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M aya R e s e a rc h D e s e r t R e f uge?

M edical H istor y Chief tain’s Hall

Pas t Ho r i zo n s
Online journal
of volunteer
archaeology
and training

Adventures in Archaeology February 2010

Ro ck-Ar t of S outh Central California


© R ick Bur y 2010
Issue 11
February 2010

Editors:
Felicity Donohoe
Maggie Struckmeier

Layout:
Maggie Struckmeier

Graphics
David Connolly

Past Horizons
Traprain House
Luggate Burn
Haddington
East Lothian
EH41 4QA

Tel: +44 (0)1620 861643


Email: editor@pasthorizons.com
Web: www.pasthorizons.com

Contributors:
David Robinson 16 Painted Landscapes
Nick Bury
Nick Brooks The surreal pictographs of the Californian Chumas h h a v e b e e n
Joanne Clarke
recognised as among the most elaborate and exquisi t e e x a m p l e s
Kevin Goodman
Tim Preston of rock-art found anywhere in the United States. A t e a m o f
Annie Evans archaeologists led by David Robinson is carrying o u t a d e t a i l e d
Sergei Vavilov (images) examination of the art using the latest technologies.
Odd-Arild Bugge (images)
Chris Zielecki (images)
Front cover: Los Padres
pictog r a p h with bedrock
morta r s .
© Rick Bury 2010

Note
Past Horizons can give no endorsement
of any listed project or guarantee the
accuracy of the information supplied.
The editors accept no responsibility
for any loss, injury, or inconvenience
sustained by anyone using the resources
contained within this magazine and/or
the websites mentioned herein. When
considering a project, be sure to contact
the director with any questions you might
have about conditions, travel, health
issues, etc. Check for references from
previous participants, seek advice where
possible and select a project that will be
of the greatest benefit to you, the project
and the team.
24 A Refuge in the Desert?
All content is copyright and no
reproduction of text or images is
allowed without prior permission
Nick Brooks and Joanne Clarke have been exa m i n i n g h o w
from the author. prehistor ic populations responded and adapted to sev e r e c l i m a t i c
and environmental changes, specifically the desertifi c a t i o n o f t h e
Past Horizons 2010
Saharan region between about 6000 and 4500 years a g o .

past horizons 2
Contents
44 Medicine Man 36 Lords of the Sea
Re-enactor Kevin Goodman describes The Lofotr Museum is a replica of the largest chieftain’s long-house
the fascinating world of medical history ever found in Scandinavia. The excavation of the long-house revealed
and how research helps him bring much about life in late Iron-Age Northern Norway and showed that the
authenticity to his performance. inhabitants had travelled widely in order to trade.

8 Chum Balam-Nal
The Maya Research Program has been carrying out research at Blue Creek in Belize for many years now. Their main
focus of study centres on why an advanced society such as the Maya collapsed so dramatically. Their plans for the
2010 field season include the excavation of an elite area known as Chum Balam-Nal.

R e g u l a rs
5 Editorial 52 Focus On
The long-term approach. Archaeotek digs in Romania for 2010.

6 News 53 Viewpoint
News stories from around the world. David Connolly discusses illustration and
photography in archaeology.
48 Dig In
Volunteer digs and field schools for 2010. 54 Back Pages
Pseudo archaeology.
50 Dig Cook
Culinary escapades from Annie Evans.

3 past horizons
www.aerial-cam.co.uk

adam@aerial-cam.co.uk
past horizons 4
Th e Lo n g-Term A pproach ...

editorial
Welcome to the l a t e s t i s s u e o f P a s t H o r i z o n s w i t h i t s e x c i t i n g
selection of ar c h a e o l o g i c a l p r o j e c t s f r o m a r o u n d t h e g l o b e .
Immerse yours e l f i n t h e t r o p i c a l w o r l d o f t h e M a y a i n B e l i z e ,
Chumash rock- a r t i n t h e d r y c a v e - s t r e w n l a n d s c a p e o f s o u t h -
central Californ i a , a n d p r e - h i s t o r i c n o m a d i c c a t t l e h e r d e r s i n
the baked heat o f t h e We s t e r n D e s e r t .

C o n s idering the diversity of location and s u b j e c t m a t t e r, a l l t h r e e o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s s h a r e


a c o mmon purpose; namely a commitment t o l o n g e v i t y o f r e s e a r c h . T h e d i r e c t o r s a r e n o t
j u s t i n it for the short term but are dedica t e d t o c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r a n e x t e n d e d
p e r i o d to provide a corpus of data that fe e d s i n t o a l a rg e r r e s e a r c h f r a m e w o r k .

F o r example, the area of Blue Creek ( p a g e 8 ) i n n o r t h e r n B e l i z e h a s b e e n s t u d i e d


i n t e n sively for 18 years under the auspic e s o f t h e M a y a R e s e a r c h P r o g r a m a n d a l t h o u g h
g r e a t things have been achieved there, e s t a b l i s h i n g a n s w e r s t o t h e b i g g e r q u e s t i o n o f
w h y Maya society collapsed requires a st r o n g o b l i g a t i o n t o t h e l a rg e r t a s k i n h a n d . N o t
o n l y does Blue Creek need to be studie d a s a n e n t i t y i n i t s e l f , b u t s h o u l d b e p l a c e d
w i t h i n the greater Maya world to achiev e a m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e
s o c i e ty and the problems they faced.

T h e energy to drive forward these pro j e c t s u n d o u b t e d l y c o m e s f r o m t h e d i r e c t o r s


w h o have the ability to inspire the stu d e n t s a n d v o l u n t e e r s w h o w i l l f o r m t h e n e x t
g e n e ration of researchers, and Blue Cre e k i s n o e x c e p t i o n . Ti m P r e s t o n ( c o - w r i t e r o f
t h e Blue Creek a rticle) first arrived as a v o l u n t e e r i n 2 0 0 1 a n d i s n o w a f u l l y - f l e d g e d
a r c h aeologist committed to the ongoing w o r k w i t h i n t h e M a y a R e s e a r c h P r o g r a m .

A s t r ong commitment to this type of wor k o v e r a s u s t a i n e d p e r i o d c a n e v e n t u a l l y m a k e


a s i g nificant difference to the outcome, b u t i t t a k e s a s e r i o u s a m o u n t o f p e r s e v e r a n c e .
T h e Western Sahara project (page 24) h a s , w i t h t h e h e l p o f v o l u n t e e r s , m e t h o d i c a l l y
c o l l e cted both cl imate and archaeologica l d a t a f o r t h e p a s t e i g h t y e a r s . D i r e c t o r s N i c k
B r o o ks and Joanne Clarke are very awa r e t h a t t h e r e i s m u c h m o r e w o r k f o r t h e m t o
d o , a nd give up their own time each yea r t o l e a d t h i s e x p e d i t i o n t o u n c o v e r n e w a n d
e x c i t ing information about the evolution o f a l i t t l e - e x p l o r e d p a r t o f t h e w o r l d .

T h e systematic approach to gathering inf o r m a t i o n f o r m s t h e b a s i s o f o u r t h i r d p r o j e c t ,


P a i n t ed Landscapes (page 16). Here, the t e a m m e m b e r s h a v e d e d i c a t e d t h e m s e l v e s t o
l o n g -term research goals adopting a mul t i - t e m p o r a l a p p r o a c h t o t h e s t u d y o f r o c k - a r t
a n d its associated archaeology. Recognis i n g t h a t t h e r o c k - a r t c a n n o t b e s t u d i e d t o t h e
e x c l usion of all other elements makes t h i s a n e x c i t i n g p r o j e c t t o b e p a r t o f . I t w i l l
t a k e years of res earch to build up a pict u r e o f t h e l i v e s o f t h e C h u m a s h a n d h o w t h e y
i n t e r acted with their environment, but it i s c e r t a i n t o l e a d t o m a n y d i s c o v e r i e s .

I t i s all too easy to adopt a hit-and-run a p p r o a c h t o a r c h a e o l o g y w h e r e t h e o n l y t h i n g


t h a t is important is the chance to dig up a f e w a r t e f a c t s w h i c h , i n t h e e n d , m a y i m p a r t
l i t t l e knowledge of real significance. A co n s i d e r e d r e s e a r c h a g e n d a p r o d u c e s m e a n i n g f u l
r e s u l ts that give purpose to years of h a r d w o r k , s o g o a h e a d , r e a d a n d e n j o y, b u t
r e m e mber, you can actually be part of th e s e o r o t h e r s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s .
T h e y need your support!

Maggie Struckmeier

editor@pasthorizons.com 

5 past horizons
A Th a m e s Fo re s h o re M ys ter y
news A s kull, discovered last year in the immediate context of the bu r i a l a n d t h e
m u d of the River Thames foreshore at articulation of the skeleto n m a d e t h i s
t h e Isles of Dogs in London, has been the most likely scenario.
p r o ving something of a mystery.
It proved to be an extremely c h a l l e n g i n g
N i c k Stevens, who came across it excavation. The burial lay v e r y c l o s e
w h i le out walking along the foreshore, to the low tide level and th e t e a m o n l y
i n f o rmed the police immediately who had around an hour to u n c o v e r, l i f t
r e m oved it for further examination. and record the bones. This p r o c e s s w a s
H o wever, deciding it was not a forensic made difficult by the resu l t a n t w a v e s
c a s e, the skull was passed into the care from each passing vessel tha t t h r e a t e n e d
o f t he osteoarchaeology section at the to wash away any expose d m a t e r i a l .
M u seum of London for assessment. Consequently, once the b o n e s w e r e
exposed they were photog r a p h e d a n d
C u r ious as to the skull’s origins, Nick immediately lifted so as not t o l o s e t h e m
r e t u rned to the foreshore in early to the water. Film-maker A n i e s H a s s a n
J a n uary this year with Nathalie Cohen, a was also on hand to record t h e d a y t h e
t e a m leader from the Thames Discovery skeleton was lifted from its g r a v e .
P r o gramme. They re-examined the
a r e a and found parts of the upper torso The skull returned a date o f c a l A D
a n d arm just before the tide came in. 1735–1805 (52.8% probab i l i t y ) . W h y
R e t urning the following day with a this young person was laid t o r e s t h e r e
f u l l team, the rest of the skeleton was in the cold grey mud of the I s l e o f D o g s
e x c avated. will remain a mystery. H o w e v e r, t h e
burial took place in an ar e a t h a t w a s
T h e team members managed to recover largely undeveloped at this t i m e . O l d
a l a rgely complete skeleton of a fairly maps show that the main f e a t u r e s o f
y o u ng individual, probably around 12- interest were a line of mill s s t r e t c h i n g
y e a rs-old, who they are certain had along the western side, Hors e f e r r y H o u s e
b e e n buried at this spot. Although it at the southern tip of the p e n i n s u l a a n d
w a s difficult to see a distinct grave a gallows in between – a gr i m r e m i n d e r
c u t , the body had been placed in a of the harshness of eightee n t h c e n t u r y
h o l e. Changes were noticeable in the London life.

click here to see the video


http: //www.vimeo.com/8801439

Find out more about the Thames Discover y Programme: http://w w w.thamesdiscover y.org

past horizons 6
red
BATTIFERRO

Find it Her e

7 past horizons
Chu m
Bala m - N a l
E xcavations at Blue Creek , B elize

Maya R e s e a rc h Pro g ra m vo l u n te e r s, l o ca l h e l p a nd sta ff stripping humic overburden at Chum Balam-Nal

past horizons 8
B y D r. Th o m as Guderjan and Tim Preston

T
h e M ay a R e s e a r c h P r o g r am (MRP) at Blue Creek was formed 18 years
a g o t o c a r r y o u t r e s e a r c h, survey and excavation to attempt to uncover
m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the Maya; their origins, their rise to power
an d i n p a r t i c u l a r, t h e i r e v e n t u al decline.

Th e r e a r e m a n y t h e o r i e s t h a t t ry to address the Late Classic era colla pse (mid


90 0 A D ) o f t h e M a y a c i v i l i s a tion. Some point towards persistent warfare,
oth e r s h i g h l i g h t o v e r p o p u l a t i on, environmental degradation, deforestation,
an d d r o u g ht , b u t i n t r u t h w e are still no closer to knowing the truth. In
the c o m i n g y e a r s t h e B l u e C r eek project aims to focus its attention in this
dir e c t i o n p r o v i d i n g d a t a f o r scholars and institutions around the world in
ord e r t o a d v a n c e t h e d e b a t e .

9 past horizons
B l u e C r e e k i s l ocated in northwestern Belize, of the Mayan civilisation and i t s e v e n t u a l
c l o s e t o t h e b order with Mexico. It was a collapse.
p o l i ty w i t h a c ity centre incorporating major
m o n u m e n t a l architecture, outlying elite Over the past 18 years much o f t h e p u b l i c
r e s i d e n t i a l z o n es and extensive agricultural architecture at the core or central a r e a h a s b e e n
areas. excavated along with some of t h e e l i t e a n d
non elite residences. The core is m a d e u p o f
O c c u p i e d f o r a relatively long period of time, two large plazas with a number o f a s s o c i a t e d
f r o m t h e M i d d le Preclassic (900-300BC) to buildings along with a ballcourt w h i c h s i t s o n
c i r c a 11 0 0 A D , Blue Creek has been – and top of a large platform.
c o n t i n u e s t o b e – an ideal subject for the study
It was clearly a wealthy city evide n c e d i n s o m e
part by the large quantity of Lat e P r e c l a s s i c
and Early Classic jade found aro u n d t h e s i t e .
It may have supported an estim a t e d 1 5 - 2 0
thousand inhabitants at its heig h t a n d r u l e d
over an area of 100-150 square k i l o m e t r e s .

