You are on page 1of 17



Management means getting things done through people. Since things
are to be done by people, it is necessary that managers should choose and
employ people for the work to be performed.
Staffing refers to the function of manning the organisation structure
through proper recruitment, selection, training and development of
people for the positions created in the organisation.
In a small business, like a grocery shop, the owner manager may not need any
one else to help him in running the shop. All the activities are performed by
him. But as a business unit grows in size, the manager alone is not able to
perform various jobs. It is quite possible that you would like to apply for a job
after passing the Senior Secondary Examination, or you may start your own
business and would like to employ people to assist you in running the business.
In both the situations it is easier if it is known in advance how employees are
recruited in a business.


➢ Staffing is a function of management which includes recruiting, training,
developing and maintaining competent managers and operatives for
performing organizational tasks in an effective and efficient manner.
➢ It is a continuous process consisting of several activities such as
estimating manpower needs, recruitment, selection, training and
development, deciding on remuneration for work to be performed,
transfer, promotion and performance appraisal.

(a) Recruitment
Meaning: The term recruitment is often used to signify employment. We
say, we have recruited such and such persons, meaning thereby that we have
employed them. Actually this is not so. Recruitment is only one of the steps in
the employment of people. It is the process of attracting good applicants for
jobs. It is one of the important functions of management. Managers know the
nature of jobs to be performed, and the qualifications that the candidates must
possess to perform the respective jobs. For instance, if a manager needs
typists, he has to identify the typing speed required, and the candidates
applying for the job of typists must have the required speed. Similarly, to be
able to invite suitable applications, managers must know wherefrom
applications may be expected. Thus recruitment is that part of the process of
employing people which takes into account the necessary abilities required for
the jobs along with the qualifications of the candidates. The task of hiring
cannot be started until suitable candidates apply for the jobs. People can apply
for the jobs only when they come to know about the availability of the jobs. The
manager has to decide how best to inform the possible candidates about the
(b) Process of Recruitment
Before inviting applications for the job, there are a number of steps to be taken
by the manager in the process of recruitment.

(1) Job design: The first step is to clearly identify and outline the nature of the
job to be performed.
(2) Job description: The second step is to prepare a description of what a job
really is and to enumerate the duties and responsibilities associated with it.
(3) Identifying the source of recruitment: The third step is to decide from
where suitable candidates will be available for the job.
Let us now study about each of these steps in detail:
1. Job Design
A job refers to the tasks assigned to an individual employee along with the
duties connected with it. For instance, typing is a job performed by a typist. The
job of typist includes typing letter, notes and memos, presenting the paper for
signature, filing the paper, and sending the papers to the dispatcher. A job
should be designed to meet the organizational as well as individual needs.
Since people spend a great deal of time on a job, it is, therefore, necessary to
design jobs so that individuals are happy about their jobs.

2. Job Description
The job should be so described that the work to be done by an Employee is
clearly known to him. For the manager who has to recruit employees,
describing the job help in choosing the most suitable candidate. Job description
is a summary of what a job really is. It includes:
➢ Work to be performed;
➢ Responsibilities involved in the job, for instance, the typist has to
keep the typewriting machine in proper order;
➢ The skill or training needed to perform the job; and
➢ The working conditions e.g., hours of work, etc. under which the job is
to be performed.
The job description is usually included in the advertisement for the job. See an
advertisement given below for the job of a typist published in a newspaper. It
➢ qualifications that the candidates must possess to perform the job;
➢ minimum typing speed required; and
➢ the experience needed.
In order to attract suitable candidates to apply for the job, it also mentions the
salary and other benefits payable. If you apply for this job, you will have to
mention all that is required. You will have to give particulars including your
name, address, age, qualification, skill and experience, and a desire on your
part to serve the organization. These particulars taken together are known as a
Bio-data of the candidate.
Job description is helpful in various ways in the process of hiring.
When a job is described specifying its nature, and indicating the duties and
responsibilities connected with the job, it helps in attracting the right type of
candidates for the job. Job description, which is also a part of job
advertisement, should be written in a manner so as to attract suitable
candidates for the job. In selecting the candidates again, job description helps
in judging the suitability of a candidate for the job. After the candidate has
been selected and given a position to perform the job, description forms the
basis against which the future performance of the employee can be judged. For
example, in the case of a typist, does he/she type with the speed mentioned in
the job description?

