat was once again becoming involved in militancy and subversion in Bangladesh. The Jamaat’s student wing Islami Chhatra Shibir (ICS) is directly involved in the militancy, with many of its cadre being linked to the JMB and bomb attacks. It has also been implicated in the murders of faculty members within Bangladeshi universities. Jamaat leaders have also been intimidating journalists who try to report on Jamaat and Shibirs activities. Shumi Khan, Shamaresh Boiddya and Jubayer Siddiqui have all received death threats from Jamaat because of their reporting on the organisations links to JMB and militancy. The Jamaat Shibir Bangladesh has also acted as a funding conduit for the JamaatPakistan. In 2000 Indian intelligence agencies intercepted a letter from Jamaat leaders which acknowledges that monies had been transferred through Jamaat-Bangladesh to the Muslim United Liberation Tigers of Assam (MULTA) from the Jamaat in Pakistan. MULTA is a terrorist organisation which is working towards turning Assam, a region in northern India, into an Islamic enclave which they hope will be run by Shariah law. The group has been involved in bombings and assassinations of civic leaders in Assam. MULTA works closely with Harkat-ul-Jihadi-Islami Bangladesh (HUJI-B), JMB and Jamaat’s Shibir. HUJI Bangladesh has been added to the US, UK and UN list of terrorist organisations. It was behind the 2004 grenade attacks on British High Commissioner Anwar Choudhury. 30

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 MULTA also works closely with other terrorist organisations such as the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) and the Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI) which is both allied to Osama Bin Laden’s International Islamic Front (IIF). SIMI was the student front of the Indian branch of the Jamaat-i-Islami and closely follows the thoughts and teachings of Mawdudi It has a history of supporting the Taliban and al-Qaeda. Its cadre are believed to have been directly involved in recent bomb attacks in India- they are believed to have assisted terrorist cells in Varanasi, New Delhi, Mumbai and Adohya; these attacks have been major operational escalations for the SIMI as they have caused extremely high fatalities and casualty rates. SIMI has been closely working with Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), Hizbul Mujahideen (HM) and Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) which are based in Pakistan- they are mainly Deobandi organisations. These groups are also members of Bin Laden’s IIF, they are all believed to be operating in Bangladesh. Intelligence reports and newspaper articles have reported that the network wants to create a Brihot Bangladesh or ‘greater Bangladesh’ by merging Muslim communities from northern India into Bangladesh. Islami Chhatra Shibir (ISC), Jamaat’s student wing have been involved with this militant network and are working in tandem with SIMI to support it. The two youth groups have been meeting in West Bengal under the banner of the ‘Islamic Action Force’. The worrying point is that the Shibir and Jamaat are working closely with SIMI and are well aware of its current strategy to attack India. 21

Suicide Jihadi Terrorism in Bangladesh
1. If senior police officials of Bangladesh are to be believed, suicide/suicidal jihadi terrorism, which first made its appearance in the Afghanistan-Pakistan region and from there spread to the Jammu & Kashmir State of India, has now infected Bangladesh. 2. According to police accounts, ten persons, two of them police officers, were killed and 21 others seriously injured in two explosions believed to have been triggered off by suspected suicide bombers more or less at the same time at two different towns in the south-eastern port city of Chittagong and at Gazipur near Dhaka on November 29, 2005. The improvised explosive devices used in both the incidents have been described by the police as unsophisticated home-made bombs triggered off by human carriers.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 3. In the Chittagong incident, the suspected terrorist threw a bomb into a court and then reportedly blew himself up near a police outpost set up for the security of the court. The suspected suicide bomber and two police officers were killed. Another suicide bomber survived with serious injuries. 4. In the Gazipur incident, a suicide bomber dressed as a lawyer entered the office of the local bar association without being properly checked by the security guard and set off the explosion. The bomber himself and six other died five on the spot and two others in a hospital. 5. The incidents of November 29, 2005, have come in the wake of other recent targeted attacks on lawyers and members of the judiciary, which have been attributed by the police to the Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen (JUM), a pro Taliban, Wahabi organization, which was banned by the Bangladesh authorities in February, 2005. Another organization banned at the same time is the Jagrata Muslim Janata Bangladesh (JMJB). Subsequently, the local authorities banned on October 15, 2005, the local branch of the Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HUJI), whose headquarters are located in Pakistan. The ban on the HUJI followed reported British action against the organization following the London explosions of July, 2005, and the arrest of its longabsconding operational commander Mufti Abdul Hannan by the Bangladesh Police on October 1, 2005. 6. The HUJI of Bangladesh, normally referred to as HUJI (B), had played an active role in the jihad against the Soviet and Afghan troops in Afghanistan in the 1980s. Its members studied in the Pakistani madrasas and fought as members of different Afghan mujahideen groups, after having been trained by Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). The HUJI (B) also recruited a number of Rohingya Muslims from the Arakan area of Myanmar and took them to Afghanistan for fighting against the Soviet and Afghan troops. 7.The following 24 Bangladeshi Rohingya Mujahideen died during the jihad in Afghanistan: Commander Abdur Rahman Faruki, Jessore; Maolana Nurul Karim, Jessore; Hafez Motiur Rahman, Gazipur; Hafez Abdul Momen, Momenshahi (Mymensing); Maolana Quamruzzaman, Jessore; Raihan Uddin, Gazipur; Maolana Sheikh Ismail, Gazipur; Maolana Abdul Matin, Faridpur; Badrul Alam, Faridpur; Hafez Rahmat Ullah, Dhaka; Maolana Abdul Hamid, Momenshahi (Mymensing); Saifullah, Barisal; Mosharraf Hossain, Comilla; Rabiullah, Dhaka; Professor Rafiqullah, Noakhali; Siddiqullah Chowdhury, Noakhali; Mufti Obaidullah, B. Baria; 32

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 Nurul Islam, Khulna; Mohammad Faruk, Khulna; Abdullah, Khulna; Nurul Islam, Bogra; Faizullah, Noakhali; Abdul Gafur, Chittagong; and Mohammad Ali, Barisal. 8. After the fall of the Najibullah Government in Kabul in April, 1992, and the capture of power by the Afghan mujahideen, the Bangladeshi HUJI leaders held a press conference at the Jatiya Press Club of Dhaka on April 30, 1992, to inform the people of Bangladesh about their contribution to the success of the Mujahideen in Afghanistan and to announce their plans for a similar jihad in Bangladesh. Among those, who addressed the press conference wearing olive green dress were: Obaidur Rahman Nadvi, whose designation was not given, Abdus Salam, who was introduced as the President of HUJI Bangladesh, field commander Manzur Hasan, Dhaka city unit President Maolana Delwar Hossain, Publicity Secretary Mufti Shafiqur Rahman and Maolana Mufti Abdul Hye. Thereafter, the HUJI remained quite active till 1996, when 41 of its cadres were arrested by the police at a secret training camp in Cox's Bazar with arms and ammunition, but they were subsequently released on bail. All of them went underground. In February, 1998, the HUJI (B) joined Osama bin Laden's International Islamic Front (IIF) for Jihad against the Crusaders and the Jewish People as one of its founding members. Since then, the Bangladesh authorities were not able to trace and arrest any of its office-bearers despite reports of their involvement in many terrorist incidents, including an unsuccessful attempt to kill Sheikh Hasina, former Prime Minister. The October 1, 2005, arrest of Mufti Hannan is the first important arrest of an absconding HUJI leader by the local police. 9. Surprisingly, the Bangladesh authorities have not so far shown any interest in having his role in the unsuccessful attack on Sheikh Hasina investigated and in having he prosecuted. Instead, they have been highlighting his suspected role in the largescale serial blasts of August 17, 2005, and in the subsequent terrorist strikes against lawyers and judges. While making pretence of vigorous action to trace, arrest and prosecute those involved in the terrorist incidents of August 17, 2005, and thereafter, which were directed against government and judicial targets, they have been avoiding any vigorous investigation of terrorist strikes against Sheikh Hasina and other political opponents of the present Government. 10. The terrorist incidents since August 17, 2005, have fallen into the following pattern:

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224
1.

Targeted attacks against Government buildings and public places using lowgrade explosives in miniscule quantities in such a manner as not to cause large-scale human fatalities.

2.

Targeted attacks against lawyers and judges using stronger explosives in larger quantities in order to cause human fatalities. Faxed threats of attacks against the US, British and other Western diplomatic missions sent by someone under the name of Al-Qaeda in South Asia.

3.

11. The local police have largely blamed the JUM for the first two types of incidents. They have not yet been able to establish who is behind the faxed threats against Western diplomatic missions whether these were hoax messages or whether there is something more serious in them. Interestingly, similar threats of terrorist strikes against the Chinese diplomatic mission and Chinese touristic and financial centres in Hong Kong and other parts of China have been circulating in Pakistan. However, there is so far no evidence to connect the two. 12. The JUM, which calls for the Talibanisation of Bangladesh and the imposition of the Sharia, has been targeting the lawyers and judges as representing the Western, non-Islamic judicial system presently in force in the country. Another apparent reason for its targeting the lawyers and the judiciary is to intimidate them into giving bail for 400 of its followers so far rounded up by the Police for their suspected involvement in terrorism. Even though it has been critical of the US-led occupation of Iraq and Afghanistan, it did not target any Western diplomatic missions in Dhaka in its widespread terrorist strikes of August 17, 2005. 13. There is a hotchpotch of jihadi terrorist groups operating in different parts of Bangladesh. Apart from the two banned in February and the HUJI, some of the others are the Ahle Hadith Andolan, the Shahadat Al Hikma, and a number of Arakan rebel groups. A Rohingya group, which was originally formed by Pakistan-based Maulana Abdul Quddus and which had participated in the Afghan jihad along with HUJI (B), is now projecting itself as the HUJI, Myanmar. There is similarly a HUJI, Pattani, which claims to be behind the jihad in Southern Thailand. Particulars of its leadership are not available. 14. During his interrogation by the Police, Mufti Hannan is reported to have denied any involvement in jihadi terrorism and blamed the Ahle Hadith Andolan for the terrorist incidents in Bangladesh. The Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Toiba (LET) has also opened a branch in Bangladesh, but it has not so far come to notice for any 34

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 involvement in acts of terrorism in Bangladesh territory. It confines its activities to providing logistic support to the operations of the LET in Indian Territory from its sanctuaries in Bangladesh. 15. Apart from Hannan, the Bangladesh Police has not so far been able to arrest any of the important leaders of these organizations. Their command and control remains intact. The reluctance of the Government of Bangladesh to act effectively against the mushrooming Wahabi terrorist groups is facilitating the growth in Bangladesh of a jihadi terrorist infrastructure similar to what prevailed in Afghanistan before 9/11. This could pose a serious threat to peace and security in the belt extending from India's North-East to Southern Thailand. 22

Terrorism in Nepal
Nepal is situated in between India and China. China is located on the northern border, whereas all three sides are surrounded by India. India and China are the neighbors of Nepal and it has very good relations with both of the countries. There are so many fellow-feeling in so many items due to close and neighborly relations. At the same time there may have some issues, dialogues and debates in some extent because of closeness and inter-related with each others. It is natural that sometimes there might have some issues and problems in between the close neighbors. And border issue is one of them.

Nepal-India Border Didpute
So far as the Indo-Nepal border demarcation is concerned, Nepal-India Joint Technical Level Boundary Committee is working for the last 21 years (since 15 November 1981). But the boundary business is not yet completed. There may be so many reasons the boundary business not to be completed in due time, though it has the target to complete it by 2003. However, this type of target had been fixed many times in the past as in 1993, 1998 and 2001. But the target was not materialized. The main reasons and issues of the boundary business with India is the border encroachments, disputes on certain segments, divergence of opinion on basic materials such as maps and old documents for demarcation, slackness in joint survey field teams and so on and so Forth.

Nepal and India has two broad issues concerning border business
1. Border Demarcation 2. Border Management

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 The Treaty of Sugauli of 4 March 1816, Supplementary Treaty of 11 December 1816 and Boundary Treaty of 1 November 1860 delineates the boundary of Nepal with India. British East India Company made treaty of Sugauli on 2 December 1815 and it was provided to Nepal to make the counter signature by fifteen days. But Nepal did not make the signature in due time, because of unwillingness. It was finally ratified after 92 days under pressure and compulsion enforced by the British regime that they will invade Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. Eventually, it was not signed by the King or Prime Minister Maharaja but by only the courtier Chandra Shekhar Upadhaya. So there were disputes and conflicts and controversy on the borderline even after the ratification of the Treaty.

Historical Border Disputes
There were so many issues of disputes just after the Sugauli Treaty. Some of the disputed areas are cited as examples as follows: 1. 1. Disputes on Siwalik Range: whether the borderline runs from the crest (ridge) of the Siwalik Range or northern or southern foot-hill of the range! 2. Origin of the river Mechi: whether it is originated from north-east of Antoo Hill or from north-west! 3. Dunduwa Range: India had claimed that the border line should be followed on the northern foot from Arrahnala to Talbagauda, whereas Nepal denied it. 4. Dispute on ownership of the village and settlements of Ramnagar Zamindari area. 5. Dispute on the lands adjoined with the districts of Tirahoot and Sarun. 6. Land area of Sharada Barrage constructed by India on the river Mahakali. 7. Disputes on the borderline of the river and rivulets, whether it has to be taken on the old course or the new channel. 8. Disputes on the demarcation of borderlines in agricultural land, forest area and village areas, where there are not conspicuous features.

Open Border System
Nepal-India Peace and Friendship Treaty of 31st July 1950 motivated for the openness of border between two countries. After the installation of democracy in Nepal in February 1951, it became major turning point in reinforcing the Nepal-India border open with the accelerated movement of Indian nationals into Nepal. Indians used to come to Kathmandu as politicians as advisors to the Nepalese ministers, overseers as

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 technical experts, unemployed citizens as teachers, retailers as whole seller businessmen etc. Similarly, Nepalese were also free to go to Indian cities in search of jobs and works as guards, domestic workers and restaurant waiters. All these phenomena can be cited as Nepal India open border as it is unique in the world in the sense that people of both countries could cross the international borderline from any point any time. Single citizen could cross the frontier of both the sides without any record running to and fro so many times a day.

Border Disputes After India’s Independence
The disease of border demarcation issues and disputes has not been cured even after the independence of India from the British rule in 1947. Encroachments on the Nepalese frontier have been rather increased. It is due to population boom across the Indian frontier. Secondly, dense forest of Charkoshe Jungle of the Nepalese frontier was being cut-off and cleared-up, so that encroachment of the Nepalese land from Indian population pressure was much easier, where there were not boundary pillars and demarcation of ten-yard width No-man’s land.

Negative Impact of Open Border System
Current open and unrestricted border system between Nepal and India has created so many adverse impacts and it has emerged many problems. Some of the issues have been mentioned as follows:

Border Encroachment
Aggression of boundary line and encroachment on the Nepalese Territory is the by-product of the open border system. People are free to cross the border without any restriction. Some of the inhabitants who reside in the frontier area do not hesitate to destroy and pull off the main boundary pillars.

Cross-Border Terrorism
Open border has provided as safe passage to the terrorists. India has been blaming Nepal that Pakistani ISI agents are infiltrating into India via Nepalese territory. But it is the fact that Pakistanis must travel to India at first to come to Nepal, if they use the land route. Most recently Nepalese Maoist terrorists are creating havoc and they are making war with the Nepalese army men and policemen killing so many innocent local people, especially in the hill districts of Nepal. Those Maoist fighters who have been saved as casualties use to cross the borderline and they are taking shelter in the Indian settlements. The Indian policemen have arrested most recently five wounded

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 Maoist casualties, who were under treatment in the private hospital at Lucknow. Besides, Lucknow Police officer D.B.Bakchhi arrested eight Nepalese Maoist terrorists, including the leader Aakash Darlami (Nischal) and handed over them to the adjoined Nepal police post on the 8th of April 2002. Local inhabitants of India believe that Maoist terrorists are taking shelter at Kauwapur, Bishanpur, Balarampur and Baharainch of India as they think safe and secure (Gorkhapatra Daily, 22 April '02). American Assistant Secretary of State Christina Rocca expressed her Worries during her recent visit to India that the Nepalese Maoists are taking shelter in India. United States under its military assistance has proceeded to provide equivalent to 20 million dollars to control the Maoist terrorism in Nepal. (Gorkhapatra Daily, 25 April '02)

Trafficking of Girls
More than five thousand Nepalese girls have been sold annually in the Indian brothels. U.N. Women Development Fund, UNICEF Nepal field office mentions that there are near about two hundred thousand Nepalese girls and women in total in India. They are as the consuming commodity in the red light and prostitution areas of Bombay, Calcutta, Darbhanga, Betia, Siligurhi and some other cities of India.

Illegal Import of Arms and Ammunitions
Various types of guns, fire arms, gun-powder, grenades and its raw-materials, used by the Maoist terrorists have been confiscated by the army men, especially in the western hill districts. These unregistered and unlicensed arms and ammunitions might have been transported illegally because of the weakness of unrestricted border.

Smuggling of Goods Material and Machinery
There is always a possibility to be transported market goods and merchandise through the illegal entry points of the border, where there is no custom or police post.

Smuggle of Archeological Artifacts
Archeological materials such as ancient bricks and materials of Lumbini area (birthplace of Lord Buddha) have been smuggled to Piparhawa of India. Because India is going to construct duplicate structures to draw attention of the world, saying as Buddha was born in India. They are trying to distort the historical facts due to lack of the controlled border system between two countries.

Cross-Border Crime
Criminal activities such as murder, theft, and rape cases have been Increased on the frontier of both the countries due to open border. 38

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224

Kidnapping
Kidnapping of businessmen and children of well to do family is due to unrestricted movement in the borderline.

High jacking
Indian aircraft IC 814 to Delhi was high jacked from Tribhuvan international airport on 24 December 2000. It was ultimately landed at Kandhar, Afganistan and the aircraft with the passengers were stranded for complete one week. People realized that open border is the cause of high jacking. It is to be noted that passport identification card or controlled border system was introduced for the air passengers at Tribhuvan international airport Kathmandu and New Delhi Indiragandhi international airport after the Indian aircraft high jacking incident.

Robbery and Theft
Two Indian motorcycle men looted Rs. 200,000 from the local money change counter at Malangwa of Sarlahi district in 5 February 2000. After snatching the money, they rushed and entered into Sonbarsha of Indian territory.

Infiltration of Bhutanese Refugees
Nearly 100,000 Bhutanese refugees infiltrated into Nepalese territory five years ago via India. It was the cause and effect of open border between Nepal and India.

Deforestation and Exploitation of Medicinal Plants and Herbs
Smugglers have exploited Nepalese forest resources illegally due to open border.

Peace and Security
General People of Nepal are experiencing that peace and security in the nation is being weak due to free movement of people on either side of the frontier. Third country nationals, as similar face to the Nepalese and Indian may cross the border in the form of Indian Nepalese national. It is creating problems to maintain peace and national security in both the nations.

