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JANTAR MANTAR

Jai Singh's astronomical observatory may look like a giant playground for grownups, but in
1734, the year of its completion, it was the last outpost of medieval science. The observatory's
eighteen fixed observational instruments are sighting devices which measure the position of the
sun, stars and planets. Some are built entirely of masonry, others are engraved metal rings and
plates set into masonry foundations.
During the day, masonry sundials cast the sun's shadow on a suitably engraved scale. A sundial
has two functional parts: a gnomon, which is the part that casts the shadow, and a scale, from
which the measurement is read. For example, in the instruments in the photo, the gnomon is an
inclined ramp, and the scale is engraved on the circular part below the ramp. The sun, to the
right, casts the gnomon's shadow on the curved scale to the left.
Metal instruments are used for nighttime observations. They consist of a small sighting tube
attached to a circular ring or plate which can pivot in various directions. They are operated by
aiming the sighting tube directly at a planet or star, and then reading off its position from scales
on the body of the instrument.
Some instruments could be used for both daytime and nighttime observations. More information
about this and other aspects of the observatory can be found in the Additional Resources below.
For all this to work, the position and orientation of the instruments and the calibration of their
scales had to be minutely exact. The devices were built large, because the larger the scale, the
more accurate the measurement. Once built and calibrated, they were fixed in place, could not be
moved, and contained no moving parts (except of course for the pivots of the sighting
instruments) or lenses. This restricted the kinds of observations that could be carried out, to those
involving the positions and motions of the heavenly bodies which are visible to the naked eye.
Such observations are no different in principle from those carried out in ancient Babylon,
although they are considerably more accurate, and some of Jai Singh's instruments are original in
design. Basically, however, this is how astronomy was done in early Mesopotamia, Egypt,
Greece, China, and everywhere in the world, from the dawn of civilization down to the end of
the Middle Ages.
The projects carried out here included calculating the lunar calendar, predicting the start of the
monsoon season, and creating astronomical tables. However, the observatory's main purpose
seems to have been casting horoscopes, which requires a precise knowledge of the positions of
the sun, moon, planets, and stars at the moment of birth.
Because of the size and careful construction of these instruments, their accuracy was impressive
by any standard. However, devices of this sort are expensive to construct. Once built, they can

not be corrected or improved, and the kinds of observations they can make are limited, in the
ways previously mentioned. Because of this, the instruments preserved here were conceptually
obsolete even before their construction. They were soon overtaken in both usefulness and
accuracy by the smaller machined brass instruments and telescopes of the modern era. Their
lasting value is the tangible record they carry, a summing-up in mortar and stone of 2,500 years
of premodern astronomy.

Jai Singh

Sawai Jai Singh, the first Maharaja of Jaipur, succeeded to the throne of Amber in 1700 at the
age of thirteen. Abandoning that capital, he founded the city of Jaipur in 1727. A soldier, ruler,
and scholar with a lifelong interest in mathematics and astronomy, Jai Singh built observatories
in Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Mathura and Benares. Jai Singh was conversant with contemporary
European astronomy through his contacts with the Portugese Viceroy in Goa. He supplied
corrections to the astronomical tables of de la Hire, and published his own tables in 1723. The
good state of preservation of the Jaipur observatory is due first of all to Chandra Dhar Sharma
Guleri, who restored it in 1901. It has been well maintained from then to the present day.

Jantar Mantar

Jantar means "instrument." Mantar (the same word as "mantra") is usually translated
"formula," but here it means "calculation." So, "Jantar Mantar" means something like
"instrument for calculation."

Additional Resources

Basic Celestial Phenomena, by Kerry Magruder and Mike Keas. A good introduction to basic
observational astronomy including the ecliptic, the celestial equator, and the zodiac.
Jantar Mantar (1996), by Dr. Bonnie G. MacDougall at Cornell U. The Web version of an
academic paper that places the observatory in its cultural context.
Astronomical Instruments, from the Jiva Institute, discusses ten of the instruments and their
mode of operation.
Astronomical Observatory of Jaipur, by Daulat Singh Rajawat. Delta Publications, Jaipur, India.
This book is sold near the observatory and elsewhere in Jaipur. It provides a useful and engaging
description of the theory and practice of the observatory from a Vedic point of view.

