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::: Brazil :::

“A giant by thine own nature, thou art a

beautiful, strong and intrepid colossus,
and thy future mirrors thy greatness.”


Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in

South America and the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas.
Brazil is a federation composed of twenty-six States, one federal district
(which contains the capital city, Brasília) and municipalities.

RECIFE - 2010

Source: Wikipedia | Maurijones J. de Albuquerque 1

::: Brazil :::


1. History..........................................................................................................................................................12
1.2 Independence and empire ......................................................................................................................13
1.3 Old republic and Vargas era ...................................................................................................................14
1.4 Military regime and contemporary era ....................................................................................................15
2. Government and politics ............................................................................................................................16
2.1 Foreign relations and military..................................................................................................................18
2.3 States and municipalities ........................................................................................................................24
3. Geography ...................................................................................................................................................24
3.1 Climate ...................................................................................................................................................26
3.2 Flora and fauna.......................................................................................................................................27
4. Economy......................................................................................................................................................28
4.1 Components and energy ........................................................................................................................29
4.2 Science and technology..........................................................................................................................30
5. Transport .....................................................................................................................................................30
6. Demographics .............................................................................................................................................31
7. Culture .........................................................................................................................................................35
8. Language .....................................................................................................................................................36
9. References...................................................................................................................................................37

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A country in motion

The land area of Brazil extends over 8.5 million square kilometers, occupying just under half (47%)
of the area of Latin America. The country possesses 20% of all the world’s biodiversity; an
example of this natural wealth is the Amazon Rainforest, with 3.6 million square kilometers. The
political and administrative organization comprises three main Branches of Power: the Judiciary,
the Executive and the Legislative, and the principle of autonomy among the Union, the Federal
District, 26 states and 5,563 towns and cities (IBGE/2003).

Ranking fifth among the world’s most populated countries, the population of Brazil amounts to 50
million families or approximately 180 million inhabitants (2004), the majority - 81% - in urban areas.
The national birth rate, which reached as high as 6.3 in 1960, currently stands at 2.1 children per
female. The result of this decline, which can be associated to an improvement in social indicators
and consequently in quality of life, will be a population whose majority of citizens will be aged
between 15 and 44 years within the next four decades. This will represent one of the largest job
and consumer markets among the countries on the American continent.

Diversified Economy

Brazil accounts for three fifths of the South American economy’s industrial production and
integrates various economic groups, such as Mercosur, G-22 and the Cairns Group. The country’s
scientific and technological development, together with a dynamic and diversified industrial sector,
is attractive to foreign enterprise: direct investment was in the region of US$ 20 billion /year on
average, compared to US$ 2 billion/year last decade.

Brazil trades regularly with over one hundred nations, with 74% of exports represented
by manufactured or semi manufactured goods. Its main partners are: the EEC (representing 26%
of the balance), the US (24%), Mercosur and Latin America (21%) and Asia (12%). One of the
most dynamic sectors in this trade scenery is the so-called “agrobusiness” sector, which for two
decades has kept Brazil amongst the most highly productive countries in areas related to the rural

The owner of a sophisticated technological sector, Brazil develops projects that range from
submarines to aircraft and is involved in space research: the country possesses a Launching
Center for Light Vehicles and was the only country in the Southern Hemisphere to integrate the
team responsible for the construction of the International Space Station-the ISS. A pioneer in the
field of deep water oil research, from where 73% of its reserves are extracted, Brazil was the first
capitalist country to bring together the ten largest car assembly companies inside its national

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Federative Republic of Brazil

República Federativa do Brasil (Portuguese)

Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República
Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in South America and the only Portuguese-speaking
country in the Americas. Brazil is a federation composed of twenty-six States, one federal district
(which contains the capital city, Brasília) and municipalities.

Brazil was a Portuguese colony from the landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 until 1815 when
it became a united kingdom with Portugal. In 1822 the country became independent as the
Brazilian Empire, but has been a republic since 1889, although the bicameral legislature, now
called Congress, dates back to the ratification of the first constitution in 1824.

Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, Mercosul and the Union of South
American Nations, and is one of the BRIC Countries. Brazil is also home to a diversity of wildlife,
natural environments, and extensive natural resources in a variety of protected habitats.

The Flag of Brazil

The flag of Brazil has a green field on which a large yellow rhombus is centered. A blue circle is
placed within the rhombus, with 27 white five-pointed stars of five different sizes arranged in the
shapes of various constellations of the Southern Hemisphere. A curved white band also runs
through the blue circle, inscribed in green capital letters with the national motto of Brazil: Ordem e
Progresso ("Order and Progress").

This flag is sometimes nicknamed the Auriverde which means "(of) gold and green". The next-to-
last stanza of Castro Alves's Navio Negreiro uses the term.

The modern flag was officially adopted on November 19, 1889. The concept was the work of
Raimundo Teixeira Mendes, with the collaboration of Miguel Lemos and Manuel Pereira Reis. The
design was executed by Décio Vilares.

The current national flag and ensign maintains the same design with some minor changes. The
current 27-star version was adopted on May 12, 1992 (Law 8.421, May 11, 1992).

The Flag of Brazil

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Coat of Arms of Brazil
The coat of arms of Brazil was created in November 19, 1889; four days after Brazil became a

The coat of arms consists of the central emblem surrounded by coffee (at the left) and tobacco (at
the right) branches, which were important crops in Brazil at that time.

In the blue circle in the center, the Southern Cross (also known as Crux) can be seen. The ring of
27 stars around it represents Brazil's 26 states and the Federal District.

The blue ribbon contains the official name of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil — Federative
Republic of Brazil) in its first line. In the second line, the date of the federative republic's
establishment (November 15, 1889) is written.

Coat of Arms of Brazil

Motto: “Order and Progress” - “Ordem e Progresso” (Portuguese)

Raimundo Teixeira Mendes (Caxias, 5 January 1855 – Rio De Janeiro, 1927) was a Brazilian
philosopher and mathematician. He is credited with creating the national motto, "Order and
Progress", as well as the national flag on which it appears.

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Brazilian National Anthem

The melody of the Brazilian national anthem (from Portuguese: Hino Nacional Brasileiro) was
composed by Francisco Manuel da Silva in 1822 and had been given at least two sets of lyrics
before a decree of 1922 gave it the definitive lyrics, by Joaquim Osório Duque Estrada, after
several changes were made to his proposal, written in 1909. In style, the music resembles early
Romantic Italian music such as that of Gioachino Rossini.

During the Imperial period (1822-1889) and in the early years of the Republic, the national anthem
was usually performed with no lyrics.

When the Republic was proclaimed, the 'Hymn to the Proclamation of the Republic' was composed
and adopted as one of Brazil's official patriotic songs, equivalent in status to the 'Hymn to
Independence' and to the 'Hymn to the Flag', the latter being of more recent composition.
Several republicans suggested that the newly composed hymn commemorating the proclamation
of the Republic should replace the music composed upon the foundation of the Empire, but
Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca, head of the Provisional Government of the Republic, expressed his
preference for the traditional anthem. As a consequence, he confirmed the music by Francisco
Manuel da Silva as the national anthem by Decree 171 issued on January 20, 1890.

The problem remained that the national anthem had no definitive lyrics, and several texts were
proposed for adoption. Matters were even worse because in the early 20th century the anthem was
sung to a different text in each Brazilian state. This led Congressman Coelho Neto to propose in
1906 that one single text be assigned as the official lyrics of the anthem. The proposition bore fruit
only sixteen years later, in 1922, the centennial year of Brazilian independence, when Congress
passed a bill, signed into law by President Epitácio Pessoa, declaring the poem composed in 1909
by Osório Duque Estrada, after several improvements were made, as the official text of the
Brazilian national anthem.

Hino Nacional Brasileiro Brazilian National Anthem

(Portuguese lyrics)
First chorus
Ouviram do Ipiranga as margens plácidas From the Ipiranga, the placid banks heard
De um povo heróico o brado retumbante, the resounding cry of a heroic people
E o sol da Liberdade, em raios fúlgidos, and in shining the sun of liberty
Brilhou no céu da Pátria nesse instante. shone in our homeland's skies at that very moment.

