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Graph

Chapter 3 – Outline

3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar forms

(+Example 1-5)

3.3 Signal Flow

3.4 Basic Signal Flow Graph (+Example1)

3.5 Terms for Mason’s Gain Formula

3.6 Mason’s Gain Formula

3.1 The Block Diagram

be the output variable, and G(s) be the transfer function.

X(s)U(s) is through a block diagram.

system’s mathematical model and the arrows represent signals

(e.g. electrical voltage from a position sensor).

3.1 The Block Diagram (cont.)

When multiple subsystems are interconnected, a few more

schematic elements must be added to the block diagram.

These new elements are summing junctions and pickoff

points.

Signal System

3.1 The Block Diagram (cont.)

Summing Junction

Pickoff Point

3.1 The Block Diagram (cont.)

There are three basic common forms, by which the

subsystems are connected together. They are cascade form,

parallel form, and feedback form

Cascade form

KOLEJ UNIVERSITI KEJURUTERAAN & TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

UTEC

3.1 The Block Diagram (cont.)

Parallel form

3.1 The Block Diagram (cont.)

Feedback form

3.1 The Block Diagram (cont.)

C(s) = E(s)G(s) -(2) , one has:-

∴

3.1 The Block Diagram (cont.)

feedback system. So the system can be represented by using

the following block diagram.

which relates the error to the feedback.

3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar

forms (Example 1)

figures to a single transfer function.0

3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar

forms (Example 2)

3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar

forms (Example 3)

3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar

forms (Example 3 - Solution)

3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar

forms (Example 4)

3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar

forms (Example 5)

3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar

forms (Example 5 - Solution)

3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar

forms (Example 5 - Solution)

3.2 Block Diagram Reduction via familiar

forms (Example 5 - Solution)

3.3 Signal Flow

• good for highly interwoven systems.

• system variables represented as nodes.

• branches (lines) between nodes show relationships

between system variables.

• The “flow graph gain formula” (Mason) allows the

system transfer function to be directly computed without

manipulation or reduction of the diagram.

3.4 Basic Signal Flow Graph

3.4 Basic Signal Flow Graph (Example)

3.5 Terms for Mason’s Gain Formula

traversed from one node to another.

• Loop: A closed path, along which no Loop: no node is

met twice, that originates and terminates in the

same node.

• Nontouching: Two loops are Nontouching: if they do

not share a common node.

• Gain: Refers, in this case, to the product of transfer

functions.

3.6 Mason’s Gain Formula

Where :

Δ = 1 – (the sum of all loop gains) + (the sum of gain products of all pairs of

nontouching loops) – (the sum of gain products of all combinations of three

nontouching loops) + (…….

Δk = Δ evaluated considering only loops that do not touch the kth forward

path

3.6 Mason’s Gain Formula (cont.)

• There is only one forward path between D(s) and C(s), therefore k = 1.

• There are two loops. They are touching.

3.6 Mason’s Gain Formula (cont.)

3.6 Mason’s Gain Formula (cont.)

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