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MAGNETIC EFFECT OF ELECTRIC CURRENT &


MECHANICAL EFFCT OF ELECTRIC CURRENT

SYNOPSIS

1. The magnetic effect of current was first discovered by Oersted.


2. An electric charge in motion sets up a magnetic field around it.
3. An electric charge moving in an external magnetic field experiences a force.
4. A stationary electric charge produces only electric field. But a moving electric
charge Produces both an electric field and a magnectic field.
5. Magnetic field due to a straight conductor carrying current:
i) The magnetic field is circle.
ii) The magnetic line of force are concentric circles with their centers lying on
axis of the conductor.
iii) The plane of circle is perpendicular to direction of the current.
iv) If the current flows through the conductor in upward direction, magnetic
lines of force are formed in anticlock wise direction.
v) If the current flows through the conductor in down ward direction,
magnetic lines of force are formed in anticlock wise direction.

Scan

Fig 8.1
6. The direction of the magnetic field with respect to the current can be found by the
Ampere right hand rule or Maxwell’s cork screw rule.
7. Ampere right hand rule :
a) For linear currents: If the wire is grasped in the palm of the of the right hand
with the stretched thump pointing in the direction of current, fingers curl in the
direction of magnetic field (i.e., the magnetic lines of force).
b) For circular currents : If the direction of current coincides with the direction of

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the curl of the fingers of the right hand, the stretched thumb points in the
direction of magnetic field at centre of the loop.
Conventionally the direction of the field perpendicular to the plane of page is
represented by if into the page and by if out of the pag
8. Maxwell’s cork screw rule : If we imagine a right hand cork screw to be drive
along the direction of the current in the conductor, the direction in which the
thumb rotates represents the direction of the magnitude field.
9. The magnitude of the field produced by an electric current can be determined by
using the Biot Savart law or Ampere’s law.
10. Biot – Savart’s law : If a current of I amp passes through a small element dl of
a conductor, the magnetic induction dB produced at a distance r form dl is
( Fig. 8.2)
µ 0 idl
dB =sinθ x4π
r2 ( Fig. 8.2)
where is the angle between I and r,  0 is the permeability of air or
vacuum and µ 0 = 4x 10-7 web or henry or newton
amp-m m amp2

→ → →
(a) In vector form, dB = 0 idl 3x r
4π r
(b) If  = 00 or 1800, dB = 0

11. Magnetic induction due to straight condurctor i


of finite length carrying current I at a distance 0 P
r is given by
B = µ 0i - [ sin  1 + sin φ 2]
4π r
B = µ 0i - [ cos θ 1 + cos θ 2] Fig. 8.3
4r
a) If the point P is at one end of the conductor then i
µ 0 i sin 
B= 4 r
P
Fig. 8.4
12.Magnetic induction due to straight conductor of infinite length carrying current I
at

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a distance r is given by
µ 0 2i 2i i
B =4 r =10-7 r
P
(a) If the point P is at one end of the
conductor then B = Fig. 8.5
r
13. The magnetic induction at centre of a square of current i in
clockwise direction is
given by
µ 0 8 √2i
B =4π l
a) The magnetic induction at corner of square is
µ 0 2i
B =4π √2l

14. The magnetic induction at centre of equilateral triangle of side d due to of current I
in clockwise direction is given by
µ 0 18i
B =4π d

a) At any vertex of triangle is


µ 0 2i
B = 4π √3d

15. The magnetic induction produced on the axial line of a circular coil of
radius r, containing n turns is
µ 0 nr2 I
B = 2 (r2 + x2 ) 3/2
Fig. 8.6(a)
where x is the distance between the centre of the coil and the given
point on the axial line. If x > > r
B = µ 0 nr2I = or B = µ 0 nπ r2 I
2x3 2π x3
But π r2 = A is the face area of the coil.
∴ B = µ 0 nIA = µ 0M
2π x3 2x3
where M = magnetic moment of loop.

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SCAN

Circular coil Rectangular coil Circulating charge

Fig. 8.6 (b), (c), (d)


µ 0 ni
a) At centre of coil, B =2 r
µ 0 ni
b) For half coil, the magnetic induction at centre B =4 r
µ 0 ni
c) For quarter coil, the magnetic induction at centre B =8 r
m0 ni
d) On surface of coil, B=25/2 r

16. A wire of length L is bent in the form of a circular loop with n turns and carries
current i. Its magnetic moment M = l2i
4pn
17. A wire carrying current i is first bent in the form of circular loop with n tums and
M1 n2
carries current i. Its magnetic moments ratio is given by M2 = n1

18. If two coils are connected in series then ratio of magnetic inductions at their
B1 r 2
centers is given by B =r
2 1

19. If two coil are connected in parallel then ratio of magnetic inductions at their
centers is given by
B1 = r22
B2 r12
20. Two copper wires of lengths l1 and l2 have area of cross section A1 and A2. They
bent in circular loops with turns n1 and n2. If they are connected in parallel then
ratio of magnetic inductions at their centers is given by
B1 = n22 A1 l22
B2 r12 A2 l12
21. A wire carrying current i is first but in the circular loop with n1 turns and then with
n2 turns B1 and B2 are magnetic inductions at centre of loop,
B1 = n12
B2 n22
22. A current carrying wire is bent in the form of a circular loop of radius r1. It
produces a magnetic induction at centre is B If same wire is stretched so that its
length increased by n times and then the 2 wire is in circular loop of radius r2 The
magnetic induction at its centre = 2Bnr 2
r1

S. Current carrying in Position of Expression of B Direction for B


No Conductor point of
observation

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1. Circular arc At the centre of 0 iα


B= i) If the current is clock
the Arc 4π  wise then direction of
B will be normal to plane
of paper down ward s.
ii) If the current is
(a) anticlockwise then
direction of B will be
normal to plane of paper
up ward s.
(b)
Fig. 8.7
Direction of B is
2. a. Two concentric At the centre of B= determined by law of
colis incline at an Coils √B21+B22+2B1B2 addition of vectors.
angle θ 0 cosθ