Se o penhor dessa igualdade If we have fulfilled the promise

Conseguimos conquistar com braço forte, of equality by our mighty arms,
Em teu seio, ó Liberdade, in thy bosom, O freedom,
Desafia o nosso peito a própria morte! our brave breast shall defy death itself!

Ó Pátria amada, O beloved,

Idolatrada, idolized homeland,
Salve! Salve! Hail, hail!

Brasil, um sonho intenso, um raio vívido, Brazil, an intense dream, a vivid ray
De amor e de esperança à terra desce, of love and hope descends to earth
Se em teu formoso céu, risonho e límpido, if in thy lovely, smiling and clear skies
A imagem do Cruzeiro resplandece. the image of the (Southern) Cross shines
Gigante pela própria natureza,

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És belo, és forte, impávido colosso, A giant by thine own nature,
E o teu futuro espelha essa grandeza. thou art a beautiful, strong and intrepid colossus,
and thy future mirrors thy greatness.
Terra adorada
Entre outras mil Beloved Land
És tu, Brasil, amongst a thousand others
Ó Pátria amada! art thou, Brazil,
O beloved homeland!
Dos filhos deste solo
És mãe gentil, To the sons of this land
Pátria amada, thou art a gentle mother,
Brasil! beloved homeland,
Second chorus
Eternally lain on a splendid cradle,
Deitado eternamente em berço esplêndido,
by the sound of the sea and the light of the deep sky,
Ao som do mar e à luz do céu profundo,
thou shinest, O Brazil, garland of America,
Fulguras, ó Brasil, florão da América,
illuminated by the sun of the New World!
Iluminado ao sol do Novo Mundo!
Thy smiling, our prairies have more flowers
Do que a terra mais garrida
than the most elegant land abroad,
Teus risonhos, lindos campos têm mais flores,
"Our meadows have more life",
"Nossos bosques têm mais vida",
"our life" in thy bosom "more love". (*)
"Nossa vida" no teu seio "mais amores". (*)
O beloved,
Ó Pátria amada,
idolized homeland,
Hail, hail!
Salve! Salve!
Brazil, let the star-spangled banner thou showest
Brasil, de amor eterno seja símbolo
O lábaro que ostentas estrelado,
be the symbol of eternal love,
E diga o verde-louro dessa flâmula
and let the laurel-green of thy pennant proclaim
- Paz no futuro e glória no passado.
'Peace in the future and glory in the past.'
Mas se ergues da justiça a clava forte,
But if thou raisest the strong gavel of Justice,
Verás que um filho teu não foge à luta,
thou wilt see that a son of thine flees not from battle,
Nem teme, quem te adora, a própria morte.
nor does he who loves thee fear death itself.
Terra adorada
Beloved Land,
Entre outras mil
amongst a thousand others
És tu, Brasil,
art thou, Brazil,
Ó Pátria amada!
O beloved homeland!
Dos filhos deste solo
To the sons of this land
És mãe gentil,
thou art a gentle mother,
Pátria amada,
beloved homeland,

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National Seal of Brazil

The National Seal of Brazil is one of Brazil's national symbols, displayed on several official
documents, such as graduation diplomas, consular and diplomatic papers, military conscription
forms, etc. Most documents, however, feature the National Coat of Arms instead of the National

The design of the National Seal is also represented on the reverse side of the Great Seal of the
Arms of the Federative Republic of Brazil (that bears the image of the country's coat of arms on the
obverse side), and is used by the Presidency of the Republic to authenticate solemn documents
together with the President's signature, such as instruments of ratification of international treaties.
The wax or printed impression of the National Seal is also used to authenticate the original version
of Laws promulgated by the President of Brazil.

The National Seal, together with the nation's Flag, Anthem and Coat of arms, is officially
recognized as a national symbol since the Brazilian Republic was formed; its appearance and
design is regulated by law.

"National Seal of Brazil" Selo Nacional do Brasil (Portuguese)

"National Seal of Brazil" Selo Nacional do Brasil (Portuguese)

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Brazil: Size and Location

With its expansive territory, Brazil occupies most of the eastern part of the South American
continent and its geographic heartland, as well as various islands in the Atlantic Ocean. The only
countries in the world that are larger are Russia, Canada, China, and the United States (including
Alaska). The national territory extends 4,395 kilometers from north to south (5°16'20" N to
33°44'32" S latitude) and 4,319 kilometers from east to west (34°47'30" E to 73°59'32" W
longitude). It spans four time zones, the westernmost of which, in Acre State, is the same as
Eastern Standard Time in the United States. The time zone of the capital (Brasília) and of the most
populated part of Brazil along the east coast is two hours ahead of Eastern Standard Time, except
when it is on its own daylight savings time, from October to February. The Atlantic islands are in
the easternmost time zone.

Location of Brazil

Brazil possesses the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, located 350 kilometers northeast of its
"horn," and several small islands and atolls in the Atlantic-- Abrolhos, Atol das Rocas, Penedos
de São Pedro e São Paulo, Trindade, and Martim Vaz. In the early 1970s, Brazil claimed a
territorial sea extending 362 kilometers from the country's shores, including those of the islands.

Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha

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On Brazil's east coast, the Atlantic coastline extends 7,367 kilometers. In the west, in clockwise
order from the south, Brazil has 15,719 kilometers of borders with Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay,
Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana (see table 2,
Appendix). The only South American countries with which Brazil does not share borders are Chile
and Ecuador. A few short sections are in question, but there are no major boundary controversies
with any of the neighboring countries.

Brazil Facts

Capital Brasília: 15°45′S 47°57′W

Largest city São Paulo

Official Language (s) Portuguese

Demonym Brazilian

Government Presidential Federal Republic

- President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (Worker's Party)
- Vice-President José Alencar (Brazilian Republican Party)
- President of the Chamber of Deputies Michel Temer (Brazilian Democratic Movement Party)
- President of the Senate José Sarney (Brazilian Democratic Movement Party)
- Chief Justice Gilmar Mendes

Legislature National Congress

- Upper House Federal Senate

- Lower House Chamber of Deputies

Independence from Portugal

- Declared 7 September 1822
- Recognized 29 August 1825
- Republic 15 November 1889
- Current constitution 5 October 1988

8.514,877 km2 (5th)
- Total
3.287,597 sq mi
- Water (%) 0.65
- 2009 estimate 192.272,890 (5th)
- 2007 census 189.987,291
22/km2 (182nd)
- Density
57/sq mi

GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate

- Total $1.984.207 trillion (9th)
- Per capita $10,455 (77th)

GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate

- Total $1.612.539 trillion (2008) (8th[3])
- Per capita $7,737 (63rd)

Gini (2009) 49.3

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HDI (2007) 0.813 (high) (75th)

Currency Real (R$) (BRL)

Time zone BRT (UTC-2 to -4)

- Summer (DST) BRST (UTC-2 to -4)

Date formats dd/mm/yyyy (CE)

Drives on the right

Internet TLD .br

Calling code +55

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1. History

1.1 Portuguese colonization and territorial expansion

The land now called Brazil (the origin of whose name is disputed), was claimed by Portugal in April
1500, on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral. The
Portuguese encountered Stone Age natives divided into several tribes, most of whom shared the
same Tupi-Guarani linguistic family, and fought among themselves.

Colonization was effectively begun in 1534, when Dom João III divided the territory into twelve
hereditary captaincies, but this arrangement proved problematic and in 1549 the king assigned a
Governor-General to administer the entire colony. The Portuguese assimilated some of the native
tribes while others were enslaved or exterminated in long wars or by European diseases to which
they had no immunity. By the mid 16th century, sugar had become Brazil's most important export
and the Portuguese imported African slaves to cope with the increasing international demand.

The first Christian mass in Brazil, 1500.