Transcript

1. JANTAR MANTARJANTAR MANTARStone Astronomical ObservatoryStone


Astronomical Observatory
2. Ancient India made some bigAncient India made some bigadvances in
science becauseadvances in science becauseit was in constant contact withit
was in constant contact withother countries. After theother countries. After
theconquest of the Indus basin byconquest of the Indus basin byDarius
around 520 B.C. IndiaDarius around 520 B.C. Indiawas thrown wide open
towas thrown wide open toBabylonian influences.Babylonian
influences.Through the Persians, IndiaThrough the Persians, Indiaalso came
into contact withalso came into contact withGreece. All these contactsGreece.
All these contactsgreatly helped India ingreatly helped India inenriching her
sciences,enriching her sciences,particularly astronomy.particularly
astronomy.Darius
3. There is ample evidence to show thatThere is ample evidence to show
thatAryabhata (499 A.D.) and Varahamihira (6thAryabhata (499 A.D.) and
Varahamihira (6thcentury A.D.) were well-acquainted withcentury A.D.) were
well-acquainted withGreek astronomy.Greek astronomy.The most celebrated
astronomers afterThe most celebrated astronomers afterVarahamihira were
Brahmagupta (b.598Varahamihira were Brahmagupta (b.598A.D.), Lalla (8th
cent.), Manjula or MunjalaA.D.), Lalla (8th cent.), Manjula or Munjala(10th
cent.), Shripati (c.1039 A.D.) and(10th cent.), Shripati (c.1039 A.D.)
andBhaskaracharya (b.1114 A.D.).Bhaskaracharya (b.1114 A.D.).In the postBhaskara period not muchIn the post-Bhaskara period not muchoriginal work
in astronomy and mathematicsoriginal work in astronomy and
mathematicswas done in India till modern times.was done in India till modern
times.AryabhataAryabhataVarahamihiraVarahamihiraBhaskaracharyaBhaskar
acharya
4. Nasir al-din at-Tusi (1201-1274 A.D.).Nasir al-din at-Tusi (1201-1274
A.D.).The last one was in- charge of theThe last one was in- charge of
theobservatory at Maragha in Iran.observatory at Maragha in Iran.In 1420
A.D., Ulugh Begh, grandson ofIn 1420 A.D., Ulugh Begh, grandson ofTimur,
built an observatory at Samarkand.Timur, built an observatory at
Samarkand.Using very big but high-precisionUsing very big but highprecisioninstruments he prepared a Star catalogueinstruments he prepared a
Star cataloguewhich was much better than that ofwhich was much better
than that ofPtolemy.Ptolemy.SamarkandMaragha Omar Khayyam (10481124 A.D.)Omar Khayyam (1048-1124 A.D.) Al-Biruni (973-1848 A.D.)AlBiruni (973-1848 A.D.) Al-Sufi ( 10th cent.)Al-Sufi ( 10th cent.) Tabit ibn
Qurra (836-901 A.D.)Tabit ibn Qurra (836-901 A.D.) Al-Battani (850-929
A.D.)Al-Battani (850-929 A.D.) Al-Khwarismi (780-850 A.D.)Al-Khwarismi
(780-850 A.D.)The Islamic world produced greatThe Islamic world produced
greatmathematician-astronomers:mathematician-astronomers:

5. Later on he was appointed by MohammadLater on he was appointed by


MohammadShah governor of the province of Agra andShah governor of the
province of Agra andthen also of Malwa. From an early age Jaithen also of
Malwa. From an early age JaiSingh was very much interested inSingh was
very much interested inastronomical observations and hadastronomical
observations and hadacquired thorough knowledge of itsacquired thorough
knowledge of itsprinciples and rules.principles and rules. He was born in the
ruling family of AmberHe was born in the ruling family of Amberin Rajasthan
in 1686 A.D., one year afterin Rajasthan in 1686 A.D., one year afterNewton
published his book Principia. HeNewton published his book Principia.
Hesucceeded to the Amber throne at the agesucceeded to the Amber throne
at the ageof thirteen.of thirteen. After a long time Sawai Jai Singh II was
theAfter a long time Sawai Jai Singh II was theman from India who showed the
greatestman from India who showed the greatestinterest in Arabic/Persian
astronomy.interest in Arabic/Persian astronomy.
6. For observing the heavens Jai Singh builtFor observing the heavens Jai
Singh builtobserv Jai Singh felt a great urge in reviving theJai Singh felt a
great urge in reviving thestudy of astronomy in India. With the aim ofstudy of
astronomy in India. With the aim ofpreparingpreparing new tables, Jai Singh
at firstnew tables, Jai Singh at firststarted with the traditional brassstarted
with the traditional brassinstruments. Realising their inadequacy,
heinstruments. Realising their inadequacy, hediscarded them in favour of
stone anddiscarded them in favour of stone andmasonry instruments of huge
size.masonry instruments of huge size.atories at five places :observatories
at five places : Delhi,Delhi,Jaipur, Mathura, Ujjain andJaipur, Mathura, Ujjain
andVaranasi.Varanasi. The first one was built in DelhiThe first one was built in
Delhiin year around 1724. These observatories,in year around 1724. These
observatories,which in course of time came to be calledwhich in course of
time came to be calledJantar Mantar, housed a wide variety ofJantar Mantar,
housed a wide variety ofmasonry and metal instruments.masonry and metal
instruments.
7. Jai Singhs court astronomer Pt.Jagannatha, who hadJai Singhs court
astronomer Pt.Jagannatha, who hadmastered in Arabic and Persian,
translated from Arabicmastered in Arabic and Persian, translated from
Arabicinto Sanskrit works titled Rekhaganita and Siddhanta-into Sanskrit
works titled Rekhaganita and Siddhanta-Samrata. The translation of the
former was completed inSamrata. The translation of the former was
completed in1718 A.D. and of the latter in 1731 A.D.1718 A.D. and of the
latter in 1731 A.D. Jai Singh, making use of the masonry and metalJai Singh,
making use of the masonry and metalinstruments of his observatories,
prepared theinstruments of his observatories, prepared theastronomical
treatise Zij-I -Muhammad Shah andastronomical treatise Zij-I -Muhammad
Shah anddedicated it to the reigning monarch Muhammad Shah.dedicated it
to the reigning monarch Muhammad Shah.The work was completed around
1727-28 A.D.The work was completed around 1727-28 A.D.
8. Jai Singh want to determine newJai Singh want to determine newplanetary
constants but his primaryplanetary constants but his primaryinterests in
astronomy centered on theinterests in astronomy centered on themoon. He
was more interested inmoon. He was more interested inobserving and