Migration
Density of population in the adjoining districts of India is higher than in the frontier areas of Nepal. So some of the Indian people resembling with the Nepalese faces have migrated to Nepalese territory, being benefited by the unmanaged open border. Trafficking of narcotic drugs, encroachment on the Nepalese culture and traditions, leakage in revenue collection, distribution of fake academic certificates, prevalence of

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 anti-social activities, rape cases, construction of dams and embankment submerging the borderline are also the result of thorough passage from the uncontrolled and wanton border. 23 It is reported that extremist groups in Nepal asks the youth to raise their voice against the US unilateralism that has intensified after September 11 last year. The US is trying to intervene in other countries the pretext of cursing terrorism. In this process, it has branded some countries as sponsors of terrorism and named them as the possible targets of US attack. As the same time, contradictions between different cultures and religions are becoming acute. Also the terror unleashed by Maoists has created a very serious situation. Thousands of innocent people have been killed in the last six years. At the same time, the Government of Nepal is misusing its security forces in different parts of the country in the name of curbing Maoist insurgency, instead of taking the initiative to defuse the conflict through perfect dialogue. The exploitation, repression, discrimination, unemployment, and poverty are the basic sources of violence and all kinds of conflicts. Ethnic, religious, linguistic and cultural discriminations are generating different kinds of fundamentalism that are another source of terrorism. Some Christian groups report that Hindu extremism has increased in recent years. Of particular concern are the Nepalese affiliates of the India based Hindu political party Shiv Sena, locally known as Pashupati Sena, Shiv Sena Nepal, and Nepal Shivsena. Another factor propelling Hindu nationalism is the need to give Nepal a district identity, apart from India. The projection of Nepal as the only Hindu state in the world is a two pronged strategy; to distance itself from the Indian state and, at the same time, to associate with the Hindu population of India for the interest of Hindu King. During the late 2001, Muslim leaders complained that Hindu fundamentalists increased their campaigns of anti-Islamic pamphleteering and graffiti. Government policy does not support Hindu extremism, although some political figures have made public statements critical of Christian missionary activities. Some citizens are wary of proselytizing and conversion by Christians and view the growth of Christianity with concern. There are repors are isolated attacks against religious schools by Maoist insurgents too. The reversal of history of Hinduisation in the post 1990s period is manifesting itself on accounts. Against the tradition of coexistence between Hinduism and Buddhism, the Buddhist activists are projecting themselves as an adversary to the Hindu religion. 40

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 Conversion of people in Christianity is on the rise despite legal restriction. Muslims are also expanding their madarassas. Minor religious groups are, however, too weak, both in size and strength, to challenge the countries old Hindu nationalism of Nepal. But there are other forces, parliamentary parties, the Maoist insurgent groups’ ethnic organizations and civil society, which demand a secular state. The cumulative effect of the Maoist insurgency, parliamentary parties’ movements for restructuring of state, ethnic assertion for separate identity, minorities religious activism and civil campaigns for liberal values, would certainly help in pushing Nepal towards a new direction different from its past history of Hinduistaion. 24

Maoist Terrorism in Nepal
Maoist rebels are trying to overthrow Nepal’s government. They have perpetrated many acts of terrorism, including bombings and torture and murder of civilians and public officials. In about eight years of civil war in Nepal, more than nine-thousand people are reported to have died. The latest tactic of the Maoists is to try to intimidate Nepalese businesses into closing down. On August 16th, a bomb was thrown over a wall at the Soaltee Crown Plaza, a hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal’s capital. Fortunately, no one was reported hurt. But in the wake of the bombing, the hotel was closed and its guests moved elsewhere. On August 18th, the Maoists said they would blockade Kathmandu and threatened to kill any truck drivers who attempt to bring supplies into the city. If it is not broken, the blockade could soon result in shortages of such necessities as kerosene for cooking. Iswor Pokhrel, Nepal’s minister for industries, commerce, and supplies, said Kathmandu has only a few days’ supply of kerosene. Adam Ereli is deputy spokesman for the U.S. State Department: “We, first of all, strongly condemn that bombing, as well as the other attempts by Maoists to intimidate Nepalese businessmen into closing their operations. These are reprehensible acts that only harm innocent Nepalese and weaken Nepal’s fragile economy.” Mr. Ereli says the U.S. and other countries are working with Nepal to confront the Maoists. This includes treating the Maoists as the terrorists they have shown themselves to be:

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 “For our part, we have designated the Maoists under executive order, blocking any assets in the United States or held by U.S. persons or wherever located, and barring Americans from most transactions or dealings with the Maoists.” The U.S., says State Department deputy spokesman Ereli, opposes the Maoists’ “intimidation, terror, and threats of violence against civilians, and we are working with the government of Nepal to see that grievances of Nepalese are resolved through peaceful and political means.” 25 Another example of a group motivated by a form of nationalism is the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), which was responsible for an insurgency that lasted more than ten years and resulted in the transformation of the last remaining Hindu Kingdom into a democratic republic. Drawing on longstanding grievances, the Maoists engaged in a” people’s war” designed to put in place a government that would address chronic poverty and inequality, and eliminate the caste system and the social injustices which it generated. 26

Stop India From Exporting Terrorism to Nepal
India has been exporting terrorism to its neighboring countries to keeps these countries in line to the Indian wishes. Terrorism as been the inbuilt nature of Indian politics. According to very credible numbers published by human rights groups and the Punjab judiciary, the government of India has murdered more than 250,000 Sikhs since 1984, in excess of 200,000 Christians in Nagaland since 1947, almost 75,000 Kashmiri Muslims since 1988, and tens of thousands of Assamese, Tamils, Manipuris, Dalits, and others. In 1994, the US State Department reported that the Indian government paid out over 41,000 cash bounties to police officers for killing members of the Sikh minority. An Indian Prime Minister was killed in office resulting from hobnobbing with terrorist. A former Prime Minister Mr. Rajib Ghandi who supported and armed one of the deadliest terrorist LTTE against Sri Lanka and as result was killed by them. In 1985 it armed and trained Ramraja P. Singh in India to conduct various terrorism activities in Nepal the result was several innocent civilian were killed. After fourteen years of corruption and misrule by corrupt politicians King of Nepal has taken a popular step and assumed direct rule. The result has been positive. With the popular support of the general public peace in returning to the country. Kathmandu has seen four months without bombing or innocent people being killed. It

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 this the first time in decade three months have gone without any kind of forced strikes in Kathmandu and other towns of the country. Gradually situation in becoming normal in the country side. Normal Nepal has chance of being out of grip of India. So now India in supporting terrorist Nepal Communist Party (Maoist) to fight against the Nepal Army. It is repeating the same story it did with Sri Lanka. Recently several terrorist who have red corner notice from the Interpol have been reported holding meetings with Indian Intelligence Agency and Politicians. India is planning to arm and train terrorist to teach Nepal a lesson. 27

Terrorism in Bhutan
Combating ‘Terrorism’ In Bhutan
Bhutan is no stranger to armed struggles carried out by different underground outfits. Although not much predicted earlier, these days, Bhutan is experiencing a series of bomb explosions mostly in the southern parts, the region where majority of Nepali speaking people used to dwell. The bomb explosions in Sarpang district on December 30 last year that claimed the lives of four forest guards is the latest instance that confirms an armed struggle is already underway inside this peaceful Himalayan kingdom. Here arises a question of how prepared Bhutan is in combating the armed launch supposedly floated with political motives.

Armed Launch
The December 30 incident is not the first of its kind. Birat-led Communist Party of Bhutan (CPB-MLM), one of the underground armed revolutionary outfits, planted a series of bombs on the night of February 3 last year in Samtse district which damaged the materials brought by the Druk government for the National Assembly election. To read a sentence from Birat’s press statement, it says, "This is the initiation of an ‘Armed Rural Class Struggle’ in Bhutan." Bhutan Tigers Force (BTF), United Revolutionary Front of Bhutan (URFB) and Communist Party of Bhutan (CPB-MLM) often own up responsibilities of such explosions. The URFB, which owned up responsibility to the recent bomb attack in Sarpang district, has also warned the recent settlers occupying the lands of those Nepalis evicted in the early 1990s, to vacate the occupied plots of lands immediately. As to whether there is any connection among these armed outfits is hard to predict, 43

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 but their common minimal programme seems to launch an armed struggle against the absolute regime. Besides, possible links between the militant organizations behind the frequent bomb blasts in Bhutan and the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) among other Indian underground outfits cannot be ruled out. A news story written by Tara Limbu of Bhutan Times entitled ‘Sarpang and Guwahati blasts linked?’ makes this clear. Therefore, India, too, will be greatly affected if the armed struggle in Bhutan continues. On March 17, 2008, the URFB took responsibility for the bomb explosion in Pasakha which injured one Indian national. The frequent claims by these outfits that their genuine demand is to see political change in Bhutan calls on the part of the Druk government to address it. The BTF among others is often seen actively involved in raising awareness about the armed struggle through pamphlets and posturing inside the country. The frequent hoisting of the communist flag in the southern districts is time and again publicised by the Druk media houses. These are proof that the armed struggle in Bhutan will continue unless an amicable solution is not found at the earliest possible. The Bhutanese authority, however, alleges that all these armed groups operate from the refugee camps in Nepal. Bhutan has to understand that refugee camps in Nepal are monitored by the UN refugee agency, UNHCR. Many a time Bhutanese officials have put the ‘terrorist’ tag on refugees languishing in Nepal, which is a fabricated and illogical assumption. The fact that a number of refugee youths have connections with these armed groups cannot be denied. However, it would be naïve to assume that these armed groups are solely based in the UNHCR managed refugee camps in Nepal. More than 60 people from the country’s southern region were apprehended by the Druk police authority last year for their alleged involvement in Maoists activities. The whereabouts of those arrested that even include some school-going children has not been made public. Here the main concern is that minors should not be punished severely. A free and fair investigation into such cases would definitely reflect Bhutan’s respect for human rights though this has never been practiced inside this tiny kingdom. Despite showing interest and flexibility towards resolving the ongoing political turmoil in the country, the Druk regime is mulling over expanding its military force. Media houses inside the country have quoted Police chief Col. Kipchu Namgyal as 44

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 saying that a security squad would be formed under the ‘Special Reserve Police Force’ mentioned in the Police Bill to counter the armed attacks. To note, volunteer groups have been formed to patrol at night. A person from each household has to send a volunteer to patrol every night. They check on schools, hospitals and other public places. This is not a fair and reliable initiation of the government to counter armed attacks. Innocent civilians should not be used as shield in the name of fighting armed rebellion outfits claiming to fight the government. This sort of initiation will only encourage the armed groups towards continuing with the violent activities. Besides, it will bring a sense of enmity between the public and the armed groups, and finally ignorant civilians will fall victims. 28

Terrorism Against Bhutan
India has also been accusing Bhutan of supporting Indian guerrilla groups United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) and National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB). On September 1, 1994, the Indian army crossed into Bhutan to track down ULFA and NDFB guerrillas claiming that permission of the Bhutanese government had been acquired. But the Foreign Minister of Bhutan denied India seeking any permission, and termed a blatant aggression. Since then the India army has crossed into Bhutan hundreds of times, but neither the United Nations nor any civilized country took notice of it. In addition, India repeatedly sent troops to Maldives ostensibly for protection of the governments there. 29

Bhutan is Sheltering Terrorists from India
Bhutan is a wounded nation. It self-inflected the wound by sheltering India’s outlawed militants from the North east, divided the country by evicting a large number of Nepali-speaking citizens from southern Bhutan a wound if not healed, may not just harm the Nepali-speaking Lhotshampas but the whole nation. The divided nation now is prone to continuous external threats and pressure. It has made the return of its citizen-refugees a complicated affair. These courses of actions have implicated Bhutan into the intricate regional geopolitical complexities. The militants of United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) and the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) were provided official sanctuary in Bhutan since 1991 in return for their support in terrorizing the Nepali-speaking Lhotshampas to leave Bhutan. In 1990, immediately after the first ever pro-human rights and

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 democratic rallies in all southern districts, the government invited the ULFA leaders to Bhutan, much to India’s resentment. The Dzongda (Chief District Officer) of Samdrup Jhonkhar district in eastern Bhutan coordinated a meeting between the ULFA leaders, representatives of the Ministry of Home and a few prominent citizens of eastern Bhutan. The meeting decided to allow the ULFA leaders to make their bases in Bhutan in return for their support in terrorizing and eventually evicting Lhotshampas from Bhutan. Since then ULFA leaders have been living in Bhutan. Bhutan is under tremendous pressure from the state government of Assam, Indian army and parliamentarians from northeast India to take military action against India’s two outlawed militant groups. In an unprecedented move, the Indian members of parliament from the northeast region submitted a joint memorandum to the Royal Bhutanese Embassy, Delhi, asking RGOB to initiate action against ULFA and NDFB militants based in Bhutan with the help of Indian security forces. The memorandum submitted in the first week of April, 2000 urged RGOB to initiate "deterrent action against extremist outfits with their bases in Bhutan for peace and stability in the region." The Indian army has been constantly pressurizing the Indian Government to secure permission from the government of Bhutan for a joint India-Bhutan operation to flush out the militants from Bhutan. So far, Bhutan has not accepted Indian army’s proposal for Indo-Bhutan joint army operations against the ULFA and Bodo militants. Bhutan has committed a national security blunder by allowing the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) and National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) insurgents of Assam into its territories. The separatist ULFA and NDFB militants are fighting for an independent Assam for the last 21 years. Both their tactical and head offices are now based in Bhutan. These rebels have been operating from their several well-entrenched bases scattered all over south, central and eastern Bhutan. According to Indian media there are more than two dozen ULFA and Bodo camps in the villages in south-eastern Bhutan. They were seen frequently travelling in Bhutan government vehicles. The top brass of ULFA and Bodo are allegedly living in and move freely inside Bhutan according to Indian media. Militancy in Assam has claimed more than 10,000 lives during the past two decades, while hundreds of others have been maimed for life. The newspapers of Assam have published news stories of intimate relationship between the officials of Bhutan and ULFA leaders. According to media. Bhutan has

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 become a notorious hub for murderers, abductors and kidnappers from neighboring Indian territories. The armed rebels of Assam attacked innocent Bhutanese nationals in the Indian territories on 20 and 21 December 2000 that left 14 dead and 19 injured. We condemn this heinous crime on innocent Bhutanese and the perpetrator must be brought to justice. Southern and eastern Bhutanese are required to travel via a large tract of Indian territories to reach Thimphu, the capital. Under pressure from the Government of India, the 78th session of Bhutan’s National Assembly held in June, 2000 decided four-pronged strategies to resolve the ULFABodo problem: to continue peaceful negotiations with the militants to try and make them leave the country peacefully; to stop ration and other supplies to the camps of the militants; to punish all persons who helped the militants in accordance with the National Security Act; and, as a last resort, use military action to evict them from Bhutanese soil. The Royal Government of Bhutan (RGOB) has tried the first three options without any success. They have not worked so far and won’t work in future, either. The militants have tersely told the RGOB they do not plan to leave Bhutan. Bhutan has left with only one option of using military action. It must take immediate steps before more innocent Bhutanese lives are perished. Indian authorities have long been accusing Bhutan of helping the insurgents. In July 2000, the RGOB reportedly admitted that the ULFA transferred funds through its diplomatic bags to foreign countries. The two employees of the Foreign Ministry were also reportedly sacked (Assam Tribune July 6 2000) The Home Minister Thinlay Gyamtsho has been telling the ordinary citizens to come forward to protect the country. He has been telling the people of the southern district to submit themselves to end this problem since they will have to bear the brunt of the consequences of an armed conflict. It exposes the naivety of the government, by making the ordinary and unarmed Bhutanese citizens to defend the boundaries or protect the country from the foreign militant assault, while the trained Bhutan Army and police seem to be sleeping in Thimphu. It is the responsibility of country’s army and police to protect the lives and properties of the citizens from a foreign militants’ assault. It is the duty and responsibility of the government to protect the lives of the citizens. Bhutan has so long demonstrated self-righteousness, denial and arrogance in addressing the problem faced by the nation. Had the government taken a rational 47

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 approach to settle and diffuse its self-created political problems in the south, instead of blaming the southern Bhutanese and declaring them as ‘illegal immigrants’, ‘antinational’ and dumping them into Nepalese territories, for seeking redress of their grievances, even with hindsight, the tranquility of the country would have never been disturbed to this extent. This problem of small dimension has now engulfed the entire country, divided the nation and allowed the external forces to threaten the national security and sovereignty. The government itself is to blame for this state of affairs. Thanks to the Lhotshampas’ loyalty to their nation that they have not taken up the course of armed struggle, which could have aggravated the situation. In the initial days of euphoria in expelling its own southern brethren, the government used the 'cultivated journalists' from abroad to malign the Lhotshampa citizens from the southern Bhutan. Lhotshampas were called as 'ngolop', anti-national' 'illegal immigrants' economic immigrants etc. But now when Bhutan needed the international media on its side during the killing of innocent citizens they were not there. Realizing the lack of coverage in international media on the killings, Bhutan's Head of the government Yeshey Zimba other day said that 'most countries were hardly bothered" reports Kuensel. Bhutan is facing multiple problems and the worst nightmare of insecurity. Bhutan is under tremendous pressure of domestic, cross-boarder, regional and international kind is evident. Domestically, it is facing pressure from its own citizens to provide safety and protection of their lives and properties. The friendly Indian government and its army have long been persuading Bhutan to agree on a joint army operation to flush out the north-east militants hiding in Bhutan. The north east militants have threatened the government against any Indian military intervention. The rival factions of Indian militants have warned the government to evict the militants of ULFA and NDFB from Bhutanese soil. This state of chaos has now spilled over to the killings of the innocent Bhutanese citizens. The Indian militants have also warned Bhutan of repeating the violence acts of December 21-22, 2000 if it failed to evict the militants of ULFA and NDFB from Bhutan within a month. Technically the nation is in a chaotic situation. Bhutan is facing mounting international pressure on resolution of Bhutanese refugee issue. The donor countries, agencies, the European Parliament and the United States have persistently urged Bhutan to agree for a just and equitable solution of refugee issue. Reportedly, the international community, including the European Union, European 48

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 countries, INGOs and donor agencies are closely monitoring the process of verification. 30

Assam's Bodo Militants Loot Houses in Bhutan, Spread Terror
Dressed in India's Sashastra Seema BAL (SSB) fatigues and armed with AK-47 rifles, about 40 militants looted a house in Bhutan's Sarpang district, the second such incident in the area in three weeks. The attacks, which have spread fear among the people, are being attributed to the separatist Bodo militant group from the Indian state of Assam. The second incident July 18 took place in an area that falls between an SSB camp and a Royal Bhutan Police camp, which are within 300 meters of each other, according to a report by the Bhutan Today News Service. This belies the statement made by the Bhutan prime ministerial team that visited India last week and asserted that there were no Bodo or ULFA militants in southern Bhutan. The attacks have raised fears of a resurgence of militant activity in Bhutan, a most sensitive issue vis-vis India's security concerns. The armed men attacked a house in Toribari in Sarpang, just 21 days after a house in the neighborhood was robbed of Nu 20,000. About 10 men entered the house of Rajesh Pandal at about 12.30 a.m. last Saturday and looted Nu 4,000 in cash and a gold ornament worth Nu 6,000. The other armed men guarded the house. They also took with them two blankets, three students' bags and a goat from resident Lal Bahadur Shangdan. Other important documents looted were an ID card and a bank book of the family. Rajesh Pandal's grandmother narrowly escaped a gunfire shot at her when she tried to shout for help. She was shouting from the window in the upper floor of the twostoried house, Rajesh Pandal said. "As soon as she cried 'thief thief', the militants shouted 'maro maro' (kill, kill) and shot at her at the window, but I immediately pulled her away and thus she was saved," said Govinda Pandal, the father of Rajesh. Eight of the militants who entered the house carried AK-47 rifles and two others brandished country-made guns. The lights in the house were on and they were easily visible. "But the shadows cast by the SSB caps they wore made it difficult to make out their faces," Rajesh Pandal said.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 Rajesh Pandal and his wife were mercilessly beaten with gun butts and kicked by the militants throughout the half an hour of the attack. They left at about 1 a.m. The house of the victims is located about 40 meters from the Gelephu-Sarpang Highway, just about 300 meters from the Indo-Bhutan border in the south. According to a press release from the Royal Bhutan Police, the armed men were supposedly members of the Bodo group from Assam. Meanwhile, people of the district said they were feeling an increased security risk due to the attacks. "It has become very risky to live in these areas," a resident said. He said a security outpost should be established in Toribari, where the incidents had occurred. 31