Through wars against the French, the Portuguese slowly expanded their territory to the southeast,
taking Rio de Janeiro in 1567, and to the northwest, taking São Luís in 1615. They sent military
expeditions to the Amazon rainforest and conquered British and Dutch strongholds, founding
villages and forts from 1669. In 1680 they reached the far south and founded Sacramento on the
bank of the Rio de la Plata, in the Eastern Strip region (present-day Uruguay).

At the end of the 17th century sugar exports started to decline but the discovery of gold by
explorers in the region that would later be called Minas Gerais (General Mines) around 1693, and
in the following decades in current Mato Grosso and Goiás, saved the colony from imminent
collapse. From all over Brazil, as well as from Portugal, thousands of immigrants came to the

The Spanish tried to prevent Portuguese expansion into the territory that belonged to them
according to the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, and succeeded in conquering the Eastern Strip in
1777. However, this was in vain as the Treaty of San Ildefonso, signed in the same year, confirmed
Portuguese sovereignty over all lands proceeding from its territorial expansion, thus creating most
of the current Brazilian borders.

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In 1808, the Portuguese royal family, fleeing the troops of the French Emperor Napoleon I that
were invading Portugal and most of Central Europe, established themselves in the city of Rio de
Janeiro, which thus became the seat of the entire Portuguese Empire. In 1815 Dom João VI, then
regent on behalf of his incapacitated mother elevated Brazil from colony to sovereign Kingdom
united with Portugal. In 1809 the Portuguese invaded French Guiana (which was returned to
France in 1817) and in 1816 the Eastern Strip, subsequently renamed Cisplatina.

1.2 Independence and empire

King João VI returned to Europe on 26 April 1821, leaving his elder son Prince Pedro de
Alcântara as regent to rule Brazil. The Portuguese government attempted to turn Brazil into a
colony once again, thus depriving it of its achievements since 1808. The Brazilians refused to yield
and Prince Pedro stood by them declaring the country's independence from Portugal on 7
September 1822. On 12 October 1822, Pedro was declared the first Emperor of Brazil and
crowned Dom Pedro I on 1 December 1822.

Declaration of the Brazilian independence by Emperor Pedro I on 7 September 1822.

At that time almost all Brazilians were in favor of a monarchy and republicanism had little support.
The subsequent Brazilian War of Independence spread through almost the entire territory, with
battles in the northern, northeastern, and southern regions. The last Portuguese soldiers
surrendered on 8 March 1824 and independence was recognized by Portugal on 29 August 1825.

Emperor Dom Pedro II. Due to "the length of government and the transformations that occurred, no
other head of State has ever had a deeper impact on the country’s history".

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The first Brazilian constitution was promulgated on 25 March 1824, after its acceptance by the
municipal councils across the country. Pedro I abdicated on 7 April 1831 and went to Europe to
reclaim his daughter’s crown, leaving behind his five year old son and heir, who was to become
Dom Pedro II. As the new emperor could not exert his constitutional prerogatives until he reached
maturity, a regency was created.

Disputes between political factions led to rebellions and an unstable, almost anarchical, regency.
The rebellious factions, however, were not in revolt against the monarchy, even though some
declared the secession of the provinces as independent republics, but only so long as Pedro II was
a minor. Because of this, Pedro II was prematurely declared of age and “Brazil was to enjoy nearly
half a century of internal peace and rapid material progress”.

Brazil won three international wars during the 58-year reign of Pedro II (the Platine War, the
Uruguayan War and the War of the Triple Alliance) and witnessed the consolidation of
representative democracy, mainly due to successive elections and unrestricted freedom of the
press. Most importantly, slavery was extinguished after a slow but steady process that began with
the end of the international traffic in slaves in 1850 and ended with the complete abolition of
slavery in 1888. The slave population had been in decline since Brazil's independence: in 1823,
29% of the Brazilian population were slaves but by 1887 this had fallen to 5%.

When the monarchy was overthrown on 15 November 1889 there was little desire in Brazil to
change the form of government and Pedro II was at the height of his popularity among his
subjects. However, he "bore prime, perhaps sole, responsibility for his own overthrow." After the
death of his two sons, Pedro believed that "the imperial regime was destined to end with him." He
cared little for the regime's fate and so neither did anything, nor allowed anyone else to do
anything, to prevent the military coup, backed by former slave owners who resented the abolition of

1.3 Old republic and Vargas era

The “early republican government was little more than a military dictatorship. The army dominated
affairs both at Rio de Janeiro and in the states. Freedom of the press disappeared and elections
were controlled by those in power”. In 1894 the republican civilians rose to power, opening a
“prolonged cycle of civil war, financial disaster, and government incompetence”. By 1902, the
government began a return to the policies pursued during the Empire, policies that promised peace
and order at home and a restoration of Brazil's prestige abroad and was successful in negotiating
several treaties that expanded (with the purchase of Acre) and secured the Brazilian boundaries.

The Brazilian coup d'état of 1930 raised Getúlio Vargas (center with military uniform but no hat) to
power. He would rule the country for fifteen years.

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In the 1920s the country was plagued by several rebellions caused by young military officers. By
1930, the regime was weakened and demoralized, which allowed the defeated presidential
candidate Getúlio Vargas to lead a coup d'état and assume the presidency. Vargas was
supposed to assume the presidency temporarily but instead, he closed the National Congress,
extinguished the Constitution, ruled with emergency powers and replaced the states' governors
with his supporters.

In 1935 Communists rebelled across the country and made an unsuccessful bid for power. The
communist threat, however, served as an excuse for Vargas to launch another coup d'état in 1937
and Brazil became a full dictatorship. The repression of the opposition was brutal with more than
20,000 people imprisoned; internment camps created for political prisoners in distant regions of the
country, widespread torture by the government agents of repression, and censorship of the press,
Brazil remained neutral during the early years of World War II until the government declared war
against the Axis powers in 1942. Vargas then forced German, Japanese and Italian immigrants
into concentration camps, and, in 1944, sent troops to the battlefields in Italy. With the allied victory
in 1945 and the end of the Nazi-fascist regimes in Europe, Vargas's position became
unsustainable and he was swiftly overthrown in a military coup. Democracy was reinstated and
General Eurico Gaspar Dutra was elected president and took office in 1946. Vargas returned to
power in 1951, this time democratically elected, but he was incapable of either governing under a
democracy or of dealing with an active opposition, and he committed suicide in 1954.

1.4 Military regime and contemporary era

Several brief interim governments succeeded after Vargas's suicide. Juscelino Kubitscheck
became president in 1956 and assumed a conciliatory posture towards the political opposition that
allowed him to govern without major crises. The economy and industrial sector grew remarkably,
but his greatest achievement was the construction of the new capital city of Brasília, inaugurated in
1960. His successor was Jânio Quadros, who resigned in 1961 less than a year after taking
office. His vice-president, João Goulart, assumed the presidency, but aroused strong opposition
and was deposed in April 1964 by a coup that resulted in a military regime.

From left: Incoming President Kubitschek, outgoing President Ramos and incoming Vice President
Goulart. [*] Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira (JK) (September 12, 1902 – August 22, 1976) was a
prominent Brazilian politician who was President of Brazil from 1956 to 1961. He was born in
Diamantina, Minas Gerais, and died in 1976. His term was marked by relative economic prosperity
and political stability, being most known by the construction of a new capital, Brasília.

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The new regime was intended to be transitory but it gradually closed in on itself and became a full
dictatorship with the promulgation of the Fifth Institutional Act in 1968. The repression of the
dictatorship's opponents, including the communist terrorists, was harsh, but not nearly as brutal as
in other Latin American countries. Due to the extraordinary economic growth, known as an
“economic miracle”, the regime reached its highest level of popularity in the years of repression.

General Ernesto Geisel became president in 1974 and began his project of re-democratization
through a process that he said would be “slow, gradual and safe”. Geisel ended the military
indiscipline that had plagued the country since 1889, as well as the torture of political prisoners,
censorship of the press, and finally, the dictatorship itself, after he extinguished the Fifth
Institutional Act. However, the military regime continued, under his chosen successor General
João Figueiredo, to complete the transition to full democracy.