Fill in the blanks with suitable words—
(i) The process of attracting good candidates for employment is known
as ..........
(ii) The first step in the .........process is to clearly identify and note the nature
of the job to be performed.
(iii) Hiring cannot be started until suitable candidates.........for the job.
(iv) A summary of what a job really is and the duties and responsibilities
associated with it, is known as...........

ANS. i) recruitment ii) recruitment iii) apply iv) job description


In an existing organization, jobs which fall vacant may be filled up by promoting
or transferring employees already serving the organization. This is known as
internal source of recruitment.
The vacancies may also be filled up by inviting outsiders to apply for the job.
This is the external source of recruitment.
Thus the sources of recruitment are two: internal and external.
(i) Internal source: In any business, existing employees expect that they will
have chances of promotion and will be considered for higher positions before
outsiders are considered. Managers, therefore, promote and transfer existing
employees to fill the vacant positions. The advantage of internal
recruitment is that it is easier for managers to fill vacancies from
within the organization.
Managers know the abilities and skills of their subordinates and have records of
their performance. Employees also feel happy as their work performance is
recognized by management through promotion.
(ii) External source: All vacancies cannot be filled up from within the
organization. Workers and office employees at the lower level are always
recruited from outside the organization. Some times when managers do not get
suitable persons from within the organization, recruitment takes place from
external sources. Existing employees may lack the skill, initiative, and
qualification needed for higher level jobs. Hence managers have to depend on
recruitment from outside the organization. Further, external recruitment
permits choice from among a large number of external candidates from which
employees may be recruited. Let us discuss some of those:
(a) Advertising vacancies in newspapers and journals:
Advertising vacancies in newspapers and journals is the most popular method
of inviting applications. If you are in search of a job, you may look up various
job vacancies
advertised in “Employment Weekly” or “Rojgar Samachar” or daily newspapers.
Many companies do their own advertising for vacant positions, whereas some
appoint agencies to advertise on their behalf. People read the advertisement
and, if they are qualified for the job, they apply for it. You may see a specimen
of job advertisement given earlier in the lesson for the job of typists.
(b) Employment Exchanges: Employment exchanges have been set up by
the government for bringing together job seekers and employers who are
looking for employees.
Those who are in search of employment get themselves registered with the
local Employment Exchanges. The Employment Exchange keeps a record of all
such persons who require help in finding jobs. The employer notifies the
vacancies to the nearest Employment Exchange. The Employment Exchange in
turn recommends names from amongst the qualified employment seekers
already registered with it, and forwards the name to the employer for
consideration. Thus if you are seeking a job after passing the senior secondary
examination, it will be better if you get yourself registered with the
Employment Exchange. It will forward your name to the prospective employer
keeping in view the suitability of the job as per your qualifications.

(c) Educational, Professional and Technical Institutions:

Managers, officers, technicians like engineers, electricians, mechanics and
skilled workmen are often recruited from institutions like Indian Institute of
Management, Indian Institute of Technology, Engineering Colleges, Industrial
Training Institutes, Polytechnics, and Vocational Training Institutes. Companies
send one or more sernior managers to such institutions where they meet the
person in-charge of helping students in getting jobs. They recommend suitable
candidates who are interviewed for selection by the managers.
(d) Applicants applying on their own initiative: Those looking for jobs
often apply on their own initiative. They assume that certain vacancies are
likely to arise, and apply without reference to any job advertisement. Managers
keep record of such applications and contact suitable ones when they need
(e) Recruitment at the factory gate: This is found mainly in the case of
factory workers to be recruited on daily wages. Such workers gather in the
morning at the factory gate to serve as casual workers. Very often existing
regular employees go on leave, and vacancies are filled by recruitment at the
factory gate. These casual workers having once served in the factory for some
time are considered for regular employment.
(f) Workers’ union: Workers’ unions also play an important role as a source of
recruitment. Some unions have agreement with the management whereby
managers are
required to consider employment of retrenched or former employees on a
priority basis.