Bhutan Wakes up to Bodo Terrorism
The Royal Bhutan Government ordered stoppage of Bhutanese vehicular traffic through Assam, following the killing of at least 15 Bhutanese nationals over three days, by suspected militants of the banned National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) in the western part of the state bordering the Himalayan kingdom. According to sources in the Bhutanese Embassy in New Delhi, Thimphu has also asked for special steps to protect its nationals in Assam. Many Bhutanese visit Assam and other parts of the north-east to sell woollen garments during winter. The Bhutias made woollens are a hit in the north-east as they are affordable and attractive. Bhutanese in the southern part of the kingdom are dependent on Assam for day-to-day requirements. At least 100 vehicles with Bhutanese registrations pass through Assam everyday. The attack on Bhutanese nationals, intelligence sources in Guwahati said, followed a three-day visit of Bhutanese King Jigme Singme Wangchuk to southern areas bordering Assam. During the visit, the king reportedly told villagers not offer assistance and food to members of Assam-based militant groups the NDFB and United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA). "The king's directive perhaps resulted in these retaliatory attacks," a top intelligence official said. The ULFA and NDFB have hideouts in the deep jungles of southern Bhutan for three years. Although the Indian Government has been repeatedly pressing the Bhutan authorities to crack down on militants, Thimphu has been treading cautiously. In fact,

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 the Bhutanese authorities have held talks with militant leaders, according to reports in Bhutan's only newspaper, Kuensel. Indian Army officials are watching the developments keenly. Said a senior commander: ''Perhaps now the Bhutanese will be goaded into taking some action against the militants." The killings by NDFB on Thursday night added a new dimension to insurgency in Assam. At least 10 Bhutanese nationals and a Nepali of Bhutanese origin were killed in western Assam's Barpeta and Darrang districts on Thursday night. Suspected NDFB militants also killed five rebels of the pro-talks Bodo Liberation Tigers in lower Assam, raising the toll since Thursday night to 16. The killing of 10 Bhutanese nationals and the Nepali settler came two days after NDFB militants gunned down two persons from the Himalayan kingdom and injured 16. The rebels also set ablaze two vehicles with Bhutanese registration numbers. Assam Chief Minister Prafulla Kumar Mahanta condemned the spate of killings and assured full protection to Bhutias, who come to the state for business. Additional Director-General of Police (Operations) G M Srivastava said that nine Bhutanese nationals and a Nepali settler were mowed down in Barpeta district, while another was killed in Darrang district. A Bhutia was injured in the Darrang attack. In the first incident, at around 1500 hours IST, heavily armed militants raided Lakhibazar near Kokilabari under Patacharkuchi police station in Barpeta district and fired at a group of Bhutanese nationals dealing mainly in woollens. Nine of the Bhutias and a Nepali of Bhutanese origin were killed on the spot. The incident occurred just seven km from the Indo-Bhutan border. Due to the remoteness of the area, Barpeta police learnt of the incident only on Friday morning. In the second incident, five suspected NDFB militants raided a house at Bengbari under Paneri police station in Darrang district and fired at Bhutanese traders. Darrang police said two persons were injured. One of them, Nawong Narbo, succumbed to injuries in the district headquarters town of Mangaldoi. The Bhutanese traders had rented the house, owned by a local farmer, to run a woollen garment business. On Wednesday, NDFB militants ambushed a bus in Kokrajhar district, killing two Bhutanese nationals and injuring 16. The bus was heading towards Phuentsholling from Gelephu in Bhutan. In two other incidents that day, a truck belonging to the Bhutan police and a Toyota were set ablaze in Kokrajhar district.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 NDFB militants also killed five Bodo Liberation rebels in Nalbari district. Police sources in Nalbari said the NDFB rebels attacked a BLT hideout under Musalpur police station. 32

Terrorism in Sri Lanka
Religious-Political Conflict in Sri Lanka
This section discusses the emerging control of the Sinhalese Buddhists over the state policies and ignoring minorities in Sri Lanka. The principle of democratic secularism has been eroded. This Sinhala-Buddhist maneuvering of politics and economics has engendered intolerance in society and is to blame, and in a large measure, for current ethno-religious conflict.

Sinhala Buddhist Nationalism
Sri Lanka is an important world centre of Buddhist learning and culture. Approximately 70 percent of the population, most Sinhalese, profess Buddhism. Although Buddhism does not recognize the caste system, tension between ethnoreligious group in Sri Lanka means that most Buddhists do identify wit a caste. Hinduism has adherents mostly among Tamils. Modern Sri Lankan Hinduism places little emphasis on caste. In Sri Lanka there are three major ethnic groups but five religions. Traditionally Sinhalese were Buddhists, while Tamils were Hindus and Muslims. However after the arrival of the Christian missionaries some Tamils and Sinhalese were converted to Christian. A strange phenomenon though it is, the Buddhist monks in Sri Lanka are not only members of political parties, but are involved in active politics. Traditionally there are no violent religious clashes in Sri Lanka but now these ethnic conflicts are taking the face of religious disparity and intolerance. The primacy given to Buddhism is in contrast to the interests of Tamils and Sinhala-Buddhist maneuvering of politics and economics has engendered intolerance in society. This intolerance can generate serious ethno-religious clashes in the country. 33 Sri Lanka is on the brink of finally ending a bleak era of terrorism that was purported by the LTTE, a ruthless terrorist group for nearly 30 years. The LTTE is an internationally proscribed terrorist organization, an honor they have sincerely earned through sheer hard work specializing in the acts of terrorism defined by various legislatures across the world. To name a few, these include the genocide of several

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 tens and thousands of remote Sinhalese, Tamil and Muslim villagers butchered in cold blood; illegal shipment of arms across international borders; training of guerilla fighters for clandestine groups who are no doubt fighting for the same rights as the LTTE; suicide attacks; destruction of economic property; political assassinations (i.e. Rajiv Gandhi, Ranasinghe Premadasa, and over 30 Tamil politicians), extortion and finally crowing it by mobilizing and availing of the largest human shield to stall the military forces from wiping them out completely. 34 The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the Tamil Tigers, are a separatist group in Sri Lanka. Since the 1980s, the LTTE have been agitating for a homeland for ethnic Tamils, who feel persecuted by Sri Lanka's ethnic majority, the Sinhalese. The LTTE is notorious for having pioneered the suicide bomb jacket, as well as the use of women in suicide attacks. They are blamed for a dozen high-level assassinations, over two hundred suicide attacks, and its war against the government has cost more than seventy thousand lives. In May 2009, the Sri Lankan government declared the twenty-six year long conflict had ended. The military claimed it had defeated the rebels and killed the LTTE's elusive leader Vellupillai Prabhakaran. The group conceded defeat and in a statement said it had decided to lay down its arms. However, some experts warn it may be too early to write off the group, which has proved to be a ruthless guerilla outfit in the past. Both the LTTE and the Sri Lankan military have been accused of engaging in abductions, extortion, conscription, and the use of child soldiers.

Who are the Tamils?
The Tamils are an ethnic group that lives in southern India (mainly in the state of Tamil Nadu) and on Sri Lanka, an island of 21 million people off the southern tip of India. Most Tamils live in northern and eastern Sri Lanka, and they comprise approximately 10 percent of the island's population, according to a 2001 government census. Their religion (most are Hindu) and Tamil language set them apart from the four fifths of Sri Lankans who are Sinhalese members of a largely Buddhist, Sinhala speaking ethnic group. When Sri Lanka was ruled as Ceylon by the British, most Sri Lankans regarded the Tamil minority as collaborators with imperial rule and resented the Tamil's perceived preferential treatment. But since Sri Lanka became independent in 1948, the Sinhalese majority has dominated the country. The remainder of Sri

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 Lanka's population includes ethnic Muslims, as well as Tamil and Sinhalese Christians.

What kind of terrorist attacks have the LTTE undertaken?
The LTTE, which may have between 7,000 and 15,000 armed combatants (PDF), is notorious for its suicide bombings. Since the late 1980s, the group has conducted approximately two hundred suicide attacks. Targets have included transit hubs, Buddhist shrines, and office buildings. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the LTTE invented the suicide belt and pioneered the use of women in suicide attacks. LTTE fighters wear cyanide capsules around their necks so they can commit suicide if they are captured. Beyond suicide bombings, the LTTE has used conventional bombs and Claymore mines to attack political and civilian targets, and has gunned down both Sri Lankan officials and civilians. In an April 2008 report, the U.S. State Department also accuses the LTTE of engaging in abductions and extortion. According to the report, violations of the 2002 cease fire agreement by both the LTTE and the government have killed more than 5,000 people since 2006. Many of the LTTE's victims have been public officials. Over the past twenty years, the LTTE has been accused of assassinating almost a dozen high-level figures, including two heads of state. Assassinations and attacks on officials allegedly committed by the LTTE include: a. The May 1991 assassination of former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi at a campaign rally in India; b. The May 1993 assassination of Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa; c. The July 1999 assassination of a Sri Lankan member of parliament, Neelan Thiruchelvam, an ethnic Tamil involved in a government-sponsored peace initiative; d. A pair of December 1999 suicide bombings in Colombo that wounded Sri Lankan President Chandrika Kumaratunga; e. The June 2000 assassination of Sri Lankan Industry Minister C.V. Goonaratne; f. The August 2005 assassination of Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar; g. The January 2008 assassination of a member of parliament from the opposition United National Party (UNP), T. Maheswaran;

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 h. The January 2008 assassination of Sri Lankan Nation-Building Minister D. M. Dassanayake; i. The February 2008 assassination of two cadres of the political party and paramilitary group Tamil Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (TMVP); and j. The April 2008 assassination of Sri Lankan Highway Minister Jeyaraj Fernandopulle. 35

Suicide Terrorism
After the events of September 11, suicide bombing attacks that had been regular occurrences in places like Sri Lanka and the Middle East seemed suddenly much closer to home for many Americans. Dr. Rojan Gunaratna is a specialist on terrorist organizations in Asia who was asking long before September 11, "How great is our vulnerability to suicide attacks?" The author of six books, including the forthcoming Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror, he has traced the international reach of suicide terrorist groups. His research and analysis reveal common organizing principles among organizations that employ suicide bombing, but he finds a diversity of motivations, from the secular push for independence by the LTTE in Sri Lanka to the obtainment of religious martyrdom by Hamas bombers. 36

The Military Prospects in 1997
The New Year has started on an ominous note. The LTTE increased its activity in the Jaffna peninsula and launched attacks at Elephant Pass and Paranthan in an attempt to retake the towns lost in the previous year. The Government has conceded that in the first two weeks of January 223 soldiers were killed and 232 wounded. A large quantity of military hardware too was lost, much of it destroyed by the Army in defensive actions. The LTTE casualties are not known the government claims that 350 were killed and 700 wounded in these two weeks but the LTTE admit to much less. Whatever be the real figures what is clear is that the attrition rate amongst the Government forces is unacceptably high, and that terrorism still rules in much of the land. On the military front the Government does not seem to have committed itself to the total elimination of terrorism and of the LTTE despite the rhetoric to the contrary. As during most of the past fifteen years the military aim appears to be hold on to what is held with only an occasional and infrequent offensive. Such a policy is guaranteed to fail. What it has led to in the past have been spectacular actions by the LTTE, such as

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 at Pooneryn and Emulative with massive losses on the part of the security forces. Until the LTTE is totally eliminated the possibility of such attacks cannot be ruled out. The Government seems to be devoting much of its efforts to safeguarding the capital from terrorist attacks, but so long as the terrorists are entrenched in the jungles, and are able to infiltrate the growing Tamil population in the capital city, the security of the latter cannot be guaranteed. The only certain way of ensuring the security of the capital is to totally eliminate the LTTE. The Government's failure to grasp the importance of the military effort stems from its mistaken view that there is no "military solution" to the terrorist problem. But there can be no other solution to terrorism than a military one. Terrorists do not obey normal civilized codes, and to try to placate them by offering them some of their demands will not succeed. The Government entertains a hopeless confusion between what it calls the "ethnic problem" and the terrorist problem. In Sri Lanka there is now no ethnic problem as virtually every kind of ethnic concession has been made to the Tamils. Indeed there are few countries where an ethnic minority of the size of the SL Tamils has been afforded as much rights as in Sri Lanka. The current problem is a separatist problem, which is a threat directed at the very foundation of the Sri Lankan nation as it has existed in history. To bring about the partition of Sri Lanka the terrorists have resorted to some of the worst tactics of terrorism such as suicide bombing and ethnic cleansing. This separatist campaign can only be stopped by a military effort, and that is why primacy must be given to the "military solution". The eagerness of the Government to turn its back to the "military solution" is seen in its reluctance to elevate the war effort into the first priority of the nation. When the survival of a nation is challenged it is usual to subordinate every activity to the pursuit of the overriding national objective. This is what was seen during the Second World War when the freedoms of several Western nations were threatened. Sri Lanka's position is even worse than that which confronted the allied nations during the Second World War. For what it is confronted with is not only the loss of freedom for the bulk of its people but also the truncation of a part of its territory, which will make the remainder an unviable entity. Thus the very survival of SL as a nation is threatened. These are circumstances which justify the giving of top priority to the military effort to defeat the forces of racism, separatism and terrorism. But there is no national consensus on this question, and the failure by the Government is mirrored by almost all the other political forces in the country. As we have seen the 56

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 UNP when it was in power had much the same attitude to the military problem as the present government. They too labored under the delusion that there cannot be a military solution, in effect that the LTTE cannot be defeated militarily. If this is indeed true then the fate of Sri Lanka is sealed. But the fact is that there is no reason why the LTTE cannot be defeated. In terms of popular support, manpower, funds, international backing, or any of the other factors that lead to military success the LTTE is at a disadvantage when compared to the Government. It is only in a few areas such as the ability to persuade its followers to undertake suicide missions that the LTTE has an undisputed advantage, but there is no instance in history where suicide tactics have led to a lasting success. The military stalemate that has existed for most of the past fifteen years cannot be explained by any military superiority on the part of the LTTE. It has to be explained solely by the failure on the part of the Government. In this regard three areas can be identified. 37

Terrorism in Maldives
Tourist brochure describes Maldives as a paradise. Perhaps due to the natural beauty, this country of 1192 small coral islands in Indian Ocean was known as Maldveep (Garland of island) in ancient Sanskrit literature. With 100 % Sunni Muslim population of over three lakhs, area of 800 square kilo metres distributed across atolls and islands, having more sea than land in its occupation and historical roots in South Indian, Sri Lankan Sinhalese and Arab communities, it remained isolated from the influence of modern world for centuries. Situated at a distance of about 450 miles southwest of Sri Lanka and nearly 300 miles away from the southern coastline of India, both the countries are its nearest marine neighbors. Because of its Location on the major marine routes in Indian Ocean, its geo-strategic importance can be understood. Before the advent of Islam in the island its natives were practicing Buddhism. Islam was initially introduced largely in its southern area in 1127 AD but the then tolerant Buddhist ruler did not give any patronage to conversion. However, in 1153 the Buddhist king Dhobenei Kalaminj Siri Bavanaadheettha got converted to this faith and imposed it on his subjects. Although, with the introduction of new religion Maldives also faced the challenge of Arabisation, the influence of pre-Islamic past

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 remained the bedrock of its socio-political philosophy till it came in contact with the wider part of modern world. Maldives has all along been an independent State except for a brief period of about 15 years under Portuguese occupation in 16th century and under British protectorate from 1887 till 26th July 1965, when it got independence. It reverted from Sultanate to a republic on 11th November 1968. After reversion of Maldives from Sultanate to a republic, its first president Ibrahim Nasir opened up the country for tourists and foreign investments. The growth of tourist industry in this Muslim country was somehow not palatable for the Islamist establishments from all over the world. However, when Abdul Gayoom, who is educated in Islamic jurisprudence from Al Azhar University in Cairo, became president in 1978, he changed the role of religion significantly and irreversibly transformed the traditionally tolerant society into an increasingly radicalized Islamic society. Since the tourist industry was the backbone of national economy, it was not possible for him to close it but due to his Islamic educational background, religion occupied a front seat in his politics. He sent a significant number of youths to Islamic institutions in countries like Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Pakistan and India for Islamic studies. With huge funding from Saudi Arabia for Wahhabisation of Maldives Islamist zealots on their return from Islamic institutions became loyal collaborators of the regime and began an intense indoctrination for Arbisation of the island in the 1980s. Describing the indigenous cultural symbols like native names, language, greetings and attire as ‘Jahiliya’ (Age of darkness) they “began insisting that it was sinful to call God anything other than Allah” (maldivesroyalfamily.com). This made the Maldivians culturally restless as Arbisation of language was an assault on their vocal chord that was accustomed to pronounce ‘Maaiyraskalaange” for the term God. Although, they tried to ignore the dictates of Mullahs, they succumbed to the threat of Islamist preachers who said that non-pronouncement of Allah by Muslims would send them to hell. Gradually, this cultural conquest forced the traditional Maldivian culture disappear from the island. Traditionally, some parents used to send their children for Islamic education in countries like Egypt and Saudi Arabia solely for their solid moral foundation but after Gayoom came to power promotion of anti-Semitic and hate-Israel teachings in Madrasas increased religious sentiments. “Now we are in evil times and teachers train children in fanaticism and bigotry in Islamic schools”. 58

