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# Chapter 3

## Block Diagram and Signal Flow

Graph
Chapter 3 – Outline

## 3.1 The Block Diagram

3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar forms
(+Example 1-5)
3.3 Signal Flow
3.4 Basic Signal Flow Graph (+Example1)
3.5 Terms for Mason’s Gain Formula
3.6 Mason’s Gain Formula
3.1 The Block Diagram

## Let X(s) be the (Laplace transform of the) input variable, Y(s)

be the output variable, and G(s) be the transfer function.

## One method of graphically denoting the relationship Y(s) =

X(s)U(s) is through a block diagram.

## The block represents a transfer function corresponding to a

system’s mathematical model and the arrows represent signals
(e.g. electrical voltage from a position sensor).
3.1 The Block Diagram (cont.)

## Many systems are composed of multiple subsystems.

When multiple subsystems are interconnected, a few more
schematic elements must be added to the block diagram.
These new elements are summing junctions and pickoff
points.

Signal System
3.1 The Block Diagram (cont.)

Summing Junction

Pickoff Point
3.1 The Block Diagram (cont.)
There are three basic common forms, by which the
subsystems are connected together. They are cascade form,
parallel form, and feedback form

KOLEJ UNIVERSITI KEJURUTERAAN & TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
UTEC
3.1 The Block Diagram (cont.)

Parallel form
3.1 The Block Diagram (cont.)

Feedback form
3.1 The Block Diagram (cont.)

## Substituting the above equation (1) into equation (2)

C(s) = E(s)G(s) -(2) , one has:-

## C(s) = R(s)G(s) −C(s)H(s)G(s) -(3)

3.1 The Block Diagram (cont.)

## This is the equivalent, or closed-loop transfer function of the

feedback system. So the system can be represented by using
the following block diagram.

## The product G(s)H(s), is called the open-loop transfer function,

which relates the error to the feedback.
3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar
forms (Example 1)

## ¾ Reduce each of the block diagrams shown in the following

figures to a single transfer function.0
3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar
forms (Example 2)
3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar
forms (Example 3)
3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar
forms (Example 3 - Solution)
3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar
forms (Example 4)
3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar
forms (Example 5)
3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar
forms (Example 5 - Solution)
3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar
forms (Example 5 - Solution)
3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar
forms (Example 5 - Solution)
3.3 Signal Flow

## • may be better for complex systems.

• good for highly interwoven systems.
• system variables represented as nodes.
• branches (lines) between nodes show relationships
between system variables.
• The “flow graph gain formula” (Mason) allows the
system transfer function to be directly computed without
manipulation or reduction of the diagram.
3.4 Basic Signal Flow Graph
3.4 Basic Signal Flow Graph (Example)
3.5 Terms for Mason’s Gain Formula

## • Path: A branch or sequence of branches that can be

traversed from one node to another.
• Loop: A closed path, along which no Loop: no node is
met twice, that originates and terminates in the
same node.
• Nontouching: Two loops are Nontouching: if they do
not share a common node.
• Gain: Refers, in this case, to the product of transfer
functions.
3.6 Mason’s Gain Formula

Where :

Δ = 1 – (the sum of all loop gains) + (the sum of gain products of all pairs of
nontouching loops) – (the sum of gain products of all combinations of three
nontouching loops) + (…….

## Pk = the gain of the kth forward path

Δk = Δ evaluated considering only loops that do not touch the kth forward
path

## ∑PkΔk = the summation of PkΔk for all paths from R1 to X

3.6 Mason’s Gain Formula (cont.)

## • Assume R(s) = 0, if it is desired to find the transfer function C(s)/D(s).

• There is only one forward path between D(s) and C(s), therefore k = 1.
• There are two loops. They are touching.
3.6 Mason’s Gain Formula (cont.)
3.6 Mason’s Gain Formula (cont.)