The first monumental architect u r e a t B l u e


Creek was built towards the end o f t h e L a t e
Preclassic period but it was duri n g t h e E a r l y
Classic period of 200-600AD tha t s a w m a j o r
construction works. By the tim e t h e L a t e
Classic period is reached not onl y w e r e s o m e
elite residences becoming grand e r b u t n e w
areas were being inhabited for th e f i r s t t i m e .
After this point there appears to b e l i t t l e o r
no construction work taking pl a c e , l e a d i n g
eventually to almost total abando n m e n t o f t h e
site.

Blue Creek represents one of the m o s t w e l l -


studied and longest-continuity ex c a v a t i o n s i n
the Americas. The site continues t o p r o d u c e
new and exciting possibilities ye a r a f t e r y e a r
O ne of t wo py ra m i d s w h i c h f o r m p a r t o f t h e p l a z a B sec tor of and the 2009 season was no exc e p t i o n . T h e
the Blu e C re e k co re MRP team, consisting of staff, s t u d e n t s a n d

MAYA TIMELINE

Early Preclassic Middle Preclassic Late Precla

Writing is The earliest known


developed in solar calendars carved
The rise of the Olmec civilization, from which many Mesoamérica. in stone by the Maya.
aspects of Maya culture are derived. Village farming
becomes established throughout Maya regions. Early artistic epoch of the Maya in Maya adopt idea of a
Belize, stucco platforms, elaborate hierarchical society ruled
ceramics and use of cultivated crops. by nobles and kings.

1800 1700 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 10
1750: 1339: Tutankamun 753: 323:
Minoan Crete and Egyptian New Rome founded Alexander the Great
flourishes Kingdom in Italy conquers Persia

past horizons 10
Chichen Itza
Mayapan
Coba
Belize
Gulf of
Mexico YUCATAN

MEXICO Kalakmul

La Milpa
Blue Creek
Palenque

Lamanai
Carribean Sea
Tikal

BELIZE

GUATEMALA

Copan

HONDURAS

EL SALVADOR

NICARAGUA
Pacific Ocean

S ome a r te fa c t s f o u n d a t B l u e C re e k

assic Early Classic Late Classic Post Classic


Founding of the Tikal becomes first Unknown event destroys The Classic Period of Maya 1517: The Spanish first arrive
Royal Dynasty great Maya city, civilisation at Teotihuacán. history ends, with the collapse on the shores of Yucatán
of Tikal. Teotihuacán citizens Tikal becomes largest city- of the southern lowland cities. under Hernández de Córdoba,
introduce new ideas state in Mesoamérica.
such as weaponry,
ritual practices and Maya alliances begin to break Mayapán becomes the capital
human sacrifice. down. Trade between city-states of Yucatán, and forms the
declines and conflict increases. League of Mayapán

BC AD
00 00 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600
Birth of Christ 410: 630: 901: 1066: 1348: 1492:
Romans Mohammed Vikings Norman conquest Black Death in Columbus
leave takes Mecca discover of England Europe lands on
Britain Greenland Guanahani

11 past horizons
v o l u n t e e r s f r o m around the world, undertook As part of this project Chum Bala m - N a l w h i c h
s e v e n e x c a v a t i ons in three separate locations lies one kilometre directly south o f t h e c o r e ,
a s w e l l a s c onducting several intensive was surveyed. An earlier survey fr o m 1 9 9 8 h a d
s u r v e y a n d m a p ping operations including two suggested the presence of a larg e h i g h e l i t e
i n t e r e s t i n g s i t e s, Nojol Nah and Grey Fox. courtyard but this had never been e x a m i n e d i n
any great detail.
A l t h o u g h w i t hin the Blue Creek survey
a r e a , N o j o l N ah appears to be a centre of The new survey successfully r e l o c a t e d t h e
m o n u m e n t a l a r chitecture. At the moment its courtyard and clearly shows that t h e a s s o c i a t e d
r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Blue Creek is unclear but it structures, their placement and d i s t r i b u t i o n
m a y b e a s u b urban centre connected to an on the landscape differ significan t l y f r o m t h e
a l l i e d p o l i t y o r even an entirely separate city- ones lying to the north of the core . A s a r e s u l t
s t a t e . E x c a v a t i ons will continue the research of this discovery more resource s h a v e b e e n
i n 2 0 1 0 . G r e y Fox seems to share the same devoted to carrying out excavati o n s a t C h u m
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as Nojol Nah and is slightly Balam-Nal in the coming years.
s m a l l e r i n s c a l e than Blue Creek but remains
t o b e i n v e s t i g a ted properly. A residential zone, Chum B a l a m - N a l i s
located along the Rio Bravo esca r p m e n t . T h e
N e w a p p r o a c h e s and techniques continue to northernmost border is defined b y a d e e p
c h a l l e n g e p r e v ious theories and have led to ravine cut by seasonal water flow. T h e e a s t e r n
n e w a n d e x c i t i ng discoveries at Blue Creek. border is formed by the escarpme n t i t s e l f . T h e
T h e M R P t e a m acknowledging this new western and southern extents of t h e z o n e h a v e
p o t e n t i a l d e c i d ed to implement a large-scale yet to be defined.
r e - e x a m i n a t i o n of the areas near the core.

L AYO U T O F C H UM BALAM -NAL COUR T YARD GR OUP CBN-13

Room 2

CBN-13
Room 1
The interior of the CBN-
13 courtyard group platform
measures 12.5 metres north/
stairway south by 16.5 metres east/west.
down
Three of the courtyard structures
CBN 13, 14 and 15 are arranged
CBN-14 phase I wall
CBN-16 in a U-shape that opens to the
east and the escarpment edge.
stairway These structures are oriented
phase II wall
3˚ west of magnetic north. The
down

stairway remaining two structures, CBN


down CBN-17
16 and 17, are arranged in an L-
s h a p e c l o s i n g o ff t h e c o u r t y a r d
to the east and oriented 13˚ west
CBN-15 CBN13 Courtyard group of north.
Chum Balam-Nal

T h e d i ff e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n s o f t h e
excavated architecture
proposed architecture structural groups indicate that
excavation limits t h e c o u r t y a r d w as c o n s t r u c t e d
in at least two major phases.

past horizons 12
S t ruc tures 13 ( r i g h t ) a n d 1 4 ( l e f t ) a s s e e n f ro m t h e co u r t yard flo or

Rio H
ondo

Mexico Blue Creek


Chum Balam-Nal

La Milpa
t

Gran Cacao
en
l
zu

Rio Azul
m
oA

rp

nt
ca
Ri

me

Dos Hombres
Es

arp
ha

Kinal
t
sc

men
c
Lu

oE
La

carp
av
Br

r Es
rav

er

Guatamala
Rio

iv
Rive
oB

Booth’s R
Ri

th’s
Boo

La Honradez Chan Chich


Belize
Chum B a l a m - N a l i n re l a t i o n to t h e B l u e C re e k co re Struc ture 15 is a long galler y-st yle ro om with a single central
do or way surmounting a low platform

T h e courtyard interior could of the p l a t f o r m ; P h a s e I w a s Structures 16 and 17 complete


o n l y be accessed from two constr u c t e d i n t h e Te r m i n a l the eastern edge of the
l o c a t ions. The main access is by Precla s s i c t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d c o u r t y a r d g r o u p . T h e d i ff e r e n c e
a l a rge 5.5 meter wide passage and Ph a s e I I w a s c o n s t r u c t e d i n in orientation shared by these
b e t w een structures 13 and 16. the Ea r l y C l a s s i c o r l a t e r. two structures and the stairway
T h i s passage opens out to the between them (13˚ west of
n o r t h. The second access point The p l a t f o r m i s s u r m o u n t e d magnetic north compared to
i s t o the south and consists of a by a m i n i m u m o f t w o m a s o n r y 3˚), indicate that the eastern
s t a i r way that exi ts the courtyard room b l o c k s ; t h e n o r t h e r n r o o m component of the group was
b e t w een structures 16 and 17. block i s d e s i g n a t e d a s C B N - 1 3 , constructed in a separate phase
T h e stairway opens onto a lower Struct u r e 1 3 , a n d t h e w e s t e r n from the western side of the
p l a t f orm on which rest three of room b l o c k a s S t r u c t u r e 1 4 . Tw o group.
t h e f our associated structures. intrus i v e b u r i a l s w e r e c o n t a i n e d
within s t r u c t u r e 1 3 , e a c h l o c a t e d Structure 17 has been interpreted
The north and western benea t h a l a rg e m a s o n r y b e n c h . as an ancestral shrine due to its
b o u ndaries of the courtyard are The southern side of the courtyard location and overall dimensions,
d e f i ned by a single large L- is defi n e d b y s t r u c t u r e 1 5 , a l o n g but further excavation is needed
s h a p ed substructure platform. gallery - s t y l e r o o m w i t h a s i n g l e to either prove or disprove this
Tw o construction phases are centra l d o o r w a y s u r m o u n t i n g a t h e o r y.
e v i d ent on the western leg low pl a t f o r m .

13 past horizons
Struc t u re s 1 6 a n d 1 7 f o r m a n L- s h a p e to t h e e a s t side of the
cour t ya rd
T h e s i t e a c t u a l ly contains at least two large
c o u r t y a r d g r o u ps, a patio group and a large
a r t i f i c i a l l i n e a r structure measuring over 60
m e t r e s i n l e n g t h. In addition there are many
s m a l l s t r u c t u r es both associated with the
Excavating Burial 2 in Struc ture 13
l a rg e r g r o u p s a nd singularly. Other features
i n c l u d e o v e r 1 5 chultuns (underground storage of the humic overburden and coll a p s e m a t e r i a l
c h a m b e r s ) , c h e ck dams, at least one r eservoir, of one of the courtyard group s CBN-13.
a m o d i f i e d r o c k shelter, and artificial terraces. This courtyard consists of fiv e s t r u c t u r e s
M a p p i n g i n t h e 2010 field season will better arranged in a closed square. A m i n i m u m o f
d e f i n e t h e o v e rall area and locate all of the four additional structures lie outs i d e b u t c l o s e
structures. enough to be considered part of t h e o v e r a l l
group (see pages 12 and 13 for d e s c r i p t i o n ) .
I n 2 0 0 9 , t e a m members Tim Preston and Greg
M a s t r o p i e t r o c onducted a stripping o peration The limited excavations so fa r m a k e s f o r
limited analysis but the scale of c o n s t r u c t i o n
shows that it is one of the most eli t e r e s i d e n t i a l
groups at Blue Creek. It was no t b u i l t a l l a t
once, though, nor does it appear t o f o l l o w a n
overall plan.

Dating all the elements may be pre m a t u r e b u t a


tentative timeline for the construction sequence
is possible. Two intrusive bu r i a l s p l a c e d
within structure CBN-13 points t o P h a s e I o f
the substructure platform being c o n s t r u c t e d a t
the end of the Terminal Preclassi c ( c . 2 5 0 A D )
or earlier. Thin facing stones us e d t o s h e a t h
the platform upon which CBN-15 r e s t s , p l a c e s
its construction in the Early Cla s s i c ( c . 2 5 0 –
600AD). Phase II of the CBN-13 / 1 4 p l a t f o r m
abuts the CBN-15 platform in d i c a t i n g t h e
final period of construction and l o c a t e d o n
the western side of the courtyard .

The difference in orientation of structures CBN-


16 and 17 and the inclusion of t h e s t a i r w a y
down to a lower platform activit y a r e a a rg u e
for these two structures being c o n s t r u c t e d a t
the same time, but the question i s , w h e t h e r
they were constructed first or las t .
Stair wa y b e t we e n s t r u c t u re s 1 6 a n d 1 7 l e a d i n g down to a
lower p l a t f o r m

past horizons 14
close families but possibly some s o r t o f n o n -
royal elite. Future studies will e n d e a v o u r t o
understand their role.

In 2010 work will continue on C B N - 1 3 a n d


other structures in the surrou n d i n g a r e a .
Plans include stripping off th e r e m a i n i n g
overburden as well as conduc t i n g l i m i t e d
intrusive investigations to obtai n f i r m d a t e s
for the construction sequence.

This type of research would not b e p o s s i b l e


without the tremendous support o f v o l u n t e e r s
and students who work alongside p r o f e s s i o n a l
archaeologists, graduates and loc a l B e l i z e a n s .
Of varying ages, backgrounds, n a t i o n a l i t i e s
T h e b i g g e r i s sue of how the residents of and educational levels, MRP’s vo l u n t e e r s h e l p
C h u m B a l a m - Nal fit into the greater fabric to provide financial resources, fie l d a s s i s t a n c e
o f a n c i e n t Maya society clearly needs and many kinds of specialised e x p e r t i s e . I n
t o b e a d d r e s s ed. These people appear to turn, MRP offers a unique adv e n t u r e , n e w
b e i m p o r t a n t members of the Blue Creek learning and personal challen g e s , a n d a n
p o l i t i c a l a n d social structure. However, opportunity to play an active role i n f u r t h e r i n g
t h e y w e r e p r o bably not royal rulers or their our understanding of Maya cultu r e .

D r. Thomas Guderja n is a facult y memb er a t the Universit y of Texas a t Tyler, president of MRP a nd dire c tor
of the Blue Cre ek proje c t. His b o ok , The Nature of an Ancient M aya Cit y : Resources, I nterac tion and
Power at Blue Creek , B elize, summa rises much of the work accomplishe d to da te.

Tim Preston joine d MRP in 2001 as a volunte er a nd has worke d on proje c ts in B elize, Mexico a nd Peru,
b oth as volunte er a nd sta ff memb er. In 2007 he obta ine d a Masters degre e from S a n Fra nc isco Sta te
Universit y base d on excava tions he p er forme d in the Rosita communit y, a n outl ying settlement linke d to
the Blue Cre ek site core. In 2010 Tim will continue his excava tions of Chum Bala m-Nal.