Fig. 8.8 At the centre of __________


b. Two colis inclined coils B = √ B21 +B22.
at 900

Fig. 8.9
Direction of B will be
3. a. Two concentric At their B = 0n1i +
normal to plane of paper
coils in which same common µ 0n2i
Upwards.
current is flowing in Centre O 2r1 2r2
same direction. = 0i n1 + n2
2 r1 r2
if the number of
turns
in them is same
B = µ 0in 1+
2
Fig. 8.10 2 r1 r2
Direction of B will be
b. Two concentric At their normal to plane of paper

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coils in which same common Upwards.


current is flowing in Centre B = µ 0i n1 - n2
mutually opposite 2 r1 r2
direction. .
if the number of
turns
in them is same
B =µ 0in 1 −2
2 r1 r2
Fig. 8.11 i) If current is
anticlockwise then
4. Electron revolving At nucleus direction of B will normal
around the nucleolus B = µ 0iqV to plane of paper upwards.
in a circular path of 4π a2 If current is clock wise
radius a = 10-7 2π fq then direcation of B will
a be normal to plane of
where f = paper downwards
frequency
Fig. 8.12
5. a. Two parallel At distance r form
current Carrying 2 B=0
conductors both conductors
First second

Fig. 8.13 
b. Direction of B normal to
At distance ( r plane of paper downward.
+x) form first B=
and x form µ 0i 1 +
second 1__
conductors. 2 x (r + x)
Fig 8.14

c. Direction of B will be
At distance r form normal to plane of paper
2 downwards.
both conductor B = 20i
r

Fig. 8.15

d. Direction of B will be

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At distance( r+x) normal to plane of paper


form first and x downwards.
form second
conductors. B=
µ 0i 1 − 1__
2 x
Fig. 8.16 (r+x)
Normal to plane of paper
Straight wire and At the centre of upwards
6. loop the loop and at
distance o form
straight B = µ 0i 1_
conductor. 2a 1+ 

Fig. 8.17
Note : No contact at
Point O

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S. Current carrying in Position of point Expression of B Direction for B


No Conductor of Observation

7. Straight wire and At the centre of B = µ 0i 1 - 1__ Normal to plane of


loop the loop and at 2a π paper upwards
distance a form
straight
conductor.

Fig. 8.18

8. Straight wire and At centre B=0


loop

Fig. 8.19
9. Straight conductor At point P the B=0
wire

Fig. 8.20

10. Solenoid Along its axis B = 0Ni Along the axis of


a. Of finite length 2l solenoid
( cos α -β cos )
B = µ 0ni
2
( cos  -β cos )
Fig. 8.21
Along its axis B = µ 0ni where Direction as above
b. Of infinite length
n=N
( = 0, = π )
1
c. Of length 1 and At its centre B = µ 0ni___
radius a. 12 +4a2

d. Long solenoid At its end B = µ 0ni


(α = 90 , β = 180 )
o o 2

Toroid Along its axis B = µ 0ni


11.
Where Along the axis of
n=N toroid
2π R
R = mean radius of
toroid

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24. Ampere’s law: If a current of I amp passes through a long and straight conductor.
the magnetic induction B Produced by the current at a perpendicular distance r from
the conductor is I
B = µ 0i x l
2 r B
The direction of B can be determined by the right hand thumb rule.

Fig. 8.36
25) A Magnetic pole of strength m revolves around a straight current carrying
conductor in circular path of radius r. The work done by magnetic force on
magnetic pole for n rotations is given by W = 0 mni

26) A straight conductor carrying current I in vertically upward direction then distance
0 i
of the null Point form conductor, r = 2π BH
The null point is formed in west side of conductors.

27) Two infinite long thin insulated straight conductors charring


currents i1 and i2Lie along x and y axes respectively as shown in
fig. 8.37 The location of thePoint where resultant magnetic field
of system is zero will be given by
i1 = i2
y x fig 8.37
if i1 = i2 then y = x

28) Fleming’s left hand rule : Stretch the fore finger, middle finger and the thumb of
the eft hand mutually perpendicular to each other. If the fore- finger represents the
direction of the magnetic field and
the middle finger that of the force on
the conductor. (Fig. 8.38 a & b). The
above rule is true for only +ve
charged particle. For –ve charged
particle. For – ve charged particle,
reverse the direction of force after
applying the rule.
Fig. 8.38 (a) & (b)
29. Magnetic force on a charged particle: If a charged particle of positive charge q
travels with a velocity V an angle with the direction of the mangnetic field of
induction B, particle

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experience a force,
F = Bq V sin 

a) The direction of F can be determined by the relation F = q (V x B)
b) The direction of F can be determined by Fleming’s left hand rule.
(This rule applies only for + ve charges. If it a –ve charge, say an electron, its
direction motion should be reversed to apply Flemins’s left hand rule to get the
proper direction of B)
c) The S. I unit of B is Tesla (T)
d) 1T = 1 NA-1 m-1.
e) The magnetic induction is said to be 1T if a charge of 1C moving with a speed of
1ms-1 at right angles to the field experiences a force of 1N.
f) The C.G.S unit of B is gauss (G)
1G = 10-4 T
g) Magnetic induction ‘B’ is a vector quantity.
Case (i) : When the charged particle is either at rest or moving parallel to magnetic
field, then
a. The magnetic force acting on it is zero Fm = 0
b. The path of the particle will be a straight line i.e., particle will keep on the same path.
c. The value of momentum (p) and kinetic energy remain constant.
Case (ii) : When the charged particle is moving at right angles to the magnetic filed :
a. The magnetic force acting on the particle will be maximum i.e., Fm = qVB
b. The direction of Fm will be normal to the velocity of particle.
c. The path of the particle will be circular.
d. The momentum of the particle will remain constant magnitude but its direction
will constantly be change i. e.,
p = qBr
e. The kinetic energy of the particle remains constant
Ek = mV2 = q2B2r2
2 2m
f. The magnetic force acting on the particle provides it necessary centripetal force
for its circular motion.
qVB = mV2
r _____
g. The radius of circular path of the particle r = 2m Ek
qB
h. Angular velocity of charged particle ω = qB
m
i. Time period of charged particle T

i) T = 2π = 2π m
ω qB
ii) This does not depend on the speed of charged particle.
j. Frequency of charged particle.
i) f = 1 = qB

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T 2π m
ii) this does not depend on the speed particle.
iii) It depends on specific charges q /m or the nature of particle and on B.

k. The work done in revolving the particle in circular path is zero.


