Eurocodes  Background and applications
Dissemination of information workshop
Brussels, 1820 February 2008
EN 1994 Part 2
Composite bridges
Jol RAOUL
Laurence DAVAINE
Ministry for Ecology, Sustainable development and Spatial Planning (Paris)
Technical Centre for Highways & Motorways
46, avenue Aristide Briand
BP 100
F  92 225 Bagneux Cedex
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Contents : 7 parts
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
1. Introduction to composite bridges in Eurocode 4
2. Global analysis of composite bridges
3. ULS verifications
4. SLS verifications
5. Connection at the steelconcrete interface
6. Fatigue (connection and reinforcement)
7. Lateral Torsional Buckling of members in compression
All points are illustrated with numerical applications to a
twingirder bridge with upper reinforced concrete slab.
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Background and Applications
Introduction to composite bridges in EN1994
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
Composite bridges with steel girders under the slab
Stra
Boxgirder bridges
Half through composite bridges
Stra
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Background and Applications
The main others EN called when using EN19942
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
EN 1090 :
Execution
EN 1990 :
Basis of design
Combinations
Annex A2 :
application to
bridges
EN 1993 15 :
Stiffeners ; Plate buckling
EN 1993 18 :
Joints
EN 1993 19 :
Fatigue
EN 1993 11 :
General rules for steel
EN 1993 2 : Steel bridges
EN 1993 110 :
Brittle fracture
EN 1994 2 : Composite bridges
EN 1993 112 :
S690
EN 1991 :
11 Permanent loads
13 Snow
14 Wind
15 Temperature
16 Loads during execution
17 Accidental loads
2 Traffic
EN 1993 111 :
Cables
EN 1992 2 : Concrete bridges
EN 1992 11 : General rules for concrete
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Contents : 7 parts
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
1. Introduction to composite bridges in Eurocode 4
2. Global analysis of composite bridges
3. ULS verifications
4. SLS verifications
5. Connection at the steelconcrete interface
6. Fatigue (connection and reinforcement)
7. Lateral Torsional Buckling of members in
compression
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Global analysis for composite bridges
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
Elastic global analysis without bending redistribution
Second order effect to be considered for structures
Fcr
where
cr =
FEd ,ULS
10
In this elastic global analysis, the following points should be taken into account :
effects of creep and shrinkage of concrete,
effective width of flanges for shear lag,
stages and sequence of construction,
effects of cracking of concrete,
temperature effects of heat of hydration of cement (only for construction stages).
Nonlinear global analysis may be used (no application rules)
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CLASS 1
sections which can form a plastic hinge
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
with the rotation capacity required for a global plastic
analysis
Background and Applications
BUILDINGS
CLASS 2
sections which can develop M pl,Rd
limited rotation capacity
CLASS 3
sections which can develop
with
M el,Rd
COMPOSITE BRIDGES
CL. 1
CL.3/4
In general, nonuniform section
(except for small spans)
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Background and Applications
Actual behaviour of a continuous composite girder
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
When performing the elastic global analysis, two aspects of the nonlinear
behaviour are directly or indirectly considered.
Static structure
Cracking of concrete
1
M
Deformed structure
Yielding
M at midspan with
increase of P
2
Mpl,Rd
Mel,Rd
Class 1
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Background and Applications
Cracked global analysis
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
Determination of the stresses c in the extreme fibre of the concrete
slab under SLS characteristic combination according to a noncracked
global analysis
In sections where c <  2 fctm, the concrete is assumed to be cracked
and its resistance is neglected
EI1
EI1
EI2
EI1 = uncracked composite inertia (structural steel + concrete in compression)
EI2 = cracked composite inertia (structural steel + reinforcement)
An additional iteration is not required.
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Background and Applications
Cracked global analysis
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
10
Simplified method usable if :
 no prestressing by imposed deformation
 Lmin/Lmax>0.6
EI2
As
0.15 (L1+ L2)
L1
L2
EI1
Ac = 0
In the cracked zones EI2 :
the resistance of the concrete in
tension is neglected
the resistance of the reinforcement is
taken into account
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Background and Applications
Yielding
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
11
Yielding at midspan is taken into account if :
Class 1 or 2 crosssection at midspan (and MEd > Mel,Rd )
Class 3 or 4 near intermediate support
Lmin/Lmax < 0.6
Lmax
Class 1 or 2
Lmin
Class 3 or 4
Elastic linear analysis with an additional verification for the crosssections in sagging bending zone (M>0) :
MEd < 0.9 Mpl,Rd
or
Non linear analysis
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Background and Applications
Global analysis of composite bridges  Synthesis
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
To calculate the internal forces and moments for the
ULS combination of actions
elastic global analysis (except for accidental loads)
linear
non linear (behaviour law for materials in EC2 and EC3)
cracking of the concrete slab
shear lag (in the concrete slab : Le/8 constant value
for each span and calculated from the outside
longitudinal rows of connectors)
neglecting plate buckling (except for an effectivep area
of an element 0.5 * gross area)
12
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Background and Applications
Global analysis of composite bridges  Synthesis
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
13
To calculate the internal forces and moments for the
SLS combinations of actions
as for ULS (mainly used for verifying the concrete slab)
To calculate the longitudinal shear per unit length (SLS
and ULS) at the steelconcrete interface
Cracked global analysis, elastic and linear
Always uncracked section analysis
Specific rules for shear connectors design in the elastoplastic zones for ULS (Mel,Rd < MEd < Mpl,Rd)
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Background and Applications
Shear lag in composite bridges
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
bslab
beff ,slab
14
Concrete slab EN 19942
Same effectives width beff for
SLS and ULS combinations
of actions
Steel flange EN 199315
Used for bottom flange of a
boxgirder bridge
Different effectives width for
SLS and ULS combinations
of actions
3 options at ULS (choice to
be performed in the National
Annex)
beff ,flange
b flange
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Background and Applications
Effectives width of the concrete slab EN19942
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
Global analysis : constant for each span for simplification
(with a value calculated at midspan)
Section analysis : variable on both sides of the vertical
supports over a length Li /4
15
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Background and Applications
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
Application to a steelconcrete
composite twin girder bridge
Global longitudinal bending
16
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Background and Applications
Example : Composite twingirder road bridge
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
17
P2
P1
C0
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
60 m
80 m
2.5 m
7m
C3
60 m
2.5 m
34 cm
b fs = 1000mm
IPE 600
Note:
b fi = 1200mm
IPE600 every 7.5m in
side spans and every
8.0m in central span
2.8 m
Example : Structural steel distribution
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Background and Applications
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
18
Note : Bridge dimensions verified
according to Eurocodes (crosssection resistance at ULS, SLS
stresses and fatigue)
bfs = 1000 mm
h = 2800 mm
bfi = 1200 mm
Longitudinal structural steel distribution of each main girder
18
C0
26
18
26
18
40 mm
55
80
120
80
55
40
55
80
120
80
55
40
35 m
10
18
10
28
10
18
10
35
60 m
P1
80 m
P2
60 m
C3
Example : Used materials
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Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
19
> Structural steel (EN1993 + EN10025) :
S355 N for t 80 mm (or S355 K2 for t 30 mm)
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
S355 NL for 80 < t 150 mm
Yield
strength
fy (MPa)
S 355 N
S 355 NL
thickness t (mm)
t 16
16 < t 40
40 < t 63
63 < t 80
355
345
335
325
80 < t 100
100 < t 150
315
295
Note : the requirements of EN 1993110 (brittle fracture and throughthickness properties)
should also be fulfilled.