G et I nvolve d
MRP hos t s m u l t i p l e t wo -we e k s e s s i o n s fo r s t u d e nt s a n d vo l u nte e r s
at Blue Cre e k . Eve r yo n e i s a f u l l p a r t i c i p a nt, b e i n g i nvo l ve d w i t h
field exc avat i o n s a n d l a b o rato r y wo r k .

Dates fo r 2 0 1 0 :
S ession 1 : 2 4 M ay - 6 J u n e
S ession 2 : 7 - 2 0 J u n e
S ession 3 : 2 9 J u n e - 1 1 J u l y
S ession 4 : 1 2 - 2 5 J u l y

Cost: A re q u i re d d o n at i o n o f $ 1 7 5 0 p e r s i n g l e s e s s i o n ( $ 1 5 0 0
for stud e nt s ) . E a c h s u b s e q u e nt s e s s i o n i s a n a d d i t i o n a l $ 1 2 0 0 .
I ncludes fo o d a n d a cco m m o d at i o n .
Fo r more details:
We b: http://w w w.mayaresearchprogra m . o rg
E m ail: mr pinquir ies@gmail.com

15 past horizons
© Rick Bury 2010
past horizons 16
Pa inted
L a n dscapes
A rchaeology and the Rock-Ar t
o f South-Central California

Pleito Cave

B y D av i d R o b i nson
Wit h i n t he h id de n in la nd a nd i nt e rior regi ons of Sout h-Central
Califo rn i a, m illi on s o f y ea rs of wind scouri ng and wa t er erosion
have s cu lp te d d isti nc tiv e yel low-a nd-ta n sa ndst one outc rops into
biza rre a nd be gu il ing fo r ms wort hy of a Da li esque ti me scape. The
endl es s fo r ces o f we ath er a nd c l ima t e ha ve cre a te d a menagerie
of ro c ky p i n na cles , h on ey combe d sandst one ca vit i es, a nd sinuous
rock sh el te rs . In d es er t scrub and pa tc hy oak w oodl ands, misshapen
cave m o u ths ap pe ar t o grin a wkwa rdl y in shi ft ing shadow and
ligh t a s the s u n w he els ov e rhe a d, se ason a fte r se a son.

Left: L o s P a d re s p i c t o g r a p h w i t h b e d ro c k m o r t a r s

17 past horizons
California

Si
e
rra
Nevada
Ce

Ne
nt

v
ad
ra
lV

a
San Francisco
M
al

ou
le
y

nt
ai
ns

Pacific Ocean Wind Wolves


Project Study Area

Arizona
Santa Barbara
Los Angeles

0 300 km

T h e s e p l a c e s have more than a touch of to formulate theories regarding t h e sh a m a n i c


t h e l e g e n d a r y about them; mythologised as inspiration of these painti n g s. T h e se
a n i m a l s t u r n e d to stone, the Native Chumash controversial theories have adv a n c e d r o c k -
a n d n e i g h b o u ring indigenous Californians art studies and brought rock-art t o t h e w i d e r
w e r e a t t r a c t e d t o these compelling formations, attention of the archaeological c o m m u n i t y.
w h e r e t h e y painted a form of rock-art Even so, we still have meagre un d e rs t a n d i n g s
e x c e p t i o n a l b y anyone’s standard—fanciful of where the art was placed and h o w i t w a s
f i g u r e s d e p i c ting insects, reptiles, birds, viewed, how old it is, what ac t i v i t i e s t o o k
b e a rs , h u m a n s , or strange combinations, often place around it, and what variet y o f r o l e s i t
w i t h u p t u r n e d appendages or embellished with may have played in the past. The ro c k p a i n t i n g s
f i n e l i n e s a n d delicate dots. Other images, of the Californian interior rem a i n s o n e o f
p a i n t e d i n v i b rant reds, look like mandalas the least understood of all ar c h a e o l o g i c a l
o r s u n d i s k s w i th radiating spokes. There are phenomena found in the America s.
e v e n a b s t r a c t c ompositions in suites of exotic
c o l o u r s — i m a g es beguiling as any pro duced by The surreal pictographs of the C a l i fo r n i a n
t h e m o s t c u n n i ng and skilful of surrealists. Chumash have been recognised sin c e t h e 1 9 6 0 s
as among the most elaborate a n d e x q u i s i t e
S c h o l a r s h a v e t urned to the pages of r elatively examples of rock-art found anyw h e re o n t h e
r e c e n t 2 0 t h c e ntury anthropological accounts continent. Yet, unlike some o t h e r re g i o n s

past horizons 18
Ro ck formation, Rattlesnake Shelter, Sierra Madre

( w h er e rock- ar t sites have bee n the fo cus of I f we know little abou t the mak i n g o f th e a r t
e x c a vat ion), sca nt a ttenti on h as b een pa id its elf , w e know ev en les s about the a r c h a e o l o g y
t o i nves tigat ing thes e pai nting s in ter ms of lyi ng q uietly below. This mate r i a l m a y w e l l
t h e archaeologi cal featu res and ma teria ls ho ld vi tal c lues to under s tandi n g b o t h th e
s u rr ounding them . Be caus e of this, we hav e co mmunity and the ar t f ound in t h e i r m id s t .
l it tl e comprehen sion of the c ontext with in Qu ite s imply, while the pages o f r e c e n t
w h i c h these often vibra nt a nd co lourf ul wr itten accounts have been tur ne d w it h k e e n
p a in t ings were m ade, eith er th roughou t over s cholar ly attenti on, few have p l u m e d t h e
1 0 ,0 0 0 year s of ind igeno us p rehis to ry n or de pths of thos e depos its to und e rs t a n d th e
e v e n wi thi n his to rica l time s. de eper huma n his tor y of th e s pac e s w h e r e t h e
ar t once made has s ince endur ed. U n ti l v e r y
P a in t ed on roc k su rface s ab ove the s oils r ecently, tha t is.
a n d s ediments t hat regul arly cont ain qui te
s u rp risi ngly rich arch aeol ogica l rem ains , the Thr ee summers ago, a sma ll te a m o f
a r t hovers as i f in a time less ‘ethn og raphi c’ ar chaeo logis ts f r om as far af ield a s E n g l a n d
p r e s e nt, s epar at ed from the mate rial le ft an d f ro m ne arby in Calif ornia e x c a v a te d a
b e h in d by t he very peop le w ho l i ved and lit tle r ock-a rt s ite c alled Pin w h e e l Ca v e ,
w o r ked ar ound the a rt, an d fr om t hos e who loc ated on a magical place cal le d t h e Wi n d
m u s t have made it. Wo lves Pr es erve f ound in the v e r y h e a rt o f

19 past horizons
S o u t h - C e n t r a l California. This pilot project orange groves and bobbing oil d e r r i c k s n o w
a l s o i n c l u d e d s tudents from both Europe and stand. Old wave cut terraces still c a n b e f o u n d
A m e r i c a , a n d w as exciting in bringing together demarcating the shores of now - d e s i c c a t e d
p e o pl e f r o m s uch diverse backgrounds and lakes due to more than a centur y o f m o d e r n
w a y s o f d o i n g archaeology. agricultural drainage. All aroun d t h e s e n o w
dry lake edges once existed larg e v i l l a g e s o f
the people known as the Yokuts i n o n e o f t h e
most densely-occupied indigenou s r e g i o n s i n
California; the Interior Chumas h l i v e d j u s t
to the south in the San Emigd i o f o o t h i l l s
rising above and overlooking the l a k e s . T h i s
Finds f ro m Pi nw h e e l Ca ve
region, as one of the most heav i l y - i m p a c t e d
ecosystems in the world, is whe r e t h e Wi n d
A t P i n w h e e l C ave, few artefacts were evident Wolves Preserve was created in t h e 1 9 9 0 s i n
o n t h e s u r f a c e beneath the art, and it appeared efforts to preserve and restore nat u r a l h a b i t a t s
t o b e a c l a s s i c example of a hidden shamanic in the onslaught of development a n d m o d e r n
s i t e . H o w e v e r, it was surprising what the population growth.
s t u d e n t s f o u n d during excavation and in the
s c r e e n s w h i l e sieving; beautifully crafted © R ick Bur y 2010
a r r o w h e a d s a n d the small flakes from their
r e t o u c h i n g , b u rnt animal bone and charcoal
f r o m c o o k i n g a nd eating, and even tiny shell
a n d c o l o u r f u l glass beads showing a range
o f m a t e r i a l c u l ture from Late Prehis tory and
d u r i n g c o l o n i a l times. Indeed, nearby bedrock
m o r t a r s s h o w e d that acorns, the staple food
o f t h e C a l i f o r nian Indian, were processed
i n s o m e q u a n t ity from the oak woodlands
s u r r o u n d i n g . The archaeology of Pinwheel
C a v e s h o w e d it was anything but a private
s i t e . I t b e c a m e clear that it was as important
a p l a c e i n t h e local environment as it was a
p l a c e f o r p a i n t ing. Perhaps the two — rock-
a r t a n d e n v i r o n ment—were related?

T h e C h u m a s h were a diverse population of


s o p h i s t i c a t e d h unter/gatherers who i nhabited
m a n y d i ff e r e n t areas from the Pacific waters
o f t h e S a n t a B arbara Channel, inland through
t h e r u g g e d c o a stal ranges of the backcountry,
a n d e v e n d e e p e r into interior California to the
m a rg i n s o f t h e great San Joaquin Valley. It
i s h e r e , a t t h e very margins of their territory,
w h e r e s o m e o f the most spectacular examples
o f F a r We s t e r n rock-art can be fo und and
w h e r e o u r r e cent research is attempting
t o t e a s e o u t t he relationships between art
a n d i t s e n v i ronment through systematic Painted images at the ro ck- ar t site of Three Springs
a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work.

T h i s i s n o e a s y task. Where once extensive As the largest private land hol d i n g i n t h e


w e t l a n d s a n d lake systems teaming with American West, the Wind Wolv e s P r e s e r v e
w a t er f o w l e x i sted, dry land with irrigated encompasses around 100,000 a c r e s o f

past horizons 20
m o u nt ai ns and m eado ws, cany ons and ope n and how indigenou s peo ple made t h e l a n d s c a p e
la n d s. They are ded icate d to educ ating the their own; a pro cess calle d ‘en c u l tu ra t io n ’.
p u b lic about the env ironm ent and th e r eal Th is pr oject allows st udents the o p p o r t u n it y
b e n e f its of pro tecti ng t hrea tened anima l to be a ctive par ticipa nts i n res e a r c h i n g t h e
a n d plant comm uniti es to preserve wildlif e pas t env iron ment of this un ique l a n d s c a p e i n
d iv e rs ity. E qua lly, t hey a re c oncerne d tha t the hear t of Calif ornia .
w e le arn about t he p ast h uman commu nities
w h o l ived for su ch a long time within thos e Ro ck-ar t is one wa y th at t h e Ch u m a s h
h a b i tats in cl ose, sym bioti c rela tion ships . As encultur ated their sur r oundings , p a rt i c u la r l y,
a r e sult, a partn ershi p has eme rged betwee n of coar s e, rock s urf aces . H o w e v e r, o u r
o u r concern of the arch aeol ogica l env iro nment res ear ch has sho wn that n ot ju st a n y r o c k
o f the past and th e pre serv e’s c oncer n f or th e sur f ace was chos en; the roc k inv a r i a b ly u s e d
o n g oi ng living en viron ment . At t he cor e of this was tha t nea r to relia ble water su p p li e s, a t
p a r t ners hip is a m utua l and dee p commitment ric h r ipar ian zones , o r within o a k w o o d la n d
to e ducation. wher e abund ant acor ns can be g a t h e r e d . To
rea ch th ese place s re quire s a t r e k in t o th e
rug ged ter ra in. Along the way, w e o f te n s e e
amazing wildlif e s uch as deer, e lk , c o y o t e s,
fox es, b obcats , as well as all k i n d s o f b ir d s
includin g r edtail hawk s, fa lcons , a n d g o l d e n
eagles —even the elus ive co ndor v is i te d u s o n
one occ asion .

Student s lear n ab out t he pr es erv e fr o m ta l k s


by its s taff and ra nger s and tour s to d i ff e r e n t
are as of the lands cape. However, th e p r i m a r y
bus ines s of this proje ct is to c o m e to g r ip s
with the changing envir onment o f t h e p a s t a s
fou nd at the very intri guing land f o r m s w h e r e
the ar t is fou nd.

Our excavat ions include a ugur i n g t ra n s e c t s


acr oss the adjacent envir ons t o e x a m i n e
landf orm an d s edime nt c hange s . In the
sum mer of 20 08, s tudents augur in g a t th e s it e
of Three Spr ings found evid ence t h a t th e o a k
woodlan d would h ave been more e x t e n s iv e i n
the past ; as a s ite curr ently with s p a r s e o a k s ,
this f inding may explai n wh y s o m a n y b e d r o c k
mor tars ar e f ound ther e.

Other ex cavations , such as la st su m m e r i n 2 0 0 9


at Los Lobos , hav e s hown that th e h y d ro l o g y
of lands cape in the pas t w as at ti m e s m u c h
wetter than c urr ently v isibl e. Th e s e f i n d in g s
go muc h f urthe r to ward s r et h in k i n g th e
placeme nt of art a s a way of mar ki n g t h e v e ry
mos t impor tant p laces for past p o p u la t i o n s
in terms of water and food r eso u r c e s . M o re
and mor e we s ee evidence that r o c k - a r t w a s
F o r t his reason , we hav e e stablis hed an pos itioned a t places con cerne d w i th t h e
a r c h aeol ogical fie ld sc hool looki ng at the long - ever yday tas ks of the local comm u n it y r a t h e r
te r m human r elat ionsh ip wi th th e env ir onmen t than the priv ate minds cape of th e s h a m a n .

