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API Standard 6X: API/ASME

Design Calculations
New Draft Standard under
Subcommittee 6

Chairman Jim Britton – Cameron – 17D and 16C Paul Bunch – Cameron – 16A and 17D Jean Brunjes – GE – 6A Bill Carbaugh – GE – 16A Maynard Chance – West Engineering – All specs Chris Johnson .NOV – 16A Jim Kaculi – DrilQuip – 17D Chris Kocurek – Cameron – 17D John McCaskill .Task Group Membership • • • • • • • • • • • • • • John Fowler – On-Line Resources .Expro – 16C Nigel McKie – FMC – 17D Mark Miser – DNV – All specs Ramon Sanpredro – Stress Engineering – all specs Alireza Shirani – GE – All specs .

Appendix 4. an Annex (Annex I) was prepared for 16A capturing the method from that ASME Appendix. 2004 Edition. • Since referencing an obsolete spec is awkward. and 16C referenced the ASME Code Section VIII Division 2. . 16A. • Subcommittee 6 proposed that the method be put in a separate document to assure uniformity.History and Objective • API 6A.

• Problem: 16A and 6A used different allowable stresses. based on Annex I. Stress value Spec 6A requirement Spec 16A requirement Max SI at test pressure 5/6 of Sy 90% of Sy Sm for standard materials 2/3 of Sy 2/3 of Sy Sm for non-standard materials Lower of 2/3 Sy or ½ Su 2/3 of Sy .Task Group Charge • Create a new API standard documenting the rules of the ASME Code.

Resolution • The task group consensus was to use the rules of 16A. . • The 90% of Sy used in 16A and 16C is the same as the limit in the 2004 ASME Code Section VIII Division 2 • Using only the yield strength as a basis follows Section VIII Division 3 practice. since going to the slightly more conservative 6A rules would penalize 16A/16C users who had designed to higher allowable stresses.

including several changes to the wording. . ASME Appendix 4 had referred to a method in Appendix 6 on experimental stress analysis.. • The requirement on the sum of the three principal stresses was clarified as to the calculation basis.Changes to Annex I • Several revisions were made to the Annex I document to clarify the requirements. • The uses of limit analysis and elastic/plastic analysis were clarified. • Information of elastic-plastic collapse was added to the document.

• Since 17D refers to 6A for design requirements. • This may require several changes in the body of the specifications. • The1004 ASME Code Section VIII Division 2 can be removed as a referenced standard. . 16A and 16C should revise their design section to direct the designer to this new standard instead of the 2004 Code.Follow-on actions after publication of the new Standard • Specifications 6A. no change is needed. and Standard 6X added.

which will be considered along with those from SC6 members. • SC 16 and SC 17 will solicit comments from their member companies. • API will edit the document into standard API format and return it to the TG for review. . • After review the draft standard will be sent out for ballot by SC6.Status of the draft Standard • The TG has finalized the draft and agreed it is ready for ballot.

For materials with high ratios of yield strength to tensile strength.2 St.1 Sm. For the purpose of this international standard. and ductile material behavior. Section VIII Division 2. 1. Section VIII. 2012 API Standard 6X API/ASME Design Calculations 1 General This Standard describes the design analysis methodology used in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. tough. Division 2. for the material in use and for the category of stress. Alternative Methods. reduction of the design stress intensity should be considered. Methods are included for both elastic and elastic-plastic analysis. 1.1 Stress Categories The following categories are used to classify stresses based on the consequences of exceeding the yield strength in various manners: 1 . S m. Pressure Vessels. 2 Elastic Analysis For elastic analysis stress components are calculated. The criteria used assume defect-free. Appendix 4. the design stress intensity The design stress intensity is 2/3 of the minimum specified yield strength S y. combined. in accordance with the rules of Appendix 4 of the 2004 Code. and for closed-form as well as finiteelement analysis methods of calculation. which are defined as follows: 1. API has adopted different stress limits from the 2004 ASME Code. 2004 with 2005 and 2006 addenda.API Std 6X Draft November 20.3 Temperature effects The effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of the material shall be considered. which is defined as twice the maximum shear stress. Stress components are combined to find the stress intensity. and compared to limits for each category of stress based on multiples of the Design Stress Intensity. the maximum allowable general primary membrane stress intensity at test pressure API limits this stress to 90% of the yield strength for all materials. the basic stress limits are based on Sm and St. This can be calculated as the difference between the largest and smallest of the three principal stresses. 2.