> Cross bracing and stiffeners : S355
> Shear connectors : headed studs with fu = 450 MPa
> Reinforcement : high bond bars with fsk = 500 Mpa
> Concrete C35/45 defined in EN1992 :
fck,cyl (at 28 days) = 35 MPa
fck,cube (at 28 days) = 45 MPa
fctm = 3.2 MPa
Creep  Modular ratios for bridges
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Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
20
n L = n 0 . (1 + L t )
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
n0 =
Ea
E cm
for short term loading (L = 0)
t = ( t t 0 )
creep function defined in EN199211 with :
t = concrete age at the considered instant
t0 = mean value of the concrete age when a longterm
loading is applied (for instance, permanent loads)
t0 = 1 day for shrinkage action
correction factor for taking account of the type of loading
Permanent loads
1.1
Shrinkage
0.55
Prestress by imposed deformations (for
instance, jacking on supports)
1.5
Example : construction phasing
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Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
1.
21
Concreting order of the 12.5mlong slab segments
3 x 12.5 m
4 x 12.5 m
B
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
6 x 12.5 m
3 x 12.5 m
2.
Construction timing
Steel structure
put in place
1st
t=0
Nonstructural equipments
(pavement, safety barriers,)
put in place
End of slab
concreting
...
...
...
16 concreting phases in a selected order
assuming :
3 working days per segment
only 1 mobile formwork (2 kN/m)
16th
t = 66
Prestressing
t = 80
Time (in days)
t = 110
assembling bridge
equipments
Note : 14 days are required in EN19942 before introducing prestressing by imposed deformations.
Example : age of concrete
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Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
22
1st
16th
...
...
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
t=0
t = 66
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 16
66
63
66 + 63 + ... + 3
= 35.25 days
16 phases
t = 110
Mean value of the ages of concrete segments :
t0 =
t = 80
+ 14 days
+ 30 days
used for all concreting phases
(simplification of EN19942).
t 0 = 49.25 days
t 0 = 79.25 days
1 = ( t = , t 0 )
2 = ( , t 0 )
3 = ( , t 0 )
nL ,1 = n0 (1 + 1.1.1 )
Time
(in days)
nL ,2 = n0 (1 + 1.5.2 )
nL ,3 = n0 (1 + 1.1.3 )
Note : t0 = 1 day when shrinkage is applied to a concrete segment.
4 = ( , t 0 )
nL ,4 = n0 (1 + 0.55.4 )
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Background and Applications
Example : creep function and modular ratio values
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
23
EN199211, Annex B :
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
t t0
( t, t 0 ) = 0 .c ( t t 0 ) = 0 .
t
t
0
H
0.3
0
t +
RH
16.8
1
100
0 = RH . ( fcm ) . ( t 0 ) = 1 +
.1 . 2 .
.
0.2
0.10.3 h0
fcm 0.1 + t 0
RH = 80 % (relative humidity)
h0 = notional size of the concrete slab = 2Ac/u
where u is the part of the slab perimeter which is directly in contact with the atmosphere.
C35/45 : as fcm = 35+8 > 35 MPa, 1 = (35/fcm)0.7, 2 = (35/fcm)0.2
Short term loading
Long term loading
Concrete selfweight nL,1 = 15.49
E
n0 = a = 6.16
E cm
Shrinkage
nL,4 = 15.23
Prestressing
nL,2 = 18.09
Bridge equipments
nL,3 = 14.15
Example: shear lag in the concrete slab
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Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
24
Equivalent spans Le :
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
P2
P1
C0
60 m
in span
on support
0.85x60 = 51m
80 m
C3
60 m
0.7x80 = 56m
0.85x60 = 51m
0.25 x (60+80) = 35m
0.25 x (60+80) = 35m
beff = b0 + 1 .be1 + 2 .be2 where: bei = min e ;bi
8
i = 1.0
except at both end supports where:
i = 0.55 + 0.025
Le
1.0
bei
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Background and Applications
Example: shear lag in the concrete slab
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
25
beff
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
be1 b0=0.6 m be2
b2
b1
b1=3.5 m
b2=2.5 m
Le (m)
be1
be2
beff (m)
Spans 1 and 3
51
3.2
2.2
6.0
Span 2
56
3.2
2.2
6.0
Internal supports P1 and P2
35
3.2
2.2
6.0
End supports C0 and C4
51
3.2
2.2
0.948
1.129 < 1.0
5.83 < 6.0
=> No reduction for shear lag in the global analysis
=> Reduction for shear lag in the section analysis :
beff linearly varies from 5.83m at end supports to 6.0 m at a distance L1/4.
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Background and Applications
Applied loads on the road bridge example
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
26
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
Permanent loads
Gmax , Gmin Self weight:
structural steel
concrete (by segments in a selected order)
non structural equipments (safety barriers, pavement,)
EN1991 part 11
EN1992 part 11
EN1994 part 2
Shrinkage (drying, autogenous and thermal shrinkage
strains)
Creep (taken into account through modular ratios)
Possibly, prestressing by imposed deformations (for
instance, jacking on internal supports)
Variable loads
Tk
Thermal gradient
EN1991 part 15
UDL, TS
Road traffic (for instance, load model LM1 with uniform
design loads UDL and tandem systems TS)
EN1991 part 2
FLM3
Fatigue load model (for instance, the equivalent lorry FLM3)
EN1991 part 2
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Background and Applications
Effects of shrinkage in a composite bridge
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
cs
hc
27
+ Ncs
Ncs = E c cs .bchc
zcs
e.n.a.
+
Free shrinkage strain applied
on concrete slab only (no
steel concrete interaction)
Shrinkage strain applied on
the composite section (after
steel concrete interaction)
1 Autoequilibrated stress diagram in every section and an imposed rotation
due to the bending moment Miso = Ncszcs :
bc
concrete = E c cs +
e.n.a.
