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Eurocodes - Background and applications

Dissemination of information workshop


Brussels, 18-20 February 2008

EN 1994 Part 2
Composite bridges
Jol RAOUL
Laurence DAVAINE
Ministry for Ecology, Sustainable development and Spatial Planning (Paris)
Technical Centre for Highways & Motorways
46, avenue Aristide Briand
BP 100
F - 92 225 Bagneux Cedex

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Contents : 7 parts

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

1. Introduction to composite bridges in Eurocode 4


2. Global analysis of composite bridges
3. ULS verifications
4. SLS verifications
5. Connection at the steelconcrete interface
6. Fatigue (connection and reinforcement)
7. Lateral Torsional Buckling of members in compression

All points are illustrated with numerical applications to a


twin-girder bridge with upper reinforced concrete slab.

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Background and Applications

Introduction to composite bridges in EN1994

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

Composite bridges with steel girders under the slab

Stra

Box-girder bridges

Half through composite bridges

Stra

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Background and Applications

The main others EN called when using EN1994-2

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

EN 1090 :
Execution

EN 1990 :
Basis of design
Combinations
Annex A2 :
application to
bridges

EN 1993 1-5 :
Stiffeners ; Plate buckling

EN 1993 1-8 :
Joints
EN 1993 1-9 :
Fatigue

EN 1993 1-1 :
General rules for steel

EN 1993 2 : Steel bridges


EN 1993 1-10 :
Brittle fracture

EN 1994 2 : Composite bridges


EN 1993 1-12 :
S690
EN 1991 :
1-1 Permanent loads
1-3 Snow
1-4 Wind
1-5 Temperature
1-6 Loads during execution
1-7 Accidental loads
2 Traffic

EN 1993 1-11 :
Cables

EN 1992 2 : Concrete bridges


EN 1992 1-1 : General rules for concrete

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Contents : 7 parts

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

1. Introduction to composite bridges in Eurocode 4


2. Global analysis of composite bridges
3. ULS verifications
4. SLS verifications
5. Connection at the steelconcrete interface
6. Fatigue (connection and reinforcement)
7. Lateral Torsional Buckling of members in
compression

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Background and Applications

Global analysis for composite bridges

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

Elastic global analysis without bending redistribution


Second order effect to be considered for structures
Fcr
where
cr =

FEd ,ULS

10

In this elastic global analysis, the following points should be taken into account :
effects of creep and shrinkage of concrete,
effective width of flanges for shear lag,
stages and sequence of construction,
effects of cracking of concrete,
temperature effects of heat of hydration of cement (only for construction stages).

Non-linear global analysis may be used (no application rules)

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CLASS 1
sections which can form a plastic hinge
Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop
with the rotation capacity required for a global plastic
analysis

Background and Applications

BUILDINGS

CLASS 2
sections which can develop M pl,Rd
limited rotation capacity

CLASS 3

sections which can develop

with

M el,Rd

COMPOSITE BRIDGES
CL. 1

CL.3/4

In general, non-uniform section


(except for small spans)

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Background and Applications

Actual behaviour of a continuous composite girder

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

When performing the elastic global analysis, two aspects of the non-linear
behaviour are directly or indirectly considered.

Static structure
Cracking of concrete

1
M

Deformed structure

Yielding

M at mid-span with
increase of P

2
Mpl,Rd
Mel,Rd

Class 1

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Background and Applications

Cracked global analysis

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

Determination of the stresses c in the extreme fibre of the concrete


slab under SLS characteristic combination according to a non-cracked
global analysis
In sections where c < - 2 fctm, the concrete is assumed to be cracked
and its resistance is neglected

EI1

EI1
EI2

EI1 = un-cracked composite inertia (structural steel + concrete in compression)


EI2 = cracked composite inertia (structural steel + reinforcement)

An additional iteration is not required.

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Background and Applications

Cracked global analysis

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

10

Simplified method usable if :


- no pre-stressing by imposed deformation
- Lmin/Lmax>0.6
EI2

As

0.15 (L1+ L2)

L1

L2
EI1

Ac = 0

In the cracked zones EI2 :


the resistance of the concrete in
tension is neglected
the resistance of the reinforcement is
taken into account

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Background and Applications

Yielding

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

11

Yielding at mid-span is taken into account if :


Class 1 or 2 cross-section at mid-span (and MEd > Mel,Rd )
Class 3 or 4 near intermediate support
Lmin/Lmax < 0.6
Lmax

Class 1 or 2

Lmin

Class 3 or 4

Elastic linear analysis with an additional verification for the crosssections in sagging bending zone (M>0) :
MEd < 0.9 Mpl,Rd
or
Non linear analysis

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Background and Applications

Global analysis of composite bridges - Synthesis

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

To calculate the internal forces and moments for the


ULS combination of actions
elastic global analysis (except for accidental loads)
linear
non linear (behaviour law for materials in EC2 and EC3)

cracking of the concrete slab


shear lag (in the concrete slab : Le/8 constant value
for each span and calculated from the outside
longitudinal rows of connectors)
neglecting plate buckling (except for an effectivep area
of an element 0.5 * gross area)

12

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Background and Applications

Global analysis of composite bridges - Synthesis

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

13

To calculate the internal forces and moments for the


SLS combinations of actions
as for ULS (mainly used for verifying the concrete slab)
To calculate the longitudinal shear per unit length (SLS
and ULS) at the steel-concrete interface
Cracked global analysis, elastic and linear
Always uncracked section analysis
Specific rules for shear connectors design in the elastoplastic zones for ULS (Mel,Rd < MEd < Mpl,Rd)

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Background and Applications

Shear lag in composite bridges

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

bslab
beff ,slab

14

Concrete slab EN 1994-2


Same effectives width beff for
SLS and ULS combinations
of actions

Steel flange EN 1993-1-5


Used for bottom flange of a
box-girder bridge
Different effectives width for
SLS and ULS combinations
of actions
3 options at ULS (choice to
be performed in the National
Annex)

beff ,flange
b flange

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Background and Applications

Effectives width of the concrete slab EN1994-2

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

Global analysis : constant for each span for simplification


(with a value calculated at mid-span)
Section analysis : variable on both sides of the vertical
supports over a length Li /4

15

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Background and Applications

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

Application to a steel-concrete
composite twin girder bridge

Global longitudinal bending

16

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Background and Applications

Example : Composite twin-girder road bridge

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

17

P2

P1

C0

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

60 m

80 m

2.5 m

7m

C3
60 m

2.5 m
34 cm

b fs = 1000mm
IPE 600

Note:

b fi = 1200mm

IPE600 every 7.5m in


side spans and every
8.0m in central span

2.8 m

Example : Structural steel distribution

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Background and Applications

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

18

Note : Bridge dimensions verified


according to Eurocodes (crosssection resistance at ULS, SLS
stresses and fatigue)

bfs = 1000 mm

h = 2800 mm

bfi = 1200 mm
Longitudinal structural steel distribution of each main girder

18

C0

26

18

26

18

40 mm

55

80

120

80

55

40

55

80

120

80

55

40

35 m

10

18

10

28

10

18

10

35

60 m

P1

80 m

P2

60 m

C3

Example : Used materials

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Background and Applications

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19

> Structural steel (EN1993 + EN10025) :


S355 N for t 80 mm (or S355 K2 for t 30 mm)
Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

S355 NL for 80 < t 150 mm


Yield
strength
fy (MPa)
S 355 N
S 355 NL

thickness t (mm)
t 16

16 < t 40

40 < t 63

63 < t 80

355

345

335

325

80 < t 100

100 < t 150

315

295

Note : the requirements of EN 1993-1-10 (brittle fracture and through-thickness properties)


should also be fulfilled.