mathematically predictingobserving and mathematically predictingthe


position of this heavenly body. He wasthe position of this heavenly body. He
wasalso interested in the prediction of Solaralso interested in the prediction
of Solareclipses and in calculation of theeclipses and in calculation of
theoccultation of stars and planets by theoccultation of stars and planets by
themoon.moon. Jai Singh had established contacts withJai Singh had
established contacts withJesuit missionaries in India and had alsoJesuit
missionaries in India and had alsoknown the telescope. But he did not
makeknown the telescope. But he did not makeuse of the Copernican
revolution ushereduse of the Copernican revolution usheredin Europe. He
remained a firm follower ofin Europe. He remained a firm follower ofthe
geocentric system of Indian traditionthe geocentric system of Indian
traditionand of Ptolemy. It seems that Jai Singhand of Ptolemy. It seems that
Jai Singhhad no knowledge of the works of Keplerhad no knowledge of the
works of Kepler(1571-1630) or Newton (1642-1727).(1571-1630) or Newton
(1642-1727).
9. High precision Masonary InstrumentsHigh precision Masonary
Instruments Medium precision Masonary InstrumentsMedium precision
Masonary Instruments Low precision Masonary InstrumentsLow precision
Masonary InstrumentsJai Singh constructed 15 different types ofinstruments
of masonry for his observatories. Outof these fifteen he himself invented
seveninstruments. According to the precession of theinstruments it can be
divide in followingcategories:
10. Jai Singh Low precision Masonary InstrumentsJai Singh Low precision
Masonary InstrumentsInstrumentInstrument NumberNumber
LocationLocationDhruvadarsakaDhruvadarsaka 11
JaipurJaipurNadivalayaNadivalaya 55
Jaipur,Varanasi,Ujjain,Mathura,Jaipur,Varanasi,Ujjain,Mathura,UjjainUjjainPalab
haPalabha 22 Jaipur UjjainJaipur UjjainAgraAgra 55
Jaipur,Varanasi,Ujjain,Mathura,UjjainJaipur,Varanasi,Ujjain,Mathura,UjjainSank
uSanku 11 MathuraMathuraUnknown InstrumentUnknown Instrument 11
VaranasiVaranasi
11. Jai singh Medium precision Masonary InstrumentsJai singh Medium
precision Masonary InstrumentsInstrumentInstrument NumberNumber
LocationLocationJaiPrakasaJaiPrakasa 22 Delhi, JaipurDelhi, JaipurRama
YantraRama Yantra 22 Delhi, JaipurDelhi, JaipurRasi ValayaRasi Valaya 1212
JaipurJaipurSara YantraSara Yantra 11 JaipurJaipurDigamsaDigamsa 33
Varanasi,Ujjain,JaipurVaranasi,Ujjain,JaipurKapalaKapala 22 JaipurJaipur
12. Jai singh High precision Masonary InstrumentsJai singh High precision
Masonary InstrumentsInstrumentInstrument NumberNumber
LocationLocationSamratSamrat66
Delhi,Jaipur(2),Ujjain,Varanasi(2)Delhi,Jaipur(2),Ujjain,Varanasi(2)SasthamsaS
asthamsa55 Delhi, Jaipur(4)Delhi, Jaipur(4)Daksinottara BhittiDaksinottara
Bhitti66
Jaipur,Varanasi(2),Ujjain,Mathura,Jaipur,Varanasi(2),Ujjain,Mathura,DelhiDelhi
13. Instruments added after Jai SinghInstruments added after Jai
SinghInstrumentInstrument NumberNumber LocationLocationMishra
YantraMishra Yantra 11 DelhiDelhiSanku YantraSanku Yantra 11
UjjainUjjainHorizontal ScaleHorizontal Scale 11 JaipurJaipur