+

steel =
1 N cs (N cs z cs ) .z
+
.
n A
I
N cs (N cs z cs ) .z
+
A
I
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Background and Applications
Effects of shrinkage in a composite bridge
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
28
2 Curvature in an isostatic bridge due to the imposed deformations :
Miso
Miso
P1
P2
v (x)
3 Compatibility of deformations to be considered in an hyperstatic bridge :
P1
L1
P3
L2
P2
v (P3 ) = 0
Mhyper
1+2 = isostatic (or primary) effects
Effects of shrinkage
3 = hyperstatic (or secondary) effects
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Background and Applications
Shrinkage and cracked global analysis
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
29
Concrete in tension
Cracked zone
Isostatic effects
neglected in cracked
zones for calculating
hyperstatic effects
M iso
M iso
M iso
M iso
SLS combinations
iso + hyper effects
hyper
iso + hyper
ULS combinations
hyper (if class 1)
hyper
hyper (if class 1)
M hyper
M hyper
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Background and Applications
Thermal gradient from EN 1991 part 15
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
30
could be neglected if all crosssections are in Class 1 or 2
1 Non linear gradients :
0.6h
400
3 Difference +/ 10 C :
16 C
5 C
2 Linear gradients :
+15 C
18 C
4 C
8 C
+/ 10 C
Traffic load LM1 from EN 1991 part 2
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Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
31
Longitudinal axis of the
most loaded girder
3.5 m
Bridge axis
0.5 m
Lane no. 1
Lane no. 2
3m
3m
9 kN/m
300 kN / axle
TS (Tandem
System)
2m
3m
Residual
area
2m
girder no. 2
girder no. 1
UDL (Uniform
Design Load)
Lane no. 3
Safety barrier
Safety barrier
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
1m
3.5 m
2.5 kN/m
200 kN / axle
100 kN / axle
Characteristic
values
of traffic loads
from LM1
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Background and Applications
Combinations of actions
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
32
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
For every permanent design situation, two limit states of the
bridge should be considered :
> Serviceability Limit States (SLS)
Quasi permanent SLS
Gmax + Gmin + S + P + 0.5 Tk
Frequent SLS
Gmax + Gmin + S + P + 0.75 TS + 0.4 UDL + 0.5 Tk
Gmax + Gmin + S + P + 0.6 Tk
Characteristic SLS
Gmax + Gmin + S + P + (TS+UDL) + 0.6 Tk
Gmax + Gmin + S + P + Qlk + 0.75 TS + 0.4 UDL + 0.6 Tk
Gmax + Gmin + S + P + Tk + 0.75 TS + 0.4 UDL
> Ultime Limite State (ULS) other than fatigue
1.35 Gmax + Gmin + S + P + 1.35 (TS + UDL) + 1.5 (0.6 Tk)
1.35 Gmax + Gmin + S + P + 1.35 Qlk + 1.35 (0.75 TS + 0.4 UDL) + 1.5 (0.6 Tk)
1.35 Gmax + Gmin + S + P + 1.5 Tk + 1.35 (0.75 TS + 0.4 UDL)
Uncracked global analysis
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Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
33
(MPa) : Stresses in the extreme fibre of the concrete slab, under Characteristic SLS combination
when considering concrete resistance in every crosssection
8
6
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
4
2
x (m)
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
2
4
6
2.f ctm = 6.4 MPa
8
10
12
x = 49.7 m
L1 = 60 m
x = 72.5 m
Cracked
zone on
P1
17 %.L1
EI1
x = 121.6 m
Cracked
zone on P2
L2 = 80 m
15.6 %.L2
EI2
x = 150.6 m
L3 = 60 m
23 %.L2
EI1
EI2
17.7 %.L3
EI1
Note : Dissymmetry in the cracked lengths due to sequence of slab concreting.
Cracked global analysis: bending moments
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Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
34
80
Bending moment (MN.m)
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
60
56.07
50.16
37.06
40
50.84
41.33
37.59
20
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
20
40
60
80
77.66
80.69
100
107.25
ELS
caractristique
Characteristic
SLS
Fundamental
ULS
ELU
fondamental
120
x (m)
103.54
180
200
Cracked global analysis: shear forces
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Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
35
10
ELS
caractristique
Characteristic
SLS
ELU
fondamental
Fundamental
ULS
7.47
Shear force (MN)
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
5.54
5.49
4.38
3.24
7.39
3.09
2
1.09
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
2
3.09
2.92
5.54
5.49
7.46
7.41
4
6
8
3.26
4.40
10
x (m)
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Background and Applications
Contents : 7 parts
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
36
1. Introduction to composite bridges in Eurocode 4
2. Global analysis of composite bridges
3. ULS verifications
4. SLS verifications
5. Connection at the steelconcrete interface
6. Fatigue (connection and reinforcement)
7. Lateral Torsional Buckling of members in
compression
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Background and Applications
ULS verifications of a composite bridge
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
resistance of the composite crosssections
 to bending moment M (EN 19942, 6.2.1)
 to shear force V (EN 19942, 6.2.2.1 to 6.2.2.3)
 to interaction M+V (EN 19942, 6.2.2.4)
shear resistance of the concrete slab (EN 19942, 6.2.2.5(3) )
concrete slab (EN 1992)
shear connection (see below, point 5)
fatigue ULS (see below, point 6)
LTB around intermediate supports (see below, point 7)
37
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Background and Applications
ULS section resistance to M > 0
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
38
fck/C
0.85 fck/C
compression
(+)
(+)
p.n.a
e.n.a
()
tension
fy/M0
Elastic resistance
(for classes 1 to 4)
e.n.a. = elastic neutral axis
p.n.a. = plastic neutral axis
()
fy/M0
Plastic resistance
(for classes 1 and 2)
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Background and Applications
ULS section resistance to M < 0
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
39
fsk/S
tension
fsk/S
()
0.85 fck/C
p.n.a
()
fy/M0
e.n.a
(+)
(+)
compression
fy/M0
Elastic resistance
(for classes 1 to 4)
fy/M0
Plastic resistance
(for classes 1 and 2)
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Background and Applications
Class 4 composite section with construction phases
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
40
Use of the final ULS stress distribution to look for the effective crosssection
If web and flange are Class 4 elements, the flange gross area is first reduced. The corresponding first
effective crosssection is used to recalculate the stress distribution which is then used for reducing the
web gross area.