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 Since its independence, Maldives adopted a policy not to allow military base of any world power although the Wartime British air base on its Gan Island in Addu Atoll continued till it was unilaterally given up in 1976. It had even rejected the proposal of Soviet Union for access to its military base in the island following the withdrawal of the British. India too never felt the need to actively harness the Maldives’ strategic potential in Indian Nation. However, when Gayoom became the president, he adopted the policy of multilateral and bilateral approach, which was quite visible during the coup against him in November 1988 which he could overcome with help from India. He sent an international appeal for political and moral support but sought military appeal only from India, as he wanted to keep the island away base from extra regional powers. It is said that President Gayoom used Islam as a tool to marginalize his political opponents. In his presidential address to the nation on the occasion of country’s national day, he often blamed opposition for their alleged motive to bring other religions to the country. The 1997 Maldives constitution designated Islam as the official religion and law prohibits the Maldivian citizens to practice any religion other than Islam. In 2003, posters praising Osama bin Laden appeared on the walls of a school in the Edyafushi Island. A shop displaying photo of Sant Claus was attacked in 2005. Gayoom often projected himself as supreme propagator of Islam which progressed at a remarkable state under his last thirty years continuous rule. He had repeatedly stated that “Maldivians are born Muslims”. During his tour to India in 2005 while addressing the Maldivian students he asked them not to deviate from the strict Islamic policies set by his government and advised them to “strive hard to avoid the influence of new ideas including liberalism, tolerance and outspokenness” (Minivian News). Speaking in Male on April 10, 2005, he said “Islam and freedom of this country are interconnected”. “Among the roughly 180 countries of the world, Maldives is placed in the sixth position, concerning intolerance and harassment against minorities” (Ibid. dated June 12, 2005). Government of Maldives stresses that “belonging to anything else but the Muslim ideology would be against Maldivian tradition”. The first Islamist terror strike was in Sultan Park of Male, the capital of Maldives on September 29, 2007 targeting the foreign tourists in which about a dozen of them were injured. Maldives police believed that the blast was a plot of Islamic militants 59

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 against the tourist industry of the country. Even President Gayoom admitted that Islamist terrorism has begun to affect the peaceful image of the island. He ordered a ban on entry of Mullhas and Islamic clerics from outside Maldives without any invitation from the authorities. His government also cracked down on religious dissent banning foreign preachers and unlicensed prayer groups (AtollTime.com). Although, a Safari clad clean shaven Gayoom has been trying to prove his moderate image, he cannot escape the responsibility of the growth of Wahhabism in Maldives which is the root of terrorism. His commitment to the promotion of hard-line Islam, constitutional ban on the practice of any other religion except Islam, the growing popularity of beards and veils, and dictates of Mullahs to shun music, to stop listening to music and watching T.V. are indications that Maldives is creeping towards its Talibanisation. Reports about growing number of youths from Maldives supporting the militant philosophy of Jihad also suggest the rise of militant Islam in this country. Sultan Park incident has not only confirmed it but has also sent a signal that Islamist terrorism which starts from Pakistan has discovered a new route of terrorism via Maldives to support the Islamist groups in southern Indian states, where a number of terror attacks took place last year. In the absence of adequate security forces and advanced arms and equipments Maldives may not be capable to destroy the sleeping cells of terrorists. India occupies the core position among South Asian countries and therefore, its natural concern is to protect its national interest from the inevitable consequence of the changing geo-strategic influence in the region. It is already facing the challenge of Mullah-Military alliance in Pakistan, Bangladesh and from the growth of Islamic radicalism in Sri Lanka. But Maldives, an integral part of South Asia and a member of South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC) has failed to construct a secular structure during last thirty years rule of President Gayoom, which allowed the extreme Islamist groups of Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and India to transform the Islamic society of his country to a more conservative nation and active form. India is thus facing the unabated challenge of Islamist terrorism that gets embedded in neighboring countries. 38

Has Islamic Terrorism Arrived on Maldives?
"The Maldives has become an increasingly radicalised society in recent years and there was a sense of foreboding that something like this could happen," said a British

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 media consultant who advises the government of the autocratic president Maumoon Abdul Gayoom. "This has been threatening to rear its head. Islamic groups have complained that tourists have imported Western values and undermined traditional Islamic culture." Another Western adviser to the government said: "I would immediately suspect this has been done by enemies of the state. The government has been concerned that radical Islam is infiltrating the country. "The government has taken a hard line against radical Islam." President Gayoom is Asia's longest-serving leader and has been in charge of the Maldives since 1978. Educated in Islamic jurisprudence in Egypt, he has run the country as a one-party state with a legal system based on Sharia law. In 1988, opponents used Sri Lankan Tamil mercenaries to attempt a coup, and the president only clung on to power with the help of the Indian military. In 2003, the death of a prisoner led to anti-government riots in the capital, Male, prompting reforms which led to the establishment of a multi-party system in 2005. However, two ministers walked out of the cabinet last month, claiming that progress towards true democracy was too slow. Amnesty International has reported allegations of arbitrary detention, unfair trials, and torture and rape in custody. The main opposition, the Maldivian Democratic Party, was founded by Sri Lankabased exiles and is led by Mohamed Nasheed, an author who was educated at Liverpool University and has spent more than a year in solitary confinement. Tourism has brought greater affluence to the teeming city of Male, home to one-third of the country's population, but there is little mixing between foreign visitors and locals. Drug abuse is a growing problem, prompting calls from another opposition group, the Islamic Democratic Party, for the execution of drug smugglers. The Maldives were first settled thousands of years ago by Dravidian fishermen from India and Sri Lanka. The islands converted from Buddhism to Islam and became a sultanate in 1153. The Portuguese, Dutch and French all passed through, but the territory became a British protectorate in 1887, and remained so until independence in 1965. There have been only three rulers since: King Muhammad Fareed until 1968, President Ibrahim Nasir until 1978, and the President Gayoom. 39 61

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224

Government Sponsored Terrorism in Maldives
Gayyoom has never been more unpopular than he is today. People around the country absolutely hate him and resent him with the exception of the few cronies and his close friends who directly benefit from his terrorist regime. Yet, instead of trying to win back popular support he is terrorizing the people of Maldives. Instead of healing the wounds, he is putting salt in it. It is not really difficult to work out why Gayyoom is so evil and so power hungry. He is born that way, it is in his blood. His father was also an evil man, who used his powers to gain riches and favors from people. As a judge, he ruled unjustly. He passed on that gene to Gayyoom, whose prime objective has always been to live like a powerful king as we all know. If it wasn't for the attention we now get from international community, this murderer will butcher our people and burn them alive. Despite mounting pressure on him to ease his iron grip on our nation, he continues to commit atrocities and terrorize the innocent people, like those in Fares-Maathoda just to show that he is still very much in charge and brutal as ever. He had absolutely no right nor any excuse to assault them with such brutality. However, we can be sure of one thing. That these crimes further assert our views on him and is bound to increase international pressure on his illegitimate government, which most political analysts believe are now in its final months. Striking as it may sound; he certainly lacks the ability to foresee consequences of his actions. Any sensible person will agree that there was absolutely no need for him to assault and terrorize the people of Fares-Maathoda. It was an illegitimate act which can only amount to treason. He cannot violate the oath he is supposed to have taken to protect the people of Maldives. If an investigation was necessary after the uprising in Fares-Maathoda, he could have arrested people with a more humane mechanism. However, he chose the brutal method and carried on with his terrorist plan. He wanted to show other islanders that he will not allow people to raise their voices and criticize him or demand things to be done by him, regardless of the fact that it is his duty to provide basic public services as the self proclaimed head of government and it is a constitutional right of the people to demand for things. For this evil man, his mission in life is to remain in power for as long as he can and enjoy the riches of the nation at the expense of basic human rights of the Maldivian people.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 There is no doubt that with the increased efforts to expose the tyranny of Gayyoom in Maldives, the world at large has now taken notice. It is certainly helping Maldivians convert to a democracy despite heavy resistance from the dictator. Those who had any doubt about Gayyoom's style of government can once again be certain of one thing today. He is a terrorist and he uses extremely brute force to terrorize the peace loving and innocent people of Maldives. The brutal assault on the innocent people of Fares-Maathoda can only be classed as an act of terrorism engineered by an illegitimate government. Once again, we must reaffirm our commitment to oust this regime. We must all be united to bring an end to this terror campaign. Together we can do it. 40

Al-Qaeda in Maldives - International Terrorism Monitor Ansar Al Mujahideen Targets the Maldives.
A previously unknown group called “the Media Section of Ansar Al Mujahideen” posted a teaser video today on a well-known Internet forum associated with al-Qaeda that promotes an upcoming full-feature package called “Your Brothers in Maldives are Calling You!” The teaser lasts 1 minute and 49 seconds and features clips recorded inside a Wahhabi mosque during the October 6, 2007, standoff between approximately 90 masked militants armed with swords and iron rods and 100 government soldiers on Himandhoo Island. The tiny island, which belongs to Alif atoll, lies 50 miles to the west of Male’, measures only 750m across and has a population of 583 residents. It is known as a hotbed of Wahhabi activity and, according to multiple intelligence sources, was a major transit point for South and Southeast Asian militants traveling by boat to fight in Somalia in the Fall and Winter of 2006. The standoff occurred at the unregistered Dhar-al-Khuir Mosque on October 6, 2007, which was harboring at least two members of a cell that orchestrated the country’s first Jihadist terror attack. The attack, on September 29 at a popular tourist drop-off point in Male’, injured 12 foreign nationals and, according to police investigations, was funded by Islamic NGOs in Pakistan and the UK. Although the NGOs have not yet been named publicly, knowledgeable Maldives observers suspect the Idara Khidmat-e-Khalq NGO, the charitable wing of the Lashkar-e-Taiba. When fully released, the video will mark the first al Qaeda messaging product that features the Maldives. It is likely a call for foreign recruitment and financing for the

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 local terror cell, which is believed to have grown considerably in the past year. The Maldives is believed to fall under the purview of Fazul Abdullah Mohammed, a Comoro who is wanted for the 1998 East Africa embassy attacks and is believed to be hiding inside Somalia. It also contains documents with keywords related to travel and tourism, which is the main source of income for the country and the main issue of contention for Maldivian militants. My comments on this worrisome development are as follows: In 2002, a 28 year old Maldivian national named Ibrahim Fauzee was arrested in Karachi, Pakistan, and taken to the Guantanamo Bay detention centre in Cuba by the US' Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) on suspicion of his having links with Al Qaeda. As his interrogation did not confirm this suspicion, the FBI sent him to the Maldives. He lives in Male and is subject to regular police surveillance. The reported expansion of Al Qaeda's arc of jihadi operations to the Maldives should be of concern to India, Sri Lanka, the US, Singapore and the international maritime community as a whole. The Maldives has many uninhabited islands, which could be used by Al Qaeda not only for training jihadi terrorists, but also for mounting a major act of maritime terrorism against American ships visiting ports in India, Sri Lanka and Singapore and against the US naval base in Diego Garcia. Al Qaeda has suspected for a long time that Khalid Sheikh Mohammad, who allegedly orchestrated the 9/11 terrorist strikes in the US, and Hambali of the Jemmah Islamia were kept by the US intelligence in Diego Garcia before they were flown to the Guantanamo Bay detention centre in Cuba. KSM was arrested in Rawalpindi in March, 2003, and Hambali in Ayuthya in Thailand in August, 2003.Even though there have been periodic reports of Al Qaeda planning a major maritime terrorism strike, it has not been able to mount a successful act of maritime terrorism after its attack on a French oil tanker (Limburg) off Aden in 2002. India has to be especially concerned not only over the possibility of an Al Qaeda-mounted operation in ports in South India, but also over the possibility of attacks on Indian ships and military personnel visiting the Maldives. 41

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REFERENCES
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrorism_in_pakistan. Accessed on 06/04/09, time 14:40. 2. Musa khan Jalalzai, op,cit., pp.8-16. 3. Muhammad Zamir, SAARC: Action is Primary, (ed) Tariq Mehmood Dogar, Tahir Mehmood Dogar, Digest of Current Affairs & Pakistan Affairs, Lahore, (2001), pp.105-108. 4. Beenish Hafeez, South Asia: Confronting Religious Extremism, (ed) M. Imtiaz Shahid, Contemporary Affairs, Caravan Books, Lahore, p.259. 5. Dr. T.R. Sareen, Dr. S.R Bakshi, Socio-Economic and Political Development in South Asia, Isha Books, Dehli, pp.26-39. 6. Musa khan Jalalzai, op,cit., pp.18-20. 7. http://www.rediff.com/news/2003/apr/03spec.htm. Accessed on 06/04/09, time 14:30. 8. Imtiaz Shahid, op,cit., pp.245-256. 9. Dr. T.R. Sareen, Dr. S.R Bakshi, op,cit., pp.211-212. 10. Dr Noor ul Haq, Khalid Hussain, Mumbai Terrorist Attack, Islamabad policy research institute, Islamabad. 11. http://www.answers.com/terrorism. Accessed on 03/05/09, time 16:05. 12. Peter Marsden, The Taliban: War, Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan, Oxford university press Karachi, Zed books Ltd London, (1988), pp.1-3. 13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/religious_terrorism, accessed on 03/05/09, time 16:15. 14. Musa khan Jalalzai, op,cit., pp.81-101. 15. Dr. T.R. Sareen, Dr. S.R Bakshi, op,cit., pp.4-5. 16. Digest of Current Affairs, Dogar Building, Lahore, pp.75-76. 17. Michael Cox and Doug Stokes, op,cit., p.358. 18. http://www.scribd.com/doc/13108021/Global-Terrorism-Bangladesh-Focus? autodown=txt, accessed on 30/08/09, time 19:23 19. M. Imtiaz Shahid, op,cit., pp.261-262. 20. Dr M oonis Ahm ar, Fault lines In Bangladesh Politics, (ed), Abbas Sarwar Qureshi, Contem porary a Affairs, Book Forty Sseven, Books, Lahore, pp.221-222. Caravan

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 21. http://www.swadhinata.org.uk/misc/terror-in-bangladesh.doc, accessed on 30/08/09, time 19:27. 22. http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/%5Cpapers17%5Cpaper1631.html, accessed on 02/05/09, time 14:43. 23. 24. 25. 26. Buddhi Narayan Shrestha, AIMSA Collection for Study, Border Issues of Nepal with Special Reference to India. M. Imtiaz Shahid, op,cit., pp.265-266. http://www.voanews.com/uspolicy/archive/2004-08/a-2004-08-23-11. Cfm? Moddate=2004-08-23, accessed on 06/04/09, time 14:40. Eric Rosand, Naureen Chowdhury Fink, and Jason Ipe, Center for Global Counterterrorism Cooperation Countering Terrorism in South Asia: Strengthening Multilateral Engagement, IPI Publications, 2009, p.4. 27. http://www.strategypage.com/militaryforums/76-255.aspx, accessed on 25/08/09, time 13:44. 28. T. P. Mishra, Combatting ‘Terrorism’ In Bhutan, 4 February 2009, http://bhutannews.blogspot.com/2009/02/combatting-terrorism-in bhutan-t-p.html, accessed on 13/10/09, time 18:35. 29. Muhammed Siddique-ul-Farooque, Terrorism Against Bhutan, Friday, 4 January 2002, http://www.pmln.org.pk/apology.php, accessed on 13/10/09, time 18:38. 30. http://www.geocities.com/bhutaneserefugees/terrorism.html, accessed on 13/10/09, time 18:38. 31. M.B. Subba, Assam's Bodo Militants loot Houses in Bhutan, Spread Terror, 22 July 2009, http://www.jansamachar.net/display.php3? id=&num=51375&lang=English&PHPSESSID=13d1027f4f7d939521bb6e05f3e4 77be, accessed on 13/10/09, time 18:42. 32. Nitin Gogoi in Guwahati, Bhutan Wakes up to Bodo Terrorism, http://www.rediff.com/news/2000/dec/23assam1.htm, accessed on 13/10/09, time 18:43. 33. M. Imtiaz Shahid, op,cit., pp.262-264. 34. Manisha Fernando, 'its Your World'-Terrorism in Sri Lanka and the International Community, 4/30/2009, http://www.defence.lk/new.asp? fname=20090430_04, accessed on 10/12/2009, time 12:19 PM.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 35. Preeti Bhattacharji, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (aka Tamil Tigers) (Sri Lanka, separatists), 20 May 2009, http://www.cfr.org/publication/9242/, accessed on 25/08/09, time 1:54 AM. 36. Dr. Gunaratna, suicide Terrorism, May 2002, http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/srilanka/feature2.html, accessed on 08/18/2009, time 14:27. 37. Fifteen Years of Separatist Terrorism in Sri Lanka, http://www.infolanka.com/org/srilanka/issues/acslu(97jan).html, accessed on 10/19/2009, time 14:30. 38. R. Upadhyay, Islamic Radicalisation of Maldives, Paper no. 2610, 07 March 2008, http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/%5Cpapers27%5Cpaper2610.html, accessed on 10/11/2009, time 22:48. 39. Philip Sherwell and Ben Leapman, Has Islamic Terrorism Arrived on Maldives?, Published: 12:01AM BST 30 Sep 2007. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1564623/Has-Islamic-terrorismarrived-on-Maldives.html, accessed on 25/08/09, time 02:02 AM. 40. S. I. Moosa (Sappe'), Government Sponsored Terrorism in Maldives, 7 January 2006, http://www.dhivehiobserver.com/editorial/Maldives_ Terrorism_070120052.htm, accessed on 25/08/09, time 02:07 AM. 41. B.Raman, Al-Qaeda in Maldives International Terrorism Monitor, http://intellibriefs.blogspot.com/2007/11/al-qaeda-in-maldivesinternational.html, accessed on 25/08/09, time 02:10 AM.

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Chapter 3

FUTURE OF TERRORISM
Possibly, we will see a relative decline, perhaps even extinction, of what we traditionally considered "ideological" terrorism: namely, the phenomenon that brought terrorism to the global stage via hijackings and bombings beginning around 1968, perpetrated by such groups as Red Army Faction, Red Brigades, Japanese Red Army, etc. The end of the Cold War has resulted in the drying of the well of support for anti-Democratic/anti-Capitalist; Marxist-based ideologically motivated political terrorists. Although there are a few of these ideologically motivated groups still active (particularly in Peru), the world will see these groups become extinct one by one, though possibly not without each one perpetrating one last paroxysm of violence before they disappear. I believe relative to the above two other forms of terrorism (ethno-religious and ideological), single issue terrorism will rise disproportionately, especially with US domestic terrorism, including groups oriented around or against technology (e.g. neoLuddites). In the post-print age, groups, even nationalities, will organize themselves without geographic constraints, bringing Diaspora together and uniting issue-oriented groups and religions through the course of globalization, which will paint clearer pictures of who and what has the ability to affect and influence masses of people. This, coupled with the general evolution of state sovereignty (in which many super and sub state organizations, including corporations, could challenge the state centered international system), will likely drive terrorism and guerrilla warfare into being more broadly projectionist: attacking more than just the general legitimacy of states, but also Non-Governmental Organizations, Multi-National Corporations, etc. Furthermore, access to weapons and methods of increasing lethality, or methods targeting digital information systems that attract wildly disproportionate effects and publicity, will allow terrorists to be "non-affiliated" with larger, better financed subversive organizations or state sponsors. This could result in terrorist cells that are smaller, even familial, and thus harder to infiltrate, track, or counter. Terrorism will be increasingly networked, with smaller and more self-sufficient cells, and will globally integrate parallel to digital global integration, and will permeate geographic boundaries and state sovereignties just as easily. Now we will discuss that what will be the future of Terrorism in SAARC countries.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 First we will discuss in Pakistan.