21 past horizons
Laser s ca n n i n g a t Pi nw h e e l Ca ve

S t i l l , t h i s d o e s not mean that the art was of the shelters themselves were s o m e t i m e s
s i m p l y a b o u t t h e stomach or in the realm of the considered quite special.
m u n d a n e . L a s t season, in one of the shelters
c o n t a i n i n g r o c k-art, our field school found a For this reason, we have employed a v a r i e t y o f
c a r e fu l l y p l a c e d stone with iridescent facets digital techniques to record them i n t h e h i g h e s t
e m b e d d e d t h r o ughout its natural matrix. It detail possible, including laser s c a n n i n g a n d
w a s n o t m o d i f i ed, but rather a natural object digital photogrammetry. In comb i n a t i o n w i t h
f o u n d l o c a l l y b ut probably considered special our digital mapping, we are ab l e t o c r e a t e
b e c a u s e o f i t s r eflective qualities. computer models of the rock-a r t s i t e , t h e
landscape, and the environment. S t u d e n t s a r e
T h e s e k i n d s o f findings are showing that even trained in all these aspects and c o n t r i b u t e t o
t h o u g h r o c k - a r t sites were places where people the final rendering that allows us t o m o r e f u l l y
u n d e r t o o k d a y -to-day activities, the space reconstruct the archaeological pa s t .

D avid Robinson is a lec turer in archaeolo gy at Universit y of Central Lancashire. He graduated from Universit y of
California S anta Barbara where he first b ecame interested in Chumash ro ck- ar t while work ing on the Kamupau
Projec t (http://w w w.anth.uc sb.edu/projec ts/kamupau). He completed a PhD from the Universit y of Cambridge
(UK ) studying the ro ck- ar t of the Wind Wolves Preser ve in 2006 and has researched ro ck- ar t, gra ffiti, and landscap e
in England, Spain, India and California. He works on b oth prehistoric and historical archaeolo gy, including the
Stonehenge R iverside Projec t, the Tyntesfield World War II Projec t, and, of course, the Enculturating Environments
Projec t.

past horizons 22
G et I nvolved
This is a student- only field school.
The course has three goals:

1. To introduce students to field methods in


archaeology.

2. To provide a prac tical wor k ing k nowledge


of sur vey, digital laser scanning, excavation,
geoarchaeological analysis, ar tefac t processing/
post- excavation, and field cataloguing methods.

3. To appreciate the preser vation and


management of cultural and environmental
resources in a case study on the 100,000-acre
Wind Wolves Preser ve.
Dates: 13 June - 18 July 2010
Cost: S ee website for details

Click here for projec t website

For more infor mation about the projec t please go


to: http://antiquit y.ac.uk/projgall/robinson323

© Rick Bury 2010


Excava t i o n s a t L o s L o b o s

23 past horizons
A R efuge in the
C limate C h ang e an d Hu m an Ad apt ati on in
Prehistor i c We ster n S a h ar a

Tex t a n d I m a g es by N ick Brooks and Joanne Clar ke

I
f y o u h a v e n’t heard of Western Sahara zone and a much smaller area c o n t r o l l e d b y
y o u ’ r e n o t alone. Situated between the Polisario.
M o r o c c o , Algeria and Mauritania, and
r i v e n b y d e c a d es of conflict, Western Sahara The Polisario-controlled areas ar e l a c k i n g i n
i s n o t e x a c t l y on the beaten track. resources and infrastructure, an d o v e r h a l f
of the indigenous Sahrawi popu l a t i o n l i v e s
O f t e n d e s c r i b e d as Africa’s last colony, and in refugee camps near the town o f Ti n d o u f i n
c l a s s i f i e d b y t he United Nations as one of neighbouring Algeria.
t h e w o r l d ’s f e w remaining non-self governing
t e r r i t o r i e s , We s tern Sahara has been the subject These camps are also home to t h e P o l i s a r i o
o f a b i t t e r d i s p ute between Morocco and the government-in-waiting of the s e l f - d e c l a r e d
i n d i g e n o u s P o l isario independence movement Sahrawi Arab Democratic Repub l i c ( S A D R ) ,
s i n c e t h e w i t h drawal of the Spanish colonial a putative state that has been rec o g n i s e d b y a
a u t h o r i t i e s i n 1 975. number of countries, and which i s a m e m b e r
of the African Union.
W h i le t h e c o n flict has been political rather
t h a n m i l i t a r y i n nature since the UN brokered Unsurprisingly, little is known a b o u t t h e
a c e a s e f i r e a n d promised a referendum on self archaeology of Western Sahar a , a n d v e r y
d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n 1991, the referendum never little research has been condu c t e d i n t h e
m a t er i a l i s e d , a nd Western Sahara is currently territory. However, this situation i s c h a n g i n g
p a r t i t i o n e d b e t ween a Moroccan controlled as the territory begins to open u p t o f o r e i g n

past horizons 24
Canary Islands
Tarfaya Morocco Tindouf

Laayoune

Northern Sector
Boujdour Tifariti

D eser t?

ra
ha

rm
Be
Sa
of
rn

e
Lin
te
es
Southern Mauritania

W
Sector Mauritania

Lajuad
Muyalhet Awaadi
Zoug

Western
Sahara

0 250km

Th e d r y remains of a prehistoric freshwater lake in the far south of Western S ahara

researchers. The Polisario has been particularly In 2002 a team led by the Unive r s i t y o f E a s t
a c t i v e i n e n c o u raging archaeological research Anglia (UEA) carried out an ar c h a e o l o g i c a l
i n t h e a r e a s t h ey control, and the SADR has and palaeo-environmental rec o n n a i s s a n c e
r e c e n t l y p a s s e d a law relating to the t reatment survey in the northern sector of th e P o l i s a r i o -
a n d p r e s e r v a tion of Western Sahara’s controlled areas. The result of t h i s i n i t i a l
a r c h a e o l o g i c a l heritage. survey was the establishment of t h e We s t e r n
Sahara Project, based at UEA. Si n c e 2 0 0 2 t h e
F o r t h e P o l i s ario, archaeology provides a Western Sahara Project has run f i v e s e a s o n s
m e a n s o f e n g a g ing with the wider international of extensive survey and reconnais s a n c e w o r k ,
c o m m u n i t y a n d raising awareness of the and three seasons of excavations a n d i n t e n s i v e
e x i s t e n c e o f We stern Sahara and, by extension, survey.
t h e p r e d i c a m e nt of its people.
While these field seasons have e x p a n d e d o u r
F o r s o m e y e a r s Spanish archaeologists have understanding of the archaeolog y o f We s t e r n
b e e n w o r k i n g i n the Polisario-controlled areas, Sahara in general terms, a key aim o f t h e p r o j e c t
s y s t e m a t i c a l l y cataloguing the many rock is to examine how prehistoric p o p u l a t i o n s
p a i n t i n g s a n d engravings in these areas, and responded and adapted to sev e r e c l i m a t i c
r e c o r d i n g h u n dreds of other archaeological and environmental changes, spe c i f i c a l l y t h e
s i t e s. desertification of the Saharan reg i o n b e t w e e n
about 6000 and 4500 years ago.

25 past horizons
D u r i n g t h i s p e r iod the Sahara was transformed In the eastern and central S a h a r a , w e l l -
f r o m a h u m i d savannah to an arid desert. funded research programmes last i n g f o r m a n y
T h i s t r a n s i t i o n was not smooth, and appears decades have done much to ill u m i n a t e t h e
t o h a v e b e e n c losely linked with episodes of links between past climatic, e n v i r o n m e n t a l
r a p i d g l o b a l c l imate change lasting several and cultural change, although mu c h m o r e w o r k
c e n t u r i e s a n d centred around 5900 and 5200 remains to be done in these reg i o n s . I n t h e
y e a r s a g o . D u ring this period much of the western regions work has been m u c h p a t c h i e r
w o r l d c o o l e d and deserts advanced across and less well resourced, and vas t s w a t h e s o f
t h e n o r t h e r n h e misphere sub-tropical region, desert there remain unexamined b y m o d e r n
w i t h e v i d e n c e of increased aridity apparent archaeological and scientific met h o d s .
i n r e c o r d s f r o m West Africa to China, and in
s o u t h e r n N o r t h America.

T h e f i v e c e n t u ries between about 5700 and


5 2 0 0 y e a r s a g o saw collapse of rainfall and
v e g e t a t i o n t h r o ughout much of the Sahara, and
c o i n c i d e d w i t h severe aridity in the Arabian
P e n i n s u l a , a 6 00- year drought in Iran, the
d r y i n g o f l a k e s in South Asia, and a shift from
f o r e s t t o s a v a n nah in what is now the south
w e s t e r n U n i t e d States.

Throughout the drying of the sub-tropics, human


p o p u l a t i o n s h a d to contend with reductions in
t h e av a i l a b i l i t y of water, pasture, pr oductive
l a n d a n d w i l d f ood products as rainfall failed
a n d la n d s c a p e s changed beyond recognition.

H u m a n r e s p o n s es to climatic desiccation and


t h e r e s u l t i n g s c arcity of resources at this time
i s e v i d e n t i n e n vironmental and archaeologcial
r e c o r d s f r o m a cross the globe. However, the
e v i d e n c e f o r s evere environmental changes
a n d h u m a n r e s ponses to such changes is most
a p p a r e n t a n d d r amatic in the Sahara.

So profound were the climatic and environmental


changes in this region that Savino di Lernia 1 , the
d i r e c t o r o f t h e Italian archaeological mission Cat t l e h e rd i n g, w h i c h f i r s t
i n t h e F e z z a n r egion of Libya, has described
t h e S a h a r a a s “ a theoretically ideal ‘training o r i g i n ate d i n t h e m o re a r i d
g r o u n d ’ f o r t h e analysis of social responses to e a s te r n S a h a ra , p rov i d e d
m a j o r e n v i r o n m ental alterations”. a m e a n s o f s u r v i va l i n a n
R u d o l f K u p e r a nd Stefan Kröpelin 2 , who have i n c re a s i n g l y h a r s h a n d
c o n d u c t e d m a n y years of archaeological and u n p re d i c t a b l e e nv i ro n m e nt
p a l a e o - e n v i r o n mental research in Egypt, Chad
a n d S u d a n , r e f er to the Sahara as “a unique
n a t u r a l l a b o r a tory for the reconstruction
o f t h e l i n k s b etween changing climate and
e n v i r o n m e n t s , and human occupat ion and
adaptation”.

past horizons 26
D a t e s a r e f e w and far between, and a map of been neglected by the internatio n a l r e s e a r c h
d a t e d a r c h a e o l ogical sites containing cattle community.
r e m ai n s r e v e a l s a great void over Western
S a h a r a , n o r t h e rn Mauritania and much of The work of the Western Sahara P r o j e c t a i m s
A l g e r i a . T h i s i s not because of the lack of to fill in some of these gaps. One o f t h e m a i n
a r c h a e o l o g i c a l sites associated with cattle, tasks of the project is develop chr o n o l o g i e s o f
w h i c h a r e w i dely depicted in rock-art in climatic and environmental chan g e , a n d u s e
t h e s e a r e a s , a n d which are evident from their these as contexts within which t o i n t e r p r e t
b o n e s a t u n d a t ed sites. Rather, it reflects the the archaeological record.
e x t e n t t o w h i c h this part of the Sahara has
The project addresses cultur a l c h a n g e s
through an examination of mate r i a l c u l t u r e
in the form of worked stone, p o t t e r y, a n d
funerary monuments. Intensive s u r v e y w o r k
around the small settlement of Ti f a r i t i , i n t h e
northern sector of the Polisari o - c o n t r o l l e d
zone, has revealed evidence of oc c u p a t i o n b y
hunters and gatherers between a b o u t 1 0 , 0 0 0
and 8000 years ago, a period of v e r y h u m i d
conditions across most of the Saha r a . E v i d e n c e
of human occupation between abo u t 8 0 0 0 a n d
6000 years ago is scarce, with t h i s h i a t u s
commencing around the time that t h e c o l l a p s e
of the remnant ice sheets over No r t h A m e r i c a
resulted in several centuries o f c o o l , a r i d
conditions. Interestingly, the reo c c u p a t i o n o f
the area around Tifariti sometim e a r o u n d o r
after 6000 years ago coincided w i t h t h e s h i f t
towards permanent aridity acros s t h e S a h a r a
and the northern hemisphere s u b - t r o p i c a l
region at large.

It is around this time that ca t t l e h e r d i n g


spread rapidly throughout the ce n t r a l S a h a r a
from east to west, as nomadic h e r d e r s l e a p -
frogged from one area to anoth e r i n s e a r c h
of ever-dwindling water and pa s t u r e . C a t t l e
herding, which first originated in t h e m o r e a r i d
eastern Sahara, provided a means o f s u r v i v a l
in an increasingly harsh and u n p r e d i c t a b l e
environment, enabling herders t o f o l l o w t h e
rains and exploit the landscape i n a f l e x i b l e ,
opportunistic manner. In more r e c e n t t i m e s
the Sahrawi came to be known as t h e “ c h i l d r e n
of the clouds” for their habit of m o v i n g w i t h
their herds to wherever rain fal l s , a l t h o u g h
their herds are of camels and g o a t s , r a t h e r
than cattle.

Cattle played a major role i n S a h a r a n


prehistory, and are one of the m o s t c o m m o n
themes in Saharan rock-art. E x c a v a t i o n s

Cattl e pai n ti n g s at R ekeiz 


27 past horizons
across the Sahara have establish e d t h a t t h e
region’s ubiquitous stone burial m o n u m e n t s
were constructed by nomadic h e rd e r s, w i t h
the earliest monuments containin g o n l y c a t t l e
remains, testament to the ritual s l a u g h t e ri n g
and internment of the animals on w h i c h t h e se
groups depended for their surviv a l .

