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MECHANICAL EFFCT OF ELECTRIC CURRENT

SYNOPSIS

2. An electric charge in motion sets up a magnetic field around it.

3. An electric charge moving in an external magnetic field experiences a force.

4. A stationary electric charge produces only electric field. But a moving electric

charge Produces both an electric field and a magnectic field.

5. Magnetic field due to a straight conductor carrying current:

i) The magnetic field is circle.

ii) The magnetic line of force are concentric circles with their centers lying on

axis of the conductor.

iii) The plane of circle is perpendicular to direction of the current.

iv) If the current flows through the conductor in upward direction, magnetic

lines of force are formed in anticlock wise direction.

v) If the current flows through the conductor in down ward direction,

magnetic lines of force are formed in anticlock wise direction.

Scan

Fig 8.1

6. The direction of the magnetic field with respect to the current can be found by the

Ampere right hand rule or Maxwell’s cork screw rule.

7. Ampere right hand rule :

a) For linear currents: If the wire is grasped in the palm of the of the right hand

with the stretched thump pointing in the direction of current, fingers curl in the

direction of magnetic field (i.e., the magnetic lines of force).

b) For circular currents : If the direction of current coincides with the direction of

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

the curl of the fingers of the right hand, the stretched thumb points in the

direction of magnetic field at centre of the loop.

Conventionally the direction of the field perpendicular to the plane of page is

represented by if into the page and by if out of the pag

8. Maxwell’s cork screw rule : If we imagine a right hand cork screw to be drive

along the direction of the current in the conductor, the direction in which the

thumb rotates represents the direction of the magnitude field.

9. The magnitude of the field produced by an electric current can be determined by

using the Biot Savart law or Ampere’s law.

10. Biot – Savart’s law : If a current of I amp passes through a small element dl of

a conductor, the magnetic induction dB produced at a distance r form dl is

( Fig. 8.2)

µ 0 idl

dB =sinθ x4π

r2 ( Fig. 8.2)

where is the angle between I and r, 0 is the permeability of air or

vacuum and µ 0 = 4x 10-7 web or henry or newton

amp-m m amp2

→ → →

(a) In vector form, dB = 0 idl 3x r

4π r

(b) If = 00 or 1800, dB = 0

of finite length carrying current I at a distance 0 P

r is given by

B = µ 0i - [ sin 1 + sin φ 2]

4π r

B = µ 0i - [ cos θ 1 + cos θ 2] Fig. 8.3

4r

a) If the point P is at one end of the conductor then i

µ 0 i sin

B= 4 r

P

Fig. 8.4

12.Magnetic induction due to straight conductor of infinite length carrying current I

at

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

a distance r is given by

µ 0 2i 2i i

B =4 r =10-7 r

P

(a) If the point P is at one end of the

conductor then B = Fig. 8.5

r

13. The magnetic induction at centre of a square of current i in

clockwise direction is

given by

µ 0 8 √2i

B =4π l

a) The magnetic induction at corner of square is

µ 0 2i

B =4π √2l

14. The magnetic induction at centre of equilateral triangle of side d due to of current I

in clockwise direction is given by

µ 0 18i

B =4π d

µ 0 2i

B = 4π √3d

15. The magnetic induction produced on the axial line of a circular coil of

radius r, containing n turns is

µ 0 nr2 I

B = 2 (r2 + x2 ) 3/2

Fig. 8.6(a)

where x is the distance between the centre of the coil and the given

point on the axial line. If x > > r

B = µ 0 nr2I = or B = µ 0 nπ r2 I

2x3 2π x3

But π r2 = A is the face area of the coil.

∴ B = µ 0 nIA = µ 0M

2π x3 2x3

where M = magnetic moment of loop.

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

SCAN

µ 0 ni

a) At centre of coil, B =2 r

µ 0 ni

b) For half coil, the magnetic induction at centre B =4 r

µ 0 ni

c) For quarter coil, the magnetic induction at centre B =8 r

m0 ni

d) On surface of coil, B=25/2 r

16. A wire of length L is bent in the form of a circular loop with n turns and carries

current i. Its magnetic moment M = l2i

4pn

17. A wire carrying current i is first bent in the form of circular loop with n tums and

M1 n2

carries current i. Its magnetic moments ratio is given by M2 = n1

18. If two coils are connected in series then ratio of magnetic inductions at their

B1 r 2

centers is given by B =r

2 1

19. If two coil are connected in parallel then ratio of magnetic inductions at their

centers is given by

B1 = r22

B2 r12

20. Two copper wires of lengths l1 and l2 have area of cross section A1 and A2. They

bent in circular loops with turns n1 and n2. If they are connected in parallel then

ratio of magnetic inductions at their centers is given by

B1 = n22 A1 l22

B2 r12 A2 l12

21. A wire carrying current i is first but in the circular loop with n1 turns and then with

n2 turns B1 and B2 are magnetic inductions at centre of loop,

B1 = n12

B2 n22

22. A current carrying wire is bent in the form of a circular loop of radius r1. It

produces a magnetic induction at centre is B If same wire is stretched so that its

length increased by n times and then the 2 wire is in circular loop of radius r2 The

magnetic induction at its centre = 2Bnr 2

r1

No Conductor point of

observation

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

B= i) If the current is clock

the Arc 4π wise then direction of

B will be normal to plane

of paper down ward s.

ii) If the current is

(a) anticlockwise then

direction of B will be

normal to plane of paper

up ward s.