MEd = Ma,Ed + Mc,Ed
Mc,Ed
Ma,Ed
Recalculation of the stress distribution
respecting the sequence of construction
A eff , Ieff , Geff
1 Flange
2 Web
Justification of the recalculated
stress distribution
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Background and Applications
ULS resistance under V and interaction M + V
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
41
Plastic resistance : ensured by the steel web
Vpl,a,Rd is calculated by using Eurocode 3 part 11.
VRd = Vpl,a ,Rd = A V .
fy
M0 3
Shear buckling resistance :
See Eurocode 3 part 15.
VRd = Vb,Rd = Vbw ,Rd + Vbf ,Rd
Interaction between M and V :
For Class 1 or 2 sections :
f yw h w t w
M1 3
If VEd< 0.5.VRd, no interaction occurs.
If not, the criterion MEd < Mpl,Rd is verified using a reduced Mpl,Rd value
= 2 Ed 1
VRd
For Class 3 or 4 sections : See Eurocode 3 part 15.
ULS shear resistance in the concrete slab
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Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
42
For the solid slab of a composite bridge:
VEd VRd,c
=>
Shear reinforcement (Ast for b = 1 m) is not necessary (nor the
minimum shear reinforcement area according to EN19922,9.2.2)
VRd,c = CRd,ck(100l fck )1 3 + k 1cp bhc (v min + k1cp )bhc
CRd,c =
If the concrete flange is in tension :
v min = 0.035.k1.5 fck
k =1+
l =
A st
bhc
200
hc
k1 = 0.12
10
Lower fibre
Upper fibre
sigma_cp,0
8
Stresses in the slab at ULS (MPa)
cp,0 = 1.85 MPa cp
N
= Ed
bhc
0.15
= 0.12
C
6
4
2
0
2
20
40
60
80
100
4
6
8
10
x (m)
120
140
160
180
200
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Example: Analysis of 2 different crosssections
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
43
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
60 m
80 m
Section
60 m
Section
Concrete in tension
Concrete in compression
M<0
M>0
Class 3 (elastic section analysis)
Class 1 (plastic section analysis)
MULS = 107.25 MN.m
MULS = +56.07 MN.m
VULS = 7.47 MN
VULS = 1.04 MN
Example: Crosssection A under bending
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
44
Stress diagram under bending
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
2.5 m
3.5 m
171.2 MPa
149.2 MPa
275.8 MPa
1000 x 120 mm
2560 x 26 mm
1200 x 120 mm
261.3 MPa
Elastic section analysis :
434.8 MPa =
295 MPa =
fsk
re inf .
S
fy
M0
steel,sup
steel,inf
fy
M0
= 295 MPa
Example: Crosssection A under shear force
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
45
First crossbracing
in central span
P1
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
a = 8000 mm
VEd = 7.47 MN
hw = 2560 mm
VEd = 6.00 MN
tw = 26 mm
Contribution of the web Vbw,Rd
cr = k E = 19.58 MPa
w =
fyw
cr 3
= 1.33 1.08
1.37
= 0.675
0.7 + w
f
Vbw,Rd = w yw hw t w = 8.14 MN
M1 3
w =
h
k = 5.34 + 4 w = 5.75
a
hw 31
tw
Shear buckling to be considered:
VRd = Vb,Rd = Vbw,Rd + Vbf ,Rd
Contribution of the flange Vbf,Rd
Vbf ,Rd = 0.245 MN
can be neglected.
fywhw t w
M1 3
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Example: Crosssection A under M+V interaction
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
VEd
0.5
VRd
46
so the M+V interaction should be checked, and as the section is in
Class 3, the following criterion should be applied (EN199315) :
2
M
1 + 1 f ,Rd 23 1 1.0
Mpl,Rd
at a distance hw/2 from internal support P1.
Mf ,Rd = 117.3 MN.m
: design plastic resistance to bending of the effective composite section
excluding the steel web (EN 19942, 6.2.2.5(2)).
Mpl,Rd = 135.6 MN.m : design plastic resistance to bending of the effective composite section.
3 =
VEd
= 0.89
Vbw,Rd
1 =
M
MEd
= 0.73 f ,Rd = 0.86
Mpl,Rd
Mpl,Rd
As MEd < Mf,Rd, the flanges alone can be used to
resist M whereas the steel web resists V.
=> No interaction !
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Example: Crosssection B (Class 1)
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
2.5 m
47
3.5 m
p.n.a.
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
0.85
9.2 MPa
1000 x 40 mm
2720 x 18 mm
202.0 MPa
fck
C
fyf
fyw
M0
M0

305.2 MPa
1200 x 40 mm
Plastic section analysis under bending :
MEd = 56.07 Mpl,Rd = 79.59 MN.m
h
31
h
k , so the shear buckling has to be considered:
k = 5.34 + 4 w = 5.80 and w
t
a
w
VEd = 2.21 MN VRd = Vb,Rd = Vbw,Rd + Vbf ,Rd Vbw,Rd = 4.44 MN
VEd
0.5
VRd
=> No M+V interaction !
fywhw t w
M1 3
= 10.64 MN
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Contents : 7 parts
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
48
1. Introduction to composite bridges in Eurocode 4
2. Global analysis of composite bridges
3. ULS verifications
4. SLS verifications
5. Connection at the steelconcrete interface
6. Fatigue (connection and reinforcement)
7. Lateral Torsional Buckling of members in
compression
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
SLS verifications in a composite bridge
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
49
Limitation of stresses in crosssections at characteristic SLS
c 0.6.fck
M>0
a 1.0.fyk
s 0.8.fsk
M<0
(concrete in compression)
a 1.0.fyk
Crack width control
Limitations of deflections (national regulations)
Web breathing (fatigue phenomenon, see EN19932)
Note : for shear connectors, see section 5 below
(reinforcement in tension)
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Crack width control
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
1.
Minimum reinforcement required
 in crosssections where tension exists in the concrete slab for characteristic SLS
combinations of actions
 estimated from equilibrium between tensile force in concrete just before cracking
and tensile force in the reinforcement (at yielding or at a lower stress level if
necessary to limit the crack width)
2.
Control of cracking due to direct loading
The design crack width wk should be limited to a maximum crack width wmax
by limiting :
 bar spacing s smax
 or bar diameter max
wmax depends on the exposure class of the considered concrete face
smax and max depend on the calculated stress level s = s,0 + s in the
reinforcement and on the design crack width wk
3.
Control of cracking due to indirect loading
For instance, concrete shrinkage.