Future of Terrorism in Pakistan
At a news conference at the Pakistan's Foreign Office on Tuesday, Pakistani Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi said Holbrooke informed him that Obama administration had agreed to review policy to counter terrorism and extremism in the region after consultation with Pakistan. The two sides also agreed to constitute a joint team to exchange views to help the new U.S. administration to map out its future anti-terrorism strategy. Referring to the situation in Pakistan's northwestern tribal areas, Obama said on Monday that the U.S. would not allow Al Qaeda to operate and could not have those safe havens in that region. As the fore front of Pakistan's anti-terror war, the tribal areas have always been a concern of the U.S. It is likely that the new U.S. administration will highlight the performance of Pakistan in the war against terror in the future. According to a pending bill called Enhanced Partnership with Pakistan Act of 2008, the U.S. will allocate 7.5 billion U.S. dollars in social and economic aid to Pakistan over a 5-year period starting from 2009. It merits mentioning that the bill will link the assistance to Pakistan's performance in fighting against terrorism. 1 Whoever is the ruler of Pakistan and whatever happens in Lal Masjid, Pakistan in the immediate and short term will continue to be a society 75 per cent enlightened and 25 per cent jihadi, with its 25 per cent jihadi component being a major source of jihadi terrorism in the region and in the rest of the world. Ridding it of its jihadi component will take at least 10 to 15 years, provided its leadership is sincere about it and the international community particularly the US keeps sustained pressure on it. 2 In the short term, at least, the future for terrorism is good. For a number of reasons, the developed world should be keeping an eye over its shoulder in the coming years. You can make this case by starting with the understanding that people kill other people for a reason. It makes sense to them. It is logical from their perspective. Generally speaking, they are not insane. We live in a world that is still laced with old animosities, current inequities, and distorted values; and seen from those perspectives

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 it sometimes (obviously) seems to make sense to use terror as a means to reaching ends. There is not room here to fully deal with all of the issues and implications associated with various groups in different locales (some of which, I’m sure, have pretty compelling reasons to want to change the status quo). But if we back away from the immediacy of the situation and try to see it in broad terms of the past and the future it strikes me that this is not just the latest manifestation of an age old struggle although it certainly is that. What we are seeing is a major transition between eras that has huge implications for the future of humanity. This world is different because the context and the fundamentals are different. Globally, we are living through an increase in population and change in other arenas that are exponential growing at rates never before seen in human history. In very real terms this is a systems problem different parts of the system are rapidly shifting at the same time and in the process the behavior of the whole system will necessarily change. Poverty and religious differences continue as they have in the past, operating within economic and governmental systems that largely have no fundamental incentives built into them for ultimately eliminating, let alone dealing effectively in the short term with the basic problems. The structure and even philosophy are the product of the past a time when all of this change was not in place. But we are now living in a time when the rich are getting richer faster than any time in history, when extraordinary population increases are producing multitudes of poor people who have access to television and unlike only 50 years ago, are aware of how we in the developed world live. This rapidly growing technology is an amplifier of the economic and theological differences that people feel and these perspectives are likely to only become more acute in the coming decade as the have/have-not divide broadens. It appears that this environment will become even more volatile in the near future as weapons of mass destruction become available to those groups that want to use them. In what was certainly a considered comment U.S. Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld has already suggested that it is inevitable that terrorist groups will acquire nuclear weapons. In May of this year investor Warren Buffett also said, “Fear may recede with time, but the danger won't the war against terrorism can never be won. We're going to have something in the way of a major nuclear event in this country. It will happen. Whether it will happen in 10 years or 10 minutes, or 50 years it's virtually a certainty.” 70

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 So what we have is an old problem in a new context that is dramatically different because of population and technology communications technology and weapons technology. The most effective response to the terrorism problem requires a two-front strategy that has short-term and long term components: dealing with the current terrorists and dealing with the fundamentals that produce and encourage terrorism. Most all of the governmental effort is focused on the short term problem and not the long-term one so it is reasonable to presume that if the fundamentals that encourage terrorism are not addressed in a significant way the problem will continue and grow. In the same way that technology is enabling the terrorists, the developed world is turning to technology as a principle defense against future destructive individuals and groups. As has now become clear, not only had analysts developed scenarios that included the possibility of aircraft being flown into the World Trade Center towers, but also individual pieces of the puzzle were known before the fact at different places within the FBI and other U.S. federal agencies. These pieces of the solution were neither connected together to form a significant pattern of behavior that could be responded to, nor was there interest in this possibility at higher levels within the bureaucracy. The response has been to develop major rapidly growing new initiatives in the defense and intelligence arenas to remedy the “connecting-the-dots” problem. If the pieces of the solution are out there, how are they identified and related to each other in a way that provides enough substance to be actionable? Very sophisticated knowledge generation tools are now being developed that almost certainly will produce a revolution in government knowledge and intelligence acquisition that will also spill over into the commercial arena in the coming years. But, as has already been suggested, that is not likely to be enough. We (those of us with the intellectual capabilities and resources to make a difference) need to assault the underlying system that produces this behavior. New proactive approaches and incentives are required that are based on the understanding that this is a global system and we all share responsibility for its well being. We need to systematically learn how to think about the future. Most governments do not do scenarios about potential paths to the future and long term implications of present day events. It would not be surprising, for example, to find out that nowhere in the U.S. government has anyone plotted out the potential five year implications to a nuclear war between India and Pakistan.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 We need new approaches to affecting geopolitical change. European critics of the U.S. say that the only options offered for dealing with local problems is bombing and economic sanctions. There are new and better alternatives, like non-violent conflict methods, that have been very successful in the past and need to be encouraged and supported. There has to be more that we can do than just ship arms and train foreign militaries and police departments. The U.S. cannot walk away from (or choose not to involve themselves in) major global problems regardless where they are in the world. We are the most influential world player. We have a responsibility to be involved. Numerous studies have shown that the best long-term approach to some of the most intractable problems the world faces is to increase education in lesser developed countries, particularly of girls. When they become mothers, educated girls raise their families differently, they value education, and they have different values and goals. They also have fewer children. It is a very fundamental way to change whole systems. Terrorism is unconventional warfare. There are no fronts, no armies, and no battlefields. The solutions therefore will not come from militaries, which are largely designed for fighting other armed forces. The solutions will come from new approaches that address the whole person, not just the political and economic components. This is about individual people, their values and aspirations and cultures, some of which have not changed much over centuries. Different people and groups will require different approaches one size will not fit all. The new solutions will be complex and sophisticated and necessarily not look like the past. But if we are going to safely make it through this extraordinary, historical transition, we must not do the old things we must invent new ones. 3

Future of Terrorism in India
The future of Terrorism and Politics is very hard to predict. In future there is a need of good rule of government that will take India ahead. The future of the youth of the India is bright as there is a best education system. But it is very slow speed because in India there is nothing going right. 4 In order to assess the future threat posed by terrorism one must bear in mind the changes which have made terrorism a new force in analyses of world order. The main areas in these changes are transport and communication, weaponry, the effects on society of concentration of vital functions on a decreasing number of critical nodes,

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 and changes in social structure and attitudes. With the advancement of science and technology, developments in these areas have made terrorism a different and more sinister threat than it has been in the past. The question for the future is will these developments continue and will they magnify the threat which we already recognize is posed by terrorism? The transport and communications sectors are unlikely to see significant improvements, at least in the near future, which may have major implications for the scope and incidence of terrorism. Whilst particular targets in these areas may become more attractive, the changes which gave terrorism greater impact have already taken place. The ease of movement around the world made possible by the expansion of the airline industry, in particular, and the spread of ideas and ease of relaying news of terrorist incidents made possible by communications advances are now everyday features of our existence. There are no foreseeable changes in these areas of a sort such as will enable a quantum leap in the leverage terrorism can exert or the ease with which operations can be conducted.

Availability of Weapons
The same cannot be said, however, in the case of the development and availability of weapons. The rate of turnover of conventional weapons by the world's military forces has increased dramatically in recent times and many of these weapons are finding their way into the open market. It is inevitable that in the future any group which is determined to do so will be able to purchase or steal powerful, conventional weapons. Given the rate at which weapons now become obsolescent, the arms which will find their way into the hands of a large number of terrorist outfits will be very sophisticated by past standards capable of operation at a considerable distance from the target and with significantly increased destructive power. The fact that states are more involved in backing terrorist groups than in the past also means that it is easier for the latter to gain access to sophisticated arms in significant quantities. The increasing involvement of states with terrorist groups means increasing availability of various forms of high explosives which are extremely powerful in relation to their bulk and which can be molded to fit any shape or cavity, thus making them easy to conceal, and are difficult to detect by conventional screening methods.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 Some counter measures are now available or being developed to counter this particular threat. However, though more sophisticated detection devices are being evaluated, the reality is that as detection capability becomes more refined, so the composition of explosives is altered with the consequence that totally successful screening will never be possible. Similarly, while there is a strong case to be made for responsible governments to legislate to mandate the inclusion of microtaggants (tiny chips conveying information about the type, manufacturer, batch, seller, etc.) in explosives at the time of manufacture which would facilitate their detection, tracing and identification, the reality again is that many countries will continue to supply explosives not so treated to those who use terrorist tactics.

Frightening Prospect
To many people, the most frightening prospect for the future is that terrorist groups might gain access to and use weapons of mass destruction, specifically, nuclear, biological or biochemical weapons. Most attention to date has been directed to the possibility of some form of nuclear material falling into terrorist hands. There are a number of readily conceivable scenarios. One would involve the terrorist seizure of a nuclear facility under threat of having the facility sabotaged, thus releasing radioactive material over a large area. Given the level of security that has been shown to exist at some nuclear power plants in the past, it is not inconceivable that a determined group of well-equipped and well-organized terrorists could assault and take over a nuclear facility. If Al-Qaeda could make an assault on the Pentagon, seizure of a nuclear power plant is comparatively a much easier job. Other scenarios involve the acquisition of a nuclear weapon by a terrorist group. A number of possibilities exist here. One is that a nuclear weapon state may supply a terrorist group with such a weapon. Theoretically more likely is the theft of a nuclear device from a military storage point. The fact that a U.S. rocket could be smuggled out of West Germany, as occurred some years ago, indicates that subterfuge sometimes may also be successful. Probably the most controversial possibility is that of terrorists being able to construct their own crude nuclear device. Experts differ as to the feasibility of such a project. However, much of the data needed to design a nuclear bomb are now freely available, as was documented by a highly publicized television science programmer which in

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 March 1975 featured a 20-year-old undergraduate from Massachusetts Institute of Technology who had designed a technically conceivable nuclear bomb. It would appear, then, that a sufficiently dedicated terrorist group could overcome the technical difficulties and construct a credible nuclear bomb. In all probability the capability already exists. There can be little doubt, then, that it will be soon possible (if not already) to mount a credible terrorist attack involving nuclear, biological or biochemical agents. The one factor which holds this eventuality in abeyance would appear to be a rational calculation concerning what would be achieved by such an act. It is generally conceded that terrorists make rational calculations and that these show the use of mass destruction weapons to be counter-productive. Will this be so in the future? The future looks bleak as far as forms of political violence in general, and terrorism as a specific technique, are concerned. Many of the factors that have led to the elevation of terrorism as a serious threat to open societies will be exacerbated in the future. To fail to respond firmly to the threat would be to give up a cherished way of life without fighting for it. 5 In India as for as concerned to terrorism the government is not taking this issue very seriously so in the future India will have to face this issue very hard. They will have to face it with their consequence, it is better to take steps against this miscreant. The terrorism of the time becomes and there is a hope for the better government that will take this issue seriously. 6 If children, youth and everyone have some changes in their mind in this case than in future there will be no terrorism. To stop terrorism there is need to fight against terrorism it would be in everyone’s mind in this way the curse of terrorism will be stop. So the thinking of the living people in India that must be positive with concerned to terrorism. If the thinking will be positive then the terrorism can be stop in India in the future. 7 The incident of the Mumbai attacks shows that all the facts can be true, but severe security lapse cannot be ignored which were clear seeing terrorist’s free movements into the New York of India (Mumbai) unless India has to courage to admit its deficiencies and correct them; counter terrorism machinery is unlikely to improve. The second thing, India will have to be on table talks with the kashmiri leader to lesser tension among the people of both sides and with Pakistani leaders to establish good relations so that Pakistani side of Indian. 8 75

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224

The Future of Terrorism in Afghanistan
The contributors of The Future of Afghanistan say insecurity, whether due to insurgency, terrorism, regional meddling, or warlordism undermines the potential for progress on all other fronts in Afghanistan, and that success is impossible without competent Afghan security institutions. However, within the international coalition, the goal of establishing internal Afghan focused security was subordinate to the goal of destroying the international terrorist networks there that were orchestrating a campaign of spectacular attacks. Yet stable Afghan governance and security forces are required to create a viable long-term alternative to the Taliban. Efforts to create a capable and legitimate government, including the development of Afghan security forces, were under funded and poorly orchestrated. Of equal importance is the legitimacy of the Afghan government itself and its will and capacity to implement the rule of law. The report argues that U.S. expectations for Afghan democracy were dangerously overblown during the Bush administration, wrongly believing that "democracy would be the panacea to resolving the myriad challenges facing Afghanistan following such a protracted period of conflict.” In the long run democratic governance is key to stability, yet it takes considerable time and investment to create the scale and strength of institutions required to maintain constitutional democracy. The future of Afghanistan also depends upon the ability of its national and local leaders to organize for a common, positive purpose. The international community and the Afghan government must engage the capacity of the broader Afghan society, making them the engine of progress rather than unwilling subjects of rapid change. The new formula is one where the central government continues to ensure security and justice on the national level and uses its position to channel international assistance to promote the rule of law and development at the community level. Such an approach would bring together capacity from four place local communities, civil society (such as NGOs), Afghan government, and international donors where none alone would be sufficient. Finally, The U.S. must work with Afghanistan's neighbors to create a regional environment conducive to Afghanistan's success. Regional competition continues to undermine Afghanistan's long-term prospects, whereas renewed regional cooperation could provide a significant security and economic boost in Afghanistan, Pakistan and the region as a whole. What is needed now is a coherent strategy to bridge the gap

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 between conflict and democracy, between burkas and women's equality, between tribal councils and a Supreme Court the next decade must be about building those bridges. The first step is to realign joint priorities and expectations. The international community will be much better off with a right-sized, Afghan-appropriate vision that can actually be implemented than a grand international confection that continues to wilt under the glaring realities of the day, the authors say. As indicated by several of the report's essays, the solution going forward is a melding of top down and bottom up approaches, creating a condominium of central government institutions addressing larger challenges beyond the capacities of communities while enabling local capacity to deal with other issues. Under such a framework, central government would be responsible for those issues requiring collective action, such as fighting insurgents, building primary roads, regulating media, and protecting basic rights. Community based structures would be heavily engaged in local governance issues such as water management, agricultural development, and dispute resolution. Civil society and private enterprise would expand media, protection of basic rights, and revitalization of culture. Such an approach would increase citizen participation, develop civil society, improve the delivery of basic services at the local level, and enhance the legitimacy of both national and local institutions. 9 The central government should ensure as strong enough to ensure security and justice on national level and wise enough to international assistance to promote rule of law and development on community level. A lot of work is needed to be done by US to make the regional environment favorable for bringing peace in Afghanistan. In terms of regional co-operation to boost economy and ensure security. Talking about the wall should be demolished between tribes and central government. In such a coalition central government should work to deal with major issue like fighting against insurgents/terrorists, infrastructure building, regulating media and promoting society building by protecting basic rights. While on community level, local leadership should be involved in issues as water management, agricultural development and resolving minor disputes. President Barack Obama is prepared to accept a role for the Taliban in Afghanistan's political future in a major shift of policy towards the Islamic radicals who are attacking US and British troops, it has been reported. Philip Sherwell 09 Oct 2009 77

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 As he assesses a request from his top commander in Afghanistan to dispatch another 40,000 troops to fight the Taliban, he is also "inclined" to send only as many as needed to keep al-Qaeda at bay. The assessment was given to the Associated Press by a senior official involved in Mr. Obama's discussions with his top national security and military advisors about Afghanistan strategy. There is believed to be a growing favor in his war council for differentiating between native Afghan Taliban factions and the foreign extremists of al-Qaeda. Several of the president's advisors are arguing that the Taliban are predominantly fighting against what is perceived as NATO "occupation" while it is al Qaeda that poses a threat to US defense. Aides have made clear that Mr. Obama is unlikely to reach a final decision on strategy and troop numbers before the end of October. But it seems increasingly unlikely that he will grant the request from Gen Stanley McChrystal, the commander he appointed only this summer, for an extra 40,000 US troops to join the 68,000 who will already be in Afghanistan by the end of the year. 10 Both Bush and Karzai acknowledged that Afghanistan is a work in progress. Karzai noted that his country remains "one of the poorest." Only 6 percent of its people have access to electricity, few have access to safe drinking water and farmers have a shortage of water to irrigate their crops, he said. Armed militias still pose a serious problem, he said, especially when they are using the illegal drug trade to buy arms. "We have come a long way, but our common journey is far from over," he said. Still, he said, Afghanistan is confident it will succeed, particularly with international help. "To succeed, we ask for your continued investment," he said. "Afghanistan is open for business and American companies are welcome." 11 As President, I will create a Shared Security Partnership Program to forge an international intelligence and law enforcement infrastructure to take down terrorist networks from the remote islands of Indonesia, to the sprawling cities of Africa. This program will provide $5 billion over three years for counter-terrorism cooperation with countries around the world, including information sharing, funding for training, operations, border security, anti-corruption programs, technology, and targeting

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 terrorist financing. And this effort will focus on helping our partners succeed without repressive tactics, because brutality breeds terror, it does not defeat it. 12

The Future of Terrorism in Bangladesh
After a relatively long period of calm, Islamist militancy in Bangladesh is showing new signs of life, even in the face of continuous crackdowns on terrorist infrastructure and activity by counterterrorism forces in the country. Security officials have long established that many of the outlawed terrorist groups have been trying to regroup and reorganize after lying low (mostly in northwestern and southwestern Bangladesh) after a state of emergency was declared in January 2007. In June 2008, reports came quickly of the reemergence of terrorist groups such as Jama'at ul-Mujahedeen Bangladesh (JMB), Allahr Dal, Harkat-ul Jihad al Islami (HuJI) and Hizb-ut Towhid (HuT). The revival was especially strong in the southwestern districts of Kushtia, Meherpur, Jhenidah, Magura, Chuadanga, Jessore, and Satkhira. Intelligence sources revealed that all these groups have maintained close operational ties and carried out terrorist operations on Bangladeshi soil. One estimate suggested there were about 12,000 cadres actively operating in the country, mostly madrassa (Islamic seminary) teachers, students and clerics of mosques (Daily Star [Dhaka], June 12, 2008). In April of this year, Bangladesh intelligence agencies declared that the Islamist terrorist groups are reorganizing with the aim of making a deadly comeback (Daily Star, April 29). A mid-June report based on the confessional statement of a JMB terrorist shed some light on this resilient outfit. According to the report, JMB operatives are still using different border routes in Chapai Nawabganj and Jessore to smuggle in bomb-making materials and small arms from neighboring India despite being weakened by the government crackdown (Daily Star, June 22). The militant also confessed that members of the JMB central committee are trying to keep the organization afloat in Dhaka and other divisional capitals. 13 When discussing the current and future trends in Islamic terrorism and counterterrorism responses, nations such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, and a range of Middle Eastern states tend to receive the majority of attention. This is not surprising given Al-Qaeda Central’s presence in Pakistan and its impact on the insurgency on both sides of the Durand Line as well as its continued efforts to create franchises worldwide and to establish cells in the West. What little attention is left often goes to