(b)

Fig. 8.7

Direction of B is

2. a. Two concentric At the centre of B= determined by law of

colis incline at an Coils √B21+B22+2B1B2 addition of vectors.

angle θ 0 cosθ

b. Two colis inclined coils B = √ B21 +B22.

at 900

Fig. 8.9

Direction of B will be

3. a. Two concentric At their B = 0n1i +

normal to plane of paper

coils in which same common µ 0n2i

Upwards.

current is flowing in Centre O 2r1 2r2

same direction. = 0i n1 + n2

2 r1 r2

if the number of

turns

in them is same

B = µ 0in 1+

2

Fig. 8.10 2 r1 r2

Direction of B will be

b. Two concentric At their normal to plane of paper

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

current is flowing in Centre B = µ 0i n1 - n2

mutually opposite 2 r1 r2

direction. .

if the number of

turns

in them is same

B =µ 0in 1 −2

2 r1 r2

Fig. 8.11 i) If current is

anticlockwise then

4. Electron revolving At nucleus direction of B will normal

around the nucleolus B = µ 0iqV to plane of paper upwards.

in a circular path of 4π a2 If current is clock wise

radius a = 10-7 2π fq then direcation of B will

a be normal to plane of

where f = paper downwards

frequency

Fig. 8.12

5. a. Two parallel At distance r form

current Carrying 2 B=0

conductors both conductors

First second

Fig. 8.13

b. Direction of B normal to

At distance ( r plane of paper downward.

+x) form first B=

and x form µ 0i 1 +

second 1__

conductors. 2 x (r + x)

Fig 8.14

→

c. Direction of B will be

At distance r form normal to plane of paper

2 downwards.

both conductor B = 20i

r

Fig. 8.15

→

d. Direction of B will be

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

form first and x downwards.

form second

conductors. B=

µ 0i 1 − 1__

2 x

Fig. 8.16 (r+x)

Normal to plane of paper

Straight wire and At the centre of upwards

6. loop the loop and at

distance o form

straight B = µ 0i 1_

conductor. 2a 1+

Fig. 8.17

Note : No contact at

Point O

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

No Conductor of Observation

loop the loop and at 2a π paper upwards

distance a form

straight

conductor.

Fig. 8.18

loop

Fig. 8.19

9. Straight conductor At point P the B=0

wire

Fig. 8.20

a. Of finite length 2l solenoid

( cos α -β cos )

B = µ 0ni

2

( cos -β cos )

Fig. 8.21

Along its axis B = µ 0ni where Direction as above

b. Of infinite length

n=N

( = 0, = π )

1

c. Of length 1 and At its centre B = µ 0ni___

radius a. 12 +4a2

(α = 90 , β = 180 )

o o 2

11.

Where Along the axis of

n=N toroid

2π R

R = mean radius of

toroid

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

24. Ampere’s law: If a current of I amp passes through a long and straight conductor.

the magnetic induction B Produced by the current at a perpendicular distance r from

the conductor is I

B = µ 0i x l

2 r B

The direction of B can be determined by the right hand thumb rule.

Fig. 8.36

25) A Magnetic pole of strength m revolves around a straight current carrying

conductor in circular path of radius r. The work done by magnetic force on

magnetic pole for n rotations is given by W = 0 mni

26) A straight conductor carrying current I in vertically upward direction then distance

0 i

of the null Point form conductor, r = 2π BH

The null point is formed in west side of conductors.

currents i1 and i2Lie along x and y axes respectively as shown in

fig. 8.37 The location of thePoint where resultant magnetic field

of system is zero will be given by

i1 = i2

y x fig 8.37

if i1 = i2 then y = x

28) Fleming’s left hand rule : Stretch the fore finger, middle finger and the thumb of

the eft hand mutually perpendicular to each other. If the fore- finger represents the

direction of the magnetic field and

the middle finger that of the force on

the conductor. (Fig. 8.38 a & b). The

above rule is true for only +ve

charged particle. For –ve charged

particle. For – ve charged particle,

reverse the direction of force after

applying the rule.

Fig. 8.38 (a) & (b)

29. Magnetic force on a charged particle: If a charged particle of positive charge q

travels with a velocity V an angle with the direction of the mangnetic field of

induction B, particle

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

experience a force,

F = Bq V sin

→

a) The direction of F can be determined by the relation F = q (V x B)

b) The direction of F can be determined by Fleming’s left hand rule.

(This rule applies only for + ve charges. If it a –ve charge, say an electron, its

direction motion should be reversed to apply Flemins’s left hand rule to get the

proper direction of B)

c) The S. I unit of B is Tesla (T)

d) 1T = 1 NA-1 m-1.

e) The magnetic induction is said to be 1T if a charge of 1C moving with a speed of

1ms-1 at right angles to the field experiences a force of 1N.

f) The C.G.S unit of B is gauss (G)

1G = 10-4 T

g) Magnetic induction ‘B’ is a vector quantity.

Case (i) : When the charged particle is either at rest or moving parallel to magnetic

field, then

a. The magnetic force acting on it is zero Fm = 0

b. The path of the particle will be a straight line i.e., particle will keep on the same path.

c. The value of momentum (p) and kinetic energy remain constant.