50
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Exposure classes for composite bridges (durability)
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
51
XC4, XS1*, XD3**, XF3 or XF4**
XC3, XS1*
waterproofing layer
XC4, XS1*, XD3***
XC4, XS1*, XD3**,
XF1 or XF2**
XC4, XS1*, XD3***,
XF1 or XF2**
* : for bridges near sea water
** : for bridges subjected to (very) frequent salting
*** : for the bottom surface of a bridge deck located
within 6 m above a road with (very) frequent salting
Risk of corrosion of reinforcement
Attack to concrete
Class
Description of the environment
XO
No risk of corrosion or attack of concrete
XC1 to XC4
Corrosion induced by carbonation
XD1 to XD3
Corrosion induced by chlorides
XS1 to XS3
Corrosion induced by chlorides from sea water
XF1 to XF4
Freeze/thaw attack
XA1 to XA3
Chemical attack
XM
Mechanical abrasion
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Exposure classes for composite bridges (durability)
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
52
Hypothesis : Bridge in a lowlevel frost area
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
The choice of exposure classes leads
to define :
XC4, XF3
XC3
a minimum resistance for concrete
(according to EN1992 and EN206),
for instance C30/37
waterproofing layer
a concrete makeup (maximum E/C
ratio, minimum cement content)
according to EN206
XC4, XF1
XC4
XC4, XF1
a structural class (S1 to S6) for
every face of the slab, chosen
according to Table 4.3 in EN1992
and to the retained concrete
a minimum concrete cover for
every face of the slab according to
the exposure class and the structural
class
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Maximum crack width wmax
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
Recommended values defined in EN19922 (concrete bridges) :
The stress level s,0 in the reinforcement is calculated for the quasipermanent SLS
combination of actions (in case of reinforced concrete slab).
The tension stiffening effect s should be taken into account.
53
Minimum reinforcement
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
54
fct,eff
c
hc
z0
e.n.a.
calculated with n0
change in the
location of the
neutral axis
before
cracking
after
cracking
k sk. k c fct,eff A ct = s A s
kc =
1
+ 0.3 1.0
hc
1+
2z0
stress distribution within the tensile concrete height hc before cracking
(including indirect loading) + change in the location of the neutral axis
at cracking time
ks = 0.9
reduction of the normal force in the concrete slab due to initial cracking
and local slip of the shear connection
k = 0.8
effect of nonuniform shape in the selfequilibrating stresses within hc
fct,eff = fctm
and
s = fsk
give the minimum reinforcement section As,min.
Example : minimum reinforcement
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
55
The elastic neutral axis is located in the steel web for every section of the
bridge, so Act is the slab section : Act = 6 x 0.34 = 2.04 m
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
hc = 0.34 m
z0 = 0.52 m
+ 0.3;1.0 = 1.0
k c = min
h
1 + c
2z0
fct,eff = fctm = 3.2 Mpa
fsk = 500 MPa
As,min = 94 cm which means a minimum reinforcement ratio s ,min = 0.46%
For the design, the following reinforcement ratios have been considered :
Top layer : high bonded bars with = 16 mm and s = 130 mm, so s,top = 0.46%
Bottom layer : high bonded bars with = 16 mm and s = 130 mm, so s,bottom = 0.46%
We verify :
s,top + s,bottom = 0.92% s,min
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Crack width control
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
56
Ast is put in place through n high bonded bars of diameter per meter.
Diameter
(Table 7.1)
or
Spacing s = 1/n
(Table 7.2)
= *
fct,eff
2.9 MPa
Example : crack width control for direct loading
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
57
The stress level s due to direct loading at quasipermanent SLS combinations of actions can be
calculated :
s,top = s,bottom = 0.46%
s,0 = 106 Mpa (maximum tension) at quasipermanent SLS in the top layer
100
Stresses at QP SLS (MPa)
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
Top and bottom layers : Ast with = 16 mm and s = 130 mm, so
50
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
50
100
x (m)
150
Stresses in the upper layer
of reinforcement, calculated
by neglecting concrete
resistance (in tension).
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Example : crack width control for direct loading
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
58
s = 0.4
Tension stiffening effect :
fctm
s st
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
in the considered crosssection (where s,0 is maximum) :
st =
AI
= 1.31
A aIa
s = 0.92%
(Reinforcement ratio)
fctm
= 106.2 MPa
s st
s = 0.4
s = s,0 + s = 212.2 MPa
*max = 22.3 mm
= 16 mm max = *max 3.2 / 2.9 = 24.6 mm
or
(interpolation in Table 7.1 of EN 19942)
s max = 235 mm
s = 130 mm s max = 235 mm
(interpolation in Table 7.2 of EN 19942)
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Example : crack width control for indirect loading
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
The stress level s due to indirect loading (for instance, concrete shrinkage) can not
be calculated in the reinforcement.
In the sections where the concrete slab is in tension for characteristic SLS
combinations of actions, s is estimated using :
s = k skk c fct,eff
A ct
2.04
= 0.9 0.8 1.0 3.2
= 250.4 MPa
As
0.92% 2.04
The reinforcement layers are designed using high bonded bars with = 16 mm.
= fct,eff/fct,0 = 2.9/3.2 = 14.5 mm
The interpolation in Table 7.1 from EN 19942 gives : s,max = 255 Mpa
We verify :
s = 250.4 Mpa < s,max = 255 Mpa
59
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Contents : 7 parts
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
60
1. Introduction to composite bridges in Eurocode 4
2. Global analysis of composite bridges
3. ULS verifications
4. SLS verifications
5. Connection at the steelconcrete interface
6. Fatigue (connection and reinforcement)
7. Lateral Torsional Buckling of members in
compression
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Steelconcrete connection
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
61
Objective :
Transmit the longitudinal shear force vL,Ed per unit length of the steelconcrete
interface
Performed by the use of shear connectors (only studs in EN1994) and transverse
reinforcement
Full interaction required for bridges
Elastic resistance design of the shear connectors at SLS and at ULS
Plastic resistance design of the shear connectors at ULS in Class 1 or
2 cross sections where Mel,Rd MEd Mpl,Rd
Shear connectors locally added due to concentrated longitudinal shear
force (for instance, shrinkage and thermal action at both bridge deck
ends or cable anchorage)
ULS design of transverse reinforcement to prevent longitudinal shear
failure or splitting in the concrete slab
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Resistance of the headed stud shear connector
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
62
PRk = min PRk (1) ; PRk (2)
1.5d
0.4d
h 3d
d 2
= 0.8f u .
Shank shear resistance :
PRk
Concrete crushing :
PRk (2) = 0.29d 2 f ck E cm
16 d 25mm
(1)
if
h
4
d
, then
else
h
= 0.2 + 1
d
=1
Limit State Design resistance National Annex
U.L.S.
S.L.S.