W = zero

l. The ratios of quantities for two particles in magnetic field.


i) r1 = q2 m1 when Ek and B are constant.
r2 q1 m2
Ek1
ii) r1 = q2 √ m1 , when Ek and B are constant.
r2 q1 m2 Ek2

iii) P1 = q2 r1, when B are constant.


P2 q1 r2

iv) 
1 = q1 m2 , when B are constant.
2 m1 q2

v) T1 = m1 q2 , when B are constant.


T2 q1 m2

vi) f1 = q1 m2 , when B are constant.


f2 m1 q2

vii) Ek
1
, = q21 r21 m2 when B is constant.
Ek m1 q22 r22
2

Case (iii) : When the particle enters the magnetic filed at an


angle of  with B
a) The path of the particle will be helical.
b) F = qVB
c) Pitch of the path : The linear distance covered by
the particle in one time period in the direction of fig 8.39
magnetic field is defined as pitch.
Pitch = TV cos  = 2mV cos θ
qB
Case (iv ) : When the charged particle enters crossed clectric
magnetic fileds.
a) If FB = FE then charged particle passed undeviated.
b) The velocity of such a particle is given by
qVB = qE

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V=E
B Fig. 8.40
c) The momentum of the particle p = qBr.

30. Difference in the behaviors of electric field and magnetic filed :


1) The electric field always acts whether particle is at rest (or) motion but magnetic
force acts only when the particle in motion.
 →
2) In electric field F = qE
→ →→
In magnetic filed F = q ( V x B )
3) The speed of particle does not charge in magnetic filed.
31. For constant velocity of charged particle, the region space may have
1) E = 0, B = 0
2) E = 0, B ≠ 0
3) E ≠ 0, B 0 (if E ⊥ B and v = E/B)
32. Force between two moving charges :
i) If charges are stationary then there is only electric force between them
(Fe = 9 x 109 q1 q2 )
d2
ii) If charges are in motion a magnetic force also acts between them in addition to
electric force.
iii) The magnetic force between two charges travel with velocities v1v2and
separated by distance‘d’ is F m = 0 q1 q2 v1 v2
4 d2
iv) The direction of magnetic force acting between two charges depends on (a)
nature of charges (b) direction of motion of charges.
v) If q1 and q2 are similar nature. and moving in same direction then magnetic
force is attractive vi) If q1 and q2 are similar nature. and moving in opposite
direction then magnetic force is repulsive.
vii) If q1 and q2 are opposite in nature. and moving in same direction then
magnetic force is repulsive.
viii) If q1 and q2 are opposite in nature. and moving in same direction then
magnetic force is attractive
ix) Magnetic force < < electric between two moving charges.
x) If V1 = V2 = V then Fm = V2
Fe C2
Where C = velocity of light.
33. Magnetic force on a current carrying conductor:
If a current carrying of length l is placed making an angle θ
with the direction of the magnetic field of induction B , the
force exerted by the magnetic field on the conductor (Fig.8.41),
F= BI i sin θ

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where I is the current


a. If θ = 00 then F = 0
b. If  = 900 then F = Bil Fig. 8.41
34. Force between two parallel conductors
carrying currents: If two straight
parallel and infinitely long conductors
currying currents I1 and I2 amp
respectively in the same direction and
are separated by a distance r1 there is a
force of attraction between them.
If the currents are in opposite direction [Fig 8.429b)]
there is a force of repulsion.
(a) (b)
The magnetic induction B1 exerted by the conductor
Carrying the current I1 at a distance r is
B1 =  0. I1
2 r fig 8.42
If l is the common length of the magnetic fore experienced by the second
conductor due to
B1 is
F = B1 I2 I or F = 0. I1 I2 l
2 r
An equal force is exerted by second conductor on first. The force of attraction or
repulsior
Per unit length of the conductor is
F = µ 0. I1 I2 Nm-1
2π r
If I1 = I2 = I amp and r = 1m, then
F = µ 0. = 4π x 10-7 = 2 x 10-7 N.
2 2π

Definition of ampere: An ampere is that steady current when flowing in each of two
long Straight parallel wires separated by a distance of 1m causes each wire to exert a
force of 2 x 10-7 N per unit length of the wire.
Note: In case of non parallel currents
i) When two current approach a point (or) they flow
away from that point then force between them is
attractive (Fig. 8.43) Fig. 8.43
ii) When one current approach a point and other current
they flow away from that point then force between them
is attractive (Fig. 8.44)
Fig. 8.44
35. i)The work done when the distance between them increased to 2r, 
= µ 0 i1 i2 l loge2 .
2π Fig. 8.45
ii) A rod of length ‘b’carrying a current i1 is placed in the field of a
long wire carrying current i2 as shown in fig. The force on rod is

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F = µ 0 i1 i2 I loge 1 + b
2π a Fig. 8.46
The force F is directed vertically up.
36. A horizontal wire carries current i1 below which another wire
Carrying a current i2 is kept at d distance. If the wire kept
below hangs in air then,
1) i1 and i2 must be flowing in same direction
2) F = mg
µ 0. i1 i2 l = mg
2π d
37. If a magnetic pole of strength m is kept at distance r form a current carrying
conductor then
force on it, F = mB = m x µ 0 i
2π r
38. Torque on a current loop : A rectangular coil of area A containing n turns is place
in a uniform magnetic field of induction B.
i) If θ is the angle between normal to the plane of coil and magnetic field then
→  →
orque on coil = BiAn sin  = MB sin θ (or) τ = M x B
ii) If θ = 00 (or) 1800 then  = 0 (minimum)
iii) If θ = 900 then  = BiAn (maximum)
iv) The work done to turn the coil form angle 1 to 2 is W = MB (cosθ 1 - cos
θ 2)

Fig. 8.48

(a) If θ = 00 and  = 0 then W = MB (1 - cos)


→
v) P.E of the coil u = - MB cosθ = - M .B
(a) The change in P.E of coil when the coil is rotated form 0 to 1800 = 2 MB
vi) If α is the angle between plane of the coil magnetic field then Torque on coil
 = BiAn cos  .