Case (ii) : When the charged particle is moving at right angles to the magnetic filed :

a. The magnetic force acting on the particle will be maximum i.e., Fm = qVB

b. The direction of Fm will be normal to the velocity of particle.

c. The path of the particle will be circular.

d. The momentum of the particle will remain constant magnitude but its direction

will constantly be change i. e.,

p = qBr

e. The kinetic energy of the particle remains constant

Ek = mV2 = q2B2r2

2 2m

f. The magnetic force acting on the particle provides it necessary centripetal force

for its circular motion.

qVB = mV2

r _____

g. The radius of circular path of the particle r = 2m Ek

qB

h. Angular velocity of charged particle ω = qB

m

i. Time period of charged particle T

i) T = 2π = 2π m

ω qB

ii) This does not depend on the speed of charged particle.

j. Frequency of charged particle.

i) f = 1 = qB

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

T 2π m

ii) this does not depend on the speed particle.

iii) It depends on specific charges q /m or the nature of particle and on B.

W = zero

i) r1 = q2 m1 when Ek and B are constant.

r2 q1 m2

Ek1

ii) r1 = q2 √ m1 , when Ek and B are constant.

r2 q1 m2 Ek2

P2 q1 r2

iv)

1 = q1 m2 , when B are constant.

2 m1 q2

T2 q1 m2

f2 m1 q2

vii) Ek

1

, = q21 r21 m2 when B is constant.

Ek m1 q22 r22

2

angle of with B

a) The path of the particle will be helical.

b) F = qVB

c) Pitch of the path : The linear distance covered by

the particle in one time period in the direction of fig 8.39

magnetic field is defined as pitch.

Pitch = TV cos = 2mV cos θ

qB

Case (iv ) : When the charged particle enters crossed clectric

magnetic fileds.

a) If FB = FE then charged particle passed undeviated.

b) The velocity of such a particle is given by

qVB = qE

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

V=E

B Fig. 8.40

c) The momentum of the particle p = qBr.

1) The electric field always acts whether particle is at rest (or) motion but magnetic

force acts only when the particle in motion.

→

2) In electric field F = qE

→ →→

In magnetic filed F = q ( V x B )

3) The speed of particle does not charge in magnetic filed.

31. For constant velocity of charged particle, the region space may have

1) E = 0, B = 0

2) E = 0, B ≠ 0

3) E ≠ 0, B 0 (if E ⊥ B and v = E/B)

32. Force between two moving charges :

i) If charges are stationary then there is only electric force between them

(Fe = 9 x 109 q1 q2 )

d2

ii) If charges are in motion a magnetic force also acts between them in addition to

electric force.

iii) The magnetic force between two charges travel with velocities v1v2and

separated by distance‘d’ is F m = 0 q1 q2 v1 v2

4 d2

iv) The direction of magnetic force acting between two charges depends on (a)

nature of charges (b) direction of motion of charges.

v) If q1 and q2 are similar nature. and moving in same direction then magnetic

force is attractive vi) If q1 and q2 are similar nature. and moving in opposite

direction then magnetic force is repulsive.

vii) If q1 and q2 are opposite in nature. and moving in same direction then

magnetic force is repulsive.

viii) If q1 and q2 are opposite in nature. and moving in same direction then

magnetic force is attractive

ix) Magnetic force < < electric between two moving charges.

x) If V1 = V2 = V then Fm = V2

Fe C2

Where C = velocity of light.

33. Magnetic force on a current carrying conductor:

If a current carrying of length l is placed making an angle θ

with the direction of the magnetic field of induction B , the

force exerted by the magnetic field on the conductor (Fig.8.41),

F= BI i sin θ

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EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

a. If θ = 00 then F = 0

b. If = 900 then F = Bil Fig. 8.41

34. Force between two parallel conductors

carrying currents: If two straight

parallel and infinitely long conductors

currying currents I1 and I2 amp

respectively in the same direction and

are separated by a distance r1 there is a

force of attraction between them.

If the currents are in opposite direction [Fig 8.429b)]

there is a force of repulsion.

(a) (b)

The magnetic induction B1 exerted by the conductor

Carrying the current I1 at a distance r is

B1 = 0. I1

2 r fig 8.42

If l is the common length of the magnetic fore experienced by the second

conductor due to

B1 is

F = B1 I2 I or F = 0. I1 I2 l

2 r

An equal force is exerted by second conductor on first. The force of attraction or

repulsior

Per unit length of the conductor is

F = µ 0. I1 I2 Nm-1

2π r

If I1 = I2 = I amp and r = 1m, then

F = µ 0. = 4π x 10-7 = 2 x 10-7 N.

2 2π

Definition of ampere: An ampere is that steady current when flowing in each of two

long Straight parallel wires separated by a distance of 1m causes each wire to exert a

force of 2 x 10-7 N per unit length of the wire.

Note: In case of non parallel currents

i) When two current approach a point (or) they flow

away from that point then force between them is

attractive (Fig. 8.43) Fig. 8.43

ii) When one current approach a point and other current

they flow away from that point then force between them

is attractive (Fig. 8.44)

Fig. 8.44

35. i)The work done when the distance between them increased to 2r,

= µ 0 i1 i2 l loge2 .

2π Fig. 8.45

ii) A rod of length ‘b’carrying a current i1 is placed in the field of a

long wire carrying current i2 as shown in fig. The force on rod is

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

F = µ 0 i1 i2 I loge 1 + b

2π a Fig. 8.46

The force F is directed vertically up.