> Cross bracing and stiffeners : S355


> Shear connectors : headed studs with fu = 450 MPa
> Reinforcement : high bond bars with fsk = 500 Mpa
> Concrete C35/45 defined in EN1992 :
fck,cyl (at 28 days) = 35 MPa
fck,cube (at 28 days) = 45 MPa
fctm = -3.2 MPa

Creep - Modular ratios for bridges

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Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

20

n L = n 0 . (1 + L t )
Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

n0 =

Ea
E cm

for short term loading (L = 0)

t = ( t t 0 )

creep function defined in EN1992-1-1 with :

t = concrete age at the considered instant


t0 = mean value of the concrete age when a long-term
loading is applied (for instance, permanent loads)
t0 = 1 day for shrinkage action

correction factor for taking account of the type of loading

Permanent loads

1.1

Shrinkage

0.55

Pre-stress by imposed deformations (for


instance, jacking on supports)

1.5

Example : construction phasing

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Background and Applications

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1.

21

Concreting order of the 12.5-m-long slab segments


3 x 12.5 m

4 x 12.5 m
B

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

6 x 12.5 m

3 x 12.5 m

2.

Construction timing

Steel structure
put in place
1st

t=0

Non-structural equipments
(pavement, safety barriers,)
put in place

End of slab
concreting

...

...

...

16 concreting phases in a selected order


assuming :
3 working days per segment
only 1 mobile formwork (2 kN/m)

16th

t = 66

Pre-stressing
t = 80

Time (in days)


t = 110

assembling bridge
equipments

Note : 14 days are required in EN1994-2 before introducing pre-stressing by imposed deformations.

Example : age of concrete

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Background and Applications

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22

1st

16th

...

...

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

t=0

t = 66

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 16

66

63

66 + 63 + ... + 3
= 35.25 days
16 phases

t = 110

Mean value of the ages of concrete segments :

t0 =

t = 80

+ 14 days

+ 30 days

used for all concreting phases


(simplification of EN1994-2).

t 0 = 49.25 days

t 0 = 79.25 days

1 = ( t = , t 0 )

2 = ( , t 0 )

3 = ( , t 0 )

nL ,1 = n0 (1 + 1.1.1 )

Time
(in days)

nL ,2 = n0 (1 + 1.5.2 )

nL ,3 = n0 (1 + 1.1.3 )

Note : t0 = 1 day when shrinkage is applied to a concrete segment.

4 = ( , t 0 )

nL ,4 = n0 (1 + 0.55.4 )

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Background and Applications

Example : creep function and modular ratio values

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

23

EN1992-1-1, Annex B :

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

t t0
( t, t 0 ) = 0 .c ( t t 0 ) = 0 .

t
t
0
H

0.3

0
t +

RH

16.8

1
100
0 = RH . ( fcm ) . ( t 0 ) = 1 +
.1 . 2 .
.
0.2
0.10.3 h0
fcm 0.1 + t 0

RH = 80 % (relative humidity)
h0 = notional size of the concrete slab = 2Ac/u
where u is the part of the slab perimeter which is directly in contact with the atmosphere.
C35/45 : as fcm = 35+8 > 35 MPa, 1 = (35/fcm)0.7, 2 = (35/fcm)0.2
Short term loading

Long term loading


Concrete self-weight nL,1 = 15.49

E
n0 = a = 6.16
E cm

Shrinkage

nL,4 = 15.23

Pre-stressing

nL,2 = 18.09

Bridge equipments

nL,3 = 14.15

Example: shear lag in the concrete slab

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Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

24

Equivalent spans Le :

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

P2

P1

C0
60 m

in span
on support

0.85x60 = 51m

80 m

C3
60 m

0.7x80 = 56m

0.85x60 = 51m

0.25 x (60+80) = 35m

0.25 x (60+80) = 35m

beff = b0 + 1 .be1 + 2 .be2 where: bei = min e ;bi


8

i = 1.0

except at both end supports where:


i = 0.55 + 0.025

Le
1.0
bei

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Background and Applications

Example: shear lag in the concrete slab

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

25

beff

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

be1 b0=0.6 m be2

b2

b1

b1=3.5 m

b2=2.5 m

Le (m)

be1

be2

beff (m)

Spans 1 and 3

51

3.2

2.2

6.0

Span 2

56

3.2

2.2

6.0

Internal supports P1 and P2

35

3.2

2.2

6.0

End supports C0 and C4

51

3.2

2.2

0.948

1.129 < 1.0

5.83 < 6.0

=> No reduction for shear lag in the global analysis


=> Reduction for shear lag in the section analysis :
beff linearly varies from 5.83m at end supports to 6.0 m at a distance L1/4.

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Background and Applications

Applied loads on the road bridge example

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26

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

Permanent loads
Gmax , Gmin Self weight:
structural steel
concrete (by segments in a selected order)
non structural equipments (safety barriers, pavement,)

EN1991 part 1-1

EN1992 part 1-1


EN1994 part 2

Shrinkage (drying, autogenous and thermal shrinkage


strains)
Creep (taken into account through modular ratios)

Possibly, pre-stressing by imposed deformations (for


instance, jacking on internal supports)

Variable loads
Tk

Thermal gradient

EN1991 part 1-5

UDL, TS

Road traffic (for instance, load model LM1 with uniform


design loads UDL and tandem systems TS)

EN1991 part 2

FLM3

Fatigue load model (for instance, the equivalent lorry FLM3)

EN1991 part 2

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Background and Applications

Effects of shrinkage in a composite bridge

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

cs
hc

27

+ Ncs

Ncs = E c cs .bchc

zcs

e.n.a.