Significance of Recruitment
Inviting applications from qualified people is essential before hiring employees.
By attracting suitable candidates for the job recruitment makes the task of
managers easier in selecting employees. Vacancies can be filled up
satisfactorily only if candidates who meet the job requirements have been
prompted to apply. Hence, only those candidates are considered by managers
who are qualified and interested in the jobs. It is, therefore, essential to attract
the right type of candidates through proper means giving full information about
the job to be filled up, and then to select from among those who fulfill the
requirements of the job. The process of recruitment thus makes it possible to
employ right kind of people capable of doing the jobs efficiently.
A. Which of the following are internal sources and which are
external sources of recruitment ? Put (T) and (F) in the
space provided opposite to the sources:
(i) Advertising vacancies in newspapers
(ii) Promoting and transferring existing employees to fill the vacancies
(iii) Notifying vacancies to the Employment Exchange
(iv) Notifying vacancies to educational and technical institutes
(v) Workers’ Union
(vi) Recruitment at the factory gate
(vii) Unsolicited applicants
B. Fill in the blanks with suitable words—
(i) Promoting and transferring present employees is ............... recruitment.

(ii) Those applying for the job on their own with reference to advertisement are
known as ...........
(iii) Casual unskilled workers are normally recruited at the...............
(iv) Employment exchanges have been set up by the government for bringing
together .......... and..........
C. Tick ( √ ) the correct statements—
(i) Advertisement is the most popular source of recruitment (True/false)
(ii) Employment Exchanges are used for casual workers. (True/False)
(iii) Recruitment at the factory gate is meant for employing clerks. (True/False)

A. (i) E (ii) I (iii) E (iv) E (v) E (vi) E (vii) E

B. (i) internal (ii) unsolicited applicants (iii) factory gate (iv) job seekers,
C. (i) and (iv) are true statements.

Meaning: Selection means going through the qualifications and experience of
the candidate to decide whether he /she fulfils the requirements of the job.
Thus selection is the process of matching the candidate, his qualification,
experience and skill with the expectations of the job. To select the right
employee a proper procedure has to be adopted. The selection procedure
consists of a number of steps in logical order to identify the candidates who are
to be finally appointed. The manager examines the qualification, skill, and work
experience of each candidate and determines his suitability for the job through
the selection procedure.
Selection Procedure
The selection procedure usually consists of the following steps—
1. Screening the applications
2. Testing the candidates
3. Checking references
4. Selection interview
5. Medical examination of the candidates
6. Issue of appointment letter
7. Filling out necessary employment records
1. Screening the Applications
After applications are received from candidates in reply to a job advertisement,
the same must be examined to decide which ones deserve to be considered
and followed up. Normally, the candidates are asked to apply in their own hand
writing on a plain paper. Sometimes the job advertisement mentions the
particulars to be given in the application. In many cases the candidates are
required to apply in the prescribed printed form of the company, containing
particulars of name, address, nationality, religion, mother tongue, date and
place of birth, marital status, education and training, employment history,
references, etc. A specimen copy of such an application form is given at the
end of this
Screening means checking the contents of the applications to ensure that the
minimum eligibility conditions in respect of age, experience, necessary
qualifications and skills are fulfilled by the candidates who have applied for the
job. Screening is usually done by a responsible officer of the company or by a
screening committee. The purpose of screening is to prepare a list of eligible
candidates who are to be considered for interview.
Candidates not eligible are thereby excluded from further consideration.
2. Testing
After screening the applications, eligible candidates are given tests to
determine skill and abilities in terms of the requirements of the job. For
instance, if the job of typist requires a minimum typing speed of 40 words per
minute, a test is given to see whether the candidates applying for the job have
the required speed.
Passing the test by a candidate does not mean that he will be employed. It
implies that all those who have passed the test are qualified for further
screening, and those who have failed are not to be considered.
Tests which the candidates are to take differ according to the nature of the job.
To judge the speed and accuracy of typing, candidates may be given a

standard paragraph to type. Similarly, an auto mechanic may be asked to

replace a piston. This is known as skill or trade test. Skill or trade test is also
known as performance test. Intelligence test may be given for clerical jobs. It
may include test of general knowledge and general awareness, test on
arithmetic problems, and test of reasoning power and vocabulary. For
supervisory and managerial jobs tests are given to find out the candidate’s
personality, decision making abilities, etc.

