Circulatory System This body system is concerned with the movement of nutrients & wastes about the body.

Hormones, anti-bodies, & other items can also be transported by blood The CS has a few basic components a) blood – a fluid tissue that supports the substances to be transported, i.e. Nutrients, wastes, hormones, “heat,” etc. b) blood vessels – tubes that the blood is contained within. The CS of humans, like all higher animals (vertebrates) is closed. Blood is carries in arteries, veins, & capillaries. c) heart Of concern in this unit: 1. structure & function of the heart 2. organization & design of blood vessels in conjunction with their roles 3. composition of blood & the functions of the components of blood 4. interaction of all the parts to control movement of goods about the body Heart -muscular myocardium →lined with an epithelial endocardium & covered by an external pericardium (connective & epithelial tissues) -separated into 2 sides by the septum; the heart is divided into 4 chambers -2 atria (R & L) which are upper chambers that receive blood from the body -2 lower chambers, ventricles (R & L), which are more muscular than the atria; they deliver blood to the body Atria are separated from the ventricles by atrioventricular valves. These flaps are supported by attachments to the ventricles called chordate tendinae. -the A-V valve on the right side has 3 flaps → tricuspid valve -the A-V valve on the left side has 2 flaps → bicuspid valve The exits from the ventricles are also regulated by valves called semi-lunar valves GENERAL HEART DIAGRAM BLOOD FLOW WITHIN HEART HANDOUT HEART DIAGRAM Misc other handout thing Blood Vessels Blood vessels carry blood from the heart to tissues, then back to the heart There are 3 major types of blood vessels: 1. Arteries These vessels carry blood away from the heart. There are several tissue layers to make up an artery -Endothelium – inner epithelial layer that lines the inside of the vessel -Smooth Muscle – arteries are wrapped by smooth muscle, which can contract to make the vessel narrower -Outer Connective Tissue Layer – the muscular middle layer of tissue also contains elastic connective tissue. This allows arteries to stretch in order to control the large pressure created by the output of the heart. The smooth muscle can contract to reduce the size of the vessel due to lower pressures contraction of muscle → vessel diameter is reduced (constriction vasoconstriction relaxation of muscle → vessel diameter is increased (dilation) vasodilation ↑ dilation → ↓ blood pressure Arterioles – small arteries with less muscle that conducts blood from arteries to capillary beds 2. Veins These vessels return blood to the heart. The walls of the veins are not as strong as those of arteries due to the middle layer not being as developed. Blood flowing in veins is at a much lower pressure than in arteries so the vein walls do not have to change to compensate for blood pressure changes. The walls of the larger veins have valves to prevent the backflow of blood away from the heart. At any time about ½ the blood in the body is contained in the venous system. During blood loss, muscle surrounding veins can contract to force blood from the low pressure venous system over to the high pressure arterial system. This is venoconstriction & is under involuntary control Venules – small veins that conduct blood from capillary beds to larger veins 3. Capillaries

These are very small vessels that connect arteries to veins. They are simple, squamous epithelium wrapped into a tube (1 cell layer thick) – called an endothelium. O2 & nutrients (glucose, amino acids, etc) can diffuse from the blood, across the endothelium, into the cells of the body tissues, eg. muscles. CO2 & waste products, eg. ammonia, diffuse from the body’s cells into the blood. Networks of capillaries (capillary beds) are found in all tissues of the body. Entrance to capillary beds can be regulated by contraction or relaxation of sphincter muscles (circular smooth muscle) in arterioles that feed blood to the capillary beds. This allows us to regulate blood flow to different tissues. ↑ # open capillary beds → ↓ blood pressure pressure = force/area blood pressure is a function of in the case of blood pressure it is the force of a volume of blood on the walls of the vessel that contains it 1. the volume of blood 2. the speed it travels 3. the diameter of the blood vessel

BLOOD FLOW DIAGRAM Blood travels from the heart to the body in arteries. These vessels are lined with smooth muscle to ensure smooth, continuous flow of blood. Exchange of nutrients between blood & body cells occurs across thin walled capillaries. Blood entering capillaries is under high pressure due to the force of heart contraction. The pressure forces fluid containing dissolved O2 & nutrients into the serosal tissues (body cells). This fluid mixes with the fluid surrounding cells, called interstitial fluid → O2 & nutrients can diffuse into cells where they are needed. At the same time CO2 & waste products diffuse from cells into the interstitial fluid. Some of the interstitial fluid is drawn back into the blood due to osmosis. blood pressure osmotic pressure Arteriole 50-60 mm Hg 35 mm Hg Venule 15-20 mm Hg 35 mm Hg