+
Free shrinkage strain applied
on concrete slab only (no
steel concrete interaction)

Shrinkage strain applied on


the composite section (after
steel concrete interaction)

1- Auto-equilibrated stress diagram in every section and an imposed rotation


due to the bending moment Miso = Ncszcs :
bc

concrete = E c cs +

e.n.a.

+
-

steel =

1 N cs (N cs z cs ) .z
+
.

n A
I

N cs (N cs z cs ) .z
+
A
I

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Background and Applications

Effects of shrinkage in a composite bridge

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

28

2- Curvature in an isostatic bridge due to the imposed deformations :

Miso

Miso
P1

P2

v (x)

3- Compatibility of deformations to be considered in an hyperstatic bridge :


P1

L1

P3

L2

P2

v (P3 ) = 0

Mhyper

1+2 = isostatic (or primary) effects


Effects of shrinkage
3 = hyperstatic (or secondary) effects

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Background and Applications

Shrinkage and cracked global analysis

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

29

Concrete in tension
Cracked zone
Isostatic effects
neglected in cracked
zones for calculating
hyperstatic effects

M iso
M iso

M iso

M iso

SLS combinations

iso + hyper effects

hyper

iso + hyper

ULS combinations

hyper (if class 1)

hyper

hyper (if class 1)

M hyper

M hyper

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Background and Applications

Thermal gradient from EN 1991 part 1-5

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

30

could be neglected if all cross-sections are in Class 1 or 2

1- Non linear gradients :


0.6h
400

3- Difference +/- 10 C :

16 C

-5 C

2- Linear gradients :
+15 C

-18 C

4 C
-8 C

+/- 10 C

Traffic load LM1 from EN 1991 part 2

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Background and Applications

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31

Longitudinal axis of the


most loaded girder

3.5 m

Bridge axis

0.5 m

Lane no. 1

Lane no. 2

3m

3m

9 kN/m
300 kN / axle

TS (Tandem
System)

2m

3m

Residual
area

2m

girder no. 2

girder no. 1

UDL (Uniform
Design Load)

Lane no. 3

Safety barrier

Safety barrier

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

1m

3.5 m

2.5 kN/m
200 kN / axle

100 kN / axle

Characteristic
values
of traffic loads
from LM1

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Background and Applications

Combinations of actions

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

32

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

For every permanent design situation, two limit states of the


bridge should be considered :
> Serviceability Limit States (SLS)
Quasi permanent SLS
Gmax + Gmin + S + P + 0.5 Tk

Frequent SLS
Gmax + Gmin + S + P + 0.75 TS + 0.4 UDL + 0.5 Tk
Gmax + Gmin + S + P + 0.6 Tk

Characteristic SLS
Gmax + Gmin + S + P + (TS+UDL) + 0.6 Tk
Gmax + Gmin + S + P + Qlk + 0.75 TS + 0.4 UDL + 0.6 Tk
Gmax + Gmin + S + P + Tk + 0.75 TS + 0.4 UDL

> Ultime Limite State (ULS) other than fatigue


1.35 Gmax + Gmin + S + P + 1.35 (TS + UDL) + 1.5 (0.6 Tk)
1.35 Gmax + Gmin + S + P + 1.35 Qlk + 1.35 (0.75 TS + 0.4 UDL) + 1.5 (0.6 Tk)
1.35 Gmax + Gmin + S + P + 1.5 Tk + 1.35 (0.75 TS + 0.4 UDL)

Un-cracked global analysis

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Background and Applications

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33

(MPa) : Stresses in the extreme fibre of the concrete slab, under Characteristic SLS combination
when considering concrete resistance in every cross-section
8
6

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

4
2

x (m)

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

-2
-4
-6

2.f ctm = 6.4 MPa

-8
-10
-12

x = 49.7 m

L1 = 60 m

x = 72.5 m

Cracked
zone on
P1

17 %.L1
EI1

x = 121.6 m
Cracked
zone on P2

L2 = 80 m

15.6 %.L2
EI2

x = 150.6 m

L3 = 60 m

23 %.L2
EI1

EI2

17.7 %.L3
EI1

Note : Dissymmetry in the cracked lengths due to sequence of slab concreting.

Cracked global analysis: bending moments

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Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

34

80

Bending moment (MN.m)

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

60

56.07

50.16
37.06

40

50.84

41.33

37.59

20
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

-20
-40
-60
-80

-77.66

-80.69

-100
-107.25

ELS
caractristique
Characteristic
SLS
Fundamental
ULS
ELU
fondamental

-120

x (m)

-103.54

180

200

Cracked global analysis: shear forces

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Background and Applications

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35

10
ELS
caractristique
Characteristic
SLS
ELU
fondamental
Fundamental
ULS

7.47

Shear force (MN)

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

5.54

5.49

4.38
3.24

7.39

3.09

2
1.09
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

-2
-3.09

-2.92

-5.54

-5.49

-7.46

-7.41

-4
-6
-8

-3.26
-4.40

-10

x (m)

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Background and Applications

Contents : 7 parts

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

36

1. Introduction to composite bridges in Eurocode 4


2. Global analysis of composite bridges
3. ULS verifications
4. SLS verifications
5. Connection at the steelconcrete interface
6. Fatigue (connection and reinforcement)
7. Lateral Torsional Buckling of members in
compression

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Background and Applications

ULS verifications of a composite bridge

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

resistance of the composite cross-sections


- to bending moment M (EN 1994-2, 6.2.1)
- to shear force V (EN 1994-2, 6.2.2.1 to 6.2.2.3)
- to interaction M+V (EN 1994-2, 6.2.2.4)
shear resistance of the concrete slab (EN 1994-2, 6.2.2.5(3) )
concrete slab (EN 1992)
shear connection (see below, point 5)
fatigue ULS (see below, point 6)
LTB around intermediate supports (see below, point 7)

37

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Background and Applications

ULS section resistance to M > 0

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38

fck/C

0.85 fck/C

compression

(+)

(+)
p.n.a

e.n.a

()

tension

fy/M0
Elastic resistance
(for classes 1 to 4)

e.n.a. = elastic neutral axis


p.n.a. = plastic neutral axis

()

fy/M0
Plastic resistance
(for classes 1 and 2)

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Background and Applications

ULS section resistance to M < 0

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39

fsk/S

tension

fsk/S

()
0.85 fck/C

p.n.a

()
fy/M0
e.n.a

(+)
(+)
compression

fy/M0
Elastic resistance
(for classes 1 to 4)

fy/M0
Plastic resistance
(for classes 1 and 2)

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Background and Applications

Class 4 composite section with construction phases

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40

Use of the final ULS stress distribution to look for the effective cross-section
If web and flange are Class 4 elements, the flange gross area is first reduced. The corresponding first
effective cross-section is used to re-calculate the stress distribution which is then used for reducing the
web gross area.