The civilians fully returned to power in 1985 when José Sarney assumed the presidency but, by
the end of his term, he had become extremely unpopular due to the uncontrollable economic crisis
and unusually high inflation. Sarney's defeat allowed the election in 1989 of the almost unknown
Fernando Collor, who was subsequently impeached by the National Congress in 1992.

Collor was succeeded by his Vice-President Itamar Franco, who appointed Fernando Henrique
Cardoso as Minister of Finance. Cardoso produced a highly successful Plano Real (Royal Plan)
that granted stability to the Brazilian economy and he was elected as president in 1994 and again
in 1998. The peaceful transition of power to Luís Inácio Lula da Silva, who was elected in 2002
and re-elected in 2006, proved that Brazil had finally succeeded in achieving its long-sought
political stability.

The transition from Fernando Henrique Cardoso to Luís Inácio Lula da Silva revealed that Brazil had
finally succeeded in achieving its long-sought political stability.

2. Government and politics

The Brazilian Federation is the "indissoluble union" of three distinct political entities: the States, the
Municipalities and the Federal District. The Union, the states and the Federal District, and the
municipalities, are the "spheres of government". The Federation is set on five fundamental
principles: sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of human beings, the social values of labour and
freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism. The classic tripartite branches of government
(executive, legislative, and judicial under the checks and balances system), is formally established
by the Constitution. The executive and legislative are organized independently in all three spheres
of government, while the judiciary is organized only at the federal and state/Federal District

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All members of the executive and legislative branches are directly elected. Judges and other
judicial officials are appointed after passing entry exams. Voting is compulsory for the literate
between 18 and 70 years old and optional for illiterates and those between 16 and 18 or beyond
70. Together with several smaller parties, four political parties stand out: Workers' Party (PT),
Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), and
Democrats (DEM). Almost all governmental and administrative functions are exercised by
authorities and agencies affiliated to the Executive.

The National Congress in Brasília, the capital of Brazil.

The form of government is that of a democratic republic, with a presidential system. The president
is both head of state and head of government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term, with
the possibility of re-election for a second successive term. The current president is Luís Inácio
Lula da Silva who was elected on October 27, 2002, and re-elected on October 29, 2006. The
President appoints the Ministers of State, who assist in government. Legislative houses in each
political entity are the main source of law in Brazil. The National Congress is the Federation's
bicameral legislature, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate. Judiciary
authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively.


Interior of the Supreme Federal Tribunal.

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::: Brazil :::

Brazilian law is based on Roman-Germanic traditions and civil law concepts prevail over common
law practice. Most of Brazilian law is codified, although non-codified statutes also represent a
substantial part, playing a complementary role. Court decisions set out interpretive guidelines;
however, they are seldom binding on other specific cases. Doctrinal works and the works of
academic jurists have strong influence in law creation and in law cases.

The legal system is based on the Federal Constitution, which was promulgated on 5 October 1988,
and is the fundamental law of Brazil. All other legislation and court decisions must conform to its
rules. As of April 2007, there have been 53 amendments. States have their own constitutions,
which must not contradict the Federal Constitution. Municipalities and the Federal District have
“organic laws” (leis orgânicas) which act in a similar way to constitutions. Legislative entities are
the main source of statutes, although in certain matters judiciary and executive bodies may enact
legal norms. Jurisdiction is administered by the judiciary entities, although in rare situations the
Federal Constitution allows the Federal Senate to pass on legal judgments. There are also
specialized military, labor, and electoral courts. The highest court is the Supreme Federal Tribunal.

This system has been criticized over the last few decades for the slow pace at which final
decisions are issued. Lawsuits on appeal may take several years to resolve, and in some cases
more than a decade elapses before definitive rulings are made. Nevertheless, the Supreme
Federal Tribunal was the first court in the world to transmit its sessions on television, and also via
Youtube. More recently, in December 2009, the Supreme Court adopted Twitter to display items
on the day planner of the ministers, to inform the daily actions of the Court and the most important
decisions made by them.

2.1 Foreign relations and military

Brazil is a political and economic leader in Latin America; however, social and economic problems
prevent it from becoming an effective global power. Between World War II and 1990, both
democratic and military governments sought to expand Brazil's influence in the world by pursuing a
state-led industrial policy and an independent foreign policy. More recently, the country has aimed
to strengthen ties with other South American countries, and engage in multilateral diplomacy
through the United Nations and the Organization of American States.

States hosting a diplomatic mission of Brazil.

Brazil's current foreign policy is based on the country's position as: a regional power in Latin
America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power. In general, current
Brazilian foreign policy reflects multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and nonintervention in
the affairs of other countries. The Brazilian Constitution also determines that the country shall seek
the economic, political, social and cultural integration of the nations of Latin America.

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::: Brazil :::

The armed forces of Brazil consist of the Brazilian Army, the Brazilian Navy, and the Brazilian
Air Force. With a total of 371,199 active personnel, they comprise largest armed force in Latin
America. The Army is responsible for land-based military operations and has 235,978 active
personnel. The Military Police (States' Military Police) is described as an ancillary force of the Army
by the constitution, but is under the control of each state's governor. The Navy is responsible for
naval operations and for guarding Brazilian territorial waters. It is the oldest of the Brazilian armed
forces and the only navy in Latin America to operate an aircraft carrier, the NAe São Paulo
(formerly FS Foch of the French Navy). The Air Force is the aerial warfare branch of the Brazilian
armed forces, and the largest air force in Latin America, with about 700 manned aircraft in service.

Aircraft carrier NAe São Paulo of the Brazilian Navy.

The Brazilian Army is the land arm of the Brazilian Military. The Brazilian Army has fought in
several international conflicts, mostly in South America and during the 19th century, such as the
Brazilian War of Independence (1822-25), Argentina-Brazil War (1825-28), Platine War (1851-52),
Uruguayan War (1864-65) and the War of the Triple Alliance (1864-70). It has also participated at
the side of the Allies at the First World War and Second World War.

During World War I the Brazilian government sent three small military groups to Europe soon after
declaring war upon Central Powers in October 1917. The first two units were from the Army; one
consisted of medical staff and the other of a sergeants-officers corps, and both were attached to
the French Army in the Western Front in 1918.

From October 1930 to 1945, the Army give the necessary support for the Getúlio Vargas regime
against its opposition, defeating the Constitutionalist Revolt in 1932 and two separate coup d’état
attempts: by Communists in 1935 and by Fascists in 1938. The Army also helped to formalize the
dictatorship in 1937.

In August 1942, after German and Italian submarines sunk many Brazilian merchant ships, popular
mobilization forced the Brazilian government to declare war on Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. In
July 1944, after almost two years of public pressure, one expeditionary force, called Força
Expedicionária Brasileira (FEB), was sent to Europe to join the Allied forces in the Italian
campaign. The FEB was integrated for more than 25.000 men and was commanded by the Major-
General (later Marshal) João Baptista Mascarenhas de Morais.

In March 31, 1964, the Brazilian Army, then led by General Humberto de Alencar Castelo
Branco, seized power through a coup d’état, beginning the Military Dictatorship in Brazil, which
lasted 21 years. This was the first of a series of coups d’état that discharged elected liberal
governments by force, setting military regimes in their place, that would rule the South American
Political scene until 1980's. President Ernesto Geisel begun a political opening process and the
democracy came back in 1985.

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::: Brazil :::
Internationally, in 1965 the Brazilian Army joined forces with US marines intervening in the
Dominican Republic, in Operation Powerpack, along with cooperation with armies from other South
American countries giving and receiving advisement about counter-guerrilla and counter-
insurgency methods as well as information about political dissidents.

With the promulgation of the 1988 new Brazilian Constitution, the Army returned to its
professional affairs.

Since the 1950s it has taken part in some United Nations missions as for example: Suez 1956-67,
East Timor 1999-2004, Angola 1995-1997 and Haiti since 2004, being the latest, the most recent
outside intervention in Haiti.

