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FEA simulation of Metal cutting

Metal cutting involves removing metal through machining operations. Machining traditionally takes
place on lathes, drill presses, and milling machines with the use of various cutting tools.

Figure 1
Machining is one of the processes of manufacturing in which the specified shape is imparted to the
work piece by removing surplus material. Conventionally this surplus material from the work piece is
removed in the form of chips by interacting the work piece with an appropriate tool. One of the state-of
the- art efforts in manufacturing engineering is computer simulation of the machining process to predict
power requirements, cutting forces and chip formation using numerical models. These computational
models would have great value in reducing or even eliminating the number of trial-and-error experiments
which traditionally are used for tool design, machinability evaluation, and chip breakage investigation.
The difficulty of reaching a better theoretical understanding of the metal cutting process impelled
researchers in the field to apply the finite element analysis to model the cutting process.
The advantage of the finite element method in the study of machining is that various material
model and various complex boundary conditions can be simulated.
Preprocessing
Finite Element Modeling Of Work piece
A schematic diagram (1) shows the finite element modeling of work piece. Surface EG represents
the bottom side of the chip, with its outward normal pointing downward, while surface EF represents the
upper side of the machined surface, with its outward normal pointing upward. The two surfaces form a
contact pair, with EG and EF providing master and slave surfaces, respectively. Initially, the corresponding
nodes on EG and EF are perfectly bonded. During the simulation, the nodes de bond to form a chip surface
and a machined surface. This separation is governed by a de bonding criterion specified in the model. The
master and slave surfaces of the tool-chip contact pair consist of the rigid tool surface and the surface EFH.

Figure 2. contact modeling

Figure . 3. Boundary conditions

Boundary Conditions Of Work piece And Cutting Tool


The boundary conditions are sown in fig.2. The work piece constraining the left , bottom and right
sides of the work piece from any move movement, while allowing all other boundaries to move. The
cutting speed is assigned to the cutting tool by choosing the time interval. The work piece modal was
meshed with quadrilateral and four node plane strain element (CPE4). The Discretization results the inplane geometry of the toolwork piece system is discredited by the finite element mesh shown in Fig. 4.

Figure 4. FEM of orthogonal cutting


Cutting Tool And Work piece Material Parameters
The cutting tool was considered much harder than the work piece with an high Young's modulus
(e.g. E=2.1x1015MPa). In view of the large elastic modulus of the cutting tool relative to the work
material, the cutting tool was modeled as a rigid body. The rigid tool was defined by four-node, 2D rigid
elements (CPE4).The work piece material is taken to be AISI 1045 steel, which is described in this study
by the following commonly accepted rate dependent ,elastic-plastic material model (1)
Chip Separation Criteria
In this study, critical stress separation based chip separation criterion was employed. When the
stress state at the specified distance reaches a critical combination, the pair of bonded nodes just ahead of
the tool tip will be released, resulting in chip separation from the work piece.

Modified Coulomb Friction Law


Friction along the tool chip interface is a important role in the metal cutting process. The modified
Coulomb friction law applied in the FEM simulation.
Fem Simulation Results
Simulation starts as the tool moves towards the work piece at a 60 m/min. The chip separates from
the work piece as debonding occurs at the contact surfaces and establishes contact with the tool rake face.
Post Processing
Stress distribution, Strain distribution, temperature distribution can be plotted based on the results
obtained
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE VESSEL
A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially
different from the ambient pressure. Generally they are cylindrical or conical in shapes which are solids of
revolution. These pressure vessels which is are solids of revolution can be analyzed as follows
Preprocessing stage
The stresses and deflections in the vessel walls are due to the internal pressure. Since the vessel is
axially symmetric about its central axis, an axisymmetric analysis will be performed using twodimensional, 8-node quadrilateral elements (Plane 82) or any appropriate element with the axisymmetric
option activated. In addition, the vessel is symmetric about a plane through the center of the cylinder. Thus,
only a quarter section of the vessel needs to be modeled.
In ANSYS, an axisymmetric model must always be created such that the global Y-axis is the axis of
symmetry, and the entire model should appear on the right side of the Y-axis (along the positive X-axis);
i.e., no part of the model (elements, nodes, etc.) may be defined with negative X coordinates. Once the axi
symmetric option is invoked, ANSYS will automatically apply axi symmetric boundary conditions along
the Y-axis. For example consider the pressure vessel shown in figure