14. Measurements Related TermsMeasurements Related


TermsAzimuth:Azimuth: AzimuthAzimuth isisgenerally defined as agenerally
defined as ahorizontal angle measuredhorizontal angle measuredclockwise
from any fixedclockwise from any fixedreference plane.In modernreference
plane.In modernastronomy it is nearlyastronomy it is nearlyalways measured
clockwisealways measured clockwisefrom the north base line orfrom the
north base line ormeridian. It measured inmeridian. It measured indegree and
tells about thedegree and tells about thedirection of a celestial bodydirection
of a celestial bodyfrom the observer.from the observer.
15. Measurements Related TermsMeasurements Related TermsAltitude: As a
generalAltitude: As a generaldefinition, altitude is adefinition, altitude is
adistance measurement,distance measurement,usually in the vertical
orusually in the vertical or"up" direction, between a"up" direction, between
areference line and a pointreference line and a pointor object. The
referenceor object. The referenceline also often variesline also often
variesaccording to the context.according to the context.
16. Zenith Distance:Zenith Distance: In general terms, theIn general terms,
the zenithzenith is the directionis the directionpointing directly "above" a
particular location . The conceptpointing directly "above" a particular location
. The conceptof "above" is more specifically defined in astronomy,of "above"
is more specifically defined in astronomy,geophysics as the vertical direction
opposite to the force ofgeophysics as the vertical direction opposite to the
force ofgravity at a given location. The opposite direction, i.e. thegravity at a
given location. The opposite direction, i.e. thedirection of the gravitational
force is called the nadir. Thedirection of the gravitational force is called the
nadir. Theterm zenith is also used to represent the highest pointterm zenith is
also used to represent the highest pointreached by a celestial body during its
apparent orbit aroundreached by a celestial body during its apparent orbit
arounda given point of observation.a given point of observation.
MeridianMeridian : A: A meridianmeridian (or(or line of longitudeline of
longitude) is an) is animaginary arc on the Earths surface from the North Pole
toimaginary arc on the Earths surface from the North Pole tothe South Pole
that connects all locations running along itthe South Pole that connects all
locations running along itwith a given longitude. The position of a point on
thewith a given longitude. The position of a point on themeridian is given by
the latitude .meridian is given by the latitude .Measurements Related
TermsMeasurements Related Terms
17. Hour AngleHour Angle: In astronomy, the: In astronomy, the hour
anglehour angle is one of the coordinatesis one of the coordinatesused in the
equatorial coordinate system for describing the position ofused in the
equatorial coordinate system for describing the position ofa point on the
celestial sphere. The hour angle of a point is the anglea point on the celestial
sphere. The hour angle of a point is the anglebetween the half plane
determined by the Earth axis and the zenithbetween the half plane
determined by the Earth axis and the zenith(half of the meridian plane) and
the half plane determined by the(half of the meridian plane) and the half
plane determined by theEarth axis and the given point. The angle is taken
with minus sign ifEarth axis and the given point. The angle is taken with
minus sign ifthe point is eastward of the meridian plane and with the plus
sign ifthe point is eastward of the meridian plane and with the plus sign ifthe