Osmotic pressure is established because of proteins, particularly albumin, which cannot cross the capillary walls. They are too big to leave the blood, so they remain behind and as a result a concentration gradient is established. This leads to an osmotic pressure of about 35 mm Hg, drawing water ( and dissolved substances) into the blood. If b.p. > than osmotic pressure then fluid flows out of blood If b.p. < than osmotic pressure then fluid flows into the blood Blood flows to capillaries because the contraction of the heart forces blood, under high pressure, into the arteries. Arteries are elastic, due to very muscular walls. As stretched arteries shrink back to normal size, the blood is pushed forward to lower pressure vessels – Arterial system is high pressure Blood flows back tot he heart, from capillaries, in veins. There is virtually no effect of the heart beat on blood flow in veins. Blood in veins is squeezed forward by the contractions of various body muscles. The valves prevent the backflow and pooling of blood – Venbous system is low pressure Control of Heartbeat Cardiac muscle cells are excitable cells. Changes in internal [K+] and internal [Na+] can effect the potential difference (voltage) across the cell membrane. An area of the right atrium is particularly excitable; this is known as the sino-atrial (SA) nose – aka the ‘pacemaker,’ located in the wall of the right atrium near the vena cava. These cells spontaneously depolarize, sending a ‘wave’ of depolarization over the atria. This causes the atria to contract, squeezing blood through A-V valves into the ventricles. Near the right A-V valve, deeper in the atrial muscle is another `pacemaker`node – the atrioventricular node (AV node). When the AV node depolarizes an impulse is sent down specialized cells called purkinje fibres (located in the septum and ventricular muscle). These fibres take the impulse, quickly, to the base of the ventricles allowing the wave of depolarization to move from the bottom upwards to the top of the ventricles. This squeezes blood upwards. Hypertension → high blood pressure It is a major cause of heart disorders resulting in death in N. America. However, hypertension is easily detected by monitoring blood pressure. Blood pressure is normally varied due to the body`s response to various stimuli ex. Nervous excitement due to stress. Excitement will cause the sympathetic nervous system to stimulate the vasoconstriction of blood vessels. → this results in higher blood pressure → in turn this restricts blood flow to kidneys. In response the kidneys secrete a hormone – renin which will cause sodium retention in the blood → Na+ retention will cause water retention which also leads to higher b.p. A high sodium diet can bring about the same effect As we age our arteries lose their elasticity → `hardening of arteries`- called arterosclerosis. As we get older, fatty deposits can start to clog our arteries, causing them to become more narrow – called atherosclerosis Systolic pressure – the b.p. caused by the output of the heart during ventricular contraction

120/ 80 (mm Hg) Diastolic pressure – the residual b.p. between heartbeats, affected by the elasticity of the arteries Treatments for high b.p. 1. life style – exercise and diet, healthy body mass 2. drug a) sympathetic blocking agents reduce nervous vasoconstriction b) diveretics – cause increased salt (sodium) excretion → loss of water c) vasodilators – prevent constriction of blood vessels d) beta-blockers – they reduce cardiac output Fetal Circulation During fetal times lungs & liver largely non-functional soit’s not necessary to pump large volumes of blood to these organs. However, large volumes of bloof=d need to be pumped through the placenta, the site of nutrient/waste exchange between fetal blood & maternal blood. For these reasons there are significant differences in the anatomies of the adult & fetal circulatory systems. 1. blood returning to the fetal heart from the placenta by-passes the liver by flowing through the ductus venosus 2. most of the blood entering the right atrium from the inferior vena cava is directed through and opening in the septum, called the foramen ovale, into the left atrium. This is the oxygenated blood returning from the placenta which will be pumped from the left side of the heart mostly to the head. 3. blood entering the right atrium from the superior vena cava is mostly deoxygenated blood from the head. This blood is directed into the right ventricle & on into the pulmonary artery. It is then routed into the ductus arteriosus that shunts the blood into the descending aorta & on to the placenta (via umbilical cord) After birth the lungs inflate causing the resistance to blood flow in the lungs to drop significantly. At the same time the large volume of blood that had been flowing to the placenta must be taken up by the systemic & pulmonary circuit causing increase in aortic pressure & so an increase in pressure in left atrium & ventricle -the foramen ovale closes due to a flap on the left atrial side which is closed due to the increase in left atrial pressure combined with a decrease in right atrial pressure, since the pulmonary circuit is open (placenta is closed) -shortly after birth the ductus arteriosus closes due to contraction of its muscular walls -similarly the ductus venosus also closes & so blood flows into the liver Occasionally the closure of the foramen ovale is not complete. This condition may necessitate the need for open heart surgery to close the opening & allow proper cardiac blood flow Fetal handout Terms handout x2 Lymphatic System A system of vessels that associates closely with the cardiovascular system. Its purpose is to collect fluids from the body tissues and return it to the blood stream The cells of the body’s tissues are surrouned by fluid (interstitial fluid) and are supplied with water that enters from capillaries. Excess tissue fluid is taken up by the lymph capillaries, now this fluid is referred to as lymph. Lymph also contains lymphocytes. Produced in lymph nodes, which produce antibodies to attack foreign proteins Lymph flows into lymph veins, which are similar in construction to blood veins, including valves. As lymph flows through lymph veins it will pass through lymph nodes. It’s here that: a) lymphocytes are produced b) lymph is filtered of damaged cells two major ducts collect lymph fluid -right lymphatic duct drains the upper-right body and empties into the c-v system via the right subclavian vein -thoracic duct drains the remainder of the body and empties into c-v system via the left subclavian vein Two other structures of the lymphatic system are the spleen and thymus gland Overall – Roles of the Lymphatic System a) transport FA’s from S.I. via lacteals to the c-v system b) return fluids from tissues to c-v system c) fight infections (lymphocytes) and cleans lymph Blood Blood – liquid connective tissue Cellular component – 40-45% by volume