3. Checking References
Candidates who are to be considered for employment must have other
qualitative like balanced temperament, honesty, loyalty, etc. These qualities
cannot be judged on the basis of any test.
Therefore, information is obtained and verified from the heads of educational
institutions where the candidates have studied, or from the persons whose
names are given by the candidates, or from the previous employers. For certain
jobs, like the job of cashier or security guard, reliability is a very important job
requirement. Therefore, references are required to be checked in such cases. In
case of experienced employees, information is checked from their previous
4. Selection Interview
Interview is the most important part of the selection procedure. It serves as a
means of checking on the information given in the application forms and the
test results. It also provides an opportunity to the candidates to inquire about
the job and the company during the course of interview. Managers get an
opportunity to go into the details of the candidate’s background, and take a
decision about their suitability for employment.
Selection interview should be conducted in great depth to judge the suitability
of the candidates.
5. Medical Examination
Candidates finally selected for the job are asked to undergo medical
examination and get certificates of medical fitness. The purpose of the medical
examination is to see whether the selected candidates are physically fit for job.
It also points out whether employees suffer from illness which can be cured
before hiring them e.g. poor eyesight. Such a step in the selection procedure is
essential for certain types of jobs as in the case of police and army, where
physical fitness is very important. For certain categories of jobs like the job of
driver, a proper eye-sight is very essential.
6. Issue of Appointment Letter
Candidates finally selected are issued appointment letters. Such a letter
contains the terms and conditions relating to employment of the candidates.
Generally, the candidates are not appointed on permanent basis because it is
considered better to try them for a few months on the job itself. This period of
service is known as the period of probation. It is necessary because no
procedure of selection can fully establish the qualities of a selected candidate.
It is only by observing a person at work that one can find out how he does his
work and also how he behaves with his superior and fellow employees. If during
the probation period, an employee is not found suitable his period of probation
may be extended. The management may also transfer him to some other job at
which he may be expected to do better. The management may also provide
him training to improve his abilities.
7. Filling out necessary employment records
The appointment of every candidate is followed by a record of particulars of the
employed. Such records are maintained and described as employment
record. It serves a useful purpose on many occasions e.g., selection of
employees for training, their promotion, and wage and salary increase.

Though a number of steps in the selection procedure has been listed, all the
steps need not be taken by every employer. It depends upon the nature of the
jobs and the rank of the employees.
For employing casual workers on daily wages, simply an interview by a
company’s officer will do. Whereas for the job of a typist or clerk, screening of
applications, testing, and interview will be required. Similarly, for the job of
cashier, checking of reference, in addition to other steps, may be needed.

Just as a systematic process of recruitment and selection is preceded by
manpower planning, it is succeeded by inducting the new employee and
placing him well on the job. Before actually asking the new employee to
perform the job, he is informed about the duties of the job, person to whom he
will report, the starting wage or salary, promotional opportunities, hours of
work, and other benefits, in the company. Thus induction refers to introducing a
new employee to the company, its rules and regulations, and to his superiors
and fellow employees. A proper induction programme results in development of
a favorable attitude towards the company and the job, and thus facilitates
efficiency on the job.
Usually the immediate supervisor of the new employee introduces him to his
job and the company. The new employee is also given a booklet about the
company and its rules and
regulations and working and service conditions. It may be asked whether
selection is possible without recruitment.
Probably not. If there is no recruitment, there will be nothing to select from.
How can one select candidate unless they have been asked to apply for certain
jobs—which is the task of recruitment. Thus, if selection is made without
it will not be based on exact job requirements.
it will be difficult to find suitable candidates to choose from.
right persons may not be employed in right jobs.
performance and efficiency of not only the employee, but also of the
enterprise as a whole will suffer.
Difference between Selection and Recruitment
We have noted recruitment and selection as the two essential parts of the
hiring process. These are closely inter-connected.
➢ Whereas recruitment helps in attracting suitable candidates, selection
helps in finding out the candidates who meet the requirement of the job.
➢ Recruitment helps in selecting the most suitable out of a large number of
candidates. However, recruitment and selection processes differ in certain
➢ Recruitment is the process of attracting good applicants for jobs, whereas
selection starts after applications have been received.
➢ In the recruitment process, there is matching of the applicants with the
requirements of the job. Selection takes place after the matching of
candidates with job requirements. Recruitment involves decisions as
regards the sources of potential candidates. Selection is made through
different steps in the procedure adopted. Job description helps the
manager to attract good candidates, while selection of the employee
requires making the right choice.
A. Arrange the following steps of selection procedure in sequence by writing
1,2,3 ... against the steps
( ) i) checking references,
( ) ii) testing the candidates,
( ) iii) screening the applications,

( ) iv) medical examination of the candidates,

( ) v) selection interview, and
( ) vi) filling out necessary employment records.