point is westward of the meridian planethe point is westward of the meridian


planeLatitudeLatitude:: LatitudeLatitude, usually denoted by the Greek letter
phi (, usually denoted by the Greek letter phi () gives) givesthe location of
a place on Earth (or other planetary body) north orthe location of a place on
Earth (or other planetary body) north orsouth of the equator. Technically,
latitude is an angular measurementsouth of the equator. Technically, latitude
is an angular measurementin degrees (marked with ) ranging from 0 at the
equator (lowin degrees (marked with ) ranging from 0 at the equator
(lowlatitude) to 90 at the poles (90 N or +90 for the North Pole and
90latitude) to 90 at the poles (90 N or +90 for the North Pole and 90S or
90 for the South Pole).S or 90 for the South Pole).
18. EquinoxEquinox : An: An equinoxequinox occurs twice a year, when the
tilt of theoccurs twice a year, when the tilt of theEarths axis is inclined
neither away from nor towards the Sun,Earths axis is inclined neither away
from nor towards the Sun,the Sun being vertically above a point on the
Equator. The termthe Sun being vertically above a point on the Equator. The
termequinoxequinox can also be used in a broader sense, meaning the
datecan also be used in a broader sense, meaning the datewhen such a
passage happens. The name "equinox" is derivedwhen such a passage
happens. The name "equinox" is derivedfrom the Latinfrom the Latin
aequusaequus (equal) and(equal) and noxnox (night), because around(night),
because aroundthe equinox, the night and day are approximately equally
long.the equinox, the night and day are approximately equally
long.EclipticEcliptic TheThe eclipticecliptic is the apparent path that the Sun
tracesis the apparent path that the Sun tracesout in the sky during the year.
As it appears to move in theout in the sky during the year. As it appears to
move in thesky in relation to the stars, the apparent path aligns with thesky
in relation to the stars, the apparent path aligns with theplanets throughout
the course of the year. More accurately, itplanets throughout the course of
the year. More accurately, itis the intersection of a spherical surface, the
celestial sphere,is the intersection of a spherical surface, the celestial
sphere,with thewith the ecliptic planeecliptic plane..
19. Equator :Equator : TheThe equatorequator (sometimes referre Angle of
Declination:Angle of Declination: Angle at a particular point on the
EarthsAngle at a particular point on the Earthssurface between the direction
of the true or geographic Northsurface between the direction of the true or
geographic NorthPole and the magnetic north pole. The angle of
declinationPole and the magnetic north pole. The angle of declinationhas
varied over time because of the slow drift in the positionhas varied over time
because of the slow drift in the positionof the magnetic north pole.of the
magnetic north pole.d to colloquially as(sometimes referred to colloquially
as"the Line""the Line") is the intersection of the Earths surface with the) is
the intersection of the Earths surface with theplane perpendicular to the
Earths axis of rotation andplane perpendicular to the Earths axis of rotation
andcontaining the Earths center of mass. In simpler language, itcontaining
the Earths center of mass. In simpler language, itis an imaginary line on the
Earths surface approximatelyis an imaginary line on the Earths surface
approximatelyequidistant from the North Pole and South Pole that
dividesequidistant from the North Pole and South Pole that dividesthe Earth

into a Northern Hemisphere and a Southernthe Earth into a Northern


Hemisphere and a SouthernHemisphere.Hemisphere.
20. JANTAR MANTAR DELHI
21. Mishra YantraMishra YantraSamarat
GnomonQuadrantSecondQuadrantSamarat GnomonNiyata Cakra
22. Mishra YantraMishra YantraMishra Yantra consists of several instruments
within the singleMishra Yantra consists of several instruments within the
singlestructure. The instruments included in the structure are asstructure.
The instruments included in the structure are asfollowsfollows::1.Daksinottra
Bhitti1.Daksinottra Bhitti : for measuring the zenith distance or: for
measuring the zenith distance oraltitude of sun and other planets.altitude of
sun and other planets.2.Karkarasi Valaya::2.Karkarasi Valaya:: Instrument is
now in ruins. Application isInstrument is now in ruins. Application isnot known
and according to the theory it was used to measurenot known and according
to the theory it was used to measuredirectly the longitude of celestial
body.directly the longitude of celestial body.3.Samarat Yantra3.Samarat
Yantra : for measuring the local time.: for measuring the local time.4. Niyata
Cakras:4. Niyata Cakras: for measuring the declination of an object atfor
measuring the declination of an object atinterval of a few hours as the object
travels from east to west ininterval of a few hours as the object travels from
east to west inthe sky.the sky.5. Quadrant arc5. Quadrant arc of unknown
functionof unknown function
23. Samarat YantraSamarat Yantra
24. In addition to marking local time the Samarat YantraIn addition to
marking local time the Samarat Yantrawas used to determine the sun
declination and thewas used to determine the sun declination and theright
ascension of any celestial object.right ascension of any celestial object. By
knowing the time of the meridian transit ofBy knowing the time of the
meridian transit ofprominent star and observing the hour angle of
theprominent star and observing the hour angle of thestar or its angular
distance from meridian time atstar or its angular distance from meridian time
atnight may also calculated from this instrument.night may also calculated
from this instrument. The primary object of Samarat is to indicate the
solarThe primary object of Samarat is to indicate the solartime or local time
of a place.time or local time of a place.Samarat YantraSamarat Yantra
25. Jai Prakesh YantraJai Prakesh Yantra
26. The instrument can measure the local co-ordinates of aThe instrument
can measure the local co-ordinates of acelestial object - the Altitude and
Azimuth.celestial object - the Altitude and Azimuth. Cross wires are
stretched in the North-South and East-WestCross wires are stretched in the
North-South and East-Westdirection on the surface of the instrument bowls.
Shadow of thedirection on the surface of the instrument bowls. Shadow of
thecentre of this cross wire, on the surface of the bowl, shows thecentre of
this cross wire, on the surface of the bowl, shows theposition of the Sun in the
sky.position of the Sun in the sky. Twin hemispherical bowls of Jai Prakas
yantra are each aTwin hemispherical bowls of Jai Prakas yantra are each
areflection of the sky above. The bowls are marked in sectorsreflection of the
sky above. The bowls are marked in sectorsand gaps. Observers move inside
the gap regions and makeand gaps. Observers move inside the gap regions