36. A horizontal wire carries current i1 below which another wire

Carrying a current i2 is kept at d distance. If the wire kept

below hangs in air then,

1) i1 and i2 must be flowing in same direction

2) F = mg

µ 0. i1 i2 l = mg

2π d

37. If a magnetic pole of strength m is kept at distance r form a current carrying

conductor then

force on it, F = mB = m x µ 0 i

2π r

38. Torque on a current loop : A rectangular coil of area A containing n turns is place

in a uniform magnetic field of induction B.

i) If θ is the angle between normal to the plane of coil and magnetic field then

→ →

orque on coil = BiAn sin = MB sin θ (or) τ = M x B

ii) If θ = 00 (or) 1800 then = 0 (minimum)

iii) If θ = 900 then = BiAn (maximum)

iv) The work done to turn the coil form angle 1 to 2 is W = MB (cosθ 1 - cos

θ 2)

Fig. 8.48

→

v) P.E of the coil u = - MB cosθ = - M .B

(a) The change in P.E of coil when the coil is rotated form 0 to 1800 = 2 MB

vi) If α is the angle between plane of the coil magnetic field then Torque on coil

= BiAn cos .

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

experiences a torque.

b) It is used to measure low currents upto 10-9 A.

c) It consists a powerful circular magnet with concave poles. So that the magnetic

field becomes radial.

d) Phosphor bronze wire has high value of. Y and low value of n (rigidity

modulus). So it is used as suspension wire.

e) By placing a soft Iron cylinder inside the coil magnetic flux of the filed

increases.

f) Deselecting coupe = BiAn

g) Restoring couple = Cθ

where θ is angle of twist of wire in radian.

h) In equilibrium position, BiAn = Cθ

I = C θ

BAn

I = Kθ

Where K = C/BAn = galvanometer constant

i) In M.C.G. ,I ∝θ

j) Current sensitivity of the moving coil galvanometer can be increased by

(i) increasing ‘n’ (ii) increasing A (iii) increasing B and (iv) decreasing C.

k) The reciprocal of current sensitivity is called figure of merit.

i) Voltage sensitivity = θ = θ = BAn

V iR CR

Where R = galvanometer resistance.

i) It is based on Tangent law (B = BH tan θ )

ii) It is used to measure currents up to 10-6 A

iii) The plane of coil is must be in magnetic meridian.

iv) I = K tan θ where K = 2rBH

µ 0n

M. C. G T. G.

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

2. It is a moving coil and fixed magnet type 2. It is a moving mangent and fixed

Galvanometer. coil type galvanometer.

3. It can be measure the currents of order of 3. It can be measure the currents of

10-9 A order of

4. The plane of coil need not be set in 4. 10-6 A

magnetic meridian The plane of coil should be set in

5. It can be used in mines 5. magnetic meridian.

6. It is not portable. 6. It can’t be used in mines.

7. The galvanometer constant does not 7. It is portable.

depend The galvanometer constant depend

On BH. On BH.

To protect the galvanometer, a small resistance

known as shunt is sonnected in paralle with it. Let

G be the resistance of the galvanometer and S be

the resistance of the shunt and let I,Ig and Is be the

current in the main circuit, the galvanometer and

shunt repectively

(Fig 8.48) then

S S+G

i) Ig = I

Fig. 8.49

ii) The current through the shunt, Is = I

S S+G

iii) The fraction of current passing through the galvanometer =

S S+G

iv) The fraction of current passing through the shunt =

GStotal resistance R =

v) The G+S

due to shunt = G- G+S

GS G+S

vii) The decrease in resistance of shunt = S -

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

43. Ammeter :

ii) An ammerter should always be connected in

series in a circuit.

iii) The resistance of the ammeter should be as

small as small as possible.

iv) The resistance of an ideal ammeter is zero.

Ammeter

Fig. 8.50

A galvanometer can be converted into an ammeter by connecting a suitable shunt as

shown in

Fig. 8.50

I = total current to be measured

Ig = current passing through the galvanometer

Is = I – Ig = current through the shunt

G = resistance of the galvanometer.

S = shunt resistance.

i) I = Ig + Is

ii) S = Ig G

I – Ig

iii) The range of resistance G can be increased from i1 to i2 by connecting a resistance

of

S = G__ in parallel where n = i2

n-1 i1

44. Voltmeter:

i) It is instrument used to measure p.d. or

voltage or e.m.f.

G

ii) It should always be connected in parallel

to a circuit.

iii) The resistance of the voltmeter should be as

large as possible.

Voltmeter

iv) The resistance of an ideal voltmeter is infinity. Fig : 8.51

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

resistance R in series with it shown in fig 8.51

vi) If V is the voltage range of the voltmeter, then

V = Ig (R + G)

Where Ig is the maximum current that can be passed through the voltmeter.