In the great earthquake that occurred in Haiti on January 12th 2010, eighteen Brazilian soldiers
died. The Brazilian Army has now about 1.250 troops in Haiti and will envoy more 900 until March
2010, to help the reconstruction of that country.

The Brazilian Army is trying to renew its equipments and making a redistribution of its barracks in
all the Brazilian Regions, prioritizing the Amazon. After the promulgation of Brazilian National
Defense Strategy, in December 2008, the Brazilian Government appears to be interested in the
Armed Forces modernization.

Brazilian Army soldiers, part of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti.

The Brazilian Navy (Portuguese: Marinha do Brasil) is a branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces
responsible for conducting naval operations. It is the largest navy in Latin America. It is equipped
with a 32,800-ton aircraft carrier, the NAe São Paulo (formerly Foch of the French Navy), British-
built frigates, locally-built corvettes, coastal diesel-electric submarines and many other river and
coastal patrol craft, among other vehicles.

The Brazilian Marine Corps (Portuguese: Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais; CFN) is the land combat
branch of the Brazilian Navy.

The Corps today: Staff and mission

With about 15,000 men, all volunteers, professionals in combat on land, air and sea, its mission is
to guarantee the projection of the naval power on land, by means of landings carried through with
ships and staff of the Navy.

In the case of Brazil this is a complex mission, since the country has a territory of about 8,5 million
km² (3.28 million sq. miles), a coast of more than 7,400 km (4600 miles) with many oceanic
islands, and a navigable waterways network of approximately 50,000 km (31,000 miles). This last
one includes the Brazilian Amazon. To cover climates and natural landscapes so diversified as

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::: Brazil :::
Pampas of Rio Grande Do Sul, pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, deserts of the Northeast region
and Amazonian Rainforest, demands a training of the highest standards, agility and versatility.
Therefore, there are units trained in demolition techniques, special operations, combat in forests,
mountain and ice, and helicopter-transported operations.

Trained as a Fast Deployment Unit, recently, with the sending of Brazilian military observers, also
integrating the Peacekeeping Forces of the United Nations, the Marines have made their
presence in distinctive areas of conflict as El Salvador, Bosnia, Angola, Mozambique, Ruanda,
Peru, Ecuador, East Timor and, more recently, Haiti.

Commandos of Brazilian Marine Corps.

COMANF (Portuguese: Comandos Anfíbios - Amphibious Commandos), is the Brazilian Marine

Corps commandos. The Comanf member has to training in several regions of Brazil aiming at
improving their combat skills and training to operate in different environments and climates. The
training involves parachuting, mountaineering, operations in the scrub, littoral attack & defense,
Jungle Warfare, tactical diving, sabotage. It may take two years or more to complete the training
and become part of COMANF.

The Brazilian Air Force (Portuguese: Força Aérea Brasileira, FAB) is the air branch of the
Brazilian Armed Forces and one of the three national uniformed services. The FAB was formed
when the Army and Navy air branch were merged into a single military force initially called
"National Air Forces". Both air branches transferred their equipment, installations and personnel to
the new force.

The FAB is the largest air force in Latin America, with about 700 manned aircraft in service, and
73,000 personnel on active duty. An additional 7,655 civilian personnel are employed.


The establishment of the Royal Air Force in 1918 and the creation of the Italian Air Force (Regia
Aeronautica) and the French Air Force during the 1920s drove the idea of uniting Brazilian air
power under the same organization. Together with these events the Brazilian strategists were also
influenced by the theories of Giulio Douhet, Billy Mitchell and Hugh Montague Trenchard.

The first public manifest to create an integrated military air service came up in 1928 when an army
Major called Lysias Rodrigues wrote an article called “An urgent need: The Ministry of the Air”
("Uma premente necessidade: o Ministério do Ar"). Two years later the French Military Mission,
working for the Brazilian Army, made the first steps to organize a national air arm.

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::: Brazil :::

The idea got more support when a group of Brazilian airmen came from Italy in 1934 and explained
the advantages of having a military aviation unified. Also, the Spanish Revolution and the first
movements of World War II at the end of the thirties showed the importance of Air power for
military strategies.

1º GAC P-47s carried the "Senta a Pua!" emblem as nose art along with the national insignia of

One of the main supporters of the plan to create an independent air arm was the then-president
Getúlio Vargas. He organized a study group early in 1940 and the whole structure of the Ministry of
Aeronautics (Ministério da Aeronáutica) was established the end of that year. This new
governmental agency was responsible for the all aspects of the civil and military aviation including
infrastructure, regulation and organization.

Formally, the Ministry of Aeronautics was founded on January 20, 1941 and so its military branch
called "National Air Forces", changed to "Brazilian Air Force" (Força Aérea Brasileira - FAB) on
May, 22. The Army ("Aviação Militar") and Navy ("Aviação Naval") air branches were extinguished
and all personnel, aircraft, installations and other related equipment were transferred to FAB.


In the early 2000s, with renewed economic stability, the FAB underwent an extensive renewal of its
inventory through several acquisition programs, the most ambitious of which was the acquisition of
36 new front-line interceptor aircraft to replace its aging Mirage III. Known as F-X Project the
program was postponed once again in 2005. The competitors were the French Dassault Rafale,
the Swedish SAAB-BAE Gripen, and the American F/A-18 Super Hornet.

On July 15, 2005 one agreement was set with the French government for the transfer of twelve
Dassault Mirage 2000s (ten "C" and two "B" versions) second-hand ex-Armée de L'Air. Known as
F-2000s in Brazil, the first two aircraft arrived at Anápolis Air Base on September 4, 2006.

On November 4, 2007 the F-X Project underwent a small change. Now known as Project FX-2 and
with a bigger budget, the competitors for acquisition were the Eurofighter Typhoon, Sukhoi Su-35,
Saab Gripen, Dassault Rafale, Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and, although information on
Lockheed Martin's F-35 Lightning II was requested, Lockheed Martin presented an F-16 Fighting
Falcon variant (designated F-16BR).

In October 2008, FAB released a shortlist of 3 aircraft: SAAB Gripen NG, Dassault Rafale and
Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.

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In February 2009, the three companies provided their final bids. In September 2009, following a
surprise French visit to Brazil, Brazilian President Luís Inácio Lula da Silva and Nicolas Sarkozy,
from France, made a new military cooperation agreement. Lula, on an interview at TV5 Monde,
said french Rafale is a step forward, since technology transfer would be effective.

On September 7, 2009, Brazilian Independence Day, it was announced Brazil would negotiate 36
Dassault Rafale. But the Defence Minister did not confirm if it is the final decision.

Cockpit of the R-99 aircraft from the Brazilian Air Force

On January 5 2010, it was reported in the media that the final evaluation report by the Brazilian Air
Force placed the SAAB Gripen NG ahead of the other contenders. The decisive factor was
apparently the overall cost of the new fighters, both in terms of unit cost, and operating and
maintenance costs. Rafale reported not even be second choice.

Aircraft inventory

Main combat aircraft

Mirage 2000 F-5EM AMX Total

Quantity 12 57 53 122

The FAB operates 743 aircraft, including 263 main combat aircraft and 95 helicopters.

C-130 Hercules Brazilian Air Force used in search for bodies and wreckage from the Airbus A330 of
Air France Flight 447, at Recife.

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::: Brazil :::

2.3 States and municipalities

Brazil is a federation composed of twenty-six States, one federal district (which contains the capital
city, Brasília) and municipalities. States have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes
and receive a share of taxes collected by the Federal government. They have a governor and a
unicameral legislative body elected directly by their voters. They also have independent Courts of
Law for common justice. Despite this, states have much less autonomy to create their own laws
than in the United States. For example, criminal and civil laws can only be voted by the federal
bicameral Congress and are uniform throughout the country.

The states and the federal district may be grouped into regions: Northern, Northeast, Central-
West, Southeast and Southern. The Brazilian regions are merely geographical, not political or
administrative divisions, and they do not have any specific form of government. Although defined
by law, Brazilian regions are useful mainly for statistical purposes, and also to define the
application of federal funds in development projects.