PRd =
PRk
V
k s .PRd
V = 1.25
k s = 0.75
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Elastic design of the shear connection
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
63
SLS and ULS elastic design using the shear flow vL,Ed at the steelconcrete
interface, which is calculated with an uncracked behaviour of the cross sections.
2.5 m
Shear force from
cracked global
analysis
vL , Ed ( x ) = VEd ( x).
Ac zc + As zs
I
zc
3.5 m
zs
e.n.a.
Uncracked
mechanical properties
SLS
ULS
For a given length li of the girder (to
be chosen by the designer), the Ni
shear connectors are uniformly
distributed and satisfy :
vL , Ed SLS ( x )
Ni
.{k s PRd }
li
( 0 x li )
For a given length li of the girder (to be
chosen by the designer), the Ni* shear
connectors are uniformly distributed and
satisfy :
vL , Ed
ULS
N i*
( x ) 1.1 .PRd
li
li
v
0
ULS
L , Ed
( x ) dx Ni* .PRd
Example : SLS elastic design of connectors
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
L1 = 29 m
64
L2 = 41 m
L3 = 41 m
L4 = 29 m
1.4
1.2
v L ,Ed SLS
1
0.8
in MPa/m
0.6
Studs with :
d = 22 mm
0.4
h = 150 mm
Shear flow at SLS (MPa/m)
0.2
in S235
Shear resistance of the studs (MPa/m)
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Example : ULS elastic design of connectors
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
65
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
Using the same segment lengths li as in SLS calculation
and the same connector type
1.6
1.4
1.2
v L ,Ed ULS
in MPa/m
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
Shear flow at ULS (MPa/m)
0.2
Shear resistance of the studs (MPa/m)
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Example : longitudinal spacing of studs rows
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
66
e (mm)
800
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
700
600
500
400
300
200
spacing at SLS (mm)
100
spacing at ULS (mm)
0
0
20
40
60
80
=> Elastic design governed by ULS.
100
120
140
x (m)
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Elastoplastic design (ULS) of the shear connection
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
67
Eventually adding shear connectors in the elastoplastic zones
where Mpl,Rd > MEd > Mel,Rd
P1
P2
Elastoplastic zone
First yielding in one fibre of
the crosssection where
MEd = Mel,Rd
MEd
Mpl,Rd
Elastic
design
NB (or NB*) is determined by
using an interaction MN
diagram in the section B.
Elastoplastic
design
NA
NB
n=
N B or N*B N A
PRk V
connectors to put between
sections A and B.
Interaction diagram in the crosssection B
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
68
Two options : simplified diagram (straight line GH) /
more precise diagram (broken line GJH)
MB (N.m)
Mpl,Rd
MEd
Mel,Rd
H
J
+ Mc,Ed
Ma,Ed
0
G
Nel,B
NB*
Plastic resistance of the concrete slab (within the
effective width) to compressive normal force :
NB Npl,B
N pl,B
NB (N)
0.85.f ck
=
.b eff .h c
C
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Elastic resistance moment in the section B
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
Ma,Ed
69
Mc,Ed
MEd
c(2)
as(1)
as(2)
+ k .
ai(1)
Step 1 : stress diagram
for load cases applied
to the structure before
concreting Section B
as fyk
=
ai(2)
(For instance, ai(1) + k.ai(2) = fyk )
fyk
ai
Step 2 : stress diagram
for load cases applied
to the structure after
concreting Section B
k (< 1) is the maximum value for keeping
step 3 within its yield strength limits.
fcd=fck/c
=>
Step 3 : ULS stress
diagram in Section B (if
yielding is reached in the
extreme bottom fibre)
Mel,Rd = Ma,Ed + k. Mc,Ed
Example : Bending moment in section B
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
Concreting
phases
16
15
70
14
13
12
11
10
M_Ed+
Section B
(Class 1)
40
M_EdM_pl,Rd+
M_pl,Rd 
30
20
M (MN.m)
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
50
10
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
x (m)
10
20
30
40
50
Ma,Ed(B) = 2.7 MN.m > MEd(B) = 22.3 MN.m < Mpl,Rd (B) = 25.7 MN.m
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Example : Normal stresses in section B
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
71
c
as(2)
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
88.2 MPa
ai(2)
63.0 MPa
fy = 345 MPa
151.7 MPa
360.3 MPa
Mc,Ed(B)
Ma,Ed(B) = 2.7 MN.m
Mc,Ed(B) = 22.3 2.7 = 19.6 MN.m
ai(2) = (360.3) (63.0) = 297.3 Mpa
k is defined by k =
fy ( 63.0 )
ai(2)
11.9 MPa
= 0.95 1.0
Mel,Rd is then defined by Mel,Rd = Ma,Ed + k. Mc,Ed = 21.3 MN.m
MEd(B) = 22.3 MN.m
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Example : Interaction diagram in section B
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
72
k * ULS stresses
beff = 5.6 m
0.95*11.9 MPa
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
26.9 cm
3.6 cm
0.95*3.0 MPa
0.85
0.65 m
fck
= 19.8 MPa
C
Npl = 0.85
fck
.A c,eff = 30.3 MPa
C
Nel = 11.4 MN
MB (MN.m)
Mpl,Rd = 25.7
MEd = 22.3
Mel,Rd = 21.3
MaEd = 2.7
0
Nel = 11.4
NB* = 15.7
NB = 25.8
NB (MN)
Npl = 30.3
Example : Limits of the elastoplastic zone
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
73
ULS Stresses (MPa) in the bottom steel flange
Section B
(max = 360.3 Mpa)
400
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
300
200
100
fy = 345 MPa
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
100
3.3 m
200
2.8 m
300
400
Section A
Section C
fy
beff = 5.6 m
26.9 cm
3.6 cm
0.65 m
Section A
Section C
11.8 MPa
11.3 MPa
3.1 MPa
2.9 MPa
Nel(A) = 12.1 MN
Nel(C) = 11.5 MN
Adding shear connectors by elastoplastic design
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
74
9 rows with 4 studs and a longitudinal spacing equal to 678 mm
(designed at ULS)
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
e = 678 mm
3300 mm
Section A
Simplified
interaction
diagram
2800 mm
Section B
(25.812.1)/(4x0.1095) = 28
rows
spacing = 3300/28 = 118 mm
More precise (15.712.1)/(4x0.1095) = 9 rows
interaction
spacing = 3300/9 = 367 mm
diagram
Section C
(25.811.5)/(4x0.1095) = 33 rows
spacing = 2800/33 = 84 mm
(which is even lower than 5d=110 mm !)