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 India, the world’s most terrorism-afflicted nation, although India is now set to figure in more prominently given recent developments. This lack of interest on behalf of the international community has given Bangladesh-based Jamaat-ul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) and Harakat- ul-Jihad-i-Islami Bangladesh (HUJI-B) much-needed breathing space to consolidate their positions, recrui, and train, procure weapons and explosives, and to chart their future strategic directions. Many in Bangladesh also greatly underestimated the strength of these groups and felt that thearrest and/or execution of several leaders would deal them a fatal blow. Unfortunately, Bangladesh has learned the hard way that these groups are not necessarily top-down outfits but rather decentralized and informal organizations that function under a cell structure that emphasizes autonomy while still taking major directives from the top. As such, it can reasonably be argued that Bangladesh’s “militant cycle” is about 5 years behind Pakistan and Dhaka is not prepared to meet the challenge. While distinct organizations, both JMB and HUJI-B share some striking similarities. In Pakistan, even groups such as Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and others who are actively engaged in hostilities with Pakistan’s security forces still espouse nationalist rhetoric and offered to stand and fight with the Pakistan Army in the event of an Indian attack following the carnage in Mumbai in November 2008. They are also in lockstep with the position of many Pakistanis regarding the Kashmir dispute. However, HUJI-B and JMB are fundamentally against all tenets of the Bangladeshi state and society and seek to overthrow the secular government, replace the Western-style court system, and establish a Taliban-style state in Bangladesh. It should be noted that several of HUJI-B’s most senior leaders are veterans of the Afghan conflict against the Soviet Union and that Osama bin Laden provided critical financial backing during the group’s infant stages. Despite being a much younger outfit that is believed to have been formed around 1998, JMB’s ideology and vision for Bangladesh’s future does not differ dramatically from HUJI-B’s. JMB is an extremely formidable outfit as was demonstrated by its ability to carry out over 400 coordinated bomb blasts within one hour in all but one district in Bangladesh. Further, the threat posed by JMB as well as HUJI-B recently forced Sheikh Hasina to curtail her travel plans following her recent election. It would be advisable to simply describe HUJI-B and JMB accurately groups that advocate an entirely foreign form of extremist Islam that is regressive and offers no future. As part of this campaign, the immense economic hardship that occurs under

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 Taliban-style rule (remember HUJI-B’s Afghan roots) should be consistently highlighted. Further, a lack of an effective plan for governance or development by these groups needs to be emphasized in order to clearly communicate that economic conditions, though not ideal at present, would become much worse under a government headed by Islamic extremists. It is much easier to be a rebel movement but, as the Maoists in Nepal is learning, Everything changes once in power. In rebellions, mistakes are often forgiven if it is believed that the end goal is still attainable. However, this is not the case in government. The future competition between Dhaka and terrorist outfits will not only involve appeals to individual understandings of Islam, but also to their day-to-day concerns. Even in a Muslim majority country like Bangladesh, the latter is likely to figure in more prominently. 14 If these organizations are danger to Bangladesh and surrounding area how can we curb them. A well constant integrated approach is required to weed out these organizations. It may include the use of internet. This source has already been exploited by terrorists. They use e-mails, messages and websites to spread their messages. A well versed propaganda campaign can counter their strategy. Next strategy should be poverty alleviation. Poverty is prevalent in the area. A large number of people are jobless. By providing those jobs and food, effect of these organizations can be minimized. The modus operandi of these organizations is based upon blot strategy. First, they select the districts and strengthen them, organize their camps and finally move to other districts. This strategy still has proved very effective role. Although, the interim government succumbed to the pressure from international community particularly the Western powers and revoked the decision, its next move is always unpredictable. How far the present government would succeed in combating Islamic terrorism in the country, only time can say but if it is to be serious, it will have to neutralize the sources of Islamic militancy. The two former prime ministers Sheikh Hasina of Awami League and Khaleda Zia of the BNP have already weakened the democratic essence of politics in Bangladesh and pushed it into the process of "Talibanization". This dangerous concoction of poverty, weak political structure, unemployment and increased terrorist activities is steadily pushing it towards anarchy and chaos. 15

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Future of Terrorism in Nepal
Gen. Banerjee began by saying that Nepal was in a crisis mode. Its democratic structure had weakened and lost legitimacy in the eyes of the people. The politician’s propensity for self-aggrandizement and corruption has deprived it of popular support. The Maoist movement that started in February 1996 and escalated in to violence soon after, now seriously challenged the stability of the kingdom. In eight years of insurgency, 9,000 people had been killed with about 75 percent of this occurring in the last two years. The third pillar in the kingdom, constitutional monarchy under the present ruler appears stable and is critical but is at best an interim solution. The 40 point charter of the Maoists in 1996 remains their political manifesto. It could be divided under three heads. The first part covered issues of nationalism of which the first five were directed against India. Therefore, any thinking that they sympathized with India and hoped for support from New Delhi should be ruled out. The next set of issues concerned public welfare. The third part referred to people’s living condition and developmental issues. The Royal Nepal Army (RNA) was neither prepared nor equipped to deal with the insurgency and cannot be expected to be ready soon. It was untrained, ill-equipped and needed an urgent overhaul of its tactical doctrines and operational concepts. Moreover even under the King, effective political direction seemed to be lacking. In the initial stages there were some doubts as to whom they were accountable. Today it has been clearly settled in favour of the monarchy. Commenting on the state of insurgency, Gen. Banerjee noted that the Royal Government really controlled only the district headquarters. The basic unit of governance in Nepal remained the Village Developmental Council (VDC). Of the 3900 VDCs, many did not have any headmen and the remainder was largely non-functioning. The police force with a strength of 40 to 50,000 was in a pathetic shape and ineffective. An armed police force of 15,000 was raised five years ago and had yet to find its feet. The RNA with a current strength of about 57,000 needed to be redeployed and reorganized. There was currently a proposal to increase its strength to about 70,000 and the demand for further increase will continue. The US was very active in the country and this must be seen as a positive step at least for now. It had responded strongly with arms supplies, military equipment including helicopters and with training. Even though Maoists do not to threaten US interests presently, there is a concern that a Maoist insurgency in this part

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 of the world could potentially destabilize a larger region. Some $30 to $40 million in military equipment had been supplied till now and even more in the form of multilateral aid both direct and indirect. The US approach to the insurgency favored stronger military response, which may not be entirely appropriate at this stage. The US military presence was unpopular and is being exploited by the Maoists in their propaganda. By contrast India has supplied perhaps substantially more arms than the US, but has maintained a relatively low profile. Its engagement in training the Nepalese armed forces remained high and its equipment was much appreciated by the RNA. Gen. Banerjee suggested that the Indian approach to counter insurgency, putting civic actions and developmental issues ahead of military operations and focusing on winning hearts and minds, was more appropriate to the situation in Nepal, particularly at this stage. Within India there appeared to be differing views in dealing with the situation. One section seemed to feel that New Delhi needed to keep its options open, since the Maoists appeared to have support among the masses. This view, right or wrong, concerned the Nepalese authorities and has them worried. The larger view appropriately held that the authorities in Nepal needed to be backed up firmly with appropriate military and political support. It would like to see a constitutional monarchy existing in harmony with effective democratic governance, which focused on development and security for all its peoples. Such a process would of course have to be evolved by the Nepalese themselves. There was no need for India to be unduly concerned about foreign presence of the US, since its long-term influence was likely to be limited and in the near term it was fully complementary to Indian interests. The bottom line was that the Maoist insurgency had to be defeated, particularly before it adversely affected neighboring parts of India. Talking about the level of Chinese involvement, Gen. Banerjee noted that China had strictly kept itself away from any involvement in the movement. This was entirely in tune with its present foreign policy and concerns of the possible fall-out of the insurgency on Tibet. China was concerned about increasing US presence in Nepal as well as in other parts of Asia. By way of conclusion, Gen. Banerjee assessed the relative strengths of the three principal actors in the current political situation in Nepal. The Maoists were winning and had time on their side if they played their cards well. However, their limitations were lack of advanced weaponry, absence of sanctuaries and outside help. Till these changed the insurgency could be dealt with though at certain levels of counter 83

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 violence. The political parties were the weakest link. They were disunited, factionridden, disparate and corrupt, led by old and tired leaders. Though generally opposed to the King’s assumption of direct power, they cannot come together to fashion an opposition to the palace. The King, who is the third actor, is held in high respect by the people as the reincarnation of the Hindu God, but the monarchy has been weakened following the regicide. The King appears to accept that his executive authority will be challenged, he considers himself in his own words, as a “standby generator”, to be switched off when main power (political parties) returned. There appears to be no alternative to the King in this current crisis, though his continuing in power will prove a depreciating asset. The discussion that followed the presentation elicited many interesting opinions The King was confident of solving the issue while ascending the thrown what democracy could not do. However, opinion was expressed that the situation in Nepal was messy and that the King had only added to it. He was determined to play a proactive role in politics and governance of the country though he was embattled from all sides. The RNA was with him as there was no other choice. Moreover, the King’s foreign policy options appeared to be too ambiguous. There was no clear winner in sight as yet in the situation. Maoists were engaged purely in terrorism. The top brass of the insurgents appeared not in full control of the rank and file. They recruited members by force and 30 per cent of the cadre was children under fifteen years. Maoists were aware that they could not achieve their objective of “liberating” Nepal due to their limitations particularly in weapons availability. But, they had started looking for weapons from foreign sources utilizing the huge sum of money looted over time. As a consequence, their capabilities could go up. The apprehension over the network of Maoist groups (CCOMPOSA) in South Asia may be somewhat exaggerated particularly as this was loosely knit and the constituents did not all agree with each other on many issues. The only way out at present seemed to be to revive the political process through fresh elections. Though the atmosphere was hardly conducive for a free and secure conduct of the electoral process, the risk may be worth taking. India was not sufficiently responsive to the situation created by the Maoists in the country and its possible fall-out in India. The adjacent parts of India were among the worse governed in the country and would not be able to withstand the adverse consequences. It was vital to pre-empt it and ensure it did not spread. The Special 84

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 Services Bureau (SSB) had been tasked to protect the border and it had a big task on its hands. But, the need of the hour was to develop effective intelligence coordination, support Nepal’s counter-insurgency efforts, ensure coordination between the various security services in the country and enlist the active support of the state governments. Most important, New Delhi had to evolve a proper long term strategy and ensure that adequate effort and resources were devoted to it to ensure success. Else, the future stability of the region and indeed the prosperity and development of India would be at stake. 16 In larger strategic terms, Beijing has until now most likely viewed Nepal as a relatively quiet buffer area free from external power influences. Although Nepal itself poses no threat, adjoining Tibet as it does, China clearly has an interest in monitoring Tibetan exiles and freedom fighters who are either transiting or residing in Nepal. Additionally, maintaining a secure land border with Nepal allows China to focus on security challenges elsewhere on its periphery, most notably in the maritime regions in and around Taiwan and the South China Sea. India also seeks good relations and has an important interest in a stable, democratic Nepal. It has recently provided much-needed training and military hardware, including helicopters, to the Royal Nepal Army. But tighter vigilance at the border is required to deny the Maoists safe havens in India, and limit their access to such groups as the Maoist Communist Coordination Center, which operates in the Indian states of Bihar and Jharkhand, and the Naxalite People's War Group in Andhra Pradesh. In recent weeks the government has scored some counterterrorism successes. On the weekend of May 3-5, for example, government security forces attacked a training camp and base in western Nepal and killed hundreds of terrorists. But the conflict continues to ebb and flow, and a much firmer, multifaceted counterterrorism strategy is required to root out Prachanda and his followers and sweep their outmoded ideology into the dustbin of history where it belongs. Outside investment is a necessary ingredient in this effort. So is better equipment for Nepal's security forces to enable them to move and operate more effectively in the country's rugged terrain. The terrorism in Nepal merits greater concern than it has received. The country's stability is at stake. A peaceful and democratic Nepal is critical for regional security. Already one of the poorest nations in the world, Nepal can ill afford a protracted war that needlessly drains precious resources away from economic development. Nor 85

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 could it withstand a Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution or other type of revolutionary experiment should the Maoists grab power. Additionally, the problem of terrorism must be addressed wherever it arises. The United States cannot afford to suppress terrorism in one location, only to see it thrive in another, thus potentially creating new bases and safe havens for international terrorists. Nepal's democracy is still recovering from the shock of the massacre at the Royal Palace last year that grabbed world headlines. Helping this friendly nation put down deeper democratic roots contributes to regional stability and is in American and Western interests. Nepal is doing the best it can with the tools at its disposal, but more support is needed to wage a successful campaign to stop the terrorist threat at the top of the world. 17 The monarch described Nepal's security situation as "slowly but surely improving" and that the people have "benefited by a growing sense of confidence. There is no place today in the Kingdom where security personnel cannot go at will." The February First step in Nepal was necessitated by ground realities, mainly the failure of successive governments to contain ever-emboldening terrorists and maintain law and order. It has not come at the cost of democracy, as some tend to project it. We remind the international community of the pre-February First situation in Nepal. Our friends and well-wishers were warning us of the danger of Nepal turning into a failed state. 18

The Future of Terrorism in Bhutan
I reported on the sad crisis of Bhutanese refugees of Nepali descent living in refugee camps in the poor districts of Jhapa and Morang in eastern Nepal. Bhutan has refused to budge on the issue, arguing now that repatriating the refugees would be "importing terrorism" into their country. Fortunately, however, the US a long standing and generous donor to Nepal has stepped up to the plate, offering to resettle the refugees in the USA. The US Resettlement Program estimates that 7000 refugees will be resettled in the US next year. This is a great stride forward let's hope the situation will continue to improve.

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US resettlement plans give hope to Bhutanese refugees
There is finally light at the end of the tunnel for over 100,000 Bhutanese refugees, with the US offering to rescue them from the ghettos in Nepal, where they have been languishing for nearly two decades. Perturbed by Bhutan's persistent refusal to take back its citizens, who were forced to flee the country after a crackdown on ethnic groups in the 1980s, Nepal's new government has finally relented its stand that the thousands of Bhutanese living in Nepal should be repatriated, agreeing to the US offer to provide them new homes in US cities and rural areas. In July, the US will open its Overseas Processing Entity office in Kathmandu to begin the resettlement process. In the first year, starting from September, we estimate about 7,000 refugees will be resettled in the US,' said Janice Belz, deputy director for admissions at the US Resettlement Program, who along with Larry Bartlett, deputy director for Asia and the Near East, arrived here for talks with Nepal's government as well as the refugees. Since their eviction from Nepal, the fugitives, mostly of Nepali origin, have been living in seven camps in the eastern districts of Jhapa and Morang, under the administration of the UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR). Though Nepal held 15 rounds of talks with Bhutan, the Druk kingdom dragged its feet on beginning repatriation. Finally, the hope of the camp residents that they would be able to return home some day received a blow with the Bhutanese foreign minister this year alleging that the camps were infiltrated by communist terrorists and that by allowing the residents to return, Bhutan would be importing terrorism. There is growing depression, domestic violence and alcoholism in the camps. Besides suicides, at least three people have died recently after clashes with the locals, who feel jobs and community forests are under threat from the camp residents. An even more alarming development is the growing fatigue of the donors, giving rise to fears that the refugees may not have food in future. They are not allowed by the Nepal government to take up jobs or run businesses. Though the US had earlier estimated it would resettle about 60,000 refugees, Belz said there was no cap and the resettlement would continue as long as the camp residents showed interest. The UNHCR would also be involved in the resettlement along with the International Organisation for Migration, which will conduct the necessary medical tests.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 While the US government would provide a small amount of cash and medical assistance to the resettled Bhutanese, they would be primarily supported by NGOs. Washington is hoping that once the process starts, other countries like Canada, Denmark and Norway that had shown interest in absorbing the residents would renew their offer. Despite its avowed dissociation from the refugee issue, India, the US feels, plays a key factor in the repatriation, which is a far more durable solution that resettlement. The visiting US officials will arrive in New Delhi during the weekend to brief Indian authorities about the developments. 'The Indian government has a role,' said Bartlett, tacitly referring to New Delhi's influence on Bhutan by way of being the Druk kingdom's biggest donor and business partner. 'We continue to be hopeful (that Bhutan will take the refugees back) and we are keeping all the parties informed of the process,' he added. In whatever way the refugee crisis comes to an end, the risk of its reappearance does exist. This is because the newly written constitution of Bhutan is drafted without including representatives from the Lhotshampa community. It does not incorporate religious, cultural sentiments of the Hindus nor the rights of the minorities. Lhotshampas are being looked down at with disgust. There is no guarantee that the ethnic cleansing will not continue in the future. 19 Before the democracy could mature and establish itself firmly, uprising against the government has often occurred. In view of the consequences of the 1990 movement for democracy, which led to the forcible eviction of about half the population of the Lhotshampas, the future uprising might also lead to similar consequences. It might be even worse because, in Bhutan, there are two kings the retired king and his son, the present king. A good father naturally will not tolerate the offences committed against his sons and daughters. According to Mr. Rizal’s observation, the monarchy was behind the chaos in the Southern districts that spread across the entire South Asian region. Owing to many years of oppression, people are conditioned to take it personally when any criticism of the government’s conduct is expressed. Therefore, any form of future uprising against the policies of the royal family will be tackled mercilessly. Whoever may become the head of government of the democratic Bhutan; the monarchy will still hold the remote control of state affairs and may create the same sort of chaos, which will have to be tackled by the new government in question. 88

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 If the government fails, the democracy tumbles back into the hands of the monarchy. Therefore it is opined that Bhutan’s monarch may pose a danger for the future peace and tranquility of the Bhutanese people, particularly the ethnic minorities. The world communities must look closely to counter such passive terrorism. 20 In the way in which the refugee crises came to an end there is a fear to reappear this issue in the future. In this paragraph it is also told that there is also no guarantee that ethnic cleansing will not continue in the future because the Lhotshampa community doesn’t have religious and cultural sentiments for Hindus and minorities. So there is no guarantee of it. And may be in the future the Bhutanese have to face worse consequences. Hare is a reason of this worseness, there are two Kings in the Bhutan one is retired father and the second his son. And if the people criticize the king and his policies then the retired king he will as being a good father not tolerate the offences committed against his son or daughter. And the policies made by the people against the royal family will also tackle mercilessly. The new head of government of the democratic Bhutan is still under the monarchy and he has to take initiative if the chaos is prevailing there as in the time of monarchy prevailing. If he will not take initiative then there will be no peace and tranquility for the Bhutanese people. By reading this paragraph we can not be sure that there will not be ethnic cleansing in the Bhutan. Mean to say there is a risky future for the people of democratic Bhutan. There is just a hope, no surety of peace in the future. Problems with the Lhotshampa population seem likely to continue into the 21st century. Unless the Bhutanese government finds an amicable solution to this problem, Lhotshampa militancy is likely to intensify. Similarly, the security issue of the presence of Assam independence insurgencies on Bhutanese territory needs to be addressed in order to avoid embittering relations with militarily powerful India. This point is all the more important due to the ongoing flow of free trade with India. Bhutan is highly dependent upon developments within India's economy. 21