MEd = Ma,Ed + Mc,Ed

Mc,Ed

Ma,Ed

Recalculation of the stress distribution


respecting the sequence of construction

A eff , Ieff , Geff


1- Flange
2- Web
Justification of the recalculated
stress distribution

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Background and Applications

ULS resistance under V and interaction M + V

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41

Plastic resistance : ensured by the steel web


Vpl,a,Rd is calculated by using Eurocode 3 part 1-1.

VRd = Vpl,a ,Rd = A V .

fy
M0 3

Shear buckling resistance :


See Eurocode 3 part 1-5.

VRd = Vb,Rd = Vbw ,Rd + Vbf ,Rd

Interaction between M and V :


For Class 1 or 2 sections :

f yw h w t w
M1 3

If VEd< 0.5.VRd, no interaction occurs.


If not, the criterion MEd < Mpl,Rd is verified using a reduced Mpl,Rd value

= 2 Ed 1
VRd

For Class 3 or 4 sections : See Eurocode 3 part 1-5.

ULS shear resistance in the concrete slab

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Background and Applications

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42

For the solid slab of a composite bridge:

VEd VRd,c

=>

Shear reinforcement (Ast for b = 1 m) is not necessary (nor the


minimum shear reinforcement area according to EN1992-2,9.2.2)

VRd,c = CRd,ck(100l fck )1 3 + k 1cp bhc (v min + k1cp )bhc


CRd,c =

If the concrete flange is in tension :

v min = 0.035.k1.5 fck

k =1+
l =

A st
bhc

200
hc

k1 = 0.12

10
Lower fibre
Upper fibre
sigma_cp,0

8
Stresses in the slab at ULS (MPa)

cp,0 = 1.85 MPa cp

N
= Ed
bhc

0.15
= 0.12
C

6
4
2
0
-2

20

40

60

80

100

-4
-6
-8
-10

x (m)

120

140

160

180

200

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Example: Analysis of 2 different cross-sections

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

43

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

60 m

80 m

Section

60 m

Section

Concrete in tension

Concrete in compression

M<0

M>0

Class 3 (elastic section analysis)

Class 1 (plastic section analysis)

MULS = -107.25 MN.m

MULS = +56.07 MN.m

VULS = 7.47 MN

VULS = 1.04 MN

Example: Cross-section A under bending

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

44

Stress diagram under bending

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

2.5 m

3.5 m

-171.2 MPa
-149.2 MPa
-275.8 MPa
1000 x 120 mm

2560 x 26 mm

1200 x 120 mm

261.3 MPa

Elastic section analysis :

434.8 MPa =

295 MPa =

fsk
re inf .
S

fy
M0

steel,sup
steel,inf

fy
M0

= 295 MPa

Example: Cross-section A under shear force

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

45

First cross-bracing
in central span

P1

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

a = 8000 mm
VEd = 7.47 MN
hw = 2560 mm

VEd = 6.00 MN
tw = 26 mm

Contribution of the web Vbw,Rd


cr = k E = 19.58 MPa
w =

fyw
cr 3

= 1.33 1.08

1.37
= 0.675
0.7 + w
f
Vbw,Rd = w yw hw t w = 8.14 MN
M1 3
w =

h
k = 5.34 + 4 w = 5.75
a
hw 31

tw
Shear buckling to be considered:

VRd = Vb,Rd = Vbw,Rd + Vbf ,Rd


Contribution of the flange Vbf,Rd
Vbf ,Rd = 0.245 MN

can be neglected.

fywhw t w
M1 3

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Example: Cross-section A under M+V interaction

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

VEd
0.5
VRd

46

so the M+V interaction should be checked, and as the section is in


Class 3, the following criterion should be applied (EN1993-1-5) :

2
M
1 + 1 f ,Rd 23 1 1.0
Mpl,Rd
at a distance hw/2 from internal support P1.

Mf ,Rd = 117.3 MN.m

: design plastic resistance to bending of the effective composite section


excluding the steel web (EN 1994-2, 6.2.2.5(2)).

Mpl,Rd = 135.6 MN.m : design plastic resistance to bending of the effective composite section.

3 =

VEd
= 0.89
Vbw,Rd

1 =

M
MEd
= 0.73 f ,Rd = 0.86
Mpl,Rd
Mpl,Rd

As MEd < Mf,Rd, the flanges alone can be used to


resist M whereas the steel web resists V.
=> No interaction !

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Example: Cross-section B (Class 1)

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

2.5 m

47

3.5 m

p.n.a.

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

0.85

9.2 MPa

1000 x 40 mm
2720 x 18 mm

202.0 MPa

fck
C

fyf

fyw
M0

M0
-

-305.2 MPa

1200 x 40 mm

Plastic section analysis under bending :

MEd = 56.07 Mpl,Rd = 79.59 MN.m

h
31
h
k , so the shear buckling has to be considered:
k = 5.34 + 4 w = 5.80 and w

t
a

w

VEd = 2.21 MN VRd = Vb,Rd = Vbw,Rd + Vbf ,Rd Vbw,Rd = 4.44 MN


VEd
0.5
VRd

=> No M+V interaction !

fywhw t w
M1 3

= 10.64 MN

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Contents : 7 parts

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

48

1. Introduction to composite bridges in Eurocode 4


2. Global analysis of composite bridges
3. ULS verifications
4. SLS verifications
5. Connection at the steelconcrete interface
6. Fatigue (connection and reinforcement)
7. Lateral Torsional Buckling of members in
compression

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

SLS verifications in a composite bridge

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

49

Limitation of stresses in cross-sections at characteristic SLS


c 0.6.fck
M>0

a 1.0.fyk

s 0.8.fsk
M<0

(concrete in compression)

a 1.0.fyk

Crack width control


Limitations of deflections (national regulations)
Web breathing (fatigue phenomenon, see EN1993-2)
Note : for shear connectors, see section 5 below

(reinforcement in tension)

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Crack width control

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

1.

Minimum reinforcement required


- in cross-sections where tension exists in the concrete slab for characteristic SLS
combinations of actions
- estimated from equilibrium between tensile force in concrete just before cracking
and tensile force in the reinforcement (at yielding or at a lower stress level if
necessary to limit the crack width)

2.

Control of cracking due to direct loading


The design crack width wk should be limited to a maximum crack width wmax
by limiting :
- bar spacing s smax
- or bar diameter max
wmax depends on the exposure class of the considered concrete face
smax and max depend on the calculated stress level s = s,0 + s in the
reinforcement and on the design crack width wk

3.

Control of cracking due to indirect loading


For instance, concrete shrinkage.