(15.711.5)/(4x0.1095) = 10 rows
spacing = 2800/10 = 280 mm
Detailing for shear connectors
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
75
for solid slabs :
to allow a correct welding of the connector :
25 mm eD
and if the used shear connectors are studs :
d 2.5.t f
d 1.5.t f for a structural steel flange in tension, subjected to fatigue
h 3d
head 1.5d
tf
hhead 0.4d
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Detailing for shear connectors
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
76
> Longitudinal spacing between shear connectors rows
to insure the composite behaviour in all crosssections :
emax = min (800 mm; 4 h )
where h is the concrete slab thickness
if the structural steel flange in compression which is connected to the
concrete slab, is a class 3 or 4 element :
235
e max 22t f
to avoid buckling of the flange between two studs rows :
fy
to avoid buckling of the cantilever eDlong part of the flange :
and if the used shear connectors are studs :
5.d e min
> Transversal spacing between adjacent studs
etrans ,min 2.5.d
for solid slabs
etrans ,min 4.d
in other cases
eD 9t f
235
fy
Transverse reinforcement for solid slabs
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
77
Truss model for transverse reinforcement which supplements the shear strength of
the concrete on potential surface of failure (aa for instance)
a
b1
beff
b1
At
beff
hc
1m
io
n
mp
re
ss
co
ss
io n
pr
e
co
m
Transverse
reinforcement
tension
Ab
Ab+At
v L ,Ed
v aa = v L ,Ed ULS .
b1
beff
cracks
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Transverse reinforcement for solid slabs
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
78
tension in reinforcement :
v aa .hc .(1m). tan f ( A b + A t ) .fsd
compression in concrete struts :
v aa 0.6 1 ck fcd .sin f cos f
250
for slab in tension at ULS :
1.0 co tan f 1.25
(or 38.6 f 45 )
for slab in compression at ULS : 1.0 co tan f 2.0 (or 26.5 f 45 )
Other potential surfaces of shear failure defined in EN19942 :
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Contents : 7 parts
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
79
1. Introduction to composite bridges in Eurocode 4
2. Global analysis of composite bridges
3. ULS verifications
4. SLS verifications
5. Connection at the steelconcrete interface
6. Fatigue (connection and reinforcement)
7. Lateral Torsional Buckling of members in
compression
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Fatigue ULS in a composite bridge
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
80
In a composite bridge, fatigue verifications shall be performed for :
the structural steel details of the main girder (see EN19932 and EN199319)
the slab concrete (see EN19922)
the slab reinforcement (see EN19942)
the shear connection (see EN19942)
Two assessment methods in the Eurocodes which differ in the partial factor Mf for
fatigue strength in the structural steel :
Assessment method
(National Choice)
Damage tolerant
Required regular inspections and
maintenance for detecting and repairing
fatigue damage during the bridge life
Safe life
No requirement for regular inservice
inspection for fatigue damage
Consequence of detail failure for the bridge
Low consequence
High consequence
Mf = 1.0
Mf = 1.15
Mf = 1.15
Mf = 1.35
Damage equivalent stress range E
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
81
In a given structural detail of the bridge which is subjected to repeated fluctuations of stresses
due to traffic loads, a fatigue crack could initiate and propagate. The detail fails when the
damage D in it reaches 1.0 :
Log (stress range)
weld
Fatigue SN curve of the
studied detail (EN19932)
with 2 slopes (m=3 and m=5)
N = C.m
Longitudinal
stiffener on a web
crack
Log N (cycles)
damage
ni
= di
Ni
Total damage in the detail :
D=
ni
Ni
NC = ND=5.106
2.106
NL=100.106
ni
Ni
In term of D, the actual traffic (ni, i)i is equivalent to nE = ni cycles of
the unique equivalent stress range E.
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Background and Applications
Fatigue Load Model 3 equivalent lorry (FLM3)
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
82
axle = 120 kN
2.106 FLM3 lorries are assumed to cross the bridge per year and per slow lane defined
in the project
every crossing induces a stress range p = max,f  min,f  in a given structural detail
the equivalent stress range E in this detail is obtained as follows :
E = .p
where :
is the damage equivalence factor
is the damage equivalent impact factor
(= 1.0 as the dynamic effect is already
included in the characteristic value of the
axle load)
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Background and Applications
Damage equivalence factor
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
83
In a structural steel detail (in EN 19932):
=1 2 3 4 < max
which represents the following parameters :
1 : influence of the loaded lengths, defined in function of the bridges
spans (< 80 m) and the shape of the influence line for the internal forces
and moments
2 : influence of the traffic volume
3 : life time of the bridge ( 3=1 for 100 years)
4 : influence of the number of loaded lanes
max : influence of the constant amplitude fatigue limit D at 5.106 cycles
For shear connection (in EN19942):
For reinforcement (in EN19922):
v = v ,1 . v ,2 . v ,3 . v ,4
s = fat . s,1 . s,2 . s,3 . s,4
For concrete in compression (in EN19922 and only defined for railway bridges):
c = c,0 . c,1 . c,2,3 . c,4
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Background and Applications
Example : Damage equivalence factor v
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
84
v ,1 = 1.55
for road bridges (with L< 100 m) :
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
hypothesis for the traffic volume in the example (based for instance on the
existing traffic description in EN 1991 part 2):
Nobs = 0.5.106 lorries per slow lane and per year with the following distribution
Q1 = 200 kN
Q2 = 310 kN
Q3 = 490 kN
Q 4 = 390 kN
Q5 = 450 kN
40%
10%
30%
15%
5%
15
Mean value of lorries weight :
Qml
v ,2
bridge life time = 100 years, so
only 1 slow lane on the bridge, so
niQi5
=
n
i
= 407 kN
Q Nobs
= ml
480 0.5.106
(1 8)
407
= 0.848
480
v ,3 = 1.0
v ,4 = 1.0
v = 1.314
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Stress range p =  max,f min,f  in the structural steel
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
85
Basic combination of noncyclic actions
Fatigue loads
Gmax (or Gmin ) + 1.0 (or 0.0)S + 0.6Tk +
In every section :
FLM3
Mmax (or Mmin ) = Ma,Ed + Mc,Ed
MFLM3,max and MFLM3,min
Bending moment in the section where the structural steel detail is located :
MEd,max,f = Ma,Ed + Mc,Ed + MFLM3,max
MEd,min,f = Ma,Ed + Mc,Ed + MFLM3,min
Corresponding stresses in the concrete slab (participating concrete) :
v
v
v
v
c,Ed,min,f = Mc,Ed 1 + MFLM3,min 1
c,Ed,max,f = Mc,Ed 1 + MFLM3,max 1
I1 n
I1 n
I1
I1
nL
Case
1
n0
c,Ed,max,f > 0
va
va
v1
v1
v1
v1
v1
=
+
+
+
+
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
p
a,Ed
c,Ed
FLM3,max
a,Ed
c,Ed
FLM3,min
FLM3
c,Ed,min,f > 0
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Case
2
c,Ed,max,f < 0
c,Ed,min,f < 0
Case
3
c,Ed,max,f > 0
c,Ed,min,f < 0
p = MFLM3
v2
I2
v
v
v
v
p = Mc,Ed 1 2 + MFLM3,max 1 + MFLM3,min 2
I1
I2
I1 I2
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Stress range p for the upper face of the upper steel flange
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
Sequence of
concreting
16
86
15
14
13
12
11
10
25
Stress range (MPa)
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
30
20
15
10
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
x (m)
Stress range from M_min
always without concrete participation
120
140
160
Stress range from M_max
always with concrete participation
180
200
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Stress range s,p =  s,max,f s,min,f  in the reinforcement
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
87
Case
1
c,Ed,max,f > 0
c,Ed,min,f > 0
Case
2
c,Ed,max,f < 0
c,Ed,min,f < 0
M + MFLM3,max
v
s,p = Mc,Ed + MFLM3,min 2 + s,f 1 c,Ed
I2
Mc,Ed + MFLM3,min
Case
3
c,Ed,max,f > 0
c,Ed,min,f < 0
s,p = (Mc,Ed + MFLM3,max )
s,p = MFLM3
v1
I1
v1
v
Mc,Ed + MFLM3,min 2 + s,f
I1
I2
influence of the tension stiffening effect
s,f = 0.2
st =
AI
A aIa
fctm
st s
!