Future of Terrorism in Sri Lanka
With the death of S. P. Thamilchelvan, the head of the political wing of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), under mysterious circumstances on November 2, 2007, the Sri Lankan Tamil cause faces an uncertain future.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 Thamilselvan, the presumed No.3 in the pecking order of the LTTE leadership after Prabakaran and Pottu Amman, the chief of the intelligence wing of the LTTE, was the only leader not involved in any major act of terrorism either in Sri Lankan or Indian Territory. The direct involvement of Prabakaran and Pottu Amman in many acts of terrorism in Indian territory, including in the brutal assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, the former Prime Minister, in May 1991, would rule out for ever the Government of India having anything to do with the LTTE so long as the perpetrators of Rajiv's assassination continue to head the organization and seek to control the destiny of the Sri Lankan Tamils. P. Nadesan, a former Sri Lankan Police officer, whom Prabakaran has nominated as the successor to Thamilchelvan, is not a leader of any caliber. He is essentially a stooge of Prabakaran, who has not given any evidence so far of having an independent mind of his own. As demonstrated by the LTTE's spectacular raid on the Anuradhapura air base of the Sri Lankan Air Force (SLAF) on October 22, 2007, the LTTE's morale, motivation and capacity for resilience are still strong despite the set-backs suffered by it in the Eastern Province and the damage, which the Sri Lankan authorities claim to have inflicted on its Navy and commercial ships, which were being used for gun-running. Morale, motivation and resilience can keep the LTTE fighting for years, but they alone would not be sufficient for making the Tamil cause prevail. The Tamil cause cannot prevail without a plurality of political leadership in the LTTE, with a vision of what is achievable and what is not. Prabakaran is an extremely jealous political leader, who has not allowed alternate political leaders of any stature to emerge either in the LTTE itself or in the Sri Lankan Tamil community. Thamilchelvan, who might have been able to take over the leadership and keep the LTTE fighting, is gone. Pottu Amman may be a brilliant and dreaded intelligence chief, who knew how to kill with precision, but he has given no evidence of any political standing, which would enable him to rally round the Tamils after the death of Prabakaran. There have been unconfirmed reports that the dynasty bug has bitten the LTTE too and that Prabakaran is trying to groom his son, who grew up in the West, as his successor. Even he won't be able to mobilize the Tamils. Thus, if the Sri Lankan Air Force (SLAF) succeeds in its projected aim of decapitating the LTTE by killing Prabakaran either through its own efforts or with the help of Pakistani and Ukrainian pilots that could mark the beginning of the withering 90

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 away of the LTTE as a terrorist organization. That has been the fate of all terrorist organizations over-dominated by a single person. That was the fate of the organization headed by Carlos. After his arrest by the French intelligence in August, 1994, it has withered away. That was also the fate of other ideological organizations such as the Baader-Meinhof and the Red Army faction of Germany. One can also cite many other instances of what happens to an insurgent or terrorist organization when its leader does not tolerate the emergence of other leaders. The SLAF has valid reasons to target Prabakaran. He has killed more political leaders Sinhalese as well as Tamils than the leader of any other terrorist organization in the world. He has been responsible for innumerable deaths of innocent civilians. If the Sri Lankan authorities conclude that he has to be eliminated in order to stop the bloodshed, nobody can question their right to undertake a decapitation strike. A successful decapitation strike may not mean the immediate end of the bloodbath. In fact, more blood will be shed by the angry and frustrated followers of Prabakaran in the short term, which may last about two years or so. Thereafter, the inevitable process of withering-away will set in and the LTTE will cease to exist as a terrorist organization in the medium and long term. It is in the interest of not only Sri Lanka, but also India and the rest of the international community that the LTTE ceases to exist as a terrorist organization. The Sinhalese majority in Sri Lanka would also want to put an end to the LTTE as a political organization so that there is no well-motivated organization which defends the aspirations of the Tamils. If the Sri Lankan authorities succeed in putting an end to the LTTE as a political organization too, Sri Lanka will be back to the pre 1983 years when a highly chauvinistic Sinhalese majority rode rough-shod over the rights of the Tamils make no mistake about it. President Mahinda Rajapakse and other Sinhalese leaders are no lovers of Tamils. They may smile and smile, but they would like nothing better than to crush the LTTE even as a political organization so that the Tamils could be ultimately reduced to the status of the Red Indians of the US. India has a moral responsibility to see that while terrorism ends in Sri Lanka, the Sinhalese majority is not able to take the country back to the pre-1983 days. A reversion to the status quo ante can be prevented by preserving the assets of the LTTE as a political organization, which is able to articulate and fight politically for the interests of the Tamils without degenerating once again into a terrorist organization shunned by the international community. The elimination of Thamilchelvan reduces 91

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 India's options in working for such a political organization, but this should not discourage India from interacting closely with different sections of the Tamil community in Sri Lanka and abroad in order to see that the Sri Lankan authorities do not succeed in extinguishing the Tamil political struggle for their legitimate rights. President Rajapakse is no different from Prabakaran in certain matters. Both live in their own self-created world of illusions. Prabakaran thinks he can still achieve an independent Tamil Eelam despite the attrition of capability and international support. Rajapakse thinks that he can crush the LTTE militarily and impose a dictated peace on the Tamils. So long as Prabakaran is alive, the LTTE will keep fighting like a ferocious animal. It might have lost territory in the Eastern Province, but territorial control is never an important factor for an insurgent or terrorist organization. We saw in Afghanistan that the loss of territorial control did not mean the end of the Taliban. It has staged a spectacular come-back. Morale and motivation are more important than territorial control. Both remain intact and as strong as ever as one saw at Anuradhapura. If Mr. Rajapakse is an intelligent political leader with a vision and with a recognition of his responsibility to look after the interests of all Sri Lankans whether Sinhalese or Tamil he would have accelerated the search for a mutually acceptable political solution, even while maintaining his counter terrorism operations. He has abandoned the search for a political solution, thinking that a military victory is not far away. Caught between the illusions of two political leaders, the prospects for a negotiated political solution have further receded. It is not only the Tamil community, but even Sri Lanka as a whole, which faces an uncertain future. The calculated in activism of the Government of India is contributing to a drift, which could prove detrimental to India's interests. Public opinion in Tamil Nadu should be more active in persuading the Government of India to see that under the pretext of ending the terrorism of the LTTE, the Sinhalese majority does not once again crush the legitimate Tamil political aspirations. 22 Till 1983, Sinhalese used to crush down the rights of Tamils like red Indians of US and then, Tamils emerged as insurgent and terrorist organization. Here even we see the injustice in provisions of basic rights in the society cause a birth of organization. Unlike Al-Qaeda, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) is infect is fighting for a homeland. LTTE does not own leader like Osama Bin laden, after the death of S. P. Thamilchelvan. The organization is itself passing through some crises. It is not worthy 92

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 that all of the activities and the movements of an organization can be brought to an end merely by eliminating its devoted leader. This is the major key stroke that Sri Lankan authorities can utilize to end up the terrorist organization (LTTE). The current leader Prabakaran is cares much for its dynasty than the whole LTTE. Future of a prosperous Sri Lanka lies in the fact of its government succeed in finishing the LTTE as a terrorist organization but not as a political organization avoiding the situation of 1983, as alone Sinhalese can not tackle the whole business. India should play its role by not using and supporting the opponents of LTTE for its own political purpose. Since May 2009 to this very hour Sri Lanka has been at the receiving end of a horrendous onslaught very much on par with terrorism itself that Sri Lanka conquered in May 2009. This secondary attack comes in the form of slander, innuendos and outright threats on Sri Lanka launched by a team consisting of the US, UK, EU and a surreptitious fifth column consisting of NGOs, INGOs funded by the said three world powers. Unsubstantiated charges ranging from shelling of Tamil civilians, using cluster munitions on civilians, denying basic needs to IDPs, running concentration camps for Tamils to kidnapping and killing of media personnel have been leveled against Sri Lanka by these very forces with such frequency and such fervor that Sri Lanka is on the back foot, dwelling in the past and on the defensive. Sri Lanka has had to spend an extremely draining quantum of resources in responding to wild allegations, on pandering to the forced visitations and on responding to ‘war crimes’ video games concocted by Tamil Diaspora since May 09; and Sri Lanka has had its futuristic focus completely diverted to reliving, second guessing and justifying the past. Sri Lanka has been looking back over its shoulder, apologizing for exercising its will to defeat terror and generally faltering backwards since this attack began in earnest during the final weeks leading to the complete annihilation of Prabhakaran led LTTE. In this backdrop it is nothing short of utter hypocrisy that the US State Department has suddenly lectured Sri Lanka to focus on the future. 23 Eelam through war is an impossible goal. Federalism through negotiations seems extremely unlikely given Sinhalese intransigence and a seeming self-perceived God given right to rule over Tamils. And the third choice is to be assimilated a horrible choice for any Tamil who values and wants his cultural rights and wishes to live peacefully in Sri Lanka as a Tamil.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 In my mind it is clear that all peace loving Sri Lankans ought to work for the second best, the negotiated federal settlement. In the current set up, as remarked earlier, it is not going to come of its own. The government by bombing us to save us has lost its right to rule us. So also the LTTE for robbing us of all freedoms while claiming to fight for our freedoms. Our activities must therefore be directed towards peace through federalism through third parties with power. Speaking for myself, the only way in which I see that happening, is through foreign mediation. The international community must force a settlement upon the Sri Lankan government. I see three things as necessary for that to happen and without these there will be a serious impediment to any foreign mediation. First, we Tamils need to renounce our violent and undemocratic ways of the past and present, and demonstrate that when we talk of freedom, we really mean it and would give our fellow Tamil citizens the freedom to make choices, including choosing our representatives. We need to renounce terrorism and assassinations. When Tamil leaders refuse to give freedom to Tamils, what indeed is the basis for asking for freedom for ourselves within the Sri Lankan polity? The second thing that ought to happen concerns India. As long as a Tamil government (whether federal or separate) means an LTTE government, there is no way in which India will countenance it. And without India's blessings, no other member of the international community would want to become a player in Sri Lankan affairs. For India is far more important to the West than the Sinhalese or the Tamils or the Muslims of Sri Lanka. Our leaders like Mr. R. Sambanthan, Mr. Mavai Senathirajah and Mr. S. Sivajilingam, all three good men who at one time demonstrated stern hearts and a strong love for their people, are today unable to speak of one half of the atrocities that we Tamil people face. It is because they live in fear. I am however aware that they make their views known as best as they can in the Vanni. They will need to lead again if we are ever to overcome this problem of Indian refusal to deal with us when we are represented by the LTTE. As the only leaders with the ability to have a conversation with the LTTE, they have much to offer in gently displacing the LTTE or persuading them to reconcile with India. I hope that when the need arises they will act with the courage they are capable of. If India can be brought around through Tamils eating humble pie and turning a new leaf, India can be a force for the good of the Sinhalese and the Tamils. India can guarantee a settlement. A guarantor with strength and the willingness to use that 94

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 strength is a must. In the days of our gentlemen leaders like SJV Chelvanayagam, the Sinhalese cheated many times the BC Pact, the DC Bill, etc. But today, we Tamils also cheat recall that according to the Scandinavian monitors of the 2002 cease-fire, it is the Tamil side that cheated most. Things are not as one-sided as we Tamils make out. Recall that in 2000 Chandrika presented a settlement which was an important step towards federalism. With support from Tamils there was a good chance of pushing it through. Although privately TULF politicians from Joseph Pararajasingam to R. Sambanthan wanted it to go through they did not dare to support it because of the LTTE threat. Mr. Neelan Tiruchelvam and Mr. A. Thangathurai who worked for it were murdered. Recall also that we almost had federalism under the Oslo Accord and then the LTTE stopped talking. Three years ago the government was prepared to bend over backwards to accommodate the LTTE despite growing Sinhalese fears, but the LTTE was not interested in getting anything for the people, and only in preparing for war. Even as the LTTE was attending peace talks, I am personally aware that they were publicly promising the final war in public speeches in Jaffna. So even the Sinhalese can justly say that the Tamil side sabotages peace and cheats. We Tamils, with a self-serving mind-set, believe that we are always right and the Sinhalese are always wrong. The fact is that we both have sabotaged peace. So a strong guarantor is a must to make any agreement stick. Other countries of the international community such as Canada, the EU and Japan, can play a role in overcoming Sinhalese fears over India siding with the Tamils. India, with a natural interest in the security of the region, can invest troops in a realistic way to guarantee peace and deter anyone who dares cheat. And Indian trade along with deals with other members of the international community can develop all the federal states in a negotiated set-up with the associated trade benefits to India too. And the third thing that ought to happen for international mediation is that the expatriate Tamil role must be based on what is good for the Tamils in Sri Lanka and not based on expatriate ego trips that make us living abroad feel-good as little Kattai Pommans. In the past expatriate Tamil meddling has been confined to funding, to angry speeches about the Sinhalese, and to vilifying through slander in their websites those Tamils in Sri Lanka who offer any alternative leadership. But just this July 24, a major departure was when Tamils joined Burmese dissidents and demonstrated against Sri Lanka and China in commemoration of the 1983 riots. Naturally the leaders of the Ilankai Tamil Sangam, cautious of the recent arrests of Tamils for 95

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 promoting terrorism, carefully kept out of it. These people who commit our brethren in Sri Lanka to war and death, will not even put out their own names in public! They were fronted by an organization called PEARL by their children. PEARL stands for "People for Equality and Relief in Lanka". These children are often uncomfortable with children brought up in Sri Lanka. Do they have empathy? Do they really recognize the powers they are dealing with and the calamities that can be visited on our people by angering China? Demonstrating against Sri Lanka is one thing but China? Enough damage has already been done by angering India over the Rajiv Gandhi matter. We do not need more enemies. I put it to you that their demonstration did not benefit our brethren in Sri Lanka one iota. It might, however, have helped to build up some résumés for those at PEARL. The test for anything we do here must be this: Does it help our people at home? Speaking strictly for myself, I find being in an Indian orbit preferable to annihilation during an unwinnable war or assimilation following inevitable defeat. After all, India's is a stable democracy with genuine elections with no rigging in the form of preventing people from voting and stuffing ballot boxes. Hers is an independent judiciary where the Chief Justice does not serve at the pleasure of the President to stave off impeachment. Her civil service is professional and independent. So even if a crazy fellow wants to do something bad to us when we are under Indian rule, it would be well nigh impossible. I think even the Sinhalese would be better off under India than under Sri Lanka's terribly flawed democracy. However, there have been some troubling signs of Indian capital moving in to exploit the deprivation of Tamil rights. The people of Sampoor were shelled out by the government which declared it a "High Security Zone" and India is now building a coal power station there. It is good for us to have healthier ties with India on equitable terms but not on terms where Indian capital would act with less restraint than at home and our people are even more at the receiving end. To address this we need a new Tamil leadership with credibility through even handedness that can influence India positively. We need leaders India can talk to. After this history no one is ready to listen to us Tamils and we as Tamils are not sure what we want. Adding to the tragedy, the expatriate Tamils had an important voice. Those who were clear that the LTTE cannot work for a solution were silenced. Through the 1990sTamil lobbies were backed by LTTE supporters and persons of no little influence like C.J. Eliezer and a host of university academics, doctors and 96

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 leading professionals. These people were blindly one-sided and did not want to see that good politics, successful politics, needs the accommodation of the needs and fears of the Sinhalese and Muslims. Instead they gave excuses for anything we did including the massacres and expulsion of Muslims. In time influential foreigners started seeing us as liars, terrorists or the political equivalent of a mad religious sect. Now their influence our influence as Tamils is negative as seen by many of these people having fallen silent. How then do we reassert ourselves to invite foreign intervention without the negative effects of free capital? Was not all this enthusiasm a great waste? We could have achieved much more if we had built up a credible Tamil voice that could challenge the government and restrain the excesses of the LTTE. Now as the LTTE seems weak, the voices critical of the LTTE are louder. Unfortunately many of them through their bitter experience want the LTTE finished off and are not concerned about what happens to the people. We can never tolerate civilians being bombed and shelled indiscriminately and confined to abject conditions in refugee camps with no schooling for the children. No government would have dared to do this to the Sinhalese. Nor could we tolerate the LTTE using the people held as prisoners under it to forcibly fight the brunt of its war or the government indulging in systematic targeted killings. What the Tamil expatriates need now is to build up a credible voice. Is it too much to ask people to think back on the mistakes made all these years? Not only are those supporting the LTTE guilty of sectarianism, but so also those who rightly saw where the LTTE was taking the people and yet remained silent. We have unwanted divisions, which is understandable. But do we also need scurrilous guerrilla attacks on our web sites? If we are to do any good to the people at home, we need to start acting responsibly. 24

Future of Terrorism in Maldives
India will help the Republic of Maldives build a maritime surveillance system, among other defense cooperative measures agreed to during the Aug. 20-22 visit of India Defense Minister A.K. Antony to the Indian Ocean island nation. The system's radars will be linked to the Indian Navy and Coastal Guard headquarters, a senior Indian Navy official said.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 India is also likely to give Maldives two Coast Guard helicopters in coming months, the Navy official said. Indian Defense Ministry sources said Maldives is emerging as an important logistics and intelligence base for India. Antony and his delegation met with Maldives President Mohammed Nasheed and Defense Minister Ameen Faisal, who told reporters Aug. 21 that the security concerns of both countries are intertwined. Analysts said the move was part of India's efforts to counter growing Chinese influence in the region. "If China is building a port in Hambantota, India outflanks the same by a strong presence in Male and so on. What could even be termed as a great game in the Indian Ocean will be seen in the years ahead," said defense analyst Rahul Bhonsle, a retired Army brigadier. But Zach Mathews, a retired Indian Navy commodore, said India is more worried about countering Pakistan's influence on the island chain, which is 400 nautical miles from the Indian coast. "Maldives is a Muslim country, and having an independent nation close to the Indian subcontinent and under control of forces inimical to India would be a disaster," Mathews said. In 1988, India sent forces to Maldives at the request of President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom during a coup attempt. When the Indian troops arrived in Maldives by air, the terrorists and rebels escaped from Male but were overpowered by Indian Navy warships. Maldives has an India-First policy, says Vijay Sakhuja, a director at the Indian Council of World Affairs here. "Maldives has emphatically denied that there are Chinese naval facilities on any of its island territories and assured that it has no plans in the future. Instead, it seeks an exclusive security arrangement with India and does not wish to approach regional and extraregional powers for such agreements," said Sakhuja. Analysts said Maldives needs help securing its littorals from piracy, terrorism, contraband trade, drug smuggling and human smuggling by local and foreign actors.25 The Attorney General was asked if in the ‘New Maldives’ throwing a stone would still be considered a terrorist offense referring to the case of activist Jennifer Latheef, recently jailed for 10 jail for ‘terrorism’ following the September 2003 unrest.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 “Throwing a stone will never be an act of terrorism in Maldives,” replied the A-G. “Jennifer Latheef was not charged for terrorism simply for throwing a stone (she was charged) for setting fire to and destroying the Elections Commission, police vehicles, hospitals and injuring police.” Jenny was not being targeted because of the political work of her father, he said. The A-G was asked to explain why setting fire to buildings was terrorism in the Maldives but mob violence in most other countries. “In future, will political dissent equate to terrorism?” he was asked. The A-G stood firm, however, accusing Jenny of “masterminding” the civil unrest. Ministers were challenged over the trial of the opposition leader, Mohamed Nasheed, who is also charged with terrorism. “How do you expect to be taken seriously when a number of MDP members, including the leader, remain in jail?” a journalist with a wire network asked. 26 Not only do we need to find the perpetrators of this crime, but we also need to send a clear message to all and everyone involved that terrorism in all its form and manifestation is totally unacceptable. Whether it is state-sponsored terrorism or whether it is terrorism by fringe groups, it has no place in our society. Sadly we have seen the growth of violence, extremism and xenophobia in the Maldives lately. We have seen verbal and physical abuse of expatriates. We have seen our own people being attacked by violent gangs. The strike on the tourists visiting the Sultan Park seems to be the next sordid chapter in this tragic disintegration of the very fabric of our society. But what those who carried out this criminal act failed to realize is that tourism is the mainstay of Maldives and attacking tourists for whatever reasons or grudges they may have against foreigners, is like cutting our noses to spite our faces. It was in September last year that the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy was adopted by its Member States. For the first time all member states have agreed to a common strategic approach to fight terrorism. We hope that the international community would uphold their commitment to this strategy and assist us in combating ALL activities that are targeted to terrorize both the tourists who visit our country and the natives of Maldives. We hope that those who carried out this criminal act would soon be brought to justice. We pray that no foreigner or local have to suffer terrorist activities in future. 27 An examination of the causes and effects of terrorism and the complicated issues surrounding homeland security, this thought provoking anthology covers surveillance 99