and makeobservations using the markings on the sectors. Theobservations


using the markings on the sectors. Theinstruments are complimentary, in the
sense that where there isinstruments are complimentary, in the sense that
where there isa gap in one of the bowl, is a sector placed in the other bowla
gap in one of the bowl, is a sector placed in the other bowland vice versa.
Spliced together, they make a whole bowl thatand vice versa. Spliced
together, they make a whole bowl thatis a complete reflection of the sky
above.is a complete reflection of the sky above.Jai Prakash YantraJai Prakash
Yantra
27. Rama YantraRama Yantra
28. Jantar MantarJantar MantarJaipurJaipur
29. Jaipur, Jantar Mantar was the second and more sophisticatedJaipur, Jantar
Mantar was the second and more sophisticatedobservatory Jai singh built.The
instruments were so big andobservatory Jai singh built.The instruments were
so big andaccurate ,as they were built of stone,masonry and marble.accurate
,as they were built of stone,masonry and marble.There are 18 instruments in
the Jaipur observatory. HeThere are 18 instruments in the Jaipur observatory.
Heprocured latest astronomical books and instruments fromprocured latest
astronomical books and instruments fromEurope.Some he had translated in
Sanskrit.Some of theseEurope.Some he had translated in Sanskrit.Some of
thesetranslated texts are on display in the City Palace Museum.translated
texts are on display in the City Palace Museum.
30. Samrat YantraSamrat YantraBy far the biggest yantra in Jantar Mantar. it
is a huge SunBy far the biggest yantra in Jantar Mantar. it is a huge SunDial. It
is 89 feet high and 148 feet wide. It can measureDial. It is 89 feet high and
148 feet wide. It can measurelocal time correctly up to 2 seconds..local time
correctly up to 2 seconds..
31. Chakra YantraChakra Yantra
32. For measuring the declination and hour angle of an object,For measuring
the declination and hour angle of an object,a sighting tube is mounted at the
centre of the instrument.a sighting tube is mounted at the centre of the
instrument.The tube with a pointer attached to it, rotates about aThe tube
with a pointer attached to it, rotates about aperpendicular axis passing
through the centre of cakraperpendicular axis passing through the centre of
cakraring. The observer rotating the cakra about its polar axisring. The
observer rotating the cakra about its polar axisand the tube about the centre
obtains the object in sightand the tube about the centre obtains the object in
sightand the hour angle off the plate at the post.and the hour angle off the
plate at the post. The Jaipur observatory has two unit of Cakra Yantra.The
Jaipur observatory has two unit of Cakra Yantra.Instrument is made of heavy
molded brass and pivoted toInstrument is made of heavy molded brass and
pivoted torotate freely about a diameter parallel to the earth axis.rotate
freely about a diameter parallel to the earth axis.Objective of the instrument
is to measure the declinationObjective of the instrument is to measure the
declinationand hour angle of celestial body.and hour angle of celestial body.
33. Rashivalaya YantraRashivalaya Yantra
34. There are 12 signs of the zodiac, so there are 12There are 12 signs of the
zodiac, so there are 12Rasivalayas representing each sign.Rasivalayas
representing each sign.At that moment its gnomon point towards the pole