50

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Exposure classes for composite bridges (durability)

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

51

XC4, XS1*, XD3**, XF3 or XF4**


XC3, XS1*
waterproofing layer

XC4, XS1*, XD3***

XC4, XS1*, XD3**,


XF1 or XF2**
XC4, XS1*, XD3***,
XF1 or XF2**

* : for bridges near sea water


** : for bridges subjected to (very) frequent salting
*** : for the bottom surface of a bridge deck located
within 6 m above a road with (very) frequent salting

Risk of corrosion of reinforcement

Attack to concrete

Class

Description of the environment

XO

No risk of corrosion or attack of concrete

XC1 to XC4

Corrosion induced by carbonation

XD1 to XD3

Corrosion induced by chlorides

XS1 to XS3

Corrosion induced by chlorides from sea water

XF1 to XF4

Freeze/thaw attack

XA1 to XA3

Chemical attack

XM

Mechanical abrasion

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Exposure classes for composite bridges (durability)

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

52

Hypothesis : Bridge in a low-level frost area

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

The choice of exposure classes leads


to define :
XC4, XF3
XC3

a minimum resistance for concrete


(according to EN1992 and EN206),
for instance C30/37

waterproofing layer
a concrete makeup (maximum E/C
ratio, minimum cement content)
according to EN206

XC4, XF1
XC4
XC4, XF1

a structural class (S1 to S6) for


every face of the slab, chosen
according to Table 4.3 in EN1992
and to the retained concrete

a minimum concrete cover for


every face of the slab according to
the exposure class and the structural
class

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Maximum crack width wmax

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

Recommended values defined in EN1992-2 (concrete bridges) :

The stress level s,0 in the reinforcement is calculated for the quasi-permanent SLS
combination of actions (in case of reinforced concrete slab).
The tension stiffening effect s should be taken into account.

53

Minimum reinforcement

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

54

fct,eff
c

hc

z0
e.n.a.
calculated with n0

change in the
location of the
neutral axis

before
cracking

after
cracking

k sk. k c fct,eff A ct = s A s
kc =

1
+ 0.3 1.0
hc
1+
2z0

stress distribution within the tensile concrete height hc before cracking


(including indirect loading) + change in the location of the neutral axis
at cracking time

ks = 0.9

reduction of the normal force in the concrete slab due to initial cracking
and local slip of the shear connection

k = 0.8

effect of non-uniform shape in the self-equilibrating stresses within hc

fct,eff = fctm

and

s = fsk

give the minimum reinforcement section As,min.

Example : minimum reinforcement

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

55

The elastic neutral axis is located in the steel web for every section of the
bridge, so Act is the slab section : Act = 6 x 0.34 = 2.04 m

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

hc = 0.34 m
z0 = 0.52 m

+ 0.3;1.0 = 1.0
k c = min
h
1 + c

2z0

fct,eff = fctm = -3.2 Mpa


fsk = 500 MPa
As,min = 94 cm which means a minimum reinforcement ratio s ,min = 0.46%
For the design, the following reinforcement ratios have been considered :
Top layer : high bonded bars with = 16 mm and s = 130 mm, so s,top = 0.46%
Bottom layer : high bonded bars with = 16 mm and s = 130 mm, so s,bottom = 0.46%
We verify :

s,top + s,bottom = 0.92% s,min

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Crack width control

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

56

Ast is put in place through n high bonded bars of diameter per meter.

Diameter
(Table 7.1)

or

Spacing s = 1/n
(Table 7.2)

= *

fct,eff
2.9 MPa

Example : crack width control for direct loading

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

57

The stress level s due to direct loading at quasi-permanent SLS combinations of actions can be
calculated :

s,top = s,bottom = 0.46%

s,0 = 106 Mpa (maximum tension) at quasi-permanent SLS in the top layer
100

Stresses at QP SLS (MPa)

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

Top and bottom layers : Ast with = 16 mm and s = 130 mm, so

50

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

-50

-100

x (m)
-150

Stresses in the upper layer


of reinforcement, calculated
by neglecting concrete
resistance (in tension).

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Example : crack width control for direct loading

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

58

s = 0.4

Tension stiffening effect :

fctm
s st

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

in the considered cross-section (where s,0 is maximum) :

st =

AI
= 1.31
A aIa

s = 0.92%

(Reinforcement ratio)

fctm
= 106.2 MPa
s st

s = 0.4

s = s,0 + s = 212.2 MPa

*max = 22.3 mm

= 16 mm max = *max 3.2 / 2.9 = 24.6 mm

or

(interpolation in Table 7.1 of EN 1994-2)

s max = 235 mm

s = 130 mm s max = 235 mm

(interpolation in Table 7.2 of EN 1994-2)

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Example : crack width control for indirect loading

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

The stress level s due to indirect loading (for instance, concrete shrinkage) can not
be calculated in the reinforcement.
In the sections where the concrete slab is in tension for characteristic SLS
combinations of actions, s is estimated using :

s = k skk c fct,eff

A ct
2.04
= 0.9 0.8 1.0 3.2
= 250.4 MPa
As
0.92% 2.04

The reinforcement layers are designed using high bonded bars with = 16 mm.
= fct,eff/fct,0 = 2.9/3.2 = 14.5 mm
The interpolation in Table 7.1 from EN 1994-2 gives : s,max = 255 Mpa
We verify :
s = 250.4 Mpa < s,max = 255 Mpa

59

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Contents : 7 parts

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

60

1. Introduction to composite bridges in Eurocode 4


2. Global analysis of composite bridges
3. ULS verifications
4. SLS verifications
5. Connection at the steelconcrete interface
6. Fatigue (connection and reinforcement)
7. Lateral Torsional Buckling of members in
compression

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Steel-concrete connection

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

61

Objective :
Transmit the longitudinal shear force vL,Ed per unit length of the steel-concrete
interface
Performed by the use of shear connectors (only studs in EN1994) and transverse
reinforcement
Full interaction required for bridges
Elastic resistance design of the shear connectors at SLS and at ULS
Plastic resistance design of the shear connectors at ULS in Class 1 or
2 cross sections where Mel,Rd MEd Mpl,Rd
Shear connectors locally added due to concentrated longitudinal shear
force (for instance, shrinkage and thermal action at both bridge deck
ends or cable anchorage)
ULS design of transverse reinforcement to prevent longitudinal shear
failure or splitting in the concrete slab

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Resistance of the headed stud shear connector

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

62

PRk = min PRk (1) ; PRk (2)

1.5d
0.4d
h 3d

d 2
= 0.8f u .

Shank shear resistance :

PRk

Concrete crushing :

PRk (2) = 0.29d 2 f ck E cm

16 d 25mm

(1)

if

h
4
d

, then
else

h
= 0.2 + 1
d
=1

Limit State Design resistance National Annex


U.L.S.
S.L.S.