Monumental burials and associate d st r u c t u re s


are extremely abundant in Wes t e r n S a h a ra .
Over 400 such monuments have b e e n re c o r d e d
in an area of around nine squar e k i l o m e t r e s
Stone m o nu m e n t s s uc h a s t h i s t u mu l u s n e a r Ti fa r iti are
commo n f e a t u re s i n t h e S a h a ra n l a n d s ca p e
north of Tifariti over the pas t f e w f i e l d

past horizons 28
S tan di ng s tones on an elevated area overlo o k in g the well-veget ated Wad i Tifar i ti

s e a s o ns of the We stern Sa hara P rojec t, to the no rth, and the Atlanti c to t h e w e s t.


a n d reconnaissa nce surv eys indic at e th at
s u c h funerar y l andsc apes are like ly to be Aver age year ly r ainf all excee ds 50 m m in so m e
w i d e s pr ead thro ugho ut th e te rrito ry. It is part s of Wes ter n Sahar a, mo re th a n te n t im e s
c le a r that somet ime after abou t 40 00 BCE, the amou nt in the hyper-ar id cen t r a l S a h a r a .
c a tt le herding a rrived in West ern S ah ara a s Year-to- year var iations in r ainf a ll a r e la rg e ,
th e rest of the re gion was dryin g ou t , r aisin g with s ome ye ars s eeing abu ndan t v e g e t a ti o n
th e p oss ibili ty t hat Weste rn Sa hara acted as and f lowing wadis and oth ers p lu n g i n g t h e
a re fuge f or pe ople fleei ng a ridity f urthe r regi on into s ever e ar idity.
e a st . Today Western Saha ra is sign ifi cantly
w e t ter t han othe r Sah aran regi ons a t s imila r Given its r elative fecun dity today, th e r e f u g e
la t i tu des, sandw iched bet ween the mons oon hypothes is ce rtain ly s eems plaus ib l e , a n d i s
z o n e to the s out h, th e Me diter ranea n r egion compatib le with t he limite d arc h a e o l o g ic a l

29 past horizons
Unl o c k i n g t h e s e c re t s
of We s te r n S a h a ra’s
past w i l l re q u i re m u c h
more wo rk

Large ‘b a z i n a s t y l e’ t u mu l u s ove r l o o k i n g t h e Wa d i Ternit

e v i d e n c e a c q u i red to date. For example, two The former indicate that Western S a h a ra w a s
f u n e r a r y m o n u ments near Tifariti excavated part of the wider prehistoric Sah a r a c u l t u ra l
b y t h e p r o j e c t in 2005 contained metal, complex, while the latter sug g e st s m o re
i n d i c a t i n g t h a t these burials date to some localised cultural traits. One p o s si b i l i t y i s
t i m e a f t e r a r o u nd 1000 BCE, the earl iest date that these more regional style s d e v e l o p e d
f o r m e t a l w o r k ing in western Africa. Clearly after the western regions of the S a h a ra h a d
t h e r e g i o n a r o u nd Tifariti was habitable long been separated from the areas to t h e e a s t b y
a f t e r m o s t o f t he rest of the Sahara had dried the expanding desert.
up.
Unlocking the secrets of Western S a h a r a ’s p a s t
T h e r e f u g e h ypothesis might also explain will require much more work in t h e a re a s o f
t h e p e c u l i a r c ombination of central Saharan both archaeology and environme n t a l c h a n g e .
a ff i ni t i e s a n d unique regional characteristics Cultural and environmental chron o l o g i e s n e e d
i n t h e a r c h a e ological record of Western to be established so that we can p l a c e c h a n g e s
S a h a r a , f o r e x ample as seen in the various in human occupation, subsistence st r a t e g i e s,
s t y l es o f f u n e r a ry monuments. funerary practices and social o rg a n i s a t i o n
within their wider contexts.

past horizons 30
groups, and how these changed o v e r t i m e
as the environment evolved. In i t i a l r e s u l t s
indicate that the prehistoric po p u l a t i o n i n
the vicinity of Tifariti at least ha d l i n k s w i t h
neighbouring regions. One of the m o n u m e n t s
excavated in 2005 yielded drilled s h e l l s ( m o s t
probably worn as a necklace) orig i n a t i n g f r o m
the West African coast.

In order to place the archaeologi c a l e v i d e n c e


in its environmental context, i n d i c a t o r s
of past environmental conditio n s n e e d t o
be identified, sampled and s u b j e c t e d t o
laboratory analysis and scient i f i c d a t i n g .
Initial dates suggest humid condi t i o n s a r o u n d
7000 and 5000 years ago, con s i s t e n t w i t h
evidence of more humid conditi o n s t h a n a t
present throughout the Sahara at t h e s e t i m e s .
However, sites yielding accessible a n d p r e c i s e
environmental information are f e w a n d f a r
between. Western Sahara lacks t h e s a n d s e a s
that characterise many other Saha r a n r e g i o n s ,
and in which groundwater-fed lak e s h a v e l e f t
layered, datable sediments that ca n b e u s e d t o
reconstruct past environmental c o n d i t i o n s .

To date, only one such palaeol a k e ( k n o w n


locally as Muyalhet Awaadi) has been identified
in Western Sahara, in the far so u t h e a s t n e a r
the border with Mauritania. Sa m p l e s f r o m
this site are currently awaiting a n a l y s i s , a s
are samples from a now-dry s p r i n g i n a n
elevated rock shelter at the site o f L a j u a d .
Even if these samples yield usefu l d a t a , t h e y
represent only a first step in re c o n s t r u c t i n g
past environmental conditions in t h i s b a r e l y -
T h i s w i l l r e quire detailed analysis and known region.
d a t i n g o f w o r k ed stone, pottery and funerary
m o n u m e n t s , i n order to establish how these While the story of Western Sahara’s p r e h i s t o r i c
a s p e c t s o f t h e material culture evolved inhabitants is beginning to em e rg e , m u c h
o v e r t i m e . F or example, excavation and more survey and excavation work i s r e q u i r e d
d a t i n g o f f u n e rary monuments will enable before we can place these popu l a t i o n s i n a
u s t o d e t e r m i ne whether the more unusual wider regional and environmental c o n t e x t . T h e
m o n u m e n t s a r e later than those that are more Western Sahara Project will conti n u e w i t h i t s
t y p i c a l o f t h e wider Saharan region, as we work in November 2010, through a c o m b i n a t i o n
m i g h t e x p e c t i f the former are the result of of archaeological and environme n t a l s u r v e y
l o c a l i n n o v a t i on after the region became work throughout the northern s e c t o r, a n d
i s o l at e d f r o m o ther parts of the Sahara due to archaeological excavations in t h e Ti f a r i t i
c l i m a t i c a n d e n vironmental change. area.

G e o c h e m i c a l a nalysis of teeth and bones Ultimately the project seeks to a n s w e r s o m e


m i g h t a l s o b e a ble to tell us about the diets and key questions about Saharan p r e h i s t o r y,
g e o g r a p h i c a l r anges of prehistoric pastoral and about how the waxing and w a n i n g o f

31 past horizons
h u m a n o c c u p a tion in Western Sahara was
l i n k e d w i t h d r a matic changes in climatic and
e n v i r o n m e n t a l conditions.

F o r e x a m p l e , was Western Sahara one of the


l a s t r e f u g e s f o r people fleeing desertification
a s t h e r e s t o f the Sahara dried out? How
d i d p e o p l e a d a pt their lifestyles as climatic
c o n di t i o n s c h anged and resources became
s c a r c e r ? W h e n were current desert conditions
e s t a b l i s h e d ? And what happened to the
p o p u l a t i o n s w ho built the monuments that
l i t t e r t o d a y ’s l andscapes?

I f w e c a n a n s wer these questions we will be


a b l e t o m a k e a major contribution to Saharan
– a n d A f r i c a n – archaeology, and also to our
u n d er s t a n d i n g of humanity’s long history of
i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a fickle environment.

Nick Bro oks obtained a PhD in climatolo gy from the


Universit y of East A nglia in 2000, a f ter which he
went on to work on the Fezzan Projec t in southern
Libya, examining the links b et ween past cli matic and
environmental change and human o ccupation. Nick
is cur rently a visiting research fellow at the Tyndall
Centre for Climate Change Research at UEA and makes
his living as a freelance climate change consultant,
running field seasons to Western S ahara in his spare
time. In 2006 Nick published a pap er on climate change
and the origins of civilisation, and has just finished a
b o ok chapter on how human so cieties resp onded to
severe and abrupt climate change in the distant past.

J oanne Clarke is a lec turer in A rchaeolo gy and Material


Culture Studies at the S cho ol of World A r t Studies and
Museolo gy at the Universit y of East A nglia. In addition
to her work in Western S ahara J oanne is a sp ecialist
in the prehistor y o f the Levant, with a sp ecial interest
in Cyprus, where she has direc ted excavations at the
prehistoric site of Kalavasos Kok k inoyia/Pamb oules
since 2003. J oanne ser ved as J erusalem D irec tor for
G et I nvolved
Volunteers are sought for the
the Council for British Research in the Levant, and was
November 2010 field season
ac ting direc tor of the British S cho ol of A rchaeolo gy
for both excavation and sur vey
in J erusalem. She has also worked for the National
wor k . Volunteers will receive all
Museums S cotland, and held the JRB Stewar t Fellowship
necessar y training in excavation
in Cypriot A rchaeolo gy at the Universit y of Sydney.
and site recording, and will
become familiar with the wider
1. S av i n o d i Le r n i a , ‘ B u i l d i n g M o nu m e n t s, C re a t i ng Identit y :
archaeology of the S ahara.
Cattle Cu l t a s a S o c i a l R e s p o n s e to Ra p i d E nvironmental
Change s i n t h e H o l o ce n e S a h a ra’, Q ua te r n a r y I n ternational,
Volume 1 5 1 , I s s u e 1 , J u l y 2 0 0 6 , p p. 5 0 - 6 2 Par ticipants will lodge in guest
accommodation while wor k ing
2. Rud o l p h Ku p e r a n d S te fa n K rö p e l i n , ‘C l i m a te - Controlled near settlements and militar y
Holo ce n e O cc u p a t i o n i n t h e S a h a ra : M o to r of Africa’s bases, and camp in the open
Evoluti o n’, S c i e n ce, 1 1 Aug u s t 2 0 0 6 : � Vo l. 3 1 3 . n o. 5788, pp. in more remote locations (e.g.
803-80 7 . O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n S c i e n ce E x p ress, 20 July dur ing the sur vey wor k).
2006

past horizons 32
Volunteers will also have the Volunteer fees make a vital
oppor tunit y to visit rock-ar t sites contr ibution to the costs of field
and other sites of archaeological seasons, which do not make a
and environmental interest while profit. Any fu nds not spent on
not excavating or conduc ting direc t field costs contr ibute to
sur vey wor k . the costs of laborator y analysis
and dating of samples.
Dates: 5-28 November 2010
(precise dates to be confir med) Email N ick Brooks at:
nick .brooks@uea.ac.uk for more
Cost: £240 0 (approx €2760 or infor mation or to apply.
$3880). I ncludes flights from
London and all field expenses Website: http://w w w.nick brooks.
(food, water, accommodation, org/WS/WS ahara.htm for more
trans por t). detailed infor mation.

Examining monuments in the southern sand sea, near Zoug

33 past horizons
U B
Birmingham provides the ideal footing for
anyone wanting to begin a career in
archaeology or the heritage environment.
Along with diverse skills and opportunities
provided, I also got to experience city life
in Britain’s second city. Thanks to the
course, I have been employed in
archaeology since I graduated in 2007.

Emma Sautejeau, MA Practical Archaeology

The Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity offer a range of postgraduate and


professional training courses aimed to provide you with the skills you need to
work in the heritage environment today. From project management techniques
in archaeology to the visualisation of past environments, we aim to give you
practical experience in the diverse range of techniques and approaches
available to heritage practitioners.

All of the courses we offer can be tailored to your individual


interests and needs, and can be delivered full-time or part-time
degrees.

Campus-based programmes
MA/PG Diploma in Practical Archaeology
MA/PG Diploma in Landscape Archaeology, GIS & Virtual
Environments
MSc in Environmental Archaeology & Palaeoenvironments
MA in Conflict Archaeology
M Phil (B) in Archaeological Practice

Distance Education programmes


MA/PG Diploma in Practical Archaeology (DE)
MA/PG Diploma in Landscape Archaeology,
GIS & Virtual Environments (DE)

To find out more, go to


http://www.iaa.bham.ac.uk/Postgraduate/
or email us at archpgrad@lists.bham.ac.uk Emma holding a medieval leather
shoe recovered from excavations in
Birmingham

past horizons 34
WHS
W O R K H A R D O R S TA RV E

F i n d i t H e re

35 past horizons
Lords of the Sea
Uncovering an I ron -Ag e Ch i e f t a i n’s Lo n g - h o u s e

B y M a g gi e Str u c k m e i e r

During the late Iron-Age, Lofoten chiefdoms were actively


incr easing their wealth through tribute and trade. These chieftains
owned large farms, built fine boats and longhouses, and
surrounded themselves with exotic items brought back from
trading expeditions.