5 Sm. Pm: Membrane stress distributed in a way such that load redistribution cannot occur. Local primary Membrane Stress Intensity.1 Sm shall not be closer in the 1/2 meridional direction than 2.5 Sm. and failure. if not limited. A stressed region may be considered as local if the distance over which the stress intensity exceeds 1. and t is defined as (t1+ t2)/2.1.1 Sm.” Local primary stress intensity PL is limited to 1. P m is limited to Sm. or at least gross distortion.1. where t1 and t2 are the minimum thicknesses at each of the regions considered. Primary Bending Stress Intensity The components of primary bending stress intensity Pb are calculated from the linear primary stress component distributions that have the same net bending moment as the actual stress component distribution. 2. Depending on the extent of the stress.    2. 2 .0(Rt) . and loading beyond the yield strength can proceed to failure.1 Sm. Conservatism requires that such a stress be classified as a local primary membrane stress even though it has some characteristics of a secondary stress.5(Rt) where R is defined as (R1 + R2)/2. and yielding can cause the magnitude of the stress to be reduced.1. Thermal stresses are not primary stresses. the resulting stress intensities Pm+Pb are limited to 1. and R1 and R2 are the midsurface radii of curvature measured normal to the surface from the axis of rotation at these regions where the membrane stress exceeds 1. One load cycle can cause local yielding and stress redistribution but cannot result in failure or gross distortion.1 S m does not extend in the meridional 1/2 direction more than 1. 2. Primary stress includes both membrane and bending stress and is linearly distributed across the wall section. 2012 Primary Stress The basic characteristic of primary stress is that it is not self-limiting. forces and moments. produce excessive distortion in the transfer of load to other portions of the structure.1 Sm shall be spaced so that there is no overlapping of the areas in which the membrane stress exceeds 1. Bending stress components are defined as being proportional to the distance from the centroid of a solid section.2 General Primary Membrane Stress Intensity. where R is the midsurface radius of curvature measured normal to the surface from the axis of rotation and t is the minimum thickness in the region considered.1. Regions of local primary membrane stress which exceed 1.2 Secondary Stress Secondary stress Q is caused by the constraint of adjacent parts or by self-constraint of the structure.1. Primary stress is stress caused by the application of mechanical pressure.1 Primary Membrane Stress Intensity Primary membrane stress intensity is calculated from the average values of the stress components through the wall of the vessel. can occur from one application of the loading. like in a threaded connector. it can be classified as either General or Local.1 November 20. such as those resulting from concentrated loads acting on brackets. Local primary stress can redistribute. where the membrane stress exceeds 1.API Std 6X Draft 2. When the bending stress components are combined with the membrane stress components at each surface. Discrete regions of local primary membrane stress. PL: The following is a direct quote from ASME Section VIII Division 2 Appendix 4: “Cases arise in which a membrane stress produced by pressure or other mechanical loading and associated with a primary and/or a discontinuity effect would.1. An example of a local primary membrane stress is the membrane stress in a shell produced by external load and moment at a permanent support or at a nozzle connection.

exclusive of stress concentration at the periphery of a solid section in torsion. The total stress.6 Sm. If any combination of loading produces yielding. which is beyond the scope of this standard.8 Sm. The secondary stress variation.1 Special stress limits Bearing Stress Bearing stress is allowed to exceed the yield strength of the material provided that the other stresses in the vicinity of the bearing load are within acceptable limits.6 St. or screw threads) shall be limited to 0. keys. from general thermal stress. 3. shear rings. the possibility of a shear failure shall be considered. shall be limited to 0. is limited to 3 S m.1. transient thermal stress. Therefore. clamps and unions are examples of non-integral connections which are subject to failure by bell-mouthing or other types of progressive deformation. or from combinations of these sources. and start the next cycle in a new relationship with one another. Additional distortion may occur at each subsequent cycle so that interlocking parts like threads may lose engagement. breech lock closures. for any sequence of test or operating conditions. from mechanical preload conditions. such joints are subject to ratcheting because the mating members may slip at the end of each complete cycle.2 Pure Shear The average primary shear stress across a section loaded under design conditions in pure shear (for example. or the non-linear portion of a thermal stress distribution. 3 . may be used in fatigue analysis. For hydrostatic test conditions shear stress is limited to 0. 3.3 Progressive distortion of non-integral connections Screwed-on caps.API Std 6X Draft November 20. primary plus secondary stress intensities which could produce slippage shall be limited to Sy. screwed-in plugs. 2. 2012 Secondary stresses are membrane plus bending stresses that can occur at gross structural discontinuities. 3 3. The only concern with peak stress is that it may cause the initiation of a fatigue crack or brittle fracture.3 Peak Stress Peak stress is the increment of stress added by a stress concentration or other source that does not cause noticeable distortion. including peak stress. shear ring closures. Such sources include thermal stress in a cladding material with a different coefficient of expansion from the base material. When bearing loads are applied to parts having free edges. The maximum primary shear under design conditions.