Vii) The value of R can be calculated by using the formula

V

R = I – G.

g

resistance to be connected in series to the voltmeter is

R1 = G (n – 1)

V2 new range

Where n = =

V1 old range

V

range V then high resistance R1 to be connected in series is R1 = l -R

RVto be connected in paralle is S =

range i then low resistance ‘s’

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

SYNOPSIS

2. Magnetic Flux (φ ) : The magnetic flux is the total number of magnetic lines of

force passing through a given area normally. It the closed area A is perpendicular

to the magnetic induction, the magnetic flux is

If the magnetic filed (B) makes an angle θ with the outward normal to the area

A, the Magnetic flux is,

SCAN

The S.I unit of magnetic flux is weber (b) [In C.G.S. system, the unit

of magnetic flux is Maxwell and 1 weber (wb) = 108 Maxwell (mx)]

the coil are represented in

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

Magnet n of of Of face of magneti tic

current coil c field

Deflectio force

in coil

n opposed

north pole of left clock pole Force es

magnet wise

approaches the direction

coil

Towards In anit - pole force Decreas

2. When the right clock es

north pole of wise

magnet direction

recedes away

form the coil

As a south Repulsive

Fig. 8.54 Towards pole force

right In anit - Decreas

3. When the clock es

south pole of wise

magnet direction

approaches the

coil

As a north Attractive

Towards pole

left

Fig. 8.55 In anit - Increas

clock es

4. when the wise

south pole of direction

the magnet

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

4. If a bar magnet is dropped vertically into a metal ring then its acceleration is less

than g. If the ring is cut (or we take broken ring) then acceleration of magnet is equal

to g.

e.m.f is developed in it.

b) The induced e.m.f. lasts as long as the change in magnetic flux takes place.

c) The magnitude of the induced e.m.f. developed in a directly proportion al to

the rate of change of magnetic flux passing through the coil.

dφ

e=- dt

where e is the induced e.m.f. and d is the change of magnetic flux passing through

the

dt

coil. The –ve sign show that the induced e.m.f. opposes the growth of magnetic flux.

magnetic field of induction B, then,

φ = n AB.

Hence e = - d (nAB)

dt

e) If the original magnetic flux is φ 1 and the final magnetic flux is φ 2 in a time t,

- φ 2 - 1dt

e=

t

= 0 in a time, t

e=

t

ii) If the rotates quickly through 1800, φ 1 = φ and φ 2 = -φ

∴ e = 2

t

iii) If R is the resistance of the circuit in which the induced e.m.f. is developed. The

induced current is,

I = e = - 1 dφ

R R dt

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

q = I dt = - d = - (2 - φ 1)

R R

6. Lenz’s law:

i) The direction of the e.m.f. and the induced current can be found by Lenz’s law.

ii) Accounding to this law, the direction of the e.m.f. is such that is opposes the

motion which produces it’.

iii) Lenz’s law is a consequence of the law of conservation of energy.

perpendicular magnetic field.

Bω L 2

i) e = - 2

perpendicularmagnetic field.

Bω L2

i) e = -Br f =

2

2

ii) e = - BAf where

A = Area of disc

r = radius of disc

at the rim and positive change accumulates at the centre.

iv) The e.m.f. is induced between the centre and the rim of the disc.

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

in a uniform magnetic field. Fig. 8.59

φ = 0 ∴e = 0

i) ჻

magnetic field.

჻ ∆ and e will be zero.

d) Induced e.m.f. generated on account of linear

Fig. 8.60

i) On displacting the coil towards right, that area of the coil changes which emerges

out of the magnetic field, i.e, ∆ A = - lv t

perpendicular uniform magnetic field.

i) Induced e.m.f. generated in the rode = Blv

ii) If the rod moves making an angle with the

direction of magnetic field. Then X X X X X

a) e = Blv sin θ

X X X X X

→ →

b) e = - ( v x B ) l X X X V X

→ →→ X X X X X

c) e = B ( l x v) Fig. 8.61

X X X X X

d) If the rod moves along the direction of magnetic field then no e.m.f. is induced.

a) The direction of induced current in the rod is given by Fleming’s right hand rule

Rule : Stretch the index finger, middle finger

and the Thumb of right hand mutually at right

angle to each Other. If the index finger points

in the direction of magnetic field, thumb

points in the direction of motion of the rod

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

of induced current in the rod.

Fig. 8.62

b) If the direction of magnetic field is at right angles to the plane of paper upwards,

then the direction of current in the rod the conducting rod is form Q to P.

the direction of induced current in the rod will be form P to Q.

iv) F out of l , v and B any two parameters are in same direction then e = 0

then an induced e.m.f. is generated in rod due to the vertical component of earth'

magnetic field.

vi) If a horizontal rod in east - west direction is falling vertically downwards then a

potential difference is generated due to horizontal component of earth' magnetic

field.

uniform magnetic field :

a) Induced current, I = e

R

b) Force on conductor, F = B2l2vR

R

g) Induced e.m.f. generated a rectangular loop moving in a non-uniform magnetic

field .

i) e = - (B1 – B2) vl

ii) e = - (B1 – B2) ∆ x l

∆t

iii) If the loop is moving in a non – uniform magnetic field with gradient dB ,then

dz

e = - vA dB = lv (B1 – B2)

dz

iv) If B changes with t and z, then

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

e= A∂ B + vA∂ B = A ∂ B + v∂ B

t z t ∂z

v) The induced e.m.f. opposes the change of current in the circuit.

Note: If a rectangular coil is entering or coming out of a magnetic field then also all

above formula of e will be valid.

e.m.f. in a coli due to change of current in same coli

is called self induction.

Consider a coli through which a current of a I ampere

flow. The magnetic flex produced in the coil is

proportional to the current I, when the permeability Fig. 8.65

of the medium remains constant.

or, φ ∝ l

or, = Ll

where L is a constant of proportionality called the co-efficient of self induction o

self inductance of the coil.

e = - d = - d (Ll)

dt dt

e = - L dI

dt

if dI = I; L= e (numerically).