A glimpse into this dynamic Norwegian world was helped


by a chance discovery in 1981 on the Island of Vestvågøy
which contained the largest longhouse ever found in
Scandinavia. The results from the excavation led
to such a wealth of information that a replica of
the hall was built nearby allowing visitors to
experience the life of a Lofoten chieftain.

past horizons 36
37 P h o to cr ed it:past
S e rghorizons
e i Va v i l ov
Finds from the excavations (clo ck wise, from top lef t):
1. G old foil cultic plaque or ‘gull- gubb e’ depic ting Froy, the go d of
fer tilit y and p eace, embracing G erd, the daughter of a mytholo gical
Norse giant
2. Tating-ware jug made in the R hineland area b et ween late 8th and
early 9th centuries
3. Tor toise bro o ches with dress fittings for a women’s ou ter garment.
4. Highly decorated sword hilt

I t i s e s t i m a t e d that there may have been three This was set to change when, in t h e A u t u m n
L o f o t e n c h i e f d oms; two of them on Vestvågøy of 1981, Frikk Harald Bjerkli, a l o c a l f a r m e r
a n d t h e t h i r d on the neighbouring Island of out ploughing his land, noticed s o m e u n u s u a l
Gimsøy. This way of life was already established pottery and glass coming up i n t h e s o i l .
b y t h e e a r l y c enturies AD, with fishing and Fortunately, he retrieved the i t e m s w h i c h
s m a l l - s c a l e f a rming the main subsistence proved to be a turning point for B o rg h i s t o r y.
a c t i v i t i e s . H o w ever, towards the late Iron Age The fragments represented h i g h s t a t u s
l a rg e r f a r m s w ith a more centralised function European wares, rarely seen in S c a n d i n a v i a
b e g a n t o a p p e a r, indicating a shift in fortunes let alone in Northern Norway.
a n d a c o n c e n t r ation of power.
In response to this discovery te s t t r e n c h i n g
A t t h a t p o i n t t h e Lofoten islands were densely began in the farmer ’s field i n 1 9 8 3 a n d
p o p u l a t e d p u t ting pressure on the scarce recovered more of the distinctiv e R h i n e l a n d
a r a b l e l a n d f o und mainly along the coastal pottery known as Tating ware, a l o n g w i t h a
areas. B o rg , located in the nort heast of wide variety of European glass f r a g m e n t s . I n
Ve s tv å g ø y, s t i l l forms one of these habitable the same location the remains of a t l e a s t f i v e
s p o t s . T h i s t i n y community had been identified buildings were identified with r a d i o c a r b o n
b y a r c h a e o l o g i sts as exhibiting most of the dating indicating a span of 650 y e a r s , l e a n i n g
h a l l m a r k s o f a possible chieftain’s farm with towards late Iron Age. However, t h e r a n g e o f
i t s b o a t h o u s e remains, barrows and vestiges artefacts found, including the imp o r t e d w a r e s ,
o f l o n g - h o u s e s . However, with no evidence of were mainly dated to between th e 6 t h a n d 8 t h
a g r e a t h a l l t h ere was no conclusive proof. centuries.

past horizons 38
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M a p showing lo cation of the Lofoten Islands with trade and colonisation routes

T h e e x c i t i n g r esults obtained from the test


t r e n c h i n g c l e a rly warranted more action.
M a j o r e x c a v a t ions got underway in 1986
i n t h e f o r m o f a combined research project
i n v o l v i n g p a r t i cipation from Norway, Sweden,
D e n m a r k , F i n l and and the United Kingdom.

A f t e r t h r e e y e a rs the archaeological team had


s u c c e e d e d i n e xcavating the remains of the
l a rg e s t l o n g h o u se ever found in Scandinavia,
a n d w a s i n t e r p reted as a chieftain’s hall. The
e x c a v a t i o n s r e vealed that a 67-metre-long
b u i l d i n g h a d f i rst been erected as early as the
s i x t h c e n t u r y a nd was subsequently rebuilt and
e n l a rg e d a t t h e beginning of the 8th century
t o a l e n g t h o f 8 3 metres.

T h e r e m a i n s o f the hall itself were p reserved


t o t h e e x t e n t that traces of the turf outer
w a l l s , e n t r a n c es, partitioning walls, floors,
h e a r t h s a n d i n ternal roof supports could be
u n d er s t o o d . T h e structure had been divided
1980’s excavation site with lower image revealing the shap e
 of the long-house

39 past horizons
i n t o f i v e m a i n areas consisting of the living the turf outer walls of any strai n . T h e l o n g -
q u a r t e r s , b a n q ueting hall and storage room, house was completed in 1995 a n d i s n o w
v e s t ib u l e , a n d animal shed. known as the Lofotr Museum.

T h e f u n c t i o n of each room was determined The remains of three boathouses a t B o rg h a v e


m a i n l y b y t h e distribution of finds. Although never been examined archaeolo g i c a l l y. T h e
m o d e r n f a r m i n g methods had destroyed the largest is estimated to be aroun d 2 6 m e t r e s
s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l sequence the objects did not
long. Based on information from e x c a v a t i o n s
a p p e a r t o h a v e migrated very far fr om their at Rennesøy in Rogaland, a 3 0 - m e t r e - l o n g
o r i g in a l l o c a t i ons within the confines of theboathouse has been reconstructe d a t B o rg t o
building itself. house ‘Lofotr ’, a copy of the G o k s t a d s h i p
from the 9th century found during e x c a v a t i o n s
A f t e r t h r e e y e a rs, archaeologists had amassed near the Oslo fjord.
e n o u g h e v i d e n ce to re-construct the long-
h o u s e a s i t w ould have looked in its final At this time, boat building h a d b e c o m e
p h a s e . S e v e r a l alternative roof constructions much more accomplished and n a v i g a t i o n
w e r e d i s c u s s e d based around the two options was extremely precise. A warm i n g c l i m a t e
o f s h i n g l e o r t urf. Shingle, such as is found, also meant that travelling becam e e a s i e r a n d
f o r i n s t a n c e , o n Norwegian stave churches, the Atlantic Ocean was crossed o n t r i p s t o
w a s e v e n t u a l l y decided upon. Shingle makes Iceland, Greenland and Vinland ( p a r t o f N o r t h
t h e b u i l d i n g v isible from a great distance, America). Norwegian merchants t r a v e l l e d t o
w h e re a s a t u r f roof would have made the hall the east, by way of the Russian r i v e r s , t o t h e
q u i t e i n c o n s p i cuous within the la ndscape. Caspian Sea and through the B l a c k S e a t o
P o l e s m o u n t e d in pairs bear the weight of Constantinople (Byzantium).
t h e ro o f w h i c h sits 9 metres
f r o m g r o u n d l e vel and
relieves

The ch i e f t a i n’s l o n g - h o u s e co m p l e te d i n 1 9 9 5 a n d op ened as a museum where volunteers can stay for a while an d take par t
in the d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s ra n g i n g f ro m p i c k i n g h e r b s, co ok ing, sailing, cra f t-work and exp erimental archaeolo gy

past horizons 40
A volunteer at Lofotr works the smithy in p erio d costume,
mixing exp erimental archaeolo gy with living histor y

One Norwegian chieftain from th e 9 t h c e n t u r y


who went on such expeditions wa s O t t a r f r o m
Hålogaland, to the north of Lof o t e n . I n h i s
travelogue from the 9th century h e d e s c r i b e s
travelling to the frozen wastelan d s a l o n g t h e
White Sea, dealing with groups s u c h a s t h e
Sami, then onto the trading town s o f s o u t h e r n
Scandinavia and across to Engla n d w h e r e h e
visited King Alfred of Wessex.

Ottar brought back to his home l a n d l u x u r y


articles such as fine textiles, g l a s s v e s s e l s ,
precious metals, wheat, honey a n d w i n e . I n
return he could offer black fo x a n d w h i t e
marten fur, soapstone vessels, w h e t s t o n e s
made of shale, and a variety of i r o n g o o d s .
Walrus tusk ivory was very muc h i n d e m a n d
and so valuable that when Otta r v i s i t e d t h e
Court in Wessex he brought two a s a g i f t t o
Photo credit: Chris Zielecki King Alfred.

Ph o t o c re d i t : Odd-Arild Bugge

41 past horizons
Ottar may have storerooms o n h e r b e l t .
seemed p a r ticularly In certain s i t u a t i o n s
a d v e n t u r o u s t o the likes she would t a k e o v e r
o f t h e E n g l i s h , but due the functi o n s o f h e r
t o t h e l i m i t a tions of husband an d w a s o f t e n
t h e l a n d i n s upplying effectively i n c h a rg e o f
t h e i r n e e d s it was the farm.
e x p e c t e d o f m en from
these N o rwegian At the age o f 1 5 , y o u n g
c o m m u n i t i e s t o travel men were e n t i t l e d t o
i n s e a r c h o f w ealth and decide how t o u s e t h e i r
o p p or t u n i t y. This, of inherited p r o p e r t y a n d
c o u r s e , m e a n t leaving to bear re s p o n s i b i l i t y
b e h i n d a f a m ily and for their ac t i o n s . T h e y
s l a v e s t o c o n t inue the were giv e n public
y e a r- r o u n d farming tasks tha t included
activities. participatio n i n d e f e n c e
and acts of v e n g e a n c e ,
L i f e o n a n I r on Age and were e x p e c t e d t o
f a r m i n v o l v e d a strict win honour a n d w e a l t h
d e m a r c a t i o n o f roles. for them s e l v e s and
The women were their famil i e s .
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r milking
t h e c o w s , b a king the Although t h e s e p e o p l e
bread, brewing beer, seemed to e n j o y s t a t u s
preparing meals, and weal t h , events
s p i n n i n g , w e a ving and or circumstance
r a i s i n g t h e children. appeared to have
When young, boys driven them f r o m t h e i r
a n d g i r l s h a d a similar settlements . Iceland
upbringing. They played was fast b e c o m i n g a
together and were popular destination
e x p e c t e d t o t ake part for Norweg i a n s , b e i n g
i n d a y - t o - d a y chores first sett l e d around
w h e r e t h e y acquired the late 9 t h c e n t u r y
t h e s k i l l s n e eded to by a chie f t a i n c a l l e d
r u n a s u c c e s s f ul farm Ingólfur Arnarson.
and maintain the Many chieftains
c o m m u n i t y ; t o keep the quickly fo l l o w e d s u i t ,
society going. accompani e d b y t h e i r
families a n d s l a v e s ,
The women went most prob a b l y d r i v e n
s t r a i g h t f r o m c hildhood by politic a l u p h e a v a l
t o m a r r i a g e a nd were A l o rd p re p a re s to tell tales of his travelsand land pr e s s u r e s .
equipped with a personal
d o w r y. T h i s w a s their first contribution to the Towards the end of the 10th cent u r y t h e f a r m
w e a l t h o f t h e f arm to which they moved, and and long-house at Borg were aba n d o n e d . T h e
i n m a n y w a y s a woman was as valued and precise reasons for his departu r e f r o m t h e
r e s p e c t e d a s a man. She might own her own shores of Lofoten may never be k n o w n , b u t i t
l a n d , a n d w i t h very few exceptions would is likely that this chieftain, in se a r c h o f m o r e
i n h e r i t o n a n equal footing with a man. To security and better opportunities, h a d b o a r d e d
s y m b o l i s e h e r authority and power, she his ship and in the traditional No r w e g i a n w a y
w o u ld w e a r t h e keys to chests, cupboards and and sought greater fortunes overs e a s .

past horizons 42
I f you are viewing this on scr ibd, please
click the link below to view the video

http://w w w.youtube.com/watch?v=hYAwhiIF0H8

A v i d e o p re s entation from the Lofotr M useum.

G e t I nvo l ve d
Wo rk at Lo fo tr: Volunteer:

The summer season star ts on M ay 1st a nd closes As a volunteer at B org, you live and wor k at the
S eptember 15th. D ur ing the season employees are museum and par ticipate in the ac tivities. You can
needed for full and par t-time wor k as guides and br ing your own Vik ing clothes and appropr iate
handcraf ters. A background in archaeology, histor y equipment for the job you want to do. However, this
and travel or good language sk ills is an advantage. must be approved by the museum for authenticit y.

For all these jobs you must speak English and S end an email with the t ype of wor k you want to do.
applicants who also speak G er man, French, Spanish I nclude infor mation on other sk ills you may have.
or I talian will be shown a preference. When applying For instance, k nowledge of old handicraf ts, mak ing
enclose testimonials showing education and food or, collec ting her bs. The museum wants to
exper ience. R emember to specify which occupation k now more about what you can do and what you
and time per iod you can wor k , and if you want full have done before.
or par t-time employment. Applicants who want to
wor k continuously for more than four weeks will Post your application to: Lofotr Vik ingmuseet,
also be shown a preference. Prestegårdsveien 59, 8360 B østad, Nor way

App lications must be sent in no later than 7 Februar y Email: vik ingmuseet@lofotr.no
each year.
S ee website:
http://w w w.lofotr.no/Engelsk/en_index.html

43 past horizons
M e dicine
M an

A
B y Kevin G oodman
s a re-enactor specialising
i n m e d i c i n e , s u rg e r y a n d
the healing arts, accuracy
a n d a u t h en t i c i t y a r e e x t r e m e l y
important. Fortunately there is a
wealth of medical documentary and
archaeological material available for
research. Presenting that material in
a way that is accessible, enjoyable
and at the same time educational is
all part of the challenge of the job.