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 issues, female terrorist activity, and secret societies as well as Law enforcement and the perceived terrorism-Muslim connection. Additional topics include the future of terrorism, perceptions and meanings of homeland security, border security, propaganda, the internet, funding of terrorism, and intelligence gathering. 28 Maldives may be a battleground in the future, but not because of direct threat from Sri Lanka. The battle will come because other countries have a vested interest in the region. As a major regional player, India will spread its wings to counter the influence of countries like the Chinese on the neighboring countries of Nepal, Bhutan, Burma and Pakistan, as well as the sensitive Kashmir region. India is more concerned about the south because it is the only way for India to keep the Indian Ocean under its direct control brining with it billions of dollars worth of investments to India. This body of water truly connects people around the world. 29

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REFERENCES
1. Rao Bo, News Analysis: New U.S.Pakistan Partnership Hinges on AntiTerrorism, 02 November 09, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/200902/11/content_10801207.htm, accessed on 17/10/09, time 10:25 AM. 2. B. Raman, The Lal Masjid Stand-Off In Islamabad & Musharraf’s Future International Terrorism Monitor, http://www.saag.org/common/uploaded_files/paper2292.html, accessed on 16/10/09, time 12:35 PM. 3. John L. Petersen, The Future of Terrorism, http://archive.arlingtoninstitute.org/library/The%20Future%20of %20Terrorism.doc, accessed on 17/10/09, time 10:34 AM. 4. Trisha, Does India Really Have a Good Future or Day By Day It Will Go Deeper and Deeper?, Posted in Agony Aunt, 27 March 2008, http://sawaal.ibibo.com/news-and-current-affairs/future-of-terrorism-in-india75052.html, accessed on 10/14/2009, time 17:34. 5. S. Rai Chowdhui, Future of terrorism, Tuesday, 07 May 2002, http://www.hinduonnet.com/op/2002/05/07/stories/2002050700130200.htm, accessed on 10/14/2009, time 17:38. 6. Meeta, Is the Government in Denial About Terrorism in India?, News & Current Affairs, 28 August 2007, http://sawaal.ibibo.com/news-and-currentaffairs/future-of-terrorism-in-india-75052.html, accessed on 10/14/2009, time 17:34. 7. Shree, How Can We Fight Against Terrorism?, Food & Drink, 15 August 2007, http://sawaal.ibibo.com/news-and-current-affairs/future-of-terrorism-inindia-75052.html, accessed on 10/14/2009, time 17:34 8. B. Raman, Mumbai: Lessons For The Future -International Terrorism Monitor, 29 November 2008, http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/papers30/paper2947.html, accessed on 10/14/2009, time 22:12. 9. J. Alexander Thier, The Future of Afghanistan, January 2009, http://www.usip.org/peaceops/afghanistan/book.html, accessed on 10/15/2009, time 10:59 AM.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 10. Steelfish, Barack Obama 'Sees Role For Taliban In Afghanistan's Future' [More Troops "Increasingly Unlikely" ], 08 October 2009, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/2358162/posts, accessed on 10/17/2009, 14:58. 11. Bush: Afghanistan Is a Victory Over Terrorism Hamid Karzai thanks U.S. for Aiding His Country, Tuesday, 15 June 2004, http://www.cnn.com/2004/US/06/15/karzai/index.html, accessed on 10/17/2009, time 23:21. 12. Remarks of Senator Obama: The War We Need to Win, 01 August 2007, http://www.barackobama.com/2007/08/01/the_war_we_need_to_win.php, accessed on 10/05/2009, time 16:32. 1. Animesh Roul, Islam-o-Muslim and the Resilience of Terrorism in Bangladesh, Publication: Terrorism Monitor, 27 July 2009, http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news %5D=35326, accessed on 10/14/2009, time 22:52. 2. Ryan Clarke, The Blind Spot of Counter-Terrorism: Bangladesh, www.bipss.org.bd/Terrorism%20in%20Bangladesh%20-%20Ryan%20Clarke, accessed on 10/14/2009, time 22:54. 3. R. Upadhyay, Islamic Terrorism in Bangladesh – A Threat to Regional Peace, 05 October 2007, http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/ %5Cpapers23%5Cpaper2242.html, accessed on 10/14/2009, time 22:57. 4. Maj. Gen. Dipankar Banerjee, Nepal: Current Situation and Future Challenges, 13 April 2004, http://www.ipcs.org/seminar_details.php? recNo=599&cID=29, accessed on 10/15/2009, time 9:29 AM. 5. David G. Wiencek, China Views The War On Terorism In Nepal, 31 December 1969, http://www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/? tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=3818&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid %5D=192&no_cache=1, accessed on 10/15/2009, time 9:34 AM. 6. P. Kharel, Terrorism is Terrorism By Any Name: Nepal's King Gyanedra at SAARC Summit, 12 November 2005, http://newsblaze.com/story/20051112072738nnnn.nb/topstory.html, accessed on 10/18/2009, time 9:38 AM. 7. Jakedai, US Resettlement Plans Give Hope to Bhutanese Refugees, 27 April 2007, 102

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 http://www.nowpublic.com/us_resettlement_plans_give_hope_to_bhutanese_r efugees, accessed on 10/15/2009, time 22:46. 8. Nanda Gautam, Bhutan's Way of Ethnic Cleansing, Wednesday 23 July 2008, http://www.expontomagazine.com/index.php? option=com_content&view=article&id=244:bhutans-way-of-ethniccleansing&catid=37:artikelen&Itemid=61, accessed on 10/15/2009 time 22:35. 9. Bhutan - Future trends, http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asiaand-the-Pacific/Bhutan-Future-Trends.html, accessed on 10/18/2009, time 12:42. 10. B. Raman, Sri Lankan Tamil Cause: An Uncertain Future - International Terrorism Monitor, 13 November 2007, http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/ %5Cpapers25%5Cpaper2456.html, accessed on 10/14/2009, time 23:01. 11. Ramanie de Zoysa, “Sri Lanka Must Focus to the Future and Move Forward”State Department Are You Quite Sure, Ms Verveer!?, October 6 2009, http://www.lankaweb.com/news/items/2009/10/06/%E2%80%9Csri-lankamust-focus-to-the-future-and-move-forward%E2%80%9D-state-departmentare-you-quite-sure-ms-verveer/, accessed on 10/17/2009, time 19:48. 12. Prof. Ratnajeevan Hoole, What is the Future of Sri Lanka?, http://transcurrents.com/tc/2008/08/post_28.html, accessed on 10/17/2009, time 21:17. 13. vivek Raghuvanshi, India To Install Radars in Maldives, 21 August 2009, http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?i=4245842, accessed on 10/18/2009, time14:57. 14. Minivan News, Reform Ministers’ Present ‘New Maldives’ to a Skeptical International Community, 16 December 2005, http://www.minivannews.com/news_detail.php?id=1572, accessed on 10/18/2009, time 14:49. 15. Dhivehi Observer, We Shall Not Succumb to Terrorism, 30 September 2007, http://www.dhivehiobserver.com/editorial/No_Terrorism_300907.html, accessed on 10/12/2009, time 16:45. 16. Dale L. June, Terrorism and Homeland Security: Perspectives, Thoughts, and Opinions,

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 http://208.254.79.11/product/isbn/9781420093063;jsessionid=welgGdPGeKA WnnRNh2BlhQ**, accessed on 10/12/2009, time 16:50. 17. Satheesan Kumaaran, Maldives and Geo-Politics of India and Sri Lanka, Sunday, 30 August 2009, http://www.srilankaguardian.org/2009/08/maldivesand-geo-politics-of-india-and.html, accessed on 10/12/2009, time 16:55.

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CONCLUSION
In this chapter of the thesis we will make a conclusion of the thesis. In the South Asia an organization was made the idea of the South Asian regional cooperation was given by the late president Zia-ur-Rehman of Bangladesh in 1982. He was keen to hold a summit meeting of the seven South Asian countries in order to deliberate on establishing an appropriate machinery to promote co-operation among the countries of the region. The organization has some objectives, • • • • • • • • To promote the welfare of the people of South-Asia and to improve their To accelerate economic growth. To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in the economic, To promote and strengthen collective self reliance among the countries of To contribute to mutual trust, understanding and appreciation of one To strengthen cooperation among themselves in international forums and To strengthen cooperation with other developing countries. To cooperate with international and regional organizations. quality of life.

social, cultural, technical and scientific fields. South Asia. another's problems. with other developing countries.

Then we use the term Terrorism which is the global issue it means, “Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion” In the past terrorism was there in many forms. Between the end of Second World War and the 20th century total 120 armed conflicts occurred. In 20th century a person was killed in every 21 second for 100 years from terrorist related activities. By the end of the 20th century, the world had witnessed several new and horrifying forms of terrorism, some even by the State, such as genocides, collectivization, purges, crimes against humanity and mass casualty incidents. There is the global problem of Terrorism which is prevailing in many countries of the world but this problem is much active in the South Asian countries that are also the member countries of SAARC.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 In the past terrorism was there in many forms. Between the end of Second World War and the 20th century total 120 armed conflicts occurred. In 20th century a person was killed in every 21 second for 100 years from terrorist related activities. By the end of the 20th century, the world had witnessed several new and horrifying forms of terrorism, some even by the State, such as genocides, collectivization, purges, crimes against humanity and mass casualty incidents. Today, the terrorist is largely perceived as an unknown, obscure and shadowy murderer, sometimes a religious fanatic, who sets off bombs causing loss of life and great destruction in civilian population centers. It is very sad that Islam is being exploited to legitimize terrorist actions by different organizations, religious and spiritual leaders. They try to legalize these in the name of jihad. The origin of all these types of terrorism is mainly unstable Middle East region. Terrorist may belong to any religion though all the religion is against it. Currently Muslim fundamentalism has got wide publicity in the western media. Although Terrorism is not a new phenomenon; the term terrorism has neither a precise definition, nor one that is widely accepted. What is terrorism? The common understanding of this term is too vague, too broad, and too simplistic. For a long time, terrorism had remained categorized into two main variations: traditional, which is now identified as state terrorism, and revolutionary, which developed in protest against political and social injustice, and operated as a supplement to insurgency and rebellion in efforts to win freedom and bring about political and social change or as a response to state terrorism. In current academic discourse, terrorism is widely characterized as the ‘weapon of the weak’, as ‘violence for effect’ or as ‘violence for political purposes’. Richard M. Pearlstein argues, “Heated debates over how to define terrorism are a staple at any conference on terrorism. Even various agencies within the same government are unable to agree on a common definition of terrorism.” Precisely, despite the understanding of various types of terrorism, a consensus on the definition of terrorism remains absent. One researcher, in a review of writings on terrorism, found 109 discrete definitions. In facts, terrorism has changed its character and meaning in time and space. What was true for one terrorist group in a certain place at a certain time does not necessarily apply to another such group in another country, at another time, espousing another political position or tradition. As a result, a consensus on a definition of terrorism has been elusive. The conceptual problem posed over the years is best reflected in the famous statement: “one man’s. 106

Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 Middle East problem came up and still it is continuing between Israel and other Arab nations. As a result whole Middle East is in a state of unrest and the other parts of the world are getting the heat of that. After the end of cold war new types of ruthless terrorism emerged which is characterized by religious, political, ethnic and social intolerance. General people normally come to know about the terrorist act through media after the incident. In today’s world some Islamic terrorist group or coalition are considered as most dangerous. These groups distort Islam to justify their actions. Their objective is to change the existing world order and establishment of Islamic state in the world by terrorizing the world. The organization has taken some initiatives to eliminate this problem in the whole world but especially in this part of the world in South Asia. SAARC is very active organization. It has taken some initiatives to stop this curse .Policies against Terrorism SAARC summits have regularly brought out agreed statements, policies and recommendations on countering terrorism in the region. A summary of such statements is appended as annexure A to this paper. The SAARC regional convention on suppression of terrorism was signed on 4 November 1987 in Katmandu; an additional protocol to which was signed on 6 January 2004 in Islamabad. Despite these initiatives however, terrorism continues to be the biggest scourge that afflicts development in South Asia. An effective, common framework of action is fundamental to the process of countering terrorism. The paper will be a set of policy recommendations that the SAARC should adopt in order to effectively address this problem. • The additional protocol to the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation's Regional Convention on Suppression of Terrorism has come into force with all the seven countries of the grouping ratifying it to wage a joint war’ against the scourge of terrorism. •
:

With the aim of having zero tolerance to terrorism in all forms and

manifestations, SAARC foreign ministers felt that the additional protocol would help the member countries to meet the challenge of terrorism. • "The additional protocol has now been ratified by all member countries. Saran This a very welcome development," Indian Foreign Secretary Shyam

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 told reporters as the foreign ministers began their one-day misting the 13th SAARC summit. • In addition to facilitating exchange of information on the activities of terrorist elements and the funding process, the protocol would now cover specific measures which would enable SAARC countries to "work together on the legal side as well", Saran said. • The additional protocol, which enables member countries to take measures to prevent and suppress financing of terrorist activities, was adopted at the Islamabad summit in January 2004. • The protocol was comprehensive in nature as it had come post-9/11, Mr. Saran said. "A clear message must go out from the SAARC summit that there is zero tolerance for terrorism in any form or manifestation," he said. • Especially in the 15th SAARC summit the SAARC decided to fight against ahead of

terrorism to eliminate this global problem. Fighting terrorism will be topping the agenda at the 15th SAARC summit in Colombo later this week. The two day meeting will bring together leaders of eight countries from a region that is increasingly looking at democracy as the answer to its many problems. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh will travel to Sri Lanka on Friday, to attend the summit. Terrorism is expected to be high on the agenda in this meeting, considering the ‘vulnerability’ of the region to the scourge. Citing the Kabul embassy attack, official spokesman of the ministry of external affairs (MEA) Navtej Sarna said the incident “underlines how vulnerable South Asia is to the scourge of terrorism.” Briefing reporters on the Prime Minister’s visit emphasized the need for a “collective action” among SAARC countries to tackle the menace. He referred to the proposed agreement for SAARC Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters and said it would be effective in dealing with crimes in the region. The SAARC meet will discuss ways to deal with the scourge of terrorism, which has been affecting the eight member countries, particularly India, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. Besides these, SAARC also comprises Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives and Bhutan.

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Rao Adnan Sadiq (ShoManii’Z) +923454879224 On his arrival in Sri Lanka on Friday afternoon, Singh will meet President Mahinda Rajapaksa, and will also interact with some political leaders and groups of Indian origin from the country. At the two day summit which opens on August 2, India will hand over the baton to Sri Lanka. Among the others attending the meet will be President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom of the Maldives, Nepal’s caretaker prime minister GP Koirala, Bangladesh chief advisor Fakhruddin Ahmed, Pakistan Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani and Bhutan Prime Minister Jigmi Thinley. Also attending the SAARC summit will be observers from China, South Korea, Japan, Iran, the US and the European Union. Two other countries Australia and Myanmar, have sought observer status. Foreign ministers of the SAARC countries will end their two days of deliberations in Colombo Friday, thrashing out much of the contentious issues so that they become easier for their leaders to take forward.

Recommendations
The government should work to deal with the major issue like Terrorism. • • • • • • • • To ensure the security and justice on the national to grass root level To promote rule of law Development at the community level By giving education By giving jobs Protecting basic rights of the people Providing the all necessities of life There must be equality.

if the governments provide these things to their nationals then there must be the very minimum chance of terrorism there in the society.

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27, 2007, http://www.nowpublic.com/us_resettlement_plans_give_hope_to_bhutanese_ref ugees, accessed on 10/15/2009, time 22:46. 26. Petersen, John L., The Future of Terrorism, http://archive.arlingtoninstitute.org/library/The%20Future%20of %20Terrorism.doc, accessed on 17/10/09, time 10:34 AM. 27. Banerjee, Maj. Gen. Dipankar, Nepal: Current Situation and Future Challenges, 13 April 2004, http://www.ipcs.org/seminar_details.php? recNo=599&cID=29, accessed on 10/15/2009, time 9:29 AM. 28. Fernando, Manisha, 'It’s Your World'-Terrorism in Sri Lanka and the International Community, 4/30/2009, http://www.defence.lk/new.asp? fname=20090430_04, accessed on 10/12/2009, time 12:19 PM. 29. Meeta, Is the Government In Denial About Terrorism in India?, News and Current Affairs, August 28, 2007, http://sawaal.ibibo.com/news-and-currentaffairs/future-of-terrorism-in-india-75052.html, accessed on 10/14/2009, time 17:34. 30. 31. Siddique-ul- Farooque Muhammed, Terrorism Against Bhutan, January Gautam, Nanda, Bhutan's Way of Ethnic Cleansing, 23 July 2008, 4, 2002, http://www.pmln.org.pk/apology.php, accessed on 13/10/09, time 18:38. http://www.expontomagazine.com/index.php? option=com_content&view=article&id=244:bhutans-way-of-ethniccleansing&catid=37:artikelen&Itemid=61, accessed on 10/15/2009, time 22:35. 32. Guwahati, Nitin Gogoi, In Bhutan Wakes Up to Bodo Terrorism, http://www.rediff.com/news/2000/dec/23assam1.htm, accessed on 13/10/09, time 18:43. 33. Kharel, P., Terrorism is Terrorism by Any Name: Nepal's King Gyanedra at SAARC Summit, November 12, 2005, http://newsblaze.com/story/20051112072738nnnn.nb/topstory.html, accessed on 10/18/2009, time 9:38 AM. 34. Upadhyay, R., Islamic Radicalisation of Maldives, 07-Mar.-2008, http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/%5Cpapers27%5Cpaper2610.html, accessed on 10/11/2009, time 22:48.

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