PRd =

PRk
V

k s .PRd

V = 1.25
k s = 0.75

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Elastic design of the shear connection

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

63

SLS and ULS elastic design using the shear flow vL,Ed at the steel-concrete
interface, which is calculated with an uncracked behaviour of the cross sections.
2.5 m

Shear force from


cracked global
analysis

vL , Ed ( x ) = VEd ( x).

Ac zc + As zs
I

zc

3.5 m

zs
e.n.a.

Uncracked
mechanical properties

SLS

ULS

For a given length li of the girder (to


be chosen by the designer), the Ni
shear connectors are uniformly
distributed and satisfy :

vL , Ed SLS ( x )

Ni
.{k s PRd }
li

( 0 x li )

For a given length li of the girder (to be


chosen by the designer), the Ni* shear
connectors are uniformly distributed and
satisfy :

vL , Ed

ULS

N i*
( x ) 1.1 .PRd
li

li

v
0

ULS
L , Ed

( x ) dx Ni* .PRd

Example : SLS elastic design of connectors

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

L1 = 29 m

64

L2 = 41 m

L3 = 41 m

L4 = 29 m

1.4
1.2

v L ,Ed SLS

1
0.8

in MPa/m

0.6

Studs with :
d = 22 mm

0.4

h = 150 mm

Shear flow at SLS (MPa/m)

0.2

in S235

Shear resistance of the studs (MPa/m)


0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Example : ULS elastic design of connectors

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

65

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

Using the same segment lengths li as in SLS calculation


and the same connector type
1.6
1.4
1.2

v L ,Ed ULS
in MPa/m

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
Shear flow at ULS (MPa/m)
0.2

Shear resistance of the studs (MPa/m)

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Example : longitudinal spacing of studs rows

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

66

e (mm)
800

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

700
600
500
400
300
200
spacing at SLS (mm)
100

spacing at ULS (mm)

0
0

20

40

60

80

=> Elastic design governed by ULS.

100

120

140

x (m)

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Elasto-plastic design (ULS) of the shear connection

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

67

Eventually adding shear connectors in the elasto-plastic zones


where Mpl,Rd > MEd > Mel,Rd

P1

P2

Elasto-plastic zone

First yielding in one fibre of


the cross-section where
MEd = Mel,Rd

MEd
Mpl,Rd

Elastic
design

NB (or NB*) is determined by


using an interaction M-N
diagram in the section B.

Elasto-plastic
design

NA

NB

n=

N B or N*B N A
PRk V

connectors to put between


sections A and B.

Interaction diagram in the cross-section B

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

68

Two options : simplified diagram (straight line GH) /


more precise diagram (broken line GJH)
MB (N.m)
Mpl,Rd
MEd
Mel,Rd

H
J

+ Mc,Ed

Ma,Ed
0

G
Nel,B

NB*

Plastic resistance of the concrete slab (within the


effective width) to compressive normal force :

NB Npl,B

N pl,B

NB (N)

0.85.f ck
=
.b eff .h c
C

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Elastic resistance moment in the section B

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

Ma,Ed

69

Mc,Ed

MEd

c(2)
as(1)

as(2)
+ k .

ai(1)
Step 1 : stress diagram
for load cases applied
to the structure before
concreting Section B

as fyk
=

ai(2)

(For instance, ai(1) + k.ai(2) = fyk )

fyk
ai

Step 2 : stress diagram


for load cases applied
to the structure after
concreting Section B

k (< 1) is the maximum value for keeping


step 3 within its yield strength limits.

fcd=fck/c

=>

Step 3 : ULS stress


diagram in Section B (if
yielding is reached in the
extreme bottom fibre)

Mel,Rd = Ma,Ed + k. Mc,Ed

Example : Bending moment in section B

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

Concreting
phases

16

15

70

14

13

12

11

10

M_Ed+

Section B
(Class 1)

40

M_EdM_pl,Rd+
M_pl,Rd -

30
20

M (MN.m)

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

50

10
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

x (m)

-10
-20
-30
-40
-50

Ma,Ed(B) = 2.7 MN.m -----> MEd(B) = 22.3 MN.m < Mpl,Rd (B) = 25.7 MN.m

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Example : Normal stresses in section B

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

71

c
as(2)

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

88.2 MPa

ai(2)

-63.0 MPa

fy = -345 MPa

151.7 MPa

-360.3 MPa
Mc,Ed(B)

Ma,Ed(B) = 2.7 MN.m

Mc,Ed(B) = 22.3 2.7 = 19.6 MN.m


ai(2) = (-360.3) (-63.0) = -297.3 Mpa

k is defined by k =

fy ( 63.0 )
ai(2)

11.9 MPa

= 0.95 1.0

Mel,Rd is then defined by Mel,Rd = Ma,Ed + k. Mc,Ed = 21.3 MN.m

MEd(B) = 22.3 MN.m

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Example : Interaction diagram in section B

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

72

k * ULS stresses

beff = 5.6 m

0.95*11.9 MPa

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

26.9 cm
3.6 cm

0.95*3.0 MPa

0.85

0.65 m

fck
= 19.8 MPa
C

Npl = 0.85

fck
.A c,eff = 30.3 MPa
C

Nel = 11.4 MN

MB (MN.m)
Mpl,Rd = 25.7
MEd = 22.3
Mel,Rd = 21.3

MaEd = 2.7
0

Nel = 11.4
NB* = 15.7

NB = 25.8

NB (MN)

Npl = 30.3

Example : Limits of the elasto-plastic zone

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

73

ULS Stresses (MPa) in the bottom steel flange

Section B
(max = -360.3 Mpa)

400

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

300
200
100

fy = -345 MPa

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

-100

3.3 m

-200

2.8 m

-300
-400

Section A

Section C

fy

beff = 5.6 m
26.9 cm
3.6 cm
0.65 m

Section A

Section C

11.8 MPa

11.3 MPa

3.1 MPa

2.9 MPa

Nel(A) = 12.1 MN

Nel(C) = 11.5 MN

Adding shear connectors by elasto-plastic design

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

74

9 rows with 4 studs and a longitudinal spacing equal to 678 mm


(designed at ULS)
Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

e = 678 mm

3300 mm

Section A

Simplified
interaction
diagram

2800 mm

Section B

(25.8-12.1)/(4x0.1095) = 28
rows
spacing = 3300/28 = 118 mm

More precise (15.7-12.1)/(4x0.1095) = 9 rows


interaction
spacing = 3300/9 = 367 mm
diagram

Section C

(25.8-11.5)/(4x0.1095) = 33 rows
spacing = 2800/33 = 84 mm
(which is even lower than 5d=110 mm !)