Thus the self inductance of coil can be defined as numerically equal to the induced

e.m.f. (in volt) in the coil when the current in the coil change at the rate of one

ampere per second.

Amp

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

10. The self inductance plays the same role in electrical circuit as inertia in

mechanical motion. The purpose of both is to slow down a change.

11. For coil, L depends upon (i) Geometrical shape (2) no. of turns (3) permeability of

the corematerial inside the coil.

2

where n = no. of turns.

13. If a rod of ferromagnetic material (Iron) be placed in side the coil then self

inductance of coil coil L = µ orn2π r

2

where r = relative permeability of rod.

2L

If increased by x% then percentage increase in energy stored in coil = (200 + x)x

100

15. Two coils in series :

i) The net induction (L) when coils are nearer to each other, L = L1 + L2 ± 2M

use +ve sing when currents in coils are in same direction. Use –ve sign

when currents in coils are in opposite direction. M is the mutual inductance

of system.

ii) When coils are separated by large distance, L s = L1 + L2 ( ჻M = 0)

i) The net induction (L) when coils are nearer to each other, L = L1 L2 - M2

L1L2 2M

ii) When coil are separated by large distance,

L= L1 L2 (჻ M = 0)

L1 + L2

1

where n = no. of terms

l = length of solenoid

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

1

18. Mutual Induction: The Phenomenon of the production of e.m.f in one coil when

the current in another coil changes is called mutual induction.

i) If the current in primary coil (p) is increased, negative e.m.f.is induced in

secondary coil (s).

ii) If the current in primary coil is decreased positive e.m.f. is induced in secondary

coil.

iii) The flux linked with secondary coil (φ ) is directly proportional to the current

floming in primary coil.

Ф∝i

Ф = Mi

where M is a constant of proportionality called the mutual inductance or co –

efficient of mutual induction of the two coils.

According to Faraday’s law of induction

E = dφ = - d (MI)

dt dt

∴ e = - M dI = 1 : M = e = ( numerically).

Dt

Thus the mutual inductance of two coils may be defined as numerically equal to

the e.m.f induced one coil when the current in the second coil changes at the rate

of one ampere per second. The S.I Unit of M is Henry.

ii) distance between coils

iii) Geometrical shape of coils

iv) The angle between the axes of the coils.

v) The permeability of the core material inside the coil

where K = coefficient of coupling

K = 1 for tight coupling, 0 < K < 1for loose coupling.

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

21. Mutual induction of two solenoids: If Np is the number of turns in the primary

of a solenoid and Ns the number of turns of the secondary solenoid linked with

primary then the co-efficient of mutual induction of the two solenoids is,

M = µ 0NpNsA

1

where A is the common cross sectional area of the two solenoids, l is the length of

the Primary solenoid.

22. Transformer:

2) Transformer works on ac and not on dc.

3) It can increase or decrease either voltage or current but not both

simultaneously.

4) The transformation ratio (or) turns ratio, K = Ns = Es = φ s = Ip

Np Ep φ p Is

(a) For step up transformer, K > 1

(b) For step down transformer, K > 1

(c) For step transformer,

Fig. 8.66

5) Step up transformer:

a) It converts low voltage at high current into high voltage at low current.

b) Primary coil is made of thick wire and secondary coil made of thin wire.

c) The number of turns in secondary coil greater then that of primary coil.

a) It converts high voltage at high current into high voltage at high current.

b) Primary coil is made of thin wire and secondary coil made of thick wire.

c) The number of turns in primary coil greater then that of secondary coil.

7) Efficiency of a transformer:

There are some losses of energy due to primary coil resistance, hystersis in the

core, eddy Currents in the core, ect. Ordinary transformer. The efficiency of a

transformer is defined as the ratio of output power to input power.

input power Epip

Percentage of efficiency = output power X 100

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

input power

For an ideal transformer, = 100% Due to energy losses, the efficiency of

ransformer varies Between 90% and 99%.

1) The current in the circuit at any time t during growth of current, I = I0

-Rt

1–e L

L = inductance of inductor

R = resistance of resistor

a) It t = L then I = 0.632 I0.

R

b) The value of (L/r) is known as inductive time constant and is expressed by (1/λ )

I = I0 [1 − e -vλ ]

c) Greater in the value of time constant, smaller will be the rate of growth of current.

-Rt

I = I0e L

= I0e -vλ

R

(b) For small value of L the rate of decay of current will be large.

q = q0 [ 1 − e -vCR]

C = capacity of capacitor

R = resistance of resistor

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

(c) Smaller in the value of time constant (CR), more rapid is the growth of charge

on capacitor.

(b) Smaller the time constant, the quicker in the discharge of capacitor.

3) The voltage during charging of capacitor, V = E0 [1− e-VCR ]

4) The voltage during discharging of capacitor, V = E0 e-VCR

5) The voltage during discharging of capacitor, I = I 0 e-VCR

SYNOPSIS

with time. Alternating current shows only heating effect. Therefore meters used for ac

are based on heating effect and are called hot wire meters.

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

2. If the current or voltage varies periodically as ‘sin’ or’ cos’ function of time then

the current or voltage is said to be sinusoidal.

3. The value of current at any time t (instantaneous value) is given by I = I 0 sin t

(or) I = I 0 cos ω t

4. The value of voltage at any time t is given by V = V0 sin t where V0 is the peak

value of alternating voltage.