ofAt that moment its gnomon point towards the pole ofecliptic and its
guardant become parallel to the ecliptic.ecliptic and its guardant become
parallel to the ecliptic.Rasivalaya were also invented by Jai Singh. A
particularRasivalaya were also invented by Jai Singh. A particularRasivalaya
instrument become operative when first pointRasivalaya instrument become
operative when first pointof sign of the zodiac it represents approaches theof
sign of the zodiac it represents approaches themeridian.meridian.The
Rasivalaya are a set of 12 instruments based on theThe Rasivalaya are a set
of 12 instruments based on theprinciple of samarat yantra are designed for
directlyprinciple of samarat yantra are designed for directlymeasuring the
latitude and longitude of a celestial object.measuring the latitude and
longitude of a celestial object.
35. Narivalaya YantraNarivalaya Yantra
36. On the vernal equinox and the autumnal equinoxOn the vernal equinox
and the autumnal equinoxthe rays of the sun fall parallel to two opposingthe
rays of the sun fall parallel to two opposingfaces This is an effective tool for
demonstrating theThis is an effective tool for demonstrating thepassage of
sun across the celestial equator.passage of sun across the celestial equator.
Jai Singh built Nadivalays at each hisJai Singh built Nadivalays at each
hisobservatory site except Delhi.observatory site except Delhi. After the sun
has crossed the equator around 21After the sun has crossed the equator
around 21March its illuminate the northern face for sixthMarch its illuminate
the northern face for sixthmonths. After 21 September it is the
southernmonths. After 21 September it is the southernface that receives the
rays of the sun for the nextface that receives the rays of the sun for the
nextsix months.six months.of plates and illuminate them both. Otherfaces
of plates and illuminate them both. Othertime only one or other face remains
in the sun.time only one or other face remains in the sun.
37. The main function of theThe main function of theinstrument is to
measure time.instrument is to measure time. This is the largest
instrumentThis is the largest instrumentin the world for its kind.in the world
for its kind.Instrument is built for theInstrument is built for thelatitude of
Jaipur as there arelatitude of Jaipur as there are27 degree making between
the27 degree making between thezenith and the pole.zenith and the pole.
Orientation of the pillars isOrientation of the pillars issuch that the line joining
themsuch that the line joining themmakes an angle of about 23makes an
angle of about 23degree with the plane ofdegree with the plane
ofmeridian.meridian. Great astrolabe is suspendedGreat astrolabe is
suspendedfrom massive wooden beamfrom massive wooden beamsupported
by tall pillars.supported by tall pillars.Yantra RajYantra Raj
38. Krantiwrita YantraKrantiwrita YantraThis is the unfinished structure and
has twoThis is the unfinished structure and has twocircular plates. Both the
plates have a scalecircular plates. Both the plates have a scalewhich is divide
in degrees.which is divide in degrees.
39. Unnatasha YantraUnnatasha Yantra
40. The rim of the brass circle has graduations marked in such away that
smallest division is a tenth of a degree. The largerdivisions of 1 degree and of
6 degrees are also marked on thecircle. After sighting the celestial object, its
Altitude can be readfrom the position of the pointer.The large graduated

brass circle hung from the supportingbeam, is the measuring instrument of


the Unnatamsa. The brasscircle is pivoted to rotate freely around a vertical
axis. The ring hastwo cross beams in the vertical and horizontal directions.
Asighting tube is pivoted at the centre of the circle, which can bemoved in
the vertical direction, to align towards any celestialobject.Unnatamsa can
measure the Altitude of a celestial object.
41. Dakshinodak Bhitti YantraDakshinodak Bhitti Yantra
42. Daksinottara BittiDaksinottara BittiDaksinottara Bitti yantra consists of
aDaksinottara Bitti yantra consists of agraduated quadrant or a semicircle
inscribedgraduated quadrant or a semicircle inscribedon a north-south wall.
At the centre of the areon a north-south wall. At the centre of the areis a
horizontal rod. The instrument is used foris a horizontal rod. The instrument is
used formeasuring the meridian attitude or the zenithmeasuring the meridian
attitude or the zenithdistance of an object such as the sun, the moondistance
of an object such as the sun, the moonor a planet.or a planet.
43. Jai Prakash YantraJai Prakash Yantra
44. Kapala YantraKapala Yantra
45. By looking at the shadow of a cross wire stretchedBy looking at the
shadow of a cross wire stretchedover its surface, the co-ordinates of the Sun
in theover its surface, the co-ordinates of the Sun in thesky, can be
determined with the western Kapalask The western Kapala unit is built for
observations whileThe western Kapala unit is built for observations whilethe
eastern segment is meant for theoreticalthe eastern segment is meant for
theoreticalconversions of co-ordinates from one system toconversions of coordinates from one system toanother. The western Kapala unit is analogous
to theanother. The western Kapala unit is analogous to theJaiprakas a
hemispherical bowl on which everyJaiprakas a hemispherical bowl on which
everypoint is a reflection of a point in the sky.point is a reflection of a point in
the sky. The Kapala are built as two hemispherical units, eachThe Kapala are
built as two hemispherical units, eachhemisphere being a complete reflection
of the skyhemisphere being a complete reflection of the
skyoverhead.overhead.y, can be determined with the western Kapala..
46. One difference between the two instruments is that Kapalaindicates the a
ppp while Jay Praksa observe the sign of meridian.Another is that Jay Praksa
built in two complementary halves,These arcs indicate the local time and
they measureastronomical parameter,such as co-ordinates of celestial
body.Jai Praksa and the Kapala are both multipurpose instrumentsconsisting
of hemispherical surface of concave shape andinscribed width of number of
arcs.The yantra hare a diameter of 3.46 m each and are so namedbecause
by there resemblance to the brain cover of human skill.
47. Ram YantraRam Yantra
48. The coordinates of the moon when it is bright enough toThe coordinates
of the moon when it is bright enough tocast a shadow, may also be read in a
similar manner.cast a shadow, may also be read in a similar manner. In day
time the coordinates of a sun are determined byIn day time the coordinates
of a sun are determined byobserving the shadow of the pillar top end on the
scales.observing the shadow of the pillar top end on the scales. For
measuring the azimuth, circular scales with theirFor measuring the azimuth,
circular scales with theircentre at the axis of cylindrical walls. The scales