The following parameters are mainly considered in analysis of pressure vessel

Radial stress,Tangential stress,Axial or longitudinal stress and Shear stress

Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and temperature technically
referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature".The geometry for the pressure vessel shown
above can be created as shown below

Using Free Meshing, all Elements in the model will be approximately the same size.
The elements may be taken as any one of the following types
Three noded triangular axisymmetric ring element, Four noded quadrilateral axisymmetric ring element,
Eight noded quadrilateral axisymmetric ring element
For axisymmetric analysis the stifness matrice can be calculated by the following relation
K= [ B ] T [ D ] [ B ] (2 r )drdz
The axi symmetric boundary conditions (preesure on the walls)are applied for the model created.
All the above datas are stored as a database in Software.
ANALYSIS/SOLUTION
In this stage the Finite element equations of all the elements are formed using the types of elements and
properties of element.
The axisymmetric boundary conditions and loads ie pressure are applied. global equations are formed.
The equations are solved using different techniques in the software like chelosky decomposition
Post Processor
Based on the solution obtained deformed shape may be plotted.A Contour Plot of any stress component
can be created. The radial, hoop (tangential), and longitudinal stresses should be checked to verify the
model. Also, stress values at any particular node can be checked by using the Query Results command,
selecting the desired component, and then picking the appropriate node. For this model, along the
cylindrical portion of the vessel, x represents the radial direction, y represents the longitudinal direction,
and z represents the hoop (tangential) direction. Power graphics must be disabled to query results at nodes.

For the purposes of failure analysis, we must select an appropriate failure theory. A plot of the VonMises stress is useful for identifying critical locations in the vessel. However, since the vessel is normally
made of cast iron (brittle material), the Maximum-Normal-Stress failure criterion may be more
appropriate (or Coulomb-Mohr or other similar failure theories)
FEA OF SOLIDIFICATION OF CASTINGS
After molten metal is poured into a mould, a series of events takes place during the solidification
of the casting and its cooling to ambient temperature. These events greatly influence the size, shape,
uniformity, and chemical composition of the grains formed throughout the casting, which in turn influence
its overall properties. The significant factors affecting these events are the type of metal, thermal properties
of both the metal and the mould, the geometric relationship between volume and surface area of the
casting, and shape of the mould. When the free energy of a parent phase is reduced by means of
temperature or pressure then there is a driving force leading to crystallization. At the melting point, the
thermal fluctuations result in the formation of tiny particles (containing only a few atoms) of the product
phase within the parent volume. Such a tiny particle has an interface that separates it from the parent
matrix. It grows by transfer of atoms across its interface. The process of formation of the first stable tiny
particle is called nucleation. And the process of increase in the sizes of these particles is called grain
growth.

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Post Processing Stage
The geometry of the profile is drawn first Example let us consider solidification of a steel plate given
below

Approach and Assumptions


We can perform a 2-D analysis of a one unit thick slice. Half symmetry is used to reduce the size of the
model. The lower half is the portion you will model.

The mold material (sand) has constant material properties. The casting (steel) has temperature-dependent
thermal conductivity and enthalpy; both are input in a table of values versus temperature. The enthalpy
property table captures the latent heat capacity of the metal as it solidifies. Radiation effects are ignored.
Solution control is used to establish several nonlinear options, including automatic time stepping.
Automatic time stepping determines the proper time step increments needed to converge the phase change
nonlinearity. This means that smaller time step sizes will be used during the transition from molten metal to
solid state.
Preprocessing stage
A thermo-elastic-visco plastic model is used to represent the behavior of the solidifying material. The
material properties like specific heat, thermal conductivity, temperatures are to be defined. Type of material
is selected as Thermal Solid (left column), Quad 4node 55
Solution :Types of analysis is selected is thermal transient non linear analysis . Temperature at different
nodes are given as boundary conditions .Set time, time step size, and related parameters are to be defined
Post processing stage
Enter the time-history postprocessor and define variables. From the simulation results, the solidliquid
interface velocity (R) and solidification rate (dT/dt) could be calculated and using these values thermal
gradient (G) could be found and there by the most probable grain structure could be predicted .