A. (1) Screening the applications; (2) testing the candidates; (3) checking the
references (4) selection interview; (5) medical examination of the candidates;
(6) issuing appointment letter; (7) filing out necessary employment records.


Helping employees to improve their knowledge and skill so as to
be able to perform their tasks more efficiently is known as
training. The term ‘development’ refers to the process of not
only building up the skill and abilities but also the overall
competence of employees to undertake more difficult and
challenging tasks.
Training is sometimes differentiated from development. The term
‘employee training’ is used to describe the process of improving
or building up skills and abilities of operatives or non-managerial
employees for their present jobs. The term ‘development’ is, on
the other hand, associated with the process of developing the
competence of managers not only for their present jobs but also
for future positions of greater responsibilities. However, this
distinction is not accepted by many experts.
Training is necessary for new employees as well as existing
employees for improving their performance at work. For new
employees, training is necessary to help them get acquainted
with the method of operation and skill requirement of the job.
For existing employees, training at periodical intervals is helpful
for learning better ways of doing the work, and also when they
have to undertake jobs of a different type.
(a) Methods of Training
There are different methods of training employees which can be
divided into two broad categories:
Business Studies
(1) On-the-job methods, and
(2) Off-the-job methods.
1. On-the-job methods: In these methods, the employees
learn about their jobs while doing the work besides being
assisted by their supervisors or seniors. Thus, these
methods encourage self-learning through practice. Job
instruction or coaching, and job rotation, are two common
methods of on-the-job training. Another method is learning
while working as an assistant to a senior.
2. Off-the-Job methods: These methods involve training
employees away from the work place so that experts may
conduct the training and employees are free from
immediate pressure of completing the jobs at hand.
Lectures with demonstration, workshops, case discussions,
video shows, and films are some of the methods used in
this category of off-the-job training methods.
In simple words, performance appraisal means judging the
performance of employees. Specifically, it means judging the
relative abilities of employees at work in a systematic manner.
This enables managers to identify employees who are performing

the assigned work satisfactorily, and those who are not able to do
so, and why. To be fair, performance appraisal needs to be carried
out using the same methods and keeping in view uniform standards
of work. Generally it is the responsibility of supervisors to carry
out performance appraisal of their subordinates, and report it to
their own superiors. He may also have to identify the causes of
the performance especially if it has fallen short of the expected
The standard of performance or the expected level of performance
of an employee on a job forms the basis of judging how well the
employee has performed, and whether one employee is more
efficient than another in doing a similar job.
The standard of performance in some jobs may be the desired
quantity of output, or it may be the quality of work done,or it
may be minimisation of wastage of materials caused in the process
of work etc. It will be different for different types of jobs.
However, where quantity or number of units produced, or wastage
of materials form the basis of appraisal, it is likely to be more
accurate. On the other hand, quality of work done may be difficult
to measure and hence performance appraisal may not be very
Promotion and Transfer
When an existing employee is assigned a job carrying greater
responsibilities, more pay, higher status and prestige than the
present job, it is known as promotion. Thus, promotion refers to
the advancement of an employee to a higher level position. The
main purpose of promotion is to make fuller use of the abilities
of a person and also increase his job satisfaction.
The basis of promotion may be seniority in service or merit, that
is, superior abilities of the employees, or it may be seniority and
merit, that is, if merits are the same, one who is senior becomes
eligible for promotion. When the performance of an employee
is not satisfactory and it cannot be improved, he may be assigned
a job of lower rank carrying lower status and pay. This is known
as ‘demotion’. It may be regarded as a job change which is the
reverse of promotion.
Transfer refers to a type of job change where any employee is
assigned a different job of the same rank and pay, or when an
employee is assigned a similar job in another unit of the business
firm. Thus, transfer does not involve any increase in pay or
superior status. The objective of transfer may be to correct the
original assignment of the employee, to enable the employee to
gain in experience, or to give him greater job satisfaction, or to
balance the requirements of staff in different units.
A. Match the words in column (A) with those in column (B)
by writing the numbers in the space provided:
Column A Column B
i) On-the-job training ( ) (a) improving skill for