arecentre at the axis of cylindrical walls. The scales aredivided into degree
and minutes.divided into degree and minutes. Cylindrical structure of Rama
Yantra is open at the topCylindrical structure of Rama Yantra is open at the
topand its height equals its radius.and its height equals its radius. This
yantra is used to measure the azimuth and altitudeThis yantra is used to
measure the azimuth and altitudeof a celestial object, for example sun.of a
celestial object, for example sun. The Rama yantra, probably named after
Rama SinghThe Rama yantra, probably named after Rama SinghThe
grandfather of Jai Singh.The grandfather of Jai Singh.
49. JANTAR MANTAR UJJAINJANTAR MANTAR UJJAIN
50. Daksinottara BittiDaksinottara Bitti
51. Daksinottara BittiDaksinottara BittiDaksinottara Bitti yantra consists of
aDaksinottara Bitti yantra consists of agraduated quadrant or a semicircle
inscribedgraduated quadrant or a semicircle inscribedon a north-south wall.
At the centre of the areon a north-south wall. At the centre of the areis a
horizontal rod. The instrument is used foris a horizontal rod. The instrument is
used formeasuring the meridian attitude or the zenithmeasuring the meridian
attitude or the zenithdistance of an object such as the sun, the moondistance
of an object such as the sun, the moonor a planet.or a planet.
52. Samarat YantraSamarat Yantra
53. SANKUDIGAMASA
54. Cross wires are stretched between the coordinal points markedCross
wires are stretched between the coordinal points markedover the outer wall.
The observer uses one or more stringsover the outer wall. The observer uses
one or more stringswith one end tied to a knob on the pillar and other end to
stonewith one end tied to a knob on the pillar and other end to stonepebbles
suspended over the walls, with these strings thepebbles suspended over the
walls, with these strings theobserver defines a vertical plane contain the
cross wire and theobserver defines a vertical plane contain the cross wire and
theobject in the sky. The angular distance of the vertical planeobject in the
sky. The angular distance of the vertical planefrom the north point, read on
the scales indicate the azimuth offrom the north point, read on the scales
indicate the azimuth ofbody.body. Its centre pillar as well as its wall are
engraved in degrees andIts centre pillar as well as its wall are engraved in
degrees andnumbers at their top level.numbers at their top level. This
consists of two cylindrical wall surrounding a centreThis consists of two
cylindrical wall surrounding a centrepillar measure the angle of azimuth of a
celestial body.pillar measure the angle of azimuth of a celestial
body.Digmasa YantraDigmasa Yantra
55. Jantar Mantar at VaranasiJantar Mantar at Varanasi
56. Some Glimpses of Jantar Mantar Varanasi
57. Some Glimpses of Jantar Mantar Varanasi
58. Unidentified structureUnidentified structure Daksinottara
BhittiDaksinottara Bhitti Cakra YantraCakra Yantra NadivalayaNadivalaya
DigamsaDigamsa Samarat YantraSamarat YantraJantar Mantar at
VaranasiJantar Mantar at VaranasiObservatory at Vanarasi has following
Instruments:Observatory at Vanarasi has following Instruments:
59. SMRAT YANTRA --------><------ DIGAMSA YANTRA
60. <----- Nadivalaya YantraSamarat Yantra ---------->

61. Jantar Mantar MathuraJantar Mantar MathuraThe Observatory was built


within the local fort on the banks of theriver Yamuna
62. At Mathura there were following instruments:At Mathura there were
following instruments: NadivalayaNadivalaya Agra YantraAgra Yantra
SankuSanku Daksinottara BittiDaksinottara Bitti It is believed that the
observatory at MathuraIt is believed that the observatory at
Mathuradisappeared about 1850 a few years before thedisappeared about
1850 a few years before theunsuccessful uprising of 1857 against
theunsuccessful uprising of 1857 against theBritish.British.
63. In spite of his best efforts for the revival ofIn spite of his best efforts for
the revival ofastronomical studies in India, Jaya Singhastronomical studies in
India, Jaya Singhremained firmly attached to the medievalremained firmly
attached to the medievaltradition. He died in 1743 A.D., exactlytradition. He
died in 1743 A.D., exactlytwo hundred years after Copernicustwo hundred
years after Copernicus(1473-1543). Today Jaya Singhs work is(1473-1543).
Today Jaya Singhs work isonly a tradition and his observatories areonly a
tradition and his observatories arenothing but archaeological remains.nothing
but archaeological remains.
64. THANKSTHANKSPrepared By:Prepared By:Sandipan DharSandipan Dhar