5. The frequency of ∝ in India is 50Hz, i.e., f= 50 Hz so = 2π = 100 π rad/ s and

time T = 0.002sec

6. The average (or ) mean value of ac is defined for positive or negative half cycle

1 T/2 1 T/2

Iω = T/2 ∫ I dt = T/2 ∫ I0 sin ω t dt

0 0

π /

= /ω

∫ I0 sin ω t dt = 2I0 ჻ T = 2π

0

∴ Iω (or) Imean = 2l0 = 0.637 I0

a) The mean value of alternating current during, positive half cycle is 0.637 times or

63.7% of its peak value.

b) Vω or Vmean = 2V0 = 0.637 V0

π

7. The effective (or) virtual (or) root mean square (r.m.s) value of alternating current

is defined as the square root of the average of I2 during a complete cycle55

T

I mean =√ 1/T∫ = I0 = 0.7071I0

I2 dt

0

√2

(a) The r.m.s. value of alternating current over a complete cycle is 0.707 times.

(Or) 70.7% of its peak value.

√2

(c ) All ∝ insterments measure virtual values of ac.

8. Form factor of alternating current, F = Irms = π

Iω 2√2

Peak to peak value of alternating voltage, Vpp = 2 V0 = 22 Vms = 2.828Vms

10. The opposition for the flow of ac through resistor (or) inductor (or) capacitor (or)

combination of them is called Impedance (z)

(a) Its unit is ohm. Its value depends on frequency of alternating current or voltage

(b) Formalae for Impendance

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

Vms

i) Z =

Ims

Vpp Ipp

ii) Z =

current then

V Vpp Ipp

Z = ms φ = φ

Ims

11. The opposition for the flow of ac due to induced current is called Reactance (x).

(a) Its Unit is ohm. Its value depends on frequency of alternating source,

inductance and capacitance.

(b) There are two types of reactance :

XL = ω L = 2fL

If ω = 0 then xL = α and if ω = ∝ then xL = ∝. Therefore the opposition of

inductor to

dc is Zero and it ac as a conducting wire. The inductor is called low pass – filter.

is infinite and it acts as open circuit. The capacitor is called high pass – filter.

13.The reciprocal of Impedance is called susceptance. Its unit is same as that of admittance.

14. The close path through which the ac flows is called ac circuit. When ac flows

through the circuit, the current and voltage need not attain their maximum value

at the same instant. If the current reaches maximum first then current is said to

lead the voltage or voltage is said to lag current.

The instantaneous current through the circuit, I = V

R

= V0 sin t = I0 sin ω t Fig.

8.69

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

R

The frequency of current in circuit is same as applied voltage (v). There fore the

voltage is in phase of current in circuit.

According to Kirchoff’s loop rule, V – L dI = 0 (or) dI = V0 sin ω t

dt dt L

I = V0 (-cos ω )= Vo sin ω t - π

Lw 2

∴ I = I0 sin ω t - π Fig.

8.70

2

The instantaneous current through the circuit,

2

Negative sing in front of π /2 the applied voltage by rad (or) voltage

2 Fig. 8.71

leads the the current by The phase different between current and

2

voltage is shown graphically in Fig.

Peak value of current, I0 = V0 = V0

xL L

According to Kirchoff’s loop rule, V – q = = (or) q = cv0 sin t

C

I + dq = c V0cos ω t = I0 cos ω t = I0 sin ω t + π

2

The Instantaneous current through the circuit, I = I0 sin t + Fig.

8.72

2

The current though the capacitor leads the applied voltage (V) by

/2 rad. The phase difference between current and voltage is shown

graphically in fig.

Peak value of current, I0 = V0 = V0 c

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

To calculate I and φ without dealing the theory the following procedure can be

adopted.

(a) Specify the total resistance R of the given circuit which is independent of

frequency

Z Fig. 8.74

(e) The phase difference () between I and V is given by tan φ = x

R

(f) In case of ac circuits V VL + Vx but V = VR + Vx and

2 2 2

V ≠ VL + Vx but Vx = VL − Vc but

ωc

2) Impedance of circ uit, Z = √R + x = ( √R2 +[1/ω c]

2 2

V_______

√ R + 12

2

ωc

3) Current in circuit, I = V =

Z

4) Peak current, I0 = V0

Z

5) Phase difference, φ = tan-1 x = tan-1 1__

R ω cR

6) The instatneous current through the circuit, I = I0 sin(ω t - φ )

8) p.d across R, VR = IR

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

c Fig. 8.76

10) Total p.d. of R C, V = V + VR

2

C

2

ωc

2) Impedance of circuit, Z = √R2 + x2 = x (჻ R = 0)

V

3) Current in circuit, I = Z = V___

L−

1 Fig. 8.77

wc

4) Peak current, I0 = V0

Z

= π

X X

5) Phase difference, φ = tan-1 = − tan-1

R 0 2

6) The instatneous current through the circuit, I = I0 sin(ω t -

)

2

8) P.d across C, VC = IxC = I_

c

9) P.d across L, VL = IxL = I L

Resonance takes place in circuit when Impendence (Z) of circuit is minimum (or)

the current (I) is maximum.