39. Moving coil galvanometer:

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a) Principle: When a current carrying coil is placed in a uniform magnetic filed it


experiences a torque.
b) It is used to measure low currents upto 10-9 A.
c) It consists a powerful circular magnet with concave poles. So that the magnetic
field becomes radial.
d) Phosphor bronze wire has high value of. Y and low value of n (rigidity
modulus). So it is used as suspension wire.
e) By placing a soft Iron cylinder inside the coil magnetic flux of the filed
increases.
f) Deselecting coupe = BiAn
g) Restoring couple = Cθ
where θ is angle of twist of wire in radian.
h) In equilibrium position, BiAn = Cθ
I = C θ
BAn
I = Kθ
Where K = C/BAn = galvanometer constant
i) In M.C.G. ,I ∝θ
j) Current sensitivity of the moving coil galvanometer can be increased by
(i) increasing ‘n’ (ii) increasing A (iii) increasing B and (iv) decreasing C.
k) The reciprocal of current sensitivity is called figure of merit.
i) Voltage sensitivity = θ = θ = BAn
V iR CR
Where R = galvanometer resistance.

40. Tangent galvanometer :


i) It is based on Tangent law (B = BH tan θ )
ii) It is used to measure currents up to 10-6 A
iii) The plane of coil is must be in magnetic meridian.
iv) I = K tan θ where K = 2rBH
µ 0n

41. Comparison of M.C.G with T.G :


M. C. G T. G.

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1. In M.C.G, I α  1. In T.C.i, i tan 


2. It is a moving coil and fixed magnet type 2. It is a moving mangent and fixed
Galvanometer. coil type galvanometer.
3. It can be measure the currents of order of 3. It can be measure the currents of
10-9 A order of
4. The plane of coil need not be set in 4. 10-6 A
magnetic meridian The plane of coil should be set in
5. It can be used in mines 5. magnetic meridian.
6. It is not portable. 6. It can’t be used in mines.
7. The galvanometer constant does not 7. It is portable.
depend The galvanometer constant depend
On BH. On BH.

42. Shunt: As the galvanometer is a low resistance instrument, it is damaged when a

large current is passed through it.


To protect the galvanometer, a small resistance
known as shunt is sonnected in paralle with it. Let
G be the resistance of the galvanometer and S be
the resistance of the shunt and let I,Ig and Is be the
current in the main circuit, the galvanometer and
shunt repectively
(Fig 8.48) then
S S+G
i) Ig = I
Fig. 8.49
ii) The current through the shunt, Is = I
S S+G
iii) The fraction of current passing through the galvanometer =
S S+G
iv) The fraction of current passing through the shunt =
GStotal resistance R =
v) The G+S

vi) The decrease in resistance of galvanometerGS


due to shunt = G- G+S

GS G+S
vii) The decrease in resistance of shunt = S -

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43. Ammeter :

i) It is a direct current reading instrument.


ii) An ammerter should always be connected in
series in a circuit.
iii) The resistance of the ammeter should be as
small as small as possible.
iv) The resistance of an ideal ammeter is zero.
Ammeter
Fig. 8.50
A galvanometer can be converted into an ammeter by connecting a suitable shunt as
shown in
Fig. 8.50
I = total current to be measured
Ig = current passing through the galvanometer
Is = I – Ig = current through the shunt
G = resistance of the galvanometer.
S = shunt resistance.
i) I = Ig + Is
ii) S = Ig G
I – Ig
iii) The range of resistance G can be increased from i1 to i2 by connecting a resistance
of
S = G__ in parallel where n = i2
n-1 i1

44. Voltmeter:
i) It is instrument used to measure p.d. or
voltage or e.m.f.
G
ii) It should always be connected in parallel
to a circuit.
iii) The resistance of the voltmeter should be as
large as possible.
Voltmeter
iv) The resistance of an ideal voltmeter is infinity. Fig : 8.51

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v) A galvanometer can be converted into a voltmeter connecting a suitable high


resistance R in series with it shown in fig 8.51
vi) If V is the voltage range of the voltmeter, then
V = Ig (R + G)
Where Ig is the maximum current that can be passed through the voltmeter.
Vii) The value of R can be calculated by using the formula
V
R = I – G.
g

viii) To increase the range of a voltmeter of resistance R from V1 toV2 ,the


resistance to be connected in series to the voltmeter is
R1 = G (n – 1)
V2 new range
Where n = =
V1 old range

45. i) If an ammeter of range I and resistance R is to be converted into voltmeter of


V
range V then high resistance R1 to be connected in series is R1 = l -R

ii) If an voltmeter of range V and resistance R is to be connected into ammeter of


RVto be connected in paralle is S =
range i then low resistance ‘s’

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ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

SYNOPSIS

1. Electromagnetic induction discovered by Faraday.

2. Magnetic Flux (φ ) : The magnetic flux is the total number of magnetic lines of
force passing through a given area normally. It the closed area A is perpendicular
to the magnetic induction, the magnetic flux is

φ = BA ………… (1) (fig. 8.52 (a)

If the magnetic filed (B) makes an angle θ with the outward normal to the area
A, the Magnetic flux is,

φ = BA cos  ………… (1) (Fig. 8.52 (b)

SCAN

The S.I unit of magnetic flux is weber (b) [In C.G.S. system, the unit
of magnetic flux is Maxwell and 1 weber (wb) = 108 Maxwell (mx)]

3. Direction of induced e.m.f. and induced current:

The various position of relative motion between the magnet and


the coil are represented in

The following table .

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Position of Directio Direction Behaviour Type of Magne


Magnet n of of Of face of magneti tic
current coil c field
Deflectio force
in coil
n opposed

1. When the Towards In anit - As a north Repulsive Increas


north pole of left clock pole Force es
magnet wise
approaches the direction
coil

Fig. 8.53 As a south Attractive


Towards In anit - pole force Decreas
2. When the right clock es
north pole of wise
magnet direction
recedes away
form the coil

As a south Repulsive
Fig. 8.54 Towards pole force
right In anit - Decreas
3. When the clock es
south pole of wise
magnet direction
approaches the
coil

As a north Attractive
Towards pole
left
Fig. 8.55 In anit - Increas
clock es
4. when the wise
south pole of direction
the magnet

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4. If a bar magnet is dropped vertically into a metal ring then its acceleration is less
than g. If the ring is cut (or we take broken ring) then acceleration of magnet is equal
to g.

5. Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction:

a) Whenever there is a change in magnetic flux passing through a coil, an induced


e.m.f is developed in it.
b) The induced e.m.f. lasts as long as the change in magnetic flux takes place.
c) The magnitude of the induced e.m.f. developed in a directly proportion al to
the rate of change of magnetic flux passing through the coil.

e=- dt

where e is the induced e.m.f. and d is the change of magnetic flux passing through
the
dt
coil. The –ve sign show that the induced e.m.f. opposes the growth of magnetic flux.

d) If a coil of area A containing n turns is placed perpendicular to a uniform


magnetic field of induction B, then,
φ = n AB.

Hence e = - d (nAB)
dt
e) If the original magnetic flux is φ 1 and the final magnetic flux is φ 2 in a time t,
- φ 2 - 1dt
e=
t

i) If a coil containing magnetic flux φ is turned quickly through 900, φ 1 =φ and φ 2


= 0 in a time, t
e= 
t
ii) If the rotates quickly through 1800, φ 1 = φ and φ 2 = -φ
∴ e = 2
t
iii) If R is the resistance of the circuit in which the induced e.m.f. is developed. The
induced current is,
I = e = - 1 dφ
R R dt

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iv) The induced electric change q developed is,


q = I dt = - d = - (2 - φ 1)
R R
6. Lenz’s law:

i) The direction of the e.m.f. and the induced current can be found by Lenz’s law.
ii) Accounding to this law, the direction of the e.m.f. is such that is opposes the
motion which produces it’.
iii) Lenz’s law is a consequence of the law of conservation of energy.

7. Induced e.m.f. and determination of its direction:

A) Various formulae of induced e.m.f.:

a) The induced e.m.f. generated on account of rotation of conducting rod in a


perpendicular magnetic field.
Bω L 2
i) e = - 2

ii) e = -BAf where f = frequency of rotation and A = π L2,

ω = angular velocity, L = length of conduction rod. Fig: 8.57

b) Induced e.m.f. generated in a disc rotating with a constant angular velocity in a


perpendicularmagnetic field.
Bω L2
i) e = -Br f =
2
2
ii) e = - BAf where

A = Area of disc

r = radius of disc

 = angular velocity of disc Fig. 8.58

iii) If the direction of  is anticlockwise then the negative charge accumulates


at the rim and positive change accumulates at the centre.

iv) The e.m.f. is induced between the centre and the rim of the disc.

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c) Induced e.m.f. generated due to linear motion of a rectangular coil


in a uniform magnetic field. Fig. 8.59
φ = 0 ∴e = 0
i) ჻ 

Here the coil is moving with a constant velocity in a uniform


magnetic field.
჻ ∆  and e will be zero.
d) Induced e.m.f. generated on account of linear

motion of a coil in a uniform finite magnetic field

Fig. 8.60

i) On displacting the coil towards right, that area of the coil changes which emerges
out of the magnetic field, i.e, ∆ A = - lv t

ii) Because ∆ φ = B ∆ A = - Blv t therefore e = - Bvl

e) Induced e.m.f. generated on account of linear motion of a conducting rod in a


perpendicular uniform magnetic field.
i) Induced e.m.f. generated in the rode = Blv
ii) If the rod moves making an angle  with the
direction of magnetic field. Then X X X X X
a) e = Blv sin θ
X X X X X
 → →
b) e = - ( v x B ) l X X X V X
→ →→ X X X X X
c) e = B ( l x v) Fig. 8.61
X X X X X
d) If the rod moves along the direction of magnetic field then no e.m.f. is induced.

iii) To determine direction of induced current:

a) The direction of induced current in the rod is given by Fleming’s right hand rule
Rule : Stretch the index finger, middle finger
and the Thumb of right hand mutually at right
angle to each Other. If the index finger points
in the direction of magnetic field, thumb
points in the direction of motion of the rod

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then the middle finger represents the direction


of induced current in the rod.
Fig. 8.62
b) If the direction of magnetic field is at right angles to the plane of paper upwards,
then the direction of current in the rod the conducting rod is form Q to P.

c) If the direction of magnetic field is normal to plane of paper downwards, then


the direction of induced current in the rod will be form P to Q.

iv) F out of l , v and B any two parameters are in same direction then e = 0

v) If the conducting rod is in horizontal position and moves in a horizontal direction


then an induced e.m.f. is generated in rod due to the vertical component of earth'
magnetic field.

vi) If a horizontal rod in east - west direction is falling vertically downwards then a
potential difference is generated due to horizontal component of earth' magnetic
field.

f) Induced e.m.f. is generated in a conductor moving on two conducting rails in a


uniform magnetic field :

i) Induced e.m.f., e = Blv


a) Induced current, I = e
R
b) Force on conductor, F = B2l2vR

c) Power expended in moving the conductor p = Fv = B2l2v2


R
g) Induced e.m.f. generated a rectangular loop moving in a non-uniform magnetic
field .

i) e = - (B1 – B2) vl
ii) e = - (B1 – B2) ∆ x l
∆t
iii) If the loop is moving in a non – uniform magnetic field with gradient dB ,then
dz
e = - vA dB = lv (B1 – B2)
dz
iv) If B changes with t and z, then

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e= A∂ B + vA∂ B = A ∂ B + v∂ B
 t z t ∂z
v) The induced e.m.f. opposes the change of current in the circuit.

Note: If a rectangular coil is entering or coming out of a magnetic field then also all
above formula of e will be valid.

8. Self induction: The phenomenon of production of


e.m.f. in a coli due to change of current in same coli
is called self induction.
Consider a coli through which a current of a I ampere
flow. The magnetic flex  produced in the coil is
proportional to the current I, when the permeability Fig. 8.65
of the medium remains constant.

or, φ ∝ l
or,  = Ll
where L is a constant of proportionality called the co-efficient of self induction o
self inductance of the coil.

Form Faraday’s law the induced e.m.f. in the coil is

e = - d = - d (Ll)
dt dt
e = - L dI
dt
if dI = I; L= e (numerically).

Thus the self inductance of coil can be defined as numerically equal to the induced
e.m.f. (in volt) in the coil when the current in the coil change at the rate of one
ampere per second.

The S.I unit of L is Henry (or) Volt – sec


Amp

9. A straight conductor has no self inductance.

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10. The self inductance plays the same role in electrical circuit as inertia in
mechanical motion. The purpose of both is to slow down a change.