-erythrocyte (red cells) -leukocytes (white cells) -platelets Non-cellular matrix – plasma 55-60% vol. -composed of water, proteins, & other dissolved substances Blood Functions a) transport b) clotting c) fighting infections Blood Cells – all originate in bone marrow of the skull, ribs, vertebrae, & ends of long bones 1. Erythrocytes (RBC) -By the end of their development they lose their nuclei & are pakced with hemoglobin (Hb). Hb is a complex protein consisting of 4 polypeptides attached to a central heme group (an iron structure). It is the iron that binds the O2 to be transported by blood. -The need for O2 regulates the production of Hb and so RBC -Low levels of O2 → ↑ in RBC production -Life span of RBC is 80-120 d -Liver & spleen destroy old RBC, with the liver breaking down hemoglobin to recover the iron. The spleen stores extra RBC (not blood) 2. Leukocytes – much larger than RBC, however they are much fewer in blood -they are nucleated cells -2 main types a. neutrophils – derived directly from the bone marrow. They destroy foreign cells, like bacteria, by phagocytic actions b. lymphocytes – develop in lymphoid tissue (spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils). These cells secrete immunoglobins (antibodies) which can inactiuate foreign cells 3. Platelets – formed in bone marrow. These very small cells are involved in the clotting mechanism of blood Blood Functions Transport – O2 by RBC, bonded to Hb (also carried by plasma) At lungs Hb + O2 → HbO2 (oxyhemoglobin) Reverse rx, ie HbO2 → Hb+O2 happens in bdy tissues CO2 – is transported away from tissues to lungs Most CO2 is transported dissolved in plasma as CO2, HCO3-, or H2CO3. Some CO2 can combine with hemoglobin Hb+CO2 → HBCO2 (carbamino hemoglobin)

Blood Proteins – small molecules like glucose, urea, salts, etc. can dissolve in plasma. Larger molecules such as fats, hormones, vitamins, etc. must combine with ‘transport’ proteins so they can move in blood ex. cholesterol (lipid) must combine with either highdensity lipoprotein (HDL) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL). High levels of LDL are associated with atherosclerosis -blood proteins are also important in creating an osmotic pressure in blood so as to maintain blood volume in order to exert pressure (albumin) Clotting – when an injury occurs to a blood vessel coagulation of blood occurs in order to prevent substantial blood loss 1. damage to vessel causes platelets to clump at damaged site. An enzyme called prothrombin activator is released 2. prothrombin activator (a blood protein) is converted to thrombin CA2+ is needed 3. in turn thrombin acts as an enzyme to alter the structure of fibrinogen (another blood protein) into strands of fibrin. Fibrin forms the framework of the clot. CA2+ is needed (it takes place faster in warm blood) NB – vitamin K is necessary for the making of prothrombin Fighting Infections – leukocytes are the soldiers of the blood charged with combating invading infections by bacteria & viruses Neutrophils → by phagocytosis digestion w/I by enzymes contained w/I lyosomes Lymphocytes → secrete antibodies which are specific to antigens (proteins or polysaccharides) on the invader Antibody-antigen rx → inactivation → (phagocytosis by neutrophil)

Blood Types -3 genes I ,I = dominant allele I = recessive allele
A B

A/B 35% AB <5%

O 60% Possessing IA means cells have A antigens on the cell membrane. Having IB means B antigens could be present. Type O has no antigens. Immune system makes antibodies if wrong antigens introduced → clotting (agglutination b/w antibodies with antigens) Rh Factor This is another antigen that could be present on erythrocyte membranes. Rh+ is dominant, Rh- is recessive (antigen is absent). Most common concern is an Rh- woman pregnant with an Rh+ baby. Normally an RH- person does not make antibodies against the Rh factor, but will do so if the antigen is encountered. This can happen if some of the baby’s blood mixes with the mother’s blood when the placenta degenerates prior to birth – this can have dire consequences for any subsequent Rh+ babies the woman could have. It results in a condition called haemolytic disease of newborn (HDN). Antibodies can cross the placenta from the mother’s blood to the baby’s blood and attack the baby’s Rh+ RBC’s. The solution to this situation is to prevent teh Rh- mother’s immune system from forming antibodies to the Rh factor. This is achieved by injecting an Rh immunoglobin (a serum containing Rh antibodies) into the mother’s blood shortly before childbirth. These injected antibodies will attack any Rh+ RBC’s that are encountered, thus preventing the mother’s immune system from responding. The baby’s blood type need not be known since nothing will happen if the baby is Rh-. This procedure is done as a precaution with all Rh- mothers regardless of the blood type of the father. Blood summary Blood w/s Circ system responses etc Overall review

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