API Std 6X Draft November 20. which for non-standard materials may be less than the actual specified minimum yield strength. ASME. The sum of the local primary membrane plus bending principal stresses shall be used for checking this criterion. Actual rated load capacity can be no more than 2/3 of the limit analysis collapse loading.2. ratcheting and shakedown but not determining the actual rated load capacity. Division 2. for stress less than the yield strength has a slope equal to the elastic modulus of the material. This curve. Guidance on linearization can be found in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Section VIII. VIII Div. A zero slope can cause numerical problems in most finite-element programs when yield is exceeded. The total stress includes the non-linear peak stress. 4. This method is more accurate than limit analysis because strain hardening effects are included. Limit analysis may be used to justify high primary stresses but not secondary stresses. In addition. 3. Plastic Analysis can be used for assessing local strain. The stress-strain curve that is used has a bi-linear representation. and may be based on smalldisplacement analysis. The material stress-strain curve may be obtained by either actual material test data or approximated via analytical methods using minimum specified yield and ultimate tensile strength values (for example.5 Stress Linearization When it is necessary to extract the membrane and bending stresses from finite-element analyses. This procedure involves numerical integration of the stress components to separate the membrane and bending portion of the stress from the total stress. limit analysis cannot be used to justify a wall thickness thinner than that calculated on an elastic membrane stress basis. ratcheting or shakedown. a numerical technique called “linearization” is used. Above yield. Loading is incrementally increased until the model diverges. 4. which is the collapse load.5 Sm. 2012 3.3 Plastic Analysis Plastic analysis is a method of structural analysis by which the structural behaviour under given loads is computed by considering the actual material stress-strain curve and may assume small or large deformation theory as required. The yield strength to be used is 1. Sect. the slope is as near zero as practical. Annex 3D).2 Limit analysis Limit analysis assumes elastic-perfectly plastic material properties. 4 .1 General The limits on primary and secondary stresses need not be satisfied if thorough non-linear finite element analyses are performed. Limit Analysis can be used for determining the actual rated load capacity but not assessing local strain. 4 Non-linear analysis 4.4 Triaxial Stresses The algebraic sum of the three primary principal stresses (σ1+σ2+σ3) shall not exceed four times the design stress intensity Sm. Annex 5A.

Deflection may be the actual deflection at a point or it may be the strain at a highly-stressed location. 4. The load at that point is the elastic-plastic collapse load. The effect of temperature on material properties shall be considered.4 Shakedown Analysis Shakedown analysis can be used to justify high local primary and secondary stresses. Now extend a line from the origin through the new point until it reached the actual load-deformation curve. Plot another point at a distance of 2x from the vertical axis. The design is satisfactory if the design loads do not exceed two-thirds of the elastic-plastic collapse load as defined below and the limit analysis is satisfactory. 2012 If a stress-strain curve from actual testing is used. Actual true-stress and true-strain curves are to be used as they are used for plastic analysis in section 4. Call the deformation at that point “x”.API Std 6X Draft November 20. The loading should be applied in steps and should include all loads on the product. The elastic-plastic collapse criterion is defined as follows: Plot one or more curves of deformation vs. loading. Select a point Y in the elastic (linear) portion of the curve. 5 .3. appropriate corrections may be needed to ensure that the data used in the analysis is representative of the minimum specified yield strength of the material.

there is no progressive distortion or stress ratcheting.API Std 6X Draft November 20. In addition the deformations which occur prior to shakedown shall not exceed specified functional limits of the design. 2012 The design is acceptable if shakedown occurs. after successive applications of the design loading. 6 . That is. It is acceptable to include the effect of hydrostatic testing as well as operational loading.