11. For coil, L depends upon (i) Geometrical shape (2) no. of turns (3) permeability of
the corematerial inside the coil.

12. Self inductance of the coil L = 0n2π r


2
where n = no. of turns.

13. If a rod of ferromagnetic material (Iron) be placed in side the coil then self
inductance of coil coil L = µ orn2π r
2
where r = relative permeability of rod.

14. Magnetic P.E. stored in coil, E = 1 L i2 = 2


2L
If  increased by x% then percentage increase in energy stored in coil = (200 + x)x
100
15. Two coils in series :

i) The net induction (L) when coils are nearer to each other, L = L1 + L2 ± 2M
use +ve sing when currents in coils are in same direction. Use –ve sign
when currents in coils are in opposite direction. M is the mutual inductance
of system.
ii) When coils are separated by large distance, L s = L1 + L2 ( ჻M = 0)

16. Two coils in parallel:

i) The net induction (L) when coils are nearer to each other, L = L1 L2 - M2
L1L2 2M
ii) When coil are separated by large distance,

L= L1 L2 (჻ M = 0)
L1 + L2

17. For air core solenoide, L = 0n2A


1
where n = no. of terms

l = length of solenoid

A = area of cross section

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If a rod (r) is kept inside the solenoid then L = oµ rn2A


1

18. Mutual Induction: The Phenomenon of the production of e.m.f in one coil when
the current in another coil changes is called mutual induction.
i) If the current in primary coil (p) is increased, negative e.m.f.is induced in
secondary coil (s).
ii) If the current in primary coil is decreased positive e.m.f. is induced in secondary
coil.
iii) The flux linked with secondary coil (φ ) is directly proportional to the current
floming in primary coil.
Ф∝i
Ф = Mi
where M is a constant of proportionality called the mutual inductance or co –
efficient of mutual induction of the two coils.
According to Faraday’s law of induction

E = dφ = - d (MI)
dt dt
∴ e = - M dI = 1 : M = e = ( numerically).
Dt
Thus the mutual inductance of two coils may be defined as numerically equal to
the e.m.f induced one coil when the current in the second coil changes at the rate
of one ampere per second. The S.I Unit of M is Henry.

19. M depends upon

i) number of turns in the coil


ii) distance between coils
iii) Geometrical shape of coils
iv) The angle between the axes of the coils.
v) The permeability of the core material inside the coil

20. If L1 and L2 are the slef inductance of two coils then M = K √ L1 L2


where K = coefficient of coupling
K = 1 for tight coupling, 0 < K < 1for loose coupling.

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21. Mutual induction of two solenoids: If Np is the number of turns in the primary
of a solenoid and Ns the number of turns of the secondary solenoid linked with
primary then the co-efficient of mutual induction of the two solenoids is,

M = µ 0NpNsA
1
where A is the common cross sectional area of the two solenoids, l is the length of
the Primary solenoid.

22. Transformer:

1) It is based on the principle of mutual induction.


2) Transformer works on ac and not on dc.
3) It can increase or decrease either voltage or current but not both
simultaneously.
4) The transformation ratio (or) turns ratio, K = Ns = Es = φ s = Ip
Np Ep φ p Is
(a) For step up transformer, K > 1
(b) For step down transformer, K > 1
(c) For step transformer,
Fig. 8.66
5) Step up transformer:
a) It converts low voltage at high current into high voltage at low current.
b) Primary coil is made of thick wire and secondary coil made of thin wire.
c) The number of turns in secondary coil greater then that of primary coil.

6) Step down transformer:


a) It converts high voltage at high current into high voltage at high current.
b) Primary coil is made of thin wire and secondary coil made of thick wire.
c) The number of turns in primary coil greater then that of secondary coil.

7) Efficiency of a transformer:
There are some losses of energy due to primary coil resistance, hystersis in the
core, eddy Currents in the core, ect. Ordinary transformer. The efficiency of a
transformer is defined as the ratio of output power to input power.

 = output power = Esis


input power Epip
Percentage of efficiency = output power X 100

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input power
For an ideal transformer,  = 100% Due to energy losses, the efficiency of
ransformer varies Between 90% and 99%.

23. Growth and decay of current in L – R circuit:


1) The current in the circuit at any time t during growth of current, I = I0
-Rt

1–e L

where I0 = maximum value of current


L = inductance of inductor
R = resistance of resistor
a) It t = L then I = 0.632 I0.
R
b) The value of (L/r) is known as inductive time constant and is expressed by (1/λ )
 I = I0 [1 − e -vλ ]
c) Greater in the value of time constant, smaller will be the rate of growth of current.

2) The current in in circuit any time during decay of current.


-Rt

I = I0e L
= I0e -vλ

(a) If t = L then I = 0.368 I0


R
(b) For small value of L the rate of decay of current will be large.

24. Growth and decay of charge in C – R circuit:

1) The charge on capacitor at any time T during charging.

q = q0 [ 1 − e -vCR]

where q0 = maximum value of charge

C = capacity of capacitor

R = resistance of resistor

(a) If t = CR then q = 0.632qo

(b) The value of (CR) is known as capacitive time constant.

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(c) Smaller in the value of time constant (CR), more rapid is the growth of charge
on capacitor.

2) The charge on capacitor at any time t during distance discharging, q = q0 e-VCR

(a) If T = CR then q = 0.368 q0


(b) Smaller the time constant, the quicker in the discharge of capacitor.
3) The voltage during charging of capacitor, V = E0 [1− e-VCR ]
4) The voltage during discharging of capacitor, V = E0 e-VCR
5) The voltage during discharging of capacitor, I = I 0 e-VCR

ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC)

SYNOPSIS

1. An alternating current or voltage is one magnitude and directions vary periodically


with time. Alternating current shows only heating effect. Therefore meters used for ac
are based on heating effect and are called hot wire meters.