Municipalities, as the states, have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive
a share of taxes collected by the Union and state government. Each has a mayor and an elected
legislative body, but no separate Court of Law. Indeed, a Court of Law organized by the state can
encompass many municipalities in a single justice administrative division called comarca (county).

3. Geography
Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the
continent's interior, sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the
southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela, Suriname,
Guyana and the French overseas department of French Guiana to the north. It shares a border
with every country in South America except for Ecuador and Chile. It also encompasses a number
of oceanic archipelagos, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks,
and Trindade and Martim Vaz. Its size, relief, climate, and natural resources make Brazil
geographically diverse.

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::: Brazil :::
Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world, after Russia, Canada, China and the United States,
and third largest in the Americas; with a total area of 8,514,876.599 square kilometers (3,287,612
sq mi), including 55,455 square kilometers (21,411 sq mi) of water. It spans three time zones; from
UTC-4 in the western states, to UTC-3 in the eastern states (and the official time of Brazil), and
UTC-2 in the Atlantic islands.

Brazilian topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and
scrublands. Much of the terrain lies between 200 meters (660 ft) and 800 meters (2,600 ft) in
elevation. The main upland area occupies most of the southern half of the country. The
northwestern parts of the plateau consist of broad, rolling terrain broken by low, rounded hills.
The southeastern section is more rugged, with a complex mass of ridges and mountain ranges
reaching elevations of up to 1,200 meters (3,900 ft). These ranges include the Mantiqueira and
Espinhaço Mountains and the Serra do Mar. In the north, the Guiana Highlands form a major
drainage divide, separating rivers that flow south into the Amazon Basin from rivers that empty into
the Orinoco River system, in Venezuela, to the north. The highest point in Brazil is the Pico da
Neblina at 3,014 meters (9,890 ft), and the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean.

Topography map of Brazil.

Brazil has a dense and complex system of rivers, one of the world's most extensive, with eight
major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic. Major rivers include the Amazon (the
world's second-longest river and the largest in terms of volume of water), the Paraná and its major
tributary the Iguaçu (which includes the Iguazu Falls), the Negro, São Francisco, Xingu, Madeira
and Tapajós rivers.

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::: Brazil :::
3.1 Climate

The climate of Brazil comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied
topography, but most of the country is tropical. According to the Köppen system, Brazil hosts five
major climatic subtypes: equatorial, tropical, semiarid, highland tropical, temperate, and
subtropical. The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial
rainforests in the north and semiarid deserts in the northeast, to temperate coniferous forests in the
south and tropical savannas in central Brazil. Many regions have starkly different microclimates.

An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern Brazil. There is no real dry season, but there
are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls. Temperatures average 25 °C
(77 °F), with more significant temperature variation between night and day than between seasons.

Snow in São Joaquim, Santa Catarina (South)…

… and tropical climate in Cabedelo, Paraiba (Northeast).

Over central Brazil rainfall is more seasonal, characteristic of a savanna climate. This region is as
extensive as the Amazon basin but has a very different climate as it lies farther south at a lower
altitude. In the interior northeast, seasonal rainfall is even more extreme. The semiarid climatic
region generally receives less than 800 millimeters (31 in) of rain, most of which generally falls in a
period of three to five months of the year and occasionally less than this, creating long periods of

South of Bahia, near São Paulo, the distribution of rainfall changes, with rain falling throughout the
year. The south enjoys temperate conditions, with cool winters and average annual temperatures
not exceeding 18 °C (64 °F); winter frosts are quite common, with occasional snowfall in the higher

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3.2 Flora and fauna

Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon Rainforest,
recognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world, with the Atlantic Forest and
the Cerrado, sustaining the greatest biodiversity. In the south, the Araucaria pine forest grows
under temperate conditions.

Amazon Rainforest, the largest tropical forest in the world.

The rich wildlife of Brazil reflects the variety of natural habitats. Much of it, however, remains
largely undocumented, and new species are regularly found. Scientists estimate that the total
number of plant and animal species in Brazil could approach four million.

The Macaw is a typical animal of Brazil. The country has one of the world's most diverse populations
of birds and amphibians.

Larger mammals include pumas, jaguars, ocelots, rare bush dogs, and foxes; peccaries, tapirs,
anteaters, sloths, opossums, and armadillos are abundant. Deer are plentiful in the south, and
many species of New World monkeys are found in the northern rain forests. Concern for the
environment has grown in response to global interest in environmental issues.

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The natural heritage of Brazil is severely threatened by cattle ranching and agriculture, logging,
mining, resettlement, oil and gas extraction, over-fishing, wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure,
water contamination, climate change, fire, and invasive species. In many areas of the country, the
natural environment is threatened by development. Construction of highways has opened up
previously remote areas for agriculture and settlement; dams have flooded valleys and inundated
wildlife habitats; and mines have scarred and polluted the landscape.

4. Economy

Brazil is the largest national economy in Latin America, the world's tenth largest economy at
market exchange rates and the ninth largest in purchasing power parity (PPP), according to the
International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Its GDP (PPP) per capita is $10,200, putting
Brazil in the 64th position according to World Bank data. It has a large and developed agricultural,
mining, manufacturing and service sectors, as well as a large labor pool.

Brazilian exports are booming, creating a new generation of tycoons. Major export products include
aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol, textiles, footwear, iron ore, steel, coffee,
orange juice, soybeans and corned beef. The country has been expanding its presence in
international financial and commodities markets, and is one of a group of four emerging economies
called the BRIC countries.

An Embraer E-195 commercial jet. Brazil is the world’s second largest aircraft producer.

Brazil pegged its currency, the real, to the U.S. dollar in 1994. However, after the East Asian
financial crisis, the Russian default in 1998 and the series of adverse financial events that followed
it, the Central Bank of Brazil temporarily changed its monetary policy to a managed-float scheme
while undergoing a currency crisis, until definitively changing the exchange regime to free-float in
January 1999.

Brazil received an International Monetary Fund rescue package in mid-2002 of $30.4 billion, then a
record sum. Brazil's central bank paid back the IMF loan in 2005, although it was not due to be
repaid until 2006. One of the issues the Central Bank of Brazil recently dealt with was an excess of
speculative short-term capital inflows to the country, which may have contributed to a fall in the
value of the U.S. dollar against the real during that period. Nonetheless, foreign direct investment
(FDI), related to long-term, less speculative investment in production, is estimated to be $193.8
billion for 2007. Inflation monitoring and control currently plays a major part in the Central bank's
role of setting out short-term interest rates as a monetary policy measure.

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::: Brazil :::

4.1 Components and energy

Brazil's economy is diverse, encompassing agriculture, industry, and many services. The recent
economic strength has been due in part to a global boom in commodities prices with exports from
beef to soybeans soaring. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted
for 5.1% of the gross domestic product in 2007, a performance that puts agribusiness in a position
of distinction in terms of Brazil's trade balance, in spite of trade barriers and subsidizing policies
adopted by the developed countries.

Itaipu Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric plant by energy generation and second-largest by
installed capacity.

The industry - from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft, and consumer
durables - accounted for 30.8% of the gross domestic product. Industry, which is often
technologically advanced, is highly concentrated in metropolitan São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro,
Campinas, Porto Alegre, and Belo Horizonte.

Brazil is the world's tenth largest energy consumer with much of its energy coming from renewable
sources, particularly hydroelectricity and ethanol; nonrenewable energy is mainly produced from oil
and natural gas. A global power in agriculture and natural resources, Brazil experienced
tremendous economic growth over the past three decades. It is expected to become a major oil
producer and exporter, having recently made huge oil discoveries. The governmental agencies
responsible for the energy policy are the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the National Council for
Energy Policy, the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, and the National
Agency of Electricity.