(15.7-11.5)/(4x0.1095) = 10 rows
spacing = 2800/10 = 280 mm

Detailing for shear connectors

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

75

for solid slabs :

to allow a correct welding of the connector :

25 mm eD

and if the used shear connectors are studs :

d 2.5.t f

d 1.5.t f for a structural steel flange in tension, subjected to fatigue

h 3d

head 1.5d

tf

hhead 0.4d

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Detailing for shear connectors

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

76

> Longitudinal spacing between shear connectors rows


to insure the composite behaviour in all cross-sections :
emax = min (800 mm; 4 h )
where h is the concrete slab thickness
if the structural steel flange in compression which is connected to the
concrete slab, is a class 3 or 4 element :
235
e max 22t f
to avoid buckling of the flange between two studs rows :
fy
to avoid buckling of the cantilever eD-long part of the flange :

and if the used shear connectors are studs :

5.d e min

> Transversal spacing between adjacent studs

etrans ,min 2.5.d

for solid slabs

etrans ,min 4.d

in other cases

eD 9t f

235
fy

Transverse reinforcement for solid slabs

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

77

Truss model for transverse reinforcement which supplements the shear strength of
the concrete on potential surface of failure (a-a for instance)
a

b1
beff

b1

At

beff
hc

1m

io
n

mp
re

ss

co

ss
io n

pr
e

co
m

Transverse
reinforcement

tension

Ab

Ab+At

v L ,Ed
v aa = v L ,Ed ULS .

b1
beff

cracks

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Transverse reinforcement for solid slabs

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

78

tension in reinforcement :

v aa .hc .(1m). tan f ( A b + A t ) .fsd

compression in concrete struts :

v aa 0.6 1 ck fcd .sin f cos f


250

for slab in tension at ULS :

1.0 co tan f 1.25

(or 38.6 f 45 )

for slab in compression at ULS : 1.0 co tan f 2.0 (or 26.5 f 45 )


Other potential surfaces of shear failure defined in EN1994-2 :

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Contents : 7 parts

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

79

1. Introduction to composite bridges in Eurocode 4


2. Global analysis of composite bridges
3. ULS verifications
4. SLS verifications
5. Connection at the steelconcrete interface
6. Fatigue (connection and reinforcement)
7. Lateral Torsional Buckling of members in
compression

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Fatigue ULS in a composite bridge

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

80

In a composite bridge, fatigue verifications shall be performed for :


the structural steel details of the main girder (see EN1993-2 and EN1993-1-9)
the slab concrete (see EN1992-2)
the slab reinforcement (see EN1994-2)
the shear connection (see EN1994-2)
Two assessment methods in the Eurocodes which differ in the partial factor Mf for
fatigue strength in the structural steel :
Assessment method
(National Choice)
Damage tolerant
Required regular inspections and
maintenance for detecting and repairing
fatigue damage during the bridge life

Safe life
No requirement for regular in-service
inspection for fatigue damage

Consequence of detail failure for the bridge


Low consequence

High consequence

Mf = 1.0

Mf = 1.15

Mf = 1.15

Mf = 1.35

Damage equivalent stress range E

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Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

81

In a given structural detail of the bridge which is subjected to repeated fluctuations of stresses
due to traffic loads, a fatigue crack could initiate and propagate. The detail fails when the
damage D in it reaches 1.0 :
Log (stress range)

weld

Fatigue S-N curve of the


studied detail (EN1993-2)
with 2 slopes (m=3 and m=5)

N = C.m

Longitudinal
stiffener on a web
crack

Log N (cycles)

damage

ni
= di
Ni

Total damage in the detail :

D=

ni

Ni

NC = ND=5.106
2.106

NL=100.106

ni
Ni

In term of D, the actual traffic (ni, i)i is equivalent to nE = ni cycles of


the unique equivalent stress range E.

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Background and Applications

Fatigue Load Model 3 equivalent lorry (FLM3)

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82

axle = 120 kN

2.106 FLM3 lorries are assumed to cross the bridge per year and per slow lane defined
in the project
every crossing induces a stress range p = |max,f - min,f | in a given structural detail
the equivalent stress range E in this detail is obtained as follows :

E = .p

where :
is the damage equivalence factor
is the damage equivalent impact factor
(= 1.0 as the dynamic effect is already
included in the characteristic value of the
axle load)

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Background and Applications

Damage equivalence factor

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

83

In a structural steel detail (in EN 1993-2):

=1 2 3 4 < max
which represents the following parameters :
1 : influence of the loaded lengths, defined in function of the bridges
spans (< 80 m) and the shape of the influence line for the internal forces
and moments
2 : influence of the traffic volume
3 : life time of the bridge ( 3=1 for 100 years)
4 : influence of the number of loaded lanes
max : influence of the constant amplitude fatigue limit D at 5.106 cycles

For shear connection (in EN1994-2):


For reinforcement (in EN1992-2):

v = v ,1 . v ,2 . v ,3 . v ,4
s = fat . s,1 . s,2 . s,3 . s,4

For concrete in compression (in EN1992-2 and only defined for railway bridges):

c = c,0 . c,1 . c,2,3 . c,4

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Background and Applications

Example : Damage equivalence factor v

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84

v ,1 = 1.55

for road bridges (with L< 100 m) :

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

hypothesis for the traffic volume in the example (based for instance on the
existing traffic description in EN 1991 part 2):
Nobs = 0.5.106 lorries per slow lane and per year with the following distribution

Q1 = 200 kN

Q2 = 310 kN

Q3 = 490 kN

Q 4 = 390 kN

Q5 = 450 kN

40%

10%

30%

15%

5%

15

Mean value of lorries weight :

Qml

v ,2
bridge life time = 100 years, so
only 1 slow lane on the bridge, so

niQi5
=
n
i

= 407 kN

Q Nobs
= ml
480 0.5.106

(1 8)

407
= 0.848
480

v ,3 = 1.0
v ,4 = 1.0

v = 1.314

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Background and Applications

Stress range p = | max,f min,f | in the structural steel

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

85

Basic combination of non-cyclic actions

Fatigue loads

Gmax (or Gmin ) + 1.0 (or 0.0)S + 0.6Tk +


In every section :

FLM3

Mmax (or Mmin ) = Ma,Ed + Mc,Ed

MFLM3,max and MFLM3,min

Bending moment in the section where the structural steel detail is located :

MEd,max,f = Ma,Ed + Mc,Ed + MFLM3,max

MEd,min,f = Ma,Ed + Mc,Ed + MFLM3,min

Corresponding stresses in the concrete slab (participating concrete) :


v
v
v
v
c,Ed,min,f = Mc,Ed 1 + MFLM3,min 1
c,Ed,max,f = Mc,Ed 1 + MFLM3,max 1
I1 n
I1 n
I1
I1
nL