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2. If the current or voltage varies periodically as ‘sin’ or’ cos’ function of time then
the current or voltage is said to be sinusoidal.
3. The value of current at any time t (instantaneous value) is given by I = I 0 sin t
(or) I = I 0 cos ω t
4. The value of voltage at any time t is given by V = V0 sin t where V0 is the peak
value of alternating voltage.
5. The frequency of ∝ in India is 50Hz, i.e., f= 50 Hz so  = 2π = 100 π rad/ s and
time T = 0.002sec
6. The average (or ) mean value of ac is defined for positive or negative half cycle
1 T/2 1 T/2
Iω = T/2 ∫ I dt = T/2 ∫ I0 sin ω t dt
0 0
π /

=  /ω
∫ I0 sin ω t dt = 2I0 ჻ T = 2π
0  
∴ Iω (or) Imean = 2l0 = 0.637 I0

a) The mean value of alternating current during, positive half cycle is 0.637 times or
63.7% of its peak value.
b) Vω or Vmean = 2V0 = 0.637 V0
π
7. The effective (or) virtual (or) root mean square (r.m.s) value of alternating current
is defined as the square root of the average of I2 during a complete cycle55
T
 I mean =√ 1/T∫ = I0 = 0.7071I0
I2 dt
0
√2
(a) The r.m.s. value of alternating current over a complete cycle is 0.707 times.
(Or) 70.7% of its peak value.

(b) Vms = V0 = 0.707 V0


√2
(c ) All ∝ insterments measure virtual values of ac.
8. Form factor of alternating current, F = Irms = π
Iω 2√2

9. Peak to peak value of alternating current , I pp = 2I0 = 22Ims = 2.828 Ims


Peak to peak value of alternating voltage, Vpp = 2 V0 = 22 Vms = 2.828Vms

10. The opposition for the flow of ac through resistor (or) inductor (or) capacitor (or)
combination of them is called Impedance (z)
(a) Its unit is ohm. Its value depends on frequency of alternating current or voltage
(b) Formalae for Impendance

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Vms
i) Z =
Ims
Vpp Ipp
ii) Z =

iii) if φ is the phase difference between alternating voltage and alternating


current then
V Vpp Ipp
Z = ms φ = φ
Ims

11. The opposition for the flow of ac due to induced current is called Reactance (x).
(a) Its Unit is ohm. Its value depends on frequency of alternating source,
inductance and capacitance.
(b) There are two types of reactance :

i) Inductive reactance (xL) is the resistance offered by an inductor and is given by


XL = ω L = 2fL
If ω = 0 then xL = α and if ω = ∝ then xL = ∝. Therefore the opposition of
inductor to
dc is Zero and it ac as a conducting wire. The inductor is called low pass – filter.

(ii) capacitive reactance (xc) is the resistance offered by a opposition of capacitor to dc


is infinite and it acts as open circuit. The capacitor is called high pass – filter.

12. The reciprocal of Impedance is called Admittance. Its Unit is mpo.

13.The reciprocal of Impedance is called susceptance. Its unit is same as that of admittance.

14. The close path through which the ac flows is called ac circuit. When ac flows
through the circuit, the current and voltage need not attain their maximum value
at the same instant. If the current reaches maximum first then current is said to
lead the voltage or voltage is said to lag current.

15. A resistor in an ac circuit :


The instantaneous current through the circuit, I = V
R
= V0 sin t = I0 sin ω t Fig.
8.69

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R
The frequency of current in circuit is same as applied voltage (v). There fore the
voltage is in phase of current in circuit.

16. An Inductor in an ac circuit:


According to Kirchoff’s loop rule, V – L dI = 0 (or) dI = V0 sin ω t
dt dt L

I = V0 (-cos ω )= Vo sin ω t - π
Lw 2
∴ I = I0 sin ω t - π Fig.
8.70
2
The instantaneous current through the circuit,

I = I0 sin t - . The current through the inductor lags (due to


2
Negative sing in front of π /2 the applied voltage by  rad (or) voltage
2 Fig. 8.71
leads the the current by  The phase different between current and
2
voltage is shown graphically in Fig.
Peak value of current, I0 = V0 = V0
xL L

17. A capacitor is an ac circuit:


According to Kirchoff’s loop rule, V – q = = (or) q = cv0 sin t
C
I + dq = c V0cos ω t = I0 cos ω t = I0 sin ω t + π
2
The Instantaneous current through the circuit, I = I0 sin t +  Fig.
8.72
2

The current though the capacitor leads the applied voltage (V) by
/2 rad. The phase difference between current and voltage is shown
graphically in fig.
Peak value of current, I0 = V0 = V0 c

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18. Analysis of series ac circuits :

To calculate I and φ without dealing the theory the following procedure can be
adopted.

(a) Specify the total resistance R of the given circuit which is independent of
frequency

(b) Calculate the reactance in circuit, x = xL – xC

(c) Calculate the Impedance in circuit, Z = √R2 + x2

(d) The peak value of current, I0 = V0


Z Fig. 8.74
(e) The phase difference () between I and V is given by tan φ = x
R
(f) In case of ac circuits V  VL + Vx but V = VR + Vx and
2 2 2

V ≠ VL + Vx but Vx = VL − Vc but

19. ac applied to C-R series circuit:

1) Reactance of circuit, X = xL – xC__=_ 1


ωc
2) Impedance of circ uit, Z = √R + x = ( √R2 +[1/ω c]
2 2

V_______
√ R + 12
2

ωc

3) Current in circuit, I = V =
Z

4) Peak current, I0 = V0
Z
5) Phase difference, φ = tan-1 x =  tan-1 1__
R ω cR
6) The instatneous current through the circuit, I = I0 sin(ω t - φ )

7) The current leads the voltage (V) by angle φ

8) p.d across R, VR = IR

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9) p.d across C, VC = Ixc = I _


c Fig. 8.76
10) Total p.d. of R C, V =  V + VR
2
C
2

20. ac applied to C-L series circuit:

1) Reactance of circuit, X = xL – xC_= ω L− 1


ωc
2) Impedance of circuit, Z = √R2 + x2 = x (჻ R = 0)
V
3) Current in circuit, I = Z = V___
L−
 1 Fig. 8.77
wc
4) Peak current, I0 = V0
Z

= π
X X
5) Phase difference, φ = tan-1 = − tan-1
R 0 2
6) The instatneous current through the circuit, I = I0 sin(ω t - 
)

7) The current leads the voltage (V) by  rad


2
8) P.d across C, VC = IxC = I_
 c
9) P.d across L, VL = IxL = I L

10) Total p.d. of C and L,V = VL − VC

Fig. 8.78 Phasor diagram

21. Resonance in L – C circuit:


Resonance takes place in circuit when Impendence (Z) of circuit is minimum (or)
the current (I) is maximum.
The angular frequency (ω 0) at which the current in circuit is maximum is called
natural