The angular frequency (ω 0) at which the current in circuit is maximum is called

natural

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

Or resonant frequency

∴I = V = V_______

ωL−1 2

c

I will be maximum if ω L = 1 ∴ ω = 1

ωc √LC

At resonance, = ω 0 1__

√ LC

Resonant frequency, ƒ0 = 1__

2π √LC

22. ac applied to C-L series circuit:

1) The current in circuit at any time, I = I0 sin (t −φ )

(a) If xL > xC then the current lags the voltage by φ

(b) If xL < xC then the current leads the voltage by

(c) If xL = xC then the current is in phase of voltage. Fig. 8.79

2) p.d across R, VR = IR

p.d across L, VL = IXC = I

ωc

p.d across L, VL = I L I L ___________

X

___________

p.d across R and C, VRC = √ VR2 + VC2 Fig. 8.80

p.d across al and C, VLC = VL VC

= VL − VC if VL > VC

= VC − VL if VC > VL

= 0 if VC − VL. Fig. 8.81

________________

Total p.d of R.L and C,V = VR2 +( VL − VC)2

ωC

4) Impendance of circuit, Z = √ R2 + X2

5) Current in circuit, I = V

Z

6) Peak current, I0 V0

Z

R

8) Average electric field energy stored in capacitor = 1 CV2

2

9) Average magnetic field energy stored in inductor = 1 CV2

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

2

23. Resonance in L – C – R circuit:

Resonance takes place in circuity when Impedence (Z) of circuit is minimum (o)

the current (I) is maximum.

I = V = V_______

Z R + L 1 2

2

ωC

I will be maximum if L = 1

ωc

∴ ω =1

√ LC

At resonance, ω = 0 = 1_

√LC

∴ Resonant frequency, 0 = 1__

2π √LC

Resonant frequency is independent of R.

At resonance

i) The reactance of circuit, x = xL −xC = 0

ii) = tan-1 x = tan-1 O = 0

R R

So current in the phase of applied voltage (V)

iii) Power factor, cos φ = R = 1 (maximum)

iv) Current through L and C are same but 1800 out of phase with respect to each

other so that

∴ V = VR because VLC = 0

v) Impendance of circuit is minimum and is equal to R

vi) The current depends on R and not on L and C. ∴ I 0 = V0

R

vii) VL = I0 xL = V0 (ω 0 L) = QV0 ∴ Q = ω 0L

R R

Where Q = quality factor (or) figure of merit of resonant circuit. It is an

Indicator of sharpness of current peak [i.e., higher value of Q, sharper is peak]

The p.d across L is Q times of applied voltage. This characteristic is called

voltage magnification,

viii) If f1 is lower half power frequency and f2 is upper half power frequency then

(a) Band width = f2 – f1

(b) quality factor, Q = _f0___

f2 – f1

where f0 = resonant frequency

ix) The frequency of source at which power of circuit is half of the power at resonant

frequency = f0 ± ∆ ω

2π

where ∆ ω R

2L

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

24. The series resonant circuit is called an acceptor circuit , because if number of

frequencies are given to it then the circuit accepts one frequency f0 and rejects all

other frequencies. The current will be maximum for that frequency. The series

resonance is called voltage resonance.

25. A metal detector works on the principle of resonance in ac circuits.

26. ac applied to L-C-R parallel circuit :

The voltage V across each element is same. The currents are related as

Fig. 8.83

= V 2

+ Vω C – V 2

= V 1 ωC– 1 2

R L R2 ωL

This shows that at resonance, i.e., when ω L = 1 , the current is minimum.

C

27. Power in ac circuits:

The power in an electric circuit is the rate at which electrical energy is consumed

in the Circuit. If an ac voltage E = E0 sin t is applied to the circuit then current

in circuit, I = sin (ω t - φ ). The Instantaneous power consumed by circuit, P = EI

= E0I0 sin ω t sin (ω t - φ )

The power consumed varies with time. Hence in ac circuit we find the average

power consumed by circuit,

T

∫ P dt

0_____ = 1 E0I0 cos = Erms Irms cos φ

PCV = T 2

dt

0

Erms Irms s is called the virtual (or) apparent power. Cos is called power factor.

Apparent Power

A wattmeter measures the true power.

cos = R

Z

Special cases :

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

(a) In case of a pure resistance ac circuit, cos = R = R = 1and Pav = Erms Irms= E0I0

(max)

Z R 2

(b) In case of a pure inresistance (or) capacitance ac circuit, cos R = O = 0 and Pav =

0

Z Z

If the power consumed by the circuit is zero then the circuit is called ,watt less’ The

current through the pure inductance or capacitance is called wattles current or Ideal

current In practice power consumed by Inductor or capacitor is not zero but very small.

Z √R +x √ R + ω L– 1 2

2 2 2

C

and Pav = Erms Irms cos = E0I0 cos

2

Z R

and PCV = Ems Ims = E0I0_ = I(rms)2 R(max)

2

No.

1. Circuit diagram

2. Reactance x = xC = 1 X = XL − XC X = XL − XC

ω = L 1 = L − 1

C L ωc

9448301445

EXPERT TUTORIALS, DHARWAD.

x

4. Peak current I0 = V0__ I0 = V0 I0 = V0_____

R2 + xC 2 x R + (xL -xC )2

2

Consumed by the √ R2 + xC 2 not equat to zero ____________

Circuit by but very small) √R2 + (xL -xC )2

φ ) _______ 0 √R + (xL -xC )

2 2

√R2 + xC 2

9448301445

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