s =
A s,eff
A c,eff
Fatigue : 0.2
SLS verifications : 0.4
.100
in case 3, Mc,Ed is a sum of elementary bending moments corresponding to different
load cases with different values of v1/I1 (following nL).
Tension stiffening effect
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Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
88
Tension
stiffening
effect
s,p,2
s,f
Slope v2/I2 (fully
cracked behaviour)
s,p,3
Bending
moment in the
composite
section
s,p,1
case 2
Slope v1/I1
case 3
case 1
Mc,Ed + MFLM3,max
Mc,Ed + MFLM3,min
Stresses in the reinforcement (>0 in compression)
Fatigue verifications
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
In a structural steel detail :
89
Ff E
c
Mf
Ff E
3
c
Mf
Ff E Ff E
+
1.0
C Mf C Mf
In the reinforcement :
F,fat E
Rsk
S,fat
S,fat = 1.15
log Rsk
k1 = 5
fsk
k1
k2 = 9
Rsk = 162.5 MPa
k2
N* = 1.106
logN
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Classification of typical structural details
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
90
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Fatigue verifications for shear connectors
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
91
R (log)
R (log)
m=8
c=
90 MPa
NR (log)
Nc =
2.106 cycles
( R )
1.
m=5
Nc =
2.106 cycles
NR = ( C ) NC
m
For a steel flange in compression at fatigue ULS :
Ff E
2.
c=
80 MPa
m=3
c
Mf ,s
with the recommended values :
Ff = 1.0
Mf ,s = 1.0
For a steel flange in tension at fatigue ULS :
c
Ff E
Mf
c
Ff E
Mf ,s
Ff E
+ Ff E 1.3
C Mf C Mf ,s
NR (log)
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Background and Applications
Contents : 7 parts
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
92
1. Introduction to composite bridges in Eurocode 4
2. Global analysis of composite bridges
3. ULS verifications
4. SLS verifications
5. Connection at the steelconcrete interface
6. Fatigue (connection and reinforcement)
7. Lateral Torsional Buckling of members in
compression
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
LTB around internal supports of a composite girder
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
93
To verify the LTB in the lower bottom flange (which is in compression
around internal supports), two approaches are available :
LT =
ult
cr
( )
LT = f LT
with
ult =
1.
Bridge with uniform crosssections in
Class 1,2 or 3 and an unstiffened web
(except on supports) : Uframe model
2.
Bridge with nonuniform crosssections :
general method from EN19932, 6.3.4
fy
a
6.3.4.1 : General method
6.3.4.2 : Simplified method
(Engessers formula for cr)
and
LT ult
1.0 ?
M1
cr =
cr
a
Example : lateral restraints
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
94
1100
Transverse bracing frames every 7.5 m in end spans and every 8.0 m in
central span
IPE 600
1100
600
2800
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
Lateral restraints are provided on each vertical support (piles) and in crosssections where cross bracing frames are provided:
7000
Cross section with transverse bracing frame in span
A frame rigidity evaluated to Cd = 20.3 MN/m (spring rate)
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Maximum bending at support P1 under traffic
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
Traffic loads (with unfavourable
transverse distribution for the
girder n1)
+
Dead loads (construction phases,
cracked elastic analysis,
shrinkage)
MEd = 102 MN.m
NEd = MEd / h
= 38 MN
95
TS = 409.3 kN/axle
udl = 26.7 kN/m
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Elastic critical load for lateral flange buckling
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
96
EN 19932, 6.3.4.2 : ENGESSER
NEd = constant = Nmax
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
I = constant = Imax
t f bf 3 120.12003
I=
=
12
12
c = Cd/a
Ncr = 2 EIc = 192 MN
L = 80 m
cr = Ncr NEd = 5.1 < 10
EN 19932, 6.3.4.1:
General method
I and NEd are variable
discrete elastic lateral
support, with rigidity Cd
a = 7,5 m
a=8m
a = 7,5 m
uy
(I)
x
cr = Ncr NEd = 8.9 (Mode I at P1)
(II)
= 10.3 (Mode II at P2)
= 17.5 (Mode III at P1)
(III)
Lcr = 20 m
EN19932, 6.3.4.1 (general method)
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
97
First order stresses in the mid plane
of the lower flange (compression at support P1)
Stresses in the midplane of the lower flange[MPa]
Example : Twingirder composite bridge
400
300
fyf 295
= 1.18
=
249
f
ult,k = min
200
100
op =
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
100
ult,k
1.18
=
8.9
cr,op
= 0.37 0.2
200
300
400
Using buckling curve d:
op = 0.875 1.0
op
ult,k 1.036
=
= 0.94 > 1.0
1.1
M1
NO !
EUROCODES
Background and Applications
Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
More information about the numerical design example by
downloading the PDF guidance book :
Eurocodes 3 and 4 Application to steelconcrete
composite road bridges
on the Stra website :
http://www.setra.equipement.gouv.fr/InEnglish.html
Thank you for your kind attention
98