existing job
ii) Off-the-job training ( ) (b) fuller use of abilities
iii) Employee development ( ) (c) self-learning
iv) Employee training ( ) (d) improving the competence
for future job
v) Purpose of transfer ( ) (e) training by experts
Business Studies
vi) Purpose of promotion ( ) (f) gain in experience
B. Which of the following statements are right and which are
wrong ?
(a) On-the-job training is imparted by supervisors or the
immediate superior.
(b) The basis of performance appraisal is the skill with which
an employee does his work.
(c) Wrong placement can be corrected by transfer of an
(d) Job rotation is one of the off-the-job methods of training.
In order to get things done through people, managers
choose and employ people in business. Various positions
are created for people to perform different types of jobs.
The need for recruitment and selection arises to fill up
the vacant job positions. Recruitment is the process of
attracting good applicants for the jobs.
The two main sources of recruitment are internal, and
external. Internal source consists of promoting and
transferring present employees to fill the vacancies. External
recruitment consists of advertising vacancies in the
newspapers and journals, employment exchanges, educational,
professional and technical institutes, recruitment at the factory
gates, unsolicited applicants, and the workers’ unions.
Selection of candidates is another important step in the
hiring process. It implies the scrutiny of candidates to see
how far each one comes up to the job expectations, and
then matching of the candidates—his qualification,
experience, and skill with the requirements of the job.
Such a matching is done through a selection procedure. A
number of steps are involved in the selection procedure.
These are: screening the applicantions, testing, checking
the references, and interviewing for final selection. The
selected candidates are issued appointment letters. The
last step in the selection procedure is to fill up and
preserve the necessary employment records.
Recruitment and selection are closely related to each other.
It is difficult to consider one without the other.
Helping employees to improve their knowledge and skill
is known as training. Development refers to the building
up of overall competence to handle more difficult jobs.

Training methods may be divided into two broad categories:

On the-job training and off-the job training.
On-the-job methods involve learning while doing, whereas
off-the-job methods involve training away from the actual
work place.
Performance appraisal means judging the relative abilities
of employees at work in a systematic manner. The standard
of performance usually forms the basis of performance
Promotion refers to the advancement of an employee to
a higher level position with more pay, higher status and
greater responsibilities. The basis of promotion may be
seniority or merit or both seniority and merit.
Transfer is a job change whereby an employee is assigned
a different job of the same rank and pay, or a similar job
in another unit.
1. Why does the need for recruitment arise? Explain.
2. Explain the significance of recruitment in the hiring
3. What is job description ? Describe its utility in the process
of hiring employees.
4. Enumerate the various sources of recruitment.
5. Mention the steps a manager needs to adopt for hiring
employees in business.
6. Why is internal source preferred to external source of
7. Briefly answer the following questions:
(a) What is job description ?
(b) What is the meaning of the term recruitment ?
Business Studies
(c) What is the difference between selection and
recruitment ?
(d) Why are the references checked for the candidates
to be employed ?
8. Describe in brief the role of employment exchanges in
providing employment to the people.
9. You want to employ two clerks for your business.
Enumerate the sources of recruitment you will use and
why ?
10. What is selection ? Explain its significance in the hiring
11. Mention the steps involved in a selection procedure.
Explain in detail any two of them.
12. What are the steps to be followed in the procedure for
selection of (a) clerks; (b) security guards; and (c) cashier.
Arrange the steps in order.
13. Explain the difference between selection and recruitment.
Can you proceed with selection without recruitment ?
14. Answer the following questions in brief :

(a) Which type of test measures the skill or

performance of the candidates ?
(b) What is the last step in the selection procedure ?
15. Write short notes on :
(a) selection interview;
(b) trade test;
(c) selection procedure; and
(d) Off-the-job training.
16. What purpose does promotion serve ? Why are employees
transferred ?
17. What is meant by performance appraisal ?
18. State the meaning of training and development.
1. i) recruitment
ii) recruitment
iii) apply
iv) job description
2. A. (i) E (ii) I (iii) E (iv) E (v) E (vi) E (vii) E
B. (i) internal (ii) unsolicited applicants (iii) factory
gate (iv) job seekers, employers.
C. (i) and (iv) are true statements.
3. A. (1) Screening the applications;
(2) testing the candidates;
(3) checking the references;
(4) selection interview;
(5) medical examination of the candidates;
(6) issuing appointment letter;
(7) filing out necessary employment records.
B. (i) (b)
(ii) (c)
(iii) (a).
4. A. (i) (c); (ii) (e); (iii) (d); (iv) (c); (v) (f); (iv)(b)
B. (a) and (c)- right.
(b) and (d) -wrong.