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::: Brazil :::

4.2 Science and technology

Technological research in Brazil is largely carried out in public universities and research institutes.
But more than 73% of funding for basic research still comes from government sources. Some of
Brazil's most notable technological hubs are the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, the Butantan Institute,
the Air Force's Aerospace Technical Center, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation and
the INPE. The Brazilian Space Agency has the most advanced space program in Latin America,
with significant capabilities in launch vehicles, launch sites and satellite manufacturing.

Uranium is enriched at the Resende Nuclear Fuel Factory to fuel the country's energy demands
and plans are underway to build the country's first nuclear submarine.[186] Brazil is one of the
three countries in Latin America with an operational Synchrotron Laboratory, a research facility
on physics, chemistry, material science and life sciences.

Brazilian National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light in Campinas.

5. Transport
Brazil has a large and diverse transport network. Roads are the primary carriers of freight and
passenger traffic. The road system totaled 1.98 million km (1.23 million mi) in 2002. The total of
paved roads increased from 35,496 km (22,056 mi) in 1967 to 184,140 km (114,425 mi) in 2002.

An aerial view of Congonhas -São Paulo Airport.

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Brazil's railway system has been declining since 1945, when emphasis shifted to highway
construction. The total length of railway track was 30,875 km (19,186 mi) in 2002, as compared
with 31,848 km (19,789 mi) in 1970. Most of the railway system belongs to the Federal Railroad
Corp., with a majority government interest; there are also seven lines which the government
privatized in 1997. The São Paulo Metro was the first underground transit system in Brazil. The
other metro systems are in Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Recife, Belo Horizonte, Brasília,
Teresina, Fortaleza, and Salvador.

BR-116 highway in the outskirts of Fortaleza.

There are about 2,500 airports in Brazil, including landing fields: the second largest number in the
world, after the United States. São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport, near São Paulo, is the
largest and busiest airport, handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic of the
country and connecting the city with virtually all major cities across the world.

Coastal shipping links widely separated parts of the country. Bolivia and Paraguay have been
given free ports at Santos. Of the 36 deep-water ports, Santos, Itajaí, Rio Grande, Paranaguá, Rio
de Janeiro, Sepetiba, Vitória, Suape, Manaus and São Francisco do Sul.

6. Demographics

The population of Brazil as recorded by the 2008 PNAD was approximately 190 million [193]
(22.31 inhabitants per square kilometer), with a ratio of men to women. of 0.95:1and 83.75% of the
population defined as urban. The population is heavily concentrated in the Southeastern (79.8
million inhabitants) and Northeastern (53.5 million inhabitants) regions, while the two most
extensive regions, the Center-West and the North, which together make up 64.12% of the Brazilian
territory, have a total of only 29.1 million inhabitants.

Population increased significantly between 1940 and 1970, due to a decline in the mortality rate,
even though the birth rate underwent a slight decline. In the 1940s the annual population growth
rate was 2.4%, rising to 3.0% in the 1950s and remaining at 2.9% in the 1960s, as life expectancy
rose from 44 to 54 years and to 72.6 years in 2007. It has been steadily falling since the 1960s,
from 3.04% per year between 1950-1960 to 1.05% in 2008 and is expected to fall to a negative
value of –0.29% by 2050 thus completing the demographic transition.

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According to the National Research by Household Sample (PNAD) of 2008, 48.43% of the
population (about 92 million) described themselves as White; 43.80% (about 83 million) as Brown
(Multiracial), 6.84% (about 13 million) as Black; 0.58% (about 1.1 million) as Yellow; and 0.28%
(about 536 thousand) as Amerindian, while 0.07% (about 130 thousand) did not declare their race.

Colour/Race (2008)

White 48.43%
Brown (Multiracial) 43.80%
Black 6.84%
Yellow 0.58%
Amerindian 0.28%

In 2007, the National Indian Foundation reported the existence of 67 different uncontacted tribes,
up from 40 in 2005. Brazil is believed to have the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the

Most Brazilians descend from the country's indigenous peoples, Portuguese settlers, and African
slaves. Since the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500 miscegenation between these three groups has
taken place. The brown population (as multiracial Brazilians are officially called) is a broad
category that includes Caboclos (descendants of Whites and Indians), Mulattoes (descendants of
Whites and Blacks) and Cafuzos (descendants of Blacks and Indians). Caboclos form the majority
of the population in the Northern, Northeastern and Central-Western regions. A large Mulatto
population can be found in the eastern coast of the northeastern region from Bahia to Paraíba and
also in northern Maranhão, southern Minas Gerais and in eastern Rio de Janeiro. From the 19th
century, Brazil opened its borders to immigration. About five million people from over 60 countries
migrated to Brazil between 1808 and 1972, most of them from Portugal, Italy, Spain, Germany,
Japan and the Middle-East.

Christ the Redeemer, symbol of Brazilian Christianity.

In 2008, the illiteracy rate was 11.48% and among the youth (ages 15–19) 1.74%. It was highest
(20.30%) in the Northeast, which had a large proportion of rural poor. Illiteracy was high (24.18%)
among the rural population and lower (9.05%) among the urban population.

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::: Brazil :::
In 2006 nearly 50,000 people were murdered in Brasil. “O DIA Online - Rio no mapa da morte!”
More than 500.000 people have been killed by firearms in Brazil between 1979 and 2003,
according to the UN report.

Catholicism is dominant, making Brazil the largest Catholic nation in the world. According to the
2000 Demographic Census (the PNAD survey does not inquire about religion), 73.57% of the
population followed Roman Catholicism; 15.41% Protestantism; 1.33% Kardecist spiritism; 1.22%
other Christian denominations; 0.31% Afro-Brazilian religions; 0.13% Buddhism; 0.05% Judaism;
0.02% Islam; 0.01% Amerindian religions; 0.59% other religions, undeclared or undetermined;
while 7.35% have no religion.

The largest metropolitan areas in Brazil are São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte — all in
the Southeastern Region — with 19.5, 11.5, and 5.1 million inhabitants respectively. Almost all of
the state capitals are the largest cities in their states, except for Vitória, the capital of Espírito
Santo, and Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina. There are also non-capital metropolitan
areas in the states of São Paulo (Campinas, Santos and the Paraíba Valley), Minas Gerais (Steel
Valley), Rio Grande do Sul (Sinos Valley), and Santa Catarina (Itajaí Valley).

List of largest cities in Brazil

Largest cities of Brazil

Rank Municipality Federative unit Population
1 São Paulo São Paulo 10,990,249
2 Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro 6,161,047
3 Salvador Bahia 2,948,733
4 Brasília Federal District 2,557,158
5 Fortaleza Ceará 2,473,614
6 Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais 2,434,642
7 Curitiba Paraná 1,828,092
8 Manaus Amazonas 1,709,010
9 Recife Pernambuco 1,549,980
10 Porto Alegre Rio Grande do Sul 1,430,220
11 Belém Pará 1,424,124
12 Guarulhos São Paulo 1,279,202
13 Goiânia Goiás 1,265,394
14 Campinas São Paulo 1,056,644
15 São Luís Maranhão 986,826
16 São Gonçalo Rio de Janeiro 982,832
17 Maceió Alagoas 924,143
18 Duque de Caxias Rio de Janeiro 864,392
19 Nova Iguaçu Rio de Janeiro 855,500
20 São Bernardo do Campo São Paulo 801,580
Source: Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (2008 Population Estimates)

This is a list of the largest cities in Brazil. Brazil has a relatively high reported level of urbanization,
with 8 out of every 10 Brazilians living in cities. The criteria used by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of
Geography and Statistics) in determining whether households are urban or rural, however, is
based on political divisions, not on the built environment.

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A town is any seat of a district (the lowest political division); a city is the seat of a municipality.
Nowadays, the country has more than 5,564 municipalities. About 81.3% of Brazilians live in an
urban area.

State capitals are usually also the largest city in their respective state, exceptions being Vitória in
Espírito Santo, and Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina; there are also non-capital
metropolitan areas in São Paulo (Campinas, Santos, Paraíba Valley), Minas Gerais (Vale do Aço),
Rio Grande do Sul (Sinos Valley), Paraíba (Campina Grande) and Santa Catarina (Joinville & Itajaí
Valley). Most of the non-capital large cities in Brazil are in the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais,
Santa Catarina and Paraná.

