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Shortening means fat or oil used to tenderize the baked products or to fry products.
Fats and oil consist of fatty acids and glycerol.

Fat and oil its manufacture:

Fats and oils can be collectively called as lipids. Lipids are the substances which are
insoluble in water, it has greasy feet to touch and dissolve organic solvents.

Fats are solid at 20`c and oils are liquid at 20`C

Types of fat:

There are two types of fat

1. Animal fat 2. Vegetable fat

The animal fat are two types

1. Milk fat (ex. Cream, butter, ghee)

2. Flesh fat (ex. lard suet)

Example for veg fats

1. Vanaspathi 2. Margarine

Functions of fats:

1. It imparts palatability to diet (taste)

2. Its soften the gluten

3. Since the gluten is soften the digestibility is increased

4. It imparts flavour and color to the product

5. Fats are able to promote the amount if air in the dough ( ex. Creaming)

6. It improves nutritive value

7. If it is desired to use G.M.S (glycerol mono stearate) emulsion, it is better

used mixed fat.
Addition of fats to the baking product increase the self life (ex. Cakes). In cake due
to the addition of fats, smooth texture and long life is obtained, but in bread it is
easily dried since there is no fat content.

Rancidity in fats:

Rancidity us the bad odour developed in fats and oils. There are two type of

1. Hydrolytic rancidity 2. Oxidative rancidity

Hydrolytic rancidity:

This happens when moisture is added to the fats or oils. When it is added it is
hydrolyzed by the enzyme lipase and free fatty acids are produced. These free
fatty acids are responsible for bad odours.



Butter is produced from milk by churning is a process by which the milk is agitated
to separate the butter.

A pure butter is almost white. Color may be added for flavour and keeping quality.
The composition of butter is milk fat 80%, solids (4%) and water 16%.

For butter cream unsalted butter is best for puff and Danish pastry. The butter must
be cool and firm.

Clarified butter:

This is prepared by melting butter in a pan on gentle heat. When it is completely

melted allow it to stand for some time. Remove any scum from the surface and
gently strain through a muslin cloth.


This is a butter substitute. It consists of animal fat or veg. fats with the addition of
coloring matter. All these ingredients should be pure and fresh.
It is hydrogenated oil. Hydrogenated means that to add hydrogen in to mixed
different types of oil and convert into harder farm. It’s prepared by vegetable origin.
These include cotton seed oil, corn oil, soya bean oil, peanut oil, coconut oil, palm
oil are used for manufacturing. A quantity of free milk is pasteurized and add to the
fat and oils. Then the mixture is chilled and emulsified color and salt also added.
Since it has high melting point, it can be used for puff pastry, choux pastry,.

Special cake fats:

These are otherwise called as high ration fats. They can hold higher proportion of
sugar and egg (liquid). They are used to produce light cakes and sponges.

Edible oils:

Edible oils are derived from veg. sources. Oils have a limited purpose in pastry
work. Just they will have flavour and their use are,

1. For deep an shallow fry

2. For greasing of trays and mould.


Refined oils are hydrogenated under optimal temperature and pressure in the
presents of nicked. Here hydrogen is added to the unsaturated linkage in the oil. It
can be used as a substitute for ghee.

Refined oil:

The process of refined oil is,

1. Alkaline refining to remove free fatty acids.

2. Bleaching to remove the coloring matter.

3. Deodorization with super heated steams. Deodorization means to remove

many substances which have objectionable odours, moisture also. All
deodorized fat and oils contain moisture.

Animal fats:
LARD: lard is a fat obtained from the pig or pork. (Mainly the part of surrounding the
kidneys). It is separated from the fatty tissues by melting when it is exposed to the
air it becomes rancid.

Lard can be used for the items like fish pies.


Suet is the hard white fat around the heart of bullock or sheep. Remove the fat
break down into small lumps and remove all the skins the fat coated with some of
flour to prevent it becoming sticky.

This can be used for making steamed pudding and minced meat.

Storage of shortening:

It has to be stored 21 – 26`C (70-80`F). these condition will ensure maximum

performance shortening container should be kept closed. It should not be stored
near foreign odour which it takes up very quickly.

Exposure to the natural enemies of fat light oxygen, heat or high temperature can
easily cause the fat to become rancid.