Case
1

n0

c,Ed,max,f > 0

va
va
v1
v1
v1
v1
v1

=
+
+

+
+
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

p
a,Ed
c,Ed
FLM3,max
a,Ed
c,Ed
FLM3,min
FLM3
c,Ed,min,f > 0
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Case
2

c,Ed,max,f < 0
c,Ed,min,f < 0

Case
3

c,Ed,max,f > 0
c,Ed,min,f < 0

p = MFLM3

v2
I2

v
v
v
v
p = Mc,Ed 1 2 + MFLM3,max 1 + MFLM3,min 2
I1
I2
I1 I2

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Background and Applications

Stress range p for the upper face of the upper steel flange

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

Sequence of
concreting

16

86

15

14

13

12

11

10

25

Stress range (MPa)

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

30

20

15

10

0
0

20

40

60

80

100
x (m)

Stress range from M_min


always without concrete participation

120

140

160

Stress range from M_max


always with concrete participation

180

200

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Background and Applications

Stress range s,p = | s,max,f s,min,f | in the reinforcement

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

87

Case
1

c,Ed,max,f > 0
c,Ed,min,f > 0

Case
2

c,Ed,max,f < 0
c,Ed,min,f < 0

M + MFLM3,max

v
s,p = Mc,Ed + MFLM3,min 2 + s,f 1 c,Ed

I2
Mc,Ed + MFLM3,min

Case
3

c,Ed,max,f > 0
c,Ed,min,f < 0

s,p = (Mc,Ed + MFLM3,max )

s,p = MFLM3

v1
I1

v1
v
Mc,Ed + MFLM3,min 2 + s,f
I1
I2

influence of the tension stiffening effect

s,f = 0.2

st =

AI
A aIa

fctm
st s

!
s =

A s,eff
A c,eff

Fatigue : 0.2
SLS verifications : 0.4

.100

in case 3, Mc,Ed is a sum of elementary bending moments corresponding to different


load cases with different values of v1/I1 (following nL).

Tension stiffening effect

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Background and Applications

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88

Tension
stiffening
effect

s,p,2

s,f

Slope v2/I2 (fully


cracked behaviour)

s,p,3
Bending
moment in the
composite
section

s,p,1

case 2

Slope v1/I1

case 3
case 1

Mc,Ed + MFLM3,max

Mc,Ed + MFLM3,min
Stresses in the reinforcement (>0 in compression)

Fatigue verifications

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Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

In a structural steel detail :

89

Ff E

c
Mf

Ff E
3

c
Mf

Ff E Ff E

+
1.0
C Mf C Mf
In the reinforcement :

F,fat E

Rsk
S,fat

S,fat = 1.15

log Rsk
k1 = 5

fsk
k1

k2 = 9

Rsk = 162.5 MPa

k2

N* = 1.106

logN

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Background and Applications

Classification of typical structural details

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

90

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Background and Applications

Fatigue verifications for shear connectors

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91

R (log)

R (log)

m=8

c=
90 MPa

NR (log)
Nc =
2.106 cycles

( R )

1.

m=5
Nc =
2.106 cycles

NR = ( C ) NC
m

For a steel flange in compression at fatigue ULS :

Ff E
2.

c=
80 MPa

m=3

c
Mf ,s

with the recommended values :

Ff = 1.0

Mf ,s = 1.0

For a steel flange in tension at fatigue ULS :

c
Ff E
Mf

c
Ff E
Mf ,s

Ff E

+ Ff E 1.3
C Mf C Mf ,s

NR (log)

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Background and Applications

Contents : 7 parts

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

92

1. Introduction to composite bridges in Eurocode 4


2. Global analysis of composite bridges
3. ULS verifications
4. SLS verifications
5. Connection at the steelconcrete interface
6. Fatigue (connection and reinforcement)
7. Lateral Torsional Buckling of members in
compression

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Background and Applications

LTB around internal supports of a composite girder

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

93

To verify the LTB in the lower bottom flange (which is in compression


around internal supports), two approaches are available :

LT =

ult
cr

( )

LT = f LT

with

ult =

1.

Bridge with uniform cross-sections in


Class 1,2 or 3 and an un-stiffened web
(except on supports) : U-frame model

2.

Bridge with non-uniform cross-sections :


general method from EN1993-2, 6.3.4

fy
a

6.3.4.1 : General method

6.3.4.2 : Simplified method


(Engessers formula for cr)

and

LT ult
1.0 ?
M1

cr =

cr
a

Example : lateral restraints

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Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

94

1100

Transverse bracing frames every 7.5 m in end spans and every 8.0 m in
central span

IPE 600

1100

600

2800

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

Lateral restraints are provided on each vertical support (piles) and in crosssections where cross bracing frames are provided:

7000

Cross section with transverse bracing frame in span

A frame rigidity evaluated to Cd = 20.3 MN/m (spring rate)

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Background and Applications

Maximum bending at support P1 under traffic

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

Traffic loads (with unfavourable


transverse distribution for the
girder n1)

+
Dead loads (construction phases,
cracked elastic analysis,
shrinkage)

MEd = -102 MN.m


NEd = MEd / h
= 38 MN

95

TS = 409.3 kN/axle
udl = 26.7 kN/m

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Background and Applications

Elastic critical load for lateral flange buckling

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96

EN 1993-2, 6.3.4.2 : ENGESSER


NEd = constant = Nmax
Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

I = constant = Imax

t f bf 3 120.12003
I=
=
12
12

c = Cd/a

Ncr = 2 EIc = 192 MN

L = 80 m

cr = Ncr NEd = 5.1 < 10

EN 1993-2, 6.3.4.1:
General method
I and NEd are variable
discrete elastic lateral
support, with rigidity Cd

a = 7,5 m

a=8m

a = 7,5 m

uy

(I)
x

cr = Ncr NEd = 8.9 (Mode I at P1)

(II)

= 10.3 (Mode II at P2)


= 17.5 (Mode III at P1)

(III)

Lcr = 20 m

EN1993-2, 6.3.4.1 (general method)

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Background and Applications

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97

First order stresses in the mid plane


of the lower flange (compression at support P1)

Stresses in the mid-plane of the lower flange[MPa]

Example : Twin-girder composite bridge

400

300

fyf 295
= 1.18
=

249
f

ult,k = min

200

100

op =

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

-100

ult,k
1.18
=
8.9
cr,op

= 0.37 0.2

-200

-300

-400

Using buckling curve d:

op = 0.875 1.0
op

ult,k 1.036
=
= 0.94 > 1.0
1.1
M1

NO !

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop

More information about the numerical design example by


downloading the PDF guidance book :
Eurocodes 3 and 4 Application to steel-concrete
composite road bridges
on the Stra website :
http://www.setra.equipement.gouv.fr/In-English.html

Thank you for your kind attention

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