Some of the main Brazilian cities are planned cities; the most famous of these is the capital city,
Brasília, which represents the Modernist school of architecture and urbanism.

São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil and the world's 7th largest metropolitan area

São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil and the world's 7th largest metropolitan area. The city is the
capital of the state of São Paulo, the most populous Brazilian state. It is also the richest city in
Brazil. The name of the city honors Saint Paul. São Paulo exerts strong regional influence in
commerce and finance as well as arts and entertainment. São Paulo is considered an Alpha World

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7. Culture
The core culture of Brazil is derived from Portuguese culture, because of its strong colonial ties
with the Portuguese empire. Among other influences, the Portuguese introduced the Portuguese
language, Roman Catholicism and colonial architectural styles. The culture was, however, also
strongly influenced by African, indigenous and non-Portuguese European cultures and traditions.
Some aspects of Brazilian culture were influenced by the contributions of Italian, German and other
European immigrants who arrived in large numbers in the South and Southeast of Brazil. The
indigenous Amerindians influenced Brazil's language and cuisine; and the Africans influenced
language, cuisine, music, dance and religion.

Coffee has been one of the main beverages among Brazilians since the beginning of the 19th

Brazilian cuisine varies greatly by region, reflecting the country's mix of native and immigrant
populations. This has created a national cuisine marked by the preservation of regional
differences. Examples are “feijoada”, considered the country's national dish; and regional foods
such as vatapá, moqueca, polenta and acarajé. Brazil has a variety of candies such as brigadeiros
("brigadiers") and beijinhos ("kissies"). The national beverage is coffee and cachaça is Brazil's
native liquor. Cachaça is distilled from sugar cane and is the main ingredient in the national
cocktail, Caipirinha.

Brazilian art has developed since the 16th century into different styles that range from Baroque
(the dominant style in Brazil until the early 19th century) to Romanticism, Modernism,
Expressionism, Cubism, Surrealism and Abstractionism. Brazilian cinema dates back to the birth of
the medium in the late 19th century and has gained a new level of international acclaim in recent

Maracatu minidancers in Pernambuco.

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::: Brazil :::
Brazilian music encompasses various regional styles influenced by African, European and
Amerindian forms. It developed distinctive styles, among them samba, música popular Brasileira,
choro, sertanejo, brega, forró, frevo, maracatu, bossa nova, Brazilian rock, and axé.

The most popular sport in Brazil is football (soccer). The Brazilian national football team is ranked
among the best in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings, and has won the World Cup
tournament five times. Basketball, volleyball, auto racing, and martial arts also attract large
audiences. Though not as regularly followed or practiced, tennis, team handball, swimming, and
gymnastics have found a growing number of enthusiasts over the last decades. Some sport
variations have their origins in Brazil: beach football, futsal (indoor football) and foot volley
emerged in Brazil as variations of football. In martial arts, Brazilians developed Capoeira, Vale
tudo, and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. In auto racing, Brazilian drivers have won the Formula One world
championship nine times.

Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Brazil.[226]

Brazil has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the 1950 FIFA World
Cup and has been chosen to host the 2014 FIFA World Cup. The São Paulo circuit, Autódromo
José Carlos Pace, hosts the annual Grand Prix of Brazil. São Paulo organized the IV Pan
American Games in 1963, and Rio de Janeiro hosted the XV Pan American Games in 2007. On 2
October 2009, Brazil was selected to host the 2016 Olympic Games, the first to be held in South

8. Language
The official language of Brazil is Portuguese which is spoken by almost all of the population and is
virtually the only language used in newspapers, radio, television, and for business and
administrative purposes. The exception to this is in the municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira
where Nheengatu, an indigenous language of South America, has been granted co-official status
with Portuguese. Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, making the
language an important part of Brazilian national identity and giving it a national culture distinct from
those of its Spanish-speaking neighbors.

Brazilian Portuguese has had its own development, influenced by the Amerindian and African
languages. As a result, the language is somewhat different, mostly in phonology, from the
language of Portugal and other Portuguese-speaking countries. These differences are comparable
to those between American and British English.

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::: Brazil :::
In 2008, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), which included
representatives from all countries with Portuguese as the official language, reached an agreement
on the reform of Portuguese into one international language, as opposed to two diverged dialects
of the same language. All CPLP countries were given from 2009 until 2014 to adjust to the
necessary changes.

Museum of the Portuguese Language in São Paulo, the first language museum in the world.

Minority languages are spoken throughout the nation. One hundred and eighty Amerindian
languages are spoken in remote areas and a number of other languages are spoken by immigrants
and their descendants. There are significant communities of German (mostly the Hunsrückisch, a
High German language dialect) and Italian (mostly the Talian dialect, of Venetian origin) speakers
in the south of the country, both of which are influenced by the Portuguese language.

9. References

 Azevedo, Aroldo. O Brasil e suas regiões. São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, 1971.

 Barman, Roderick J. Citizen Emperor: Pedro II and the Making of Brazil, 1825–1891.
Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999. ISBN 1-8047-3510-7 (English)

 Boxer, Charles R.. O império marítimo português 1415-1825. São Paulo: Companhia das
Letras, 2002. ISBN 8535902929 (Portuguese)

 Bueno, Eduardo. Brasil: uma História. São Paulo: Ática, 2003. (Portuguese) ISBN

 Calmon, Pedro. História da Civilização Brasileira. Brasília: Senado Federal, 2002.


 Carvalho, José Murilo de. D. Pedro II. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2007.

 Coelho, Marcos Amorim. Geografia do Brasil. 4th ed. São Paulo: Moderna, 1996.

 Diégues, Fernando. A revolução brasílica. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2004. (Portuguese)

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::: Brazil :::
 Enciclopédia Barsa. Volume 4: Batráquio – Camarão, Filipe. Rio de Janeiro:
Encyclopædia Britannica do Brasil, 1987. (Portuguese)

 Fausto, Boris and Devoto, Fernando J. Brasil e Argentina: Um ensaio de história

comparada (1850–2002), 2nd ed. São Paulo: Editoria 34, 2005. (Portuguese)

 Gaspari, Elio. A ditadura envergonhada. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002. ISBN
8535902775 (Portuguese)

 Janotti, Aldo. O Marquês de Paraná: inícios de uma carreira política num momento crítico
da história da nacionalidade. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1990. (Portuguese)

 Lyra, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Ascenção (1825–1870). v.1. Belo
Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977. (Portuguese)

 Lyra, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Declínio (1880–1891). v.3. Belo
Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977. (Portuguese)

 Lustosa, Isabel. D. Pedro I: um herói sem nenhum caráter. São Paulo: Companhia das
letras, 2006. ISBN 8535908072 (Portuguese)

 Moreira, Igor A. G. O Espaço Geográfico, geografia geral e do Brasil. 18. Ed. São Paulo:
Ática, 1981. (Portuguese)

 Munro, Dana Gardner. The Latin American Republics; A History. New York: D. Appleton,
1942. (English)

 Schwarcz, Lilia Moritz. As barbas do Imperador: D. Pedro II, um monarca nos trópicos.
2nd ed. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1998. ISBN 8571648379 (Portuguese)

 Skidmore, Thomas E. Uma História do Brasil. 4th ed. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 2003.
(Portuguese) ISBN 8521903138

 Souza, Adriana Barreto de. Duque de Caxias: o homem por trás do monumento. Rio de
Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2008. (Portuguese) ISBN 9788520008645

 Vainfas, Ronaldo. Dicionário do Brasil Imperial. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2002. ISBN
8573024410 (Portuguese)

 Vesentini, José William. Brasil, sociedade e espaço – Geografia do Brasil. 7th Ed. São
Paulo: Ática, 1988. (Portuguese)

 Vianna, Hélio. História do Brasil: período colonial, monarquia e república, 15th ed. São
Paulo: Melhoramentos, 1994. (Portuguese)

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