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Chapter 1

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Introduction:
Currently we are facing energy demand; this demand is only covered by
utilizing energy sources that are oil, coal and natural gas. Almost all the
developed states are utilizing these energy sources but natural sources are
about to decrease year by year. So it is necessary to develop some other
forms of energies in order to overcome the energy needs. Generating energy
currently has a major impact on the environment, natural ecosystems, human
communities, and in other areas. It is for these reasons that currently there
are many efforts underway to reduce the use of oil, coal and other
nonrenewable energy sources and increase the participation of renewable
energy technologies such as those from the sun, tides, biomass, and wind.
Wind energy is being innovative because wind energy is environment
friendly with zero emissions and high power generation .Other energy
sources like oil gas and coal produces emissions and less environment
friendly and also causes expenditure of plant services and maintenance but
installing wind turbines makes an ease of use as they doesnt requires
maintenance and service expense.
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into electricity or mechanical
energy using wind turbines. The power in the wind is extracted by allowing
it to blow past moving blades that exert torque on a rotor. The amount of
power transferred is dependent on the rotor size and the wind speed.
Wind turbines range from small four hundred watt generators for residential
use to several megawatt machines for wind farms and offshore. The small
ones have direct drive generators, direct current output, aero elastic blades,
and lifetime bearings and use a vain to point into the wind; while the larger
ones generally have geared power trains, alternating current output, and
flaps and are actively pointed into the wind.
Direct drive generators and aero elastic blades for large wind turbines are
being researched and direct current generators are sometimes used.
Since wind speed is not constant, the annual energy production of a wind
converter is dependent on the capacity factor. A well sited wind generator
will have a capacity factor of about 35%. This compares to typical capacity
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factors of 90% for nuclear plants, 70% for coal plants, and 30% for thermal
plants.
As a general rule, wind generators are practical where the average wind
speed is 4.5 m/s or greater. Usually sites are pre-selected on the basis of a
wind atlas, and validated with onsite wind measurements.
Wind energy is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, and reduces
greenhouse gas emissions if used to replace fossil-fuel-derived electricity.
The intermittency of wind does not create problems when using wind power
at low to moderate penetration level.

Motivation:
The wind industry has achieved remarkable growth largely due to the claim
that it will provide major reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. There's
just one problem: It's not true. A slew of recent studies show that windgenerated electricity likely won't result in any reduction in carbon emissions
or that they'll be as small as to be almost meaningless.

Introduction to Project:
In recent years, wind energy has become one of the most economical
renewable energy technology. Today, electricity generating wind turbines
employ proven and tested technology, and provide a secure and sustainable
energy supply. At good, windy sites, wind energy can already successfully
compete with conventional energy production. Many countries have
considerable wind resources, which are still untapped.
A windmill is a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy
by means of vanes called sails or blades. Centuries ago, windmills usually
were used to mill grain, pump water, or both. Thus they often were
gristmills, wind pumps, or both. The majority of modern windmills take the
form of wind turbines used to generate electricity, or wind pumps used to
pump water, either for land drainage or to extract groundwater.

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Figure 1-1 (Wind Mill somewhere on site)

A technology which offers remarkable advantages is not used


to its full potential:
Wind energy produces no greenhouse gases.
Wind power plants can make a significant contribution to the regional
electricity supply and to power supply diversification.
A very short lead time for planning and construction is required as compared
to conventional power projects.
Wind energy projects are flexible with regard to an increasing energy
demand - single turbines can easily be added to an existing park.
Finally, wind energy projects can make use of local resources in terms of
labor, capital and materials.

The technological development of recent years, bringing more efficient and


more reliable wind turbines, is making wind power more cost-effective. In
general, the specific energy costs per annual kWh decrease with the size of
the turbine notwithstanding existing supply difficulties.

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Many African countries expect to see electricity demand expand rapidly in


coming decades. At the same time, finite natural resources are becoming
depleted, and the environmental impact of energy use and energy conversion
have been generally accepted as a threat to our natural habitat. Indeed these
have become major issues for international policy.
Many developing countries and emerging economies have substantial
unexploited wind energy potential. In many locations, generating electricity
from wind energy offers a cost-effective alternative to thermal power
stations. It has a lower impact on the environment and climate, reduces
dependence on fossil fuel imports and increases security of energy supply.

For many years now, developing countries and emerging economies have
been faced with the challenge of meeting additional energy needs for their
social and economic development with obsolete energy supply structures.
Overcoming supply bottlenecks through the use of fossil fuels in the form of
coal, oil and gas increases dependency on volatile markets and eats into
valuable foreign currency reserves. At the same time there is growing
pressure on emerging newly industrialized countries in particular to make a
contribution to combating climate change and limit their pollutant emissions.