Kevin G o o d m a n a s t h e ‘ B a r b e r S u rg e o n’. ( i m a g e : J o Homfray)

past horizons 44
1 2 th ce nt u r y mu ral f ro m A n ag n i , I tal y, de pi c ti n g early phy s icians G alen and H ipp o crates

A s a r e s u l t o f my research I have d eveloped The Mediaeval doctor firmly be l i e v e d i n t h e


a n e n o r m o u s respect for the physicians of four humours first championed by H i p p o c r a t e s .
t h e p a s t , r e c o gnising the dynamic processes The humours, namely choleric, m e l a n c h o l i c ,
t h e y w e r e i n v olved in. Over the past two- phlegmatic and sanguine, were fo r m e d b y t h e
t o - t h r e e t h o u s and years, practition ers have bodily fluids of blood, phlegm , b l a c k b i l e
r e f e r e n c e d m a ny different sources, enabling and yellow bile. If these hum o u r s b e c a m e
a d v a n c e m e n t s in medicine around the world. imbalanced illness would occu r. D i a g n o s i s
and treatment was a mixture o f a s t r o n o m y,
F o r e x a m p l e , t he 7th century Greek physician astrology and religion which Ch a u c e r c l e a r l y
P a u l o f A e g i na and the 10-11th century illustrates:
P e r s i a n p h y s i c ian Avicenna professe d a great
a d m i r a t i o n f o r the earlier work of Hippocrates “For he was grounded in astronomy.
He often kept a patient from the pall
a n d G a l e n . L e a p forward hundreds of years to By horoscopes and magic natural.
t h e M e d i a e v a l times where Avicenna, Galen Well could he tell the fortune ascendant
a n d H i p p o c r a t es greatly influenced the 14th Within the houses for his sick patient.
c e n t u r y F r e n c h surgeon Guy de Chauliac. He He knew the cause of every malady,
b e l i e v e d t h a t medical advancements could Were it of hot or cold, of moist or dry,
And where engendered, and of what humour;
o n l y b e m a d e b y first studying these great men, He was a very good practitioner...”
a n d a s a r e s u l t de Chauliac dominated medical
t h i n k i n g i n F r ance for over 200 years.

T h e E n g l i s h author Geoffrey Chaucer ’s


d e s cr i p t i o n o f the ‘Doctor ’ in the prologue to
T h e C a n t e r b u r y Tales (c1390) names many of
t h e m e n t h r o u gh history that influenced the
M e di a e v a l m e d ical mind:

“Well read was he in Esculapius,


And Descorides, and in Rufus,
Hippocrates, and Hali, and Galen,
Serapion, Rhazes, and Avicen,
Averrhoes, Gilbert, and Constantine,
Bernard and Gatisden,
and John Damascene…”


Zo d i a c M a n f ro m J o h n d e Fox to n’s Lib er
Co sm o g ra p h i a e, 1 4 0 8

45 past horizons
A r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence shows that Pre-
h i s t o r i c p e o p l es had already amassed a
w e a l t h o f m e dical knowledge particularly
i n t he r e a l m s of herbal treatments a nd some
t y p e s o f s u rg e r y. The study of human remains
f r o m e x c a v a t i o ns reveal a great number of
m e d ic a l i n t e r v entions. For example, painful
h e a d a c h e s m i g ht be dealt with by trepanation
o f t h e s k u l l i n o rder to relieve pressure on the
b r a i n . E v i d e n c e for this has been found dating
a s f a r b a c k a s t h e Neolithic period. Performing
a t r e p a n a t i o n p rocedure is not without danger
b u t t h e e v i d e nce shows that many people
s u r v i v e d t h e o r deal nonetheless.

M u m m i f i e d b o dies seem to provide a great


s o u r c e o f f a s c i nation and ‘Ötzi the Iceman’
i s n o e x c e p t i o n. The 5300-year-old frozen
m u m m y d i s c o vered in the Tyrolean Alps
i n 1 9 9 1 i s p a rticularly interesting from a
m e d ic a l p o i n t of view. He was found to be
c a r r y i n g d i ff e r ent varieties of fungus, some
S eated statue of Ramesses II at Abu Simb el, Egypt
o f w h i c h m a y have represented treatments
f o r i n t e s t i n a l w orms and diarrhoea. Ötzi had Many studies have been carried ou t o n a n c i e n t
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 57 carbon tattoos consisting Egyptians, both on the wealthy e l i t e a n d t h e
o f s i m p l e d o t s and lines on his lower spine, lower classes. The remains of Ram e s s e s I I w h o
b e h i n d h i s l e f t knee, and on his right ankle. died at the grand old age of 90 r e v e a l e d t h a t
U s i n g X - r a y s , it was determined that the he suffered from joint inflamma t i o n , s e v e r e
I c e m a n m a y h a ve had arthritis in these joints dental problems and hardening of t h e a r t e r i e s .
w i t h s o m e s p e c ulation that the dots and lines Not alone, the ancient Egyptian p o p u l a t i o n ,
m a y b e r e l a t e d to acupuncture. many of whom endured hard phys i c a l t o i l a n d
dietary deficiencies, suffered fro m a v a r i e t y
of bone and joint problems such a s f r a c t u r e s ,
curvature of the spine, arthritis a n d r i c k e t s ,
with some skeletons even showi n g e v i d e n c e
of limb amputation.

Moving forward again to Mediae v a l E n g l a n d


the medical fraternity had a rang e o f d i s e a s e s
to contend with from dysentery a n d l e p r o s y
to plague and smallpox. The c h a l l e n g e t o
physicians was immense at this t i m e a s m a n y
brutal battles were being fought w i t h s o l d i e r s
often sustaining horrific injuries .

Discoveries from the battle of To w t o n ( 1 4 6 1 )


give an insight into some of th e s u c c e s s e s
of medical treatment on these o f t e n l i f e -
threatening fractures and wounds . I n 1 9 9 6 , 4 3
skeletons were excavated from th e b a t t l e f i e l d
site and examined in detail. T h e s k u l l o f
Skull o f a N e o l i t h i c ( 3 5 0 0 B C ) f e m a l e w h o s u r v i ve d a skeleton 16, for example sustai n e d i n j u r i e s
trepan a t i o n o p e ra t i o n inflicted by the beak of a pole a x e o r w a r

past horizons 46
h a m m e r. W h i l e these particular injuries were
f a t a l , t h e s k e l e t on’s jaw showed signs of being
p r e v i o u s l y s m ashed and successfully reset.
T h i s w o u l d h a v e been achieved by supporting
t h e j a w i n a s l i ng tied around the head, whilst
h o l d i n g t h e m o uth open with pieces of wood
t o a l l o w f e e d i ng. It is most likely that a
c o m p r e s s o f c o mfrey would have been applied
t o h e a l t h e b o n es.

K n o w l e d g e o f medical remedies and surgical


e q u i p m e n t a r e a big part of the re-enactors 1 2
r e p e r t o i r e a n d it can prove useful to look
a t w r i t t e n s o urces for descriptions and
i l l u s t r a t i o n s . I n his book The Method of
M e d i c i n e, t h e Islamic physician and surgeon
A l b uc a s i s p r o v ides numerous illustrations of
h i s l a rg e c o l l e ction of surgical instruments
a s d i d t h e r e v o lutionary 16th century French
s u rg e o n , A m broise Paré. This valuable 3
i n f o r m a t i o n h as enabled some c raftsmen
t o e n t e r i n t o the realms of experimental 1 . A m b ro i s e Pa ré’s i l l u s t ra t i o n a n d d e s c r i p t i o n o f a trepanation drill
2 . R e - c re a t i o n o f d r i l l p a r t s
a r c h a e o l o g y a n d recreate surgical equipment 3. Assembled drill
using a combination of archaeological evidence,
i l l u s t r a t i o n s a n d written descriptions .
In this article I have tried to hig h l i g h t s o m e
A r c h a e o l o g i c a l discoveries have enabled us to of the many fascinating stories t h a t m a k e u p
v i e w o r i g i n a l s urgical objects at first hand and the material for medical re-enact m e n t .
w o r k o u t r e c i p es for medicines. From a house
i n P o m p e i i a r chaeologists recovered what A two dimensional image on a p a g e o r a n
i s r ec o g n i s e d as one of the best collections isolated object in a museum dis p l a y c a n n o t
o f s u rg i c a l i n s truments ever found from the always enliven the imagination i n t h e w a y
R o m a n p e r i o d . Equally as exciting, from the that re-enactment can. A goo d r e - e n a c t o r
w r e c k o f t h e e a rly 16th century ship the Mary can inspire, astonish and edu c a t e a n d i f
R o s e, t h e b a r b e r surgeon’s cabin and medical at the end of the performance t h e a u d i e n c e
c h e s t w e r e located intact, representing goes away thrilled and enlighten e d b y t h e i r
t h e m o s t c o m plete collection of medical experience then all of the resear c h w i l l h a v e
e q u i p m e n t a n d surgical instruments from that been worthwhile. Of course, that s a i d , a d d i n g
p e r i o d a n d i n c l udes the remains of medicines a dash of the gruesome does hav e s o m e t h i n g
and ointments. to do with it as well!

M o re I n fo r m at i o n
Kevin Goodman’s passion for re-enactment/historical interpretation
developed from applying his love for bushcraft, history and
archaeology. Based in Dudley, West Midlands, Engl and, he now
tra vels around the country appearing at festivals, museums and sites
of historic interest portraying the wiseman, surgeon or physician.
He regularly appears at schools and societies giving presentations
on a variety of historical subjects including medicine, surgery and
the healing arts from Prehistory to the Renaissance.

For more infor mation on future appearances see Kevin’s website


at: http//:bowsbladesandbattles.tr ipod.com
email: bowsbladesandbattles@yahoo.co.uk

47 past horizons
Di g I n
A se l e c t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i cal and
con s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t s a r o u nd the world.

I re l a n d B oy n e Valley R esearch Projec t

The Boyne Valley Research Project is a multi-period, multi-disciplinary research project at


the Bend of the Boyne UNESCO world heritage site, Ireland. This year ’s research programme
will focus on archaeological excavations at Bective Abbey and Rath Maeve on t he Hill of Tara.
Students and participants will be taught by experts and will be guided through the process of
archaeological excavation. All levels of experience will be catered for.

Dates: 7 June - 27 August 2010


Costs: €500 per week (includes tuition)

Contact : info@iafs.ie
Web: http://www.iafs.ie/index.html

I s rae l Te l B u r na

Located in southern Israel along the banks of Nahal Guvrin. The Shephela (foothills) served as
a border between the kingdoms of Judah and the Philistines in the Iron Age, an d was known as
the breadbasket of the south due to its suitability for growing grapes and olives. The prominent
summit is a result of the fortifications that enclosed the upper city and are still visible today.
Tel Burna has never been excavated before.

Dates: 13 June - 2 July 2010


Costs: $400 per week

Contact: shai.itzick@gmail.com
Web: http://telburna.wordpress.co m

M o n g o l i a M o ngol-Amer ican K hovd Archaeology Projec t

The project aims to advance material investigations of the peoples and cultures of the Altai
Mountains, a crucial region between the nomads of the Mongolian steppes and the Silk Road
area within present-day northwest China. Excavations will focus on a Xiongnu (3rd century
BC - 1st century AD) cemetery in the high mountains and investigate several preceding Bronze
A ge monuments within the vicinity of the Tsenkher River. The Khovd project addresses a
set of research questions that investigate patterns of subsistence and mobility in both local
communities and the larger region in order to understand integration and interaction.

Dates: 8 June - 31 July 2010


Costs: $1500

Contact: millerbk@sas.upenn.ed u
Web: http://silkroadfoundation.org/archaeology/khovd

past horizons 48
E n g l a n d B i n c hester R oman Excavations

Binchester Fort, known to the Romans as Vinovia, will be the site of a major new project
exploring the archaeology of the fort, the attached vicus and the landscape in which they lie.
Between 2009 and 2014 teams from the archaeology departments at Durham University and
Stanford University will work in close co-operation with the archaeology section of Durham
County Council to better understand this important site.

Dates: 4 - 31 July 2010


Costs: $4000

Contact: binchester-devore@stanford.edu
Web: http://humanitieslab.stanford.edu/Binchester/Home

J o rd a n K h i r b at al-M udayna

Wadi ath-Thamad flows southwest into the Wadi Majib just north of its confluence with the Dead
Sea. This wadi system forms the border of a triangular area that includes the Moabite city of
Dibon, the capital of Mesha. A series of fortified sites along the Wadi ath-Thamad may indicate
a northern frontier between the Moabites and the Israelites who had conquered part of Moab in
the 9th century BC. Khirbat al-Murdayna, an Iron Age tell site with a Nabatean settlement at its
foot, was chosen for a long-term investigation project in this frontier region.

Dates: 17 June - 31 July 2010


Cost: $2200

Contact: wadithamad@wlu.lc a
Web: http://www.wlu.ca/page.php?grp_id=296&p=308 3

U n i te d St ate s Archaeological Prospec tion Wor kshop

This workshop is dedicated to the use of geophysical, aerial photography and other remote
sensing methods as they apply to the identification, evaluation, conservation and protection
of archaeological resources. The workshop will present lectures on the theory of operation,
methodology, processing and interpretation with hands-on use of the equipment in the field. To
be held at the Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site in North Dakota.

Dates: 24 - 28 May 2010


Costs: $475

Contact: steve_de_vore@nps.go v
Web: http://www.nps.gov/history/mwa c

R o m an i a Ca r pathian Ancient R esource and Technology Projec t

The 2010 field season will take place at the late Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age settlement
site at Piatra Tomii in Alba County. The research this year will continue to investigate flint
mining techniques used during the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age as well as flint processing
workshops at the settlement, particularly related to the methodology and equipment used by the
Cotofeni people.