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Or resonant frequency

∴I = V = V_______
ωL−1 2
c
I will be maximum if ω L = 1 ∴ ω = 1
ωc √LC
At resonance,  = ω 0 1__
√ LC
Resonant frequency, ƒ0 = 1__
2π √LC
22. ac applied to C-L series circuit:
1) The current in circuit at any time, I = I0 sin (t −φ )
(a) If xL > xC then the current lags the voltage by φ
(b) If xL < xC then the current leads the voltage by 
(c) If xL = xC then the current is in phase of voltage. Fig. 8.79

2) p.d across R, VR = IR
p.d across L, VL = IXC = I
ωc
p.d across L, VL = I L I L ___________
X

p.d across R and L, VRL = √ VR2 + VL2


___________
p.d across R and C, VRC = √ VR2 + VC2 Fig. 8.80
p.d across al and C, VLC = VL  VC
= VL − VC if VL > VC
= VC − VL if VC > VL
= 0 if VC − VL. Fig. 8.81
________________
Total p.d of R.L and C,V = VR2 +( VL − VC)2

3) Reactance of circuit, x = XL XC = ω L − 1


ωC
4) Impendance of circuit, Z = √ R2 + X2

5) Current in circuit, I = V
Z
6) Peak current, I0 V0
Z

7) Phase difference,  = tan-1 x


R
8) Average electric field energy stored in capacitor = 1 CV2
2
9) Average magnetic field energy stored in inductor = 1 CV2

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2
23. Resonance in L – C – R circuit:
Resonance takes place in circuity when Impedence (Z) of circuit is minimum (o)
the current (I) is maximum.
I = V = V_______
Z R + L  1 2
2

ωC
I will be maximum if L = 1
ωc
∴ ω =1
√ LC
At resonance, ω = 0 = 1_
√LC
∴ Resonant frequency,  0 = 1__
2π √LC
Resonant frequency is independent of R.
At resonance
i) The reactance of circuit, x = xL −xC = 0
ii)  = tan-1 x = tan-1 O = 0
R R
So current in the phase of applied voltage (V)
iii) Power factor, cos φ = R = 1 (maximum)
iv) Current through L and C are same but 1800 out of phase with respect to each
other so that
∴ V = VR because VLC = 0
v) Impendance of circuit is minimum and is equal to R
vi) The current depends on R and not on L and C. ∴ I 0 = V0
R
vii) VL = I0 xL = V0 (ω 0 L) = QV0 ∴ Q = ω 0L
R R
Where Q = quality factor (or) figure of merit of resonant circuit. It is an
Indicator of sharpness of current peak [i.e., higher value of Q, sharper is peak]
The p.d across L is Q times of applied voltage. This characteristic is called
voltage magnification,
viii) If f1 is lower half power frequency and f2 is upper half power frequency then
(a) Band width = f2 – f1
(b) quality factor, Q = _f0___
f2 – f1
where f0 = resonant frequency
ix) The frequency of source at which power of circuit is half of the power at resonant
frequency = f0 ± ∆ ω

where ∆ ω R
2L

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24. The series resonant circuit is called an acceptor circuit , because if number of
frequencies are given to it then the circuit accepts one frequency f0 and rejects all
other frequencies. The current will be maximum for that frequency. The series
resonance is called voltage resonance.
25. A metal detector works on the principle of resonance in ac circuits.
26. ac applied to L-C-R parallel circuit :

The voltage V across each element is same. The currents are related as

I = √ IR2 + (IC – IL) 2

Fig. 8.83
= V 2
+ Vω C – V 2
= V 1 ωC– 1 2

R L R2 ωL
This shows that at resonance, i.e., when ω L = 1 , the current is minimum.
C
27. Power in ac circuits:
The power in an electric circuit is the rate at which electrical energy is consumed
in the Circuit. If an ac voltage E = E0 sin t is applied to the circuit then current
in circuit, I = sin (ω t - φ ). The Instantaneous power consumed by circuit, P = EI
= E0I0 sin ω t sin (ω t - φ )
The power consumed varies with time. Hence in ac circuit we find the average
power consumed by circuit,

T
∫ P dt
0_____ = 1 E0I0 cos  = Erms Irms cos φ
PCV = T 2
dt
0
Erms Irms s is called the virtual (or) apparent power. Cos  is called power factor.

 cos φ = True power__


Apparent Power
A wattmeter measures the true power.

 cos  = R
Z

Special cases :

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(a) In case of a pure resistance ac circuit, cos = R = R = 1and Pav = Erms Irms= E0I0
(max)
Z R 2

(b) In case of a pure inresistance (or) capacitance ac circuit, cos  R = O = 0 and Pav =
0
Z Z
If the power consumed by the circuit is zero then the circuit is called ,watt less’ The
current through the pure inductance or capacitance is called wattles current or Ideal
current In practice power consumed by Inductor or capacitor is not zero but very small.

(c) In case of L-C-R series ac circuit, cos φ = R R = R______________


Z √R +x √ R + ω L– 1 2
2 2 2

C
and Pav = Erms Irms cos = E0I0 cos 
2

At resonance of L-C-R series ac circuit, cos φ = R = R = 1


Z R
and PCV = Ems Ims = E0I0_ = I(rms)2 R(max)
2

28. Parameters of various A.C circuits:

S. Parameter C – R Circuit C – L Circuit L- C- R Circuit


No.
1. Circuit diagram

Fig. 8.85 Fig. 8.86 Fig. 8.87


2. Reactance x = xC = 1 X = XL − XC X = XL − XC
ω = L  1 = L − 1
C L ωc

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3. Impendance Z =√ R2 + xC 2 Z = R2 + x 2 = Z =√ R2 + (xL -xC )2


x
4. Peak current I0 = V0__ I0 = V0 I0 = V0_____
R2 + xC 2 x R + (xL -xC )2
2

5. Average power Erms Irms R (In practice, it is Ems Ims R


Consumed by the √ R2 + xC 2 not equat to zero ____________
Circuit by but very small) √R2 + (xL -xC )2

6. Power factor (cos I0 = R__ R .


φ ) _______ 0 √R + (xL -xC )
2 2

√R2 + xC 2

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