In the scenario of alternatives, more and more developing countries and


emerging economies are placing their faith in greater use of renewable
energy and are formulating specific expansion targets for a green energy
mix. Wind power, after having been tested for years in industrialized
countries and achieving market maturity, has a prominent role to play here.
In many locations excellent wind conditions promise inexpensive power
generation when compared with costly imported energy sources such as
diesel. Despite political will and considerable potential, however, market
development in these countries has been relatively slow to take off. There is
a shortage of qualified personnel to establish the foundations for the
exploitation of wind energy and to develop projects on their own initiative.
The absence of reliable data on wind potential combined with unattractive
energy policy framework conditions deters experienced international
investors, who instead focus their attention on the expanding markets in
Western countries.
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It is only in recent years that appreciable development of the market


potential in developing countries and emerging economies has taken place.
The share of global wind generating capacity accounted for by Africa, Asia
and Latin America reached about 20% at the end of 2008, with an installed
capacity of 26 GW. This is attributable above all to breathtaking growth in
India and China: these two countries alone are responsible for 22 GW. This
proves that economic use of wind energy in developing countries and
emerging economies is possible, and also indicates that there is immense
potential that is still unexploited.

Problem Discussion:
Before starting any project, there are always some difficulties that a person
has to face in order to make his design successful. In the start of our project,
we have also faced many problems that gives a little full stop to our project
but with the courage and support of our teachers, we continued to find the
solutions of those problems.
Initially, the size of wind power plants was small compared to conventional
power plants. The process of integrating wind power plants into the power
system grid was accomplished by representing the wind power plant as an
induction generator or as a negative load. This representation works fine as
long as the size of the wind power plant is relatively small compared to the
short circuit capability at the point of interconnection (POI). However, wind
power development in the mid-nineties started to see a phenomenal increase
in quantity.
Numerous wind power plants were built one after another within a short
time. The size of the wind power plant started to grow from small sizes
(under 50 MW to 600 MW). The impact of wind power plants can no longer
be ignored. New wind turbine types were developed, and power electronics
were added to improve the control of the wind turbines.
As a consequence of the large influx of wind energy into the power grid, and
the new type of generators that were introduced to the generation mix, a lot
of efforts were geared toward improving planning tools to help wind energy
to integrate into the power system network.
Turbine manufacturers, utilities, system operators (e.g., ERCOT) developed
dynamic models of wind turbine generators. Many of the manufacturers
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developed models using their own software for their turbines. Most of the
turbine models available at that time contained proprietary data and
information, and many users had to sign a nondisclosure agreement
(NDA) to use the dynamic models.
In June 2005, WECC convened the Wind Generator Modeling Group
(WGMG) under the auspices of the WECC Modeling and Validation Work
Group (MVWG) to develop a set of generic, nonproprietary wind generator
models suitable for positivesequence dynamic simulations. It was
envisioned that four standard models are required to represent the basic
types wind turbine generator technologies available in the market:
conventional induction machines, wound rotor induction machines with
variable rotor resistance, doublyfed induction machines, and full converter
machines. Although the standard models are being developed for use in the
WECC, it is anticipated that the models will be embraced as the industry
standard.
The WECC Wind Turbine Dynamic Model of four different wind turbine
types represents the wind turbine types with the major market share in the
United States. These wind turbine models were written to work with two
major software platforms used by the majority of utilities in the United
States. The model is simplified to make it possible that the manufacturers do
not have to reveal their proprietary information, yet this model is accurate
enough to simulate real wind turbines. The objective was to provide a model
to the general public without the need for nondisclosure agreements
between the user and the turbine- manufacturers. WGMG has defined the
technical requirements of standard models. There is strong consensus within
WGMG and externally that the following functional specifications are
reasonable. Additional specifications were developed by WGMG consensus,
as required.
The models should be suitable for implementation in positivesequence
power system simulation programs such as PSLF and PSS/E, and should be
consistent with existing models for other rotating machine generators in
terms of accuracy, complexity, and numerical stability.
The models should be suitable for assessing, on a preliminary basis, voltage
ride through and reactive compensation requirements. As with any other
power system component, additional studies using a more detailed system
representation and higher order models may be required to refine the results
8of planning studies.
The generic models should reproduce windturbine generator performance
reasonably well in the range of 0 (DC) to 6 Hz, and in response to electrical
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disturbances such as closein and remote electrical system faults, assuming


constant wind speed during the transient stability simulation.
The models should correctly reflect performance differences with respect to
a range of initial wind speed assumptions (cutin to rated output). However,
since traditional transient stability simulations are concerned with
performance over short periods of time, wind speed can be considered
constant during the simulation.

Applications/ Industry adaptability:


Our small wind turbines are used in a variety of industries and applications,
including marine applications, off-grid systems, and industrial applications
including road signage, remote telemetry, and mobile base stations and for
houses, schools and farms.

Wind Generators for Boats and Yachts


The ever increasing amounts of essential electronic equipment on boats are a
real drain on your precious batteries. Of course you can run the engine or
hook-up to shore power but thats not always possible or desirable especially as it increases fuel consumption and energy costs.

Wind Turbines for Security


All over the world, Leading Edge's wind turbines are helping customers
reduce costs and protect resources by providing power for remote security
and CCTV systems. There is an increasing need for CCTV cameras for
security and damage control solutions.

Wind Turbines for Signage and Signaling


Somewhere near you, Leading Edge products are powering off grid signage
and signaling for Road and Rail. There is an increasing need for off grid
signage and signaling in areas where grid connection is neither easy nor cost
effective.

Wind Turbines for Agriculture


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Remote power systems are needed more and more in the world of farming.
Whether it's for powering electric fencing, powering water pumping,
powering lighting in stables and chicken sheds or powering underwater
cameras at salmon farms - Leading Edge Turbines have small wind turbines
and other power equipment to meet the energy requirements.

Wind Turbines for