Dates: 5 - 24 July 2010


Costs: €200 per week

Contact: cerc_de_arheologie@uab.ro
Web: http://cartproject.22web.net

To s ee more projec ts go to: ht t p : / / w w w. p a s t h o r i zo n s. co m / Wo rl d Pro j e c t s

49 past horizons
Recipes for Archaeologists

FOOD FOR THE FIELD


The pattern of life on a dig t h e f i e l d . T h e s e w ere supplied
usually calls for very early t o s o l d i e r s o n t h e b attlefields of
Annie Evans
breakfasts and then food to eat in Tu r k e y a n d F r a n c e i n World War
The Dig Cook t h e f i e l d a c o u p l e o f h o u r s l a t e r. O n e b e c a u s e o f t h eir excellent
For field food, I like to prepare keeping qualities.
a s e l e c t i o n o f h i g h e n e rg y s n a c k s ,
cakes, biscuits or scones that will D a t e a n d w a l n u t l o a f is ideal field
survive the morning in hot or cold f o o d a s i s l u m b e r j a c k cake, cheese
climates in a backpack to have a n d c u r r y b i s c u i t s a nd all manner
with that flask of morning tea or o f s c o n e s . S c o n e s a r e very quick
c o ff e e . T h e s e w i l l g i v e a n e n e rg y a n d e a s y t o m a k e . They cook in
b o o s t w h e n i t ’s m o s t n e e d e d . t w e l v e m i n u t e s i n a hot oven and
y o u c a n h a v e a b a t c h ready to eat
Here are several ideas for these i n 3 0 m i n u t e s . S c ones are best
morning munchies. I supply a e a t e n t h e d a y t h e y are made and
reuseable ziplock bag so that i d e a l l y w a r m f r o m t he oven...not
people may help themselves to my t h a t t h a t e v e r h a p p e n s on a dig.
trail mix. This consists of mixed
n u t s ( r a w, r o a s t e d , s a l t e d a n d S o m e p e o p l e l i k e t o take a second
unsalted) and dried fruits such b r e a k f a s t i n t o t h e field. This
as sultanas, raisins, dates, dried h e l p s t o m a k e i t t h r o ugh the long,
cooked chickpeas, and breakfast a r d u o u s h o u r s b e t w een breakfast
cereal such as Nutrigrain or a t d a w n a n d l u n c h i n the middle
whatever is available in the area o f t h e d a y. S o m e b r ead, a boiled
where the dig is taking place. e g g , t o m a t o , c u c u mber, cheese
B o i l e d s w e e t s a n d t o ff e e s a r e a l s o a n d m a y b e s o m e s l i ced cold meat
p o p u l a r. w i l l k e e p t h e t e a m going until
l u n c h t i m e . F r u i t i s a nother option
Another good idea is a rich, dense f o r t h e f i e l d . B a n anas, apples,
fruitcake. It cuts well and will o r a n g e s , l y c h e e s , k iwifruit and
keep for weeks. Anzac biscuits a n y t h i n g s e a l e d i n its own skin
are an Australian invention and are w i l l b e r e f r e s h i n g a nd keep away
traditionally eaten on Anzac Day t h e h u n g e r p a n g s u n til lunchtime
(from the initials of the Australian comes around.
and New Zealand Army Corps),
t h e 2 4 t h A p r i l . I m a k e t h e m o n H e r e a r e s o m e o f my favourite
a d i g b e c a u s e t h e y a r e d e l i c i o u s r e c i p e s f o r f i e l d f o o d.
and crunchy and survive well in

The Dig Cook’s website


http://www.digcook.com © Annie E v a n s 2 0 1 0
past horizons 50
DATE AND WALNUT LOAF METHOD

1 cup seeded and chopped dates Combine dates, sugar, butter and water in a saucepan.
60 grams butter (2 ozs) Stir over heat until sugar is dissolved but do not allow
1 cup brown sugar to boil. Remove from heat. Transfer to a mixing bowl
¾ cup water and allow to cool. Stir soda, lightly beaten egg and
½ teaspoon bi-carb soda (baking soda) nuts into cooled date mixture, then ad d sifted flours.
1 egg lightly beaten Put into a greased and floured loaf tin and cook for
½ cup walnuts roughly chopped approximately one hour in a moderately slow oven at
1 cup self raising flour 170 degrees. If a skewer is inserted into the centre of
½ cup plain flour the cake comes out clean, the cake is ready. It can be
served with a scrape of butter.
This cake will cut into about 10 slices.

BOILED FRUIT CAKE METHOD

1 kg dried mixed fruits (e.g. sultanas, raisins, Combine dried mixed fruit, butter, sugar, brandy and
currants, mixed pe el, glace cherries, glace water in a saucepan. Stir constantly over low heat
apricots) without boiling until sugar dissolves. Bring to the boil,
250 grams butter reduce heat and simmer very gently, covered for ten
1 cup brown sugar minutes. Transfer to a large bowl and cool to room
½ cup brandy temperature. Grease a 23cm round or deep 19cm square
½ cup water cake tin. Line base and sides with two thicknesses of
5 eggs lightly beaten baking paper.
1 tabl espoon treacle (or golden syrup or maple
syrup) Add eggs, treacle and citrus zest to cooled fruit mix and
2 teaspoons grated orange rind mix well. Stir in sifted dry ingredien ts and combine
2 teaspoons grated lemon rind thoroughly. Put into the cake tin and smooth the top.
1¾ cups plain flour Tap tin on the bench to remove air bubbles. Bake in a
1/3 cup self raising flour slow 160 degree oven for 1½-2 hours. Halfway through
½ half teaspoon bi-carb soda (baking soda) cooking time place a sheet of aluminium foil on the
top of the cake to stop the top from burning. Leave to
cool in tin. A small amount of brandy or rum can be
poured on top of the hot cake as soon a s it comes from
the oven. This cake is very rich and will keep for two
weeks in an airtight container.
It will cut into about 25 slices.

ANZAC BISCUITS METHOD

1 cup rolled oats Combine oats, sifted flour, sugar and coconut in a bowl.
1 cup plain flour Combine the butter and syrup in a saucepan and stir
1 cup sugar over gentle heat until melted. Mix soda with boiling
¾ cup desiccated coconut water in a cup and add to butter syrup mixture. It will
125 grams (4ozs) butter froth. Add to dry ingredients and mix thoroughly. Place
2 tablespoons golden syrup (or maple syrup) teaspoonfuls on a greased baking tray, allowing room
½ teaspoon bi-carb soda (baking soda) for spreading. Bake in a slow oven for 20 minutes.
1 tablespoon boiling water Loosen and cool on trays.
This makes approximately 25 biscuits.

51 past horizons
Fo cus on Romania
If you’re looking for an interesting archaeol ogical experience this summer
then why not check out some of Romania’s fascinating opportunities?
Past Horizons take s a look at what’s on offer from Canadian group
Archaeological Techniques and Research Center (Archaeotek).

B ro n ze Ag e O s teology Wor kshop


Although the origin of the Noua Culture is still debated, most specialists agree on Eastern
beginnings. origin. This summer ’s workshop is designed to conduct an exhaustive osteological
survey as well as to select bones to be brought back for DNA and stable isotope analysis.
Students will receive lectures on theories and methods in osteology prior to working on the
bones. They will be taught how to determine age, sex, stature, identify pathologies and take
standard measurements.

Dates: First session 16 May - 12 June, second session 13 June - 10 July 2010
Cost: $1475 per session (maximum five students per workshop). Accommodation: double or triple occupancy
rooms
Web: http://www.archaeotek.org/bronze_age_osteology_workshop

N e o l i t h i c S e t t l ement Excavation and Sur vey


The site of Soimeni means ‘of the eagles’. Previous excavations have already located Neolithic
houses belonging to the Chalcolithic era (4600 BC – 4300 BC) and large hearths. Several clay
figu rines have been found including two of the largest yet found at a Cucuteni-Ariusd-Tripolye
site, as well as a number of small altars. The wattle and daub dwellings at the site were burned,
creating well-preserved archaeological features. The remains of a Neolithic structure at the
Soimeni site are the focus of excavation for the 2010 season.

Dates: 11 July - 8 August 2010


Cost: $365 (maximum 12 participants). Accommodation: camping
Web: http://www.archaeotek.org/neolithic_settlement
B ro n ze Ag e Fo r tified S ettlement Excavation and Sur vey
Excavations within the embankment of Soimeni have discovered structures belonging to different
periods of Bronze Age occupations: an earlier Costisa-Ciomortan occupation and a later Wietenberg
occupation. On account of its locations near the mountain pass, this settlement wa s of significant
strategic and social importance. During the 2010 field season there will be continuing excavation
of one of the Wietenberg structures along with a geographic survey of the settlement and local
landscape.

Dates: 13 June - 10 July 2010


Cost: $365 (maximum 12 participants). Accommodation: camping
Web: http://www.archaeotek.org/bronze_age_settlement
I ro n Ag e D a c i a n For tress Excavation
The Piatra Detunata site is on a hill facing an Augustin Temple Complex and is most likely
associated with it. The test trenches over the past three years have exposed a rich and
complex fortified urban centre, destroyed by Emperor Trajan’s legions during the Daco-
Roman wars (102-106AD). During the 2010 season there will be continued excavation of
the fortified acropolis and fortification system.

Dates: 6 June - 10 July 2010


Cost: $365 (maximum 25 participants). Accommodation: camping
Web: http://www.archaeotek.org/iron_age_dacian_fortress
E xc avat i n g t h e R oman Frontier
The Romans constructed a string of castra (military camps or forts) along the boundary
known as the limes. Castrum Cumidava was one such fort. Research shows that the site
consists of two fortifications, one earthen and the other stone, used over a period of 150
years with probable abandonment in 250 AD at the invasion of the Goths. The 2010 season
will continue excavation in the castrum. In addition there will be a soil survey looking for
the civilian settlement.

Dates: 11 July - 15 August 2010


Cost: $395 (includes lab fee, maximum 25 participants). Accommodation: camping
Web: http://www.archaeotek.org/roman_frontier

past horizons 52
Viewpoint
G e t P rofessional Help
Whilst reading the Painted Landscapes article (page 16) in t h i s i s s u e o f
Past Horizons , it struck me just how beautiful and creativ e t h e u s e o f
language can be. There has always been a lot of importanc e p l a c e d o n
the written word within archaeology, but when trying to con v e y c o m p l e x
i d e a s , g o o d i l l ustration and photography are also tremendously important.

P a i n t e d L a n d s c apes, for example, certainly benefits from descriptive language bu t a l s o s i t t i n g


a l o n g s i d e t h i s i s equally descriptive photography. The project directors have had t h e f o r e s i g h t
t o e m p l o y o n e of the leading rock-art photographers in the United States, Ric k B u r y, a n d
t h e re s u l t s a r e stunning. You are transported to the site in an instant as the wo r d s a n d t h e
p h o t o g r a p h s w ork together to enliven the senses.

U n f or t u n a t e l y, this approach only seems to apply to a minority of situations at t h e m o m e n t .


T h e s a d r e a l i t y appears to be that in the last two decades the art of the photogra p h e r a n d t h e
i l l u s t r a t o r h a s been in decline. As an illustrator myself, I have often argued th a t o u r s k i l l s
a r e b o t h u n d e r-rated and under-utilised, and that a single well-drawn plan can r e p r e s e n t a
c o m p l e x i d e a i n a way that most writers would find difficult to convey.

T h e r e w a s a t i m e when it was seen as an absolute necessity to have a professional dra u g h t s p e r s o n


a n d a p h o t o g r a pher on site. Nowadays, it seems that these are areas where costs c a n b e c u t .
I n s t e a d , i t i s c h eaper to put a digital camera into a site assistant’s hand so that th e y c a n p o i n t
a n d c l i c k . T h e resulting photographs may be a bit blurry but people seem to thi n k t h a t t h e y
c a n g e t a w a y w ith it.

I l l u s t r a t i o n i s starting to suffer the same fate. For example, someone can pick u p a p e n c i l
a n d d r a w a s p i dery sketch of an artef act, and no-one seems to object. Archaeolog y s h o u l d b e
a b o u t t r y i n g t o communicate ideas to a wider audience but this insistence in cutti n g s t a n d a r d s
i s e x t r e m e l y d a maging to the discipline.

I f y o u w r i t e r e p orts or have recently read any, just take a look at archaeological p h o t o g r a p h e r


A d a m S t a n f o r d ’s website ( http://www.aerial-cam.co.uk ) and think about how much be t t e r a n i d e a
c o u l d b e c o n v e yed with something of that standard accompanying the text. Ad a m m a n a g e s
t o l i f t a s i t e o r a building out of the mundane, creating a power and a presenc e t h a t a b a d
p h o t o g r a p h c a n not do. That is the value of a professional photographer and than k f u l l y A d a m
h a s a g r o w i n g band of fans that are sympathetic to his approach.

We l i v e i n w o r ld where visuals are an extremely important method of communi c a t i o n . B o t h


i l l u s t r a t i o n a n d photography can get to the heart and soul of a subject and sh o u l d n o t b e
c o m p r o m i s e d , but not everyone has the ability to convey that to an acceptab l e s t a n d a r d .
I n m y o p i n i o n , therefore, as archaeologists we have a responsibility to make s u r e w e u s e
p r o f e s s i o n a l h e lp to ensure good illustration and photography maintains its pla c e a s a v i t a l
p a r t o f a r c h a e o logical inquiry.

David Connolly is the direc tor of Br itish Archaeological Jobs and R esources (BA JR)
Web: http://w w w.bajr.org

53 past horizons
Back Pages Pseudo Archaeology

S o m e t i m e s f i c t ion is stranger than the truth. A selec tion of videos which high l i g ht w h at
h a p p e n s w h e n lack of evidence doesn’t get in the way of a good stor y. Enjoy...

To view this video please click here

Egyptian Hall of R ecords – why let realit y get in the way?

To view this video please click here

Th e K i n g s to n Zodiac – see what you want or see what is there.


past horizons 54
To view this video please click here

M ichigan Tablets – assume ever ything.

To view this video please click here

1 2 , 0 0 0 -ye a r- o l d B osnian P yramid – or, big point y hill?


55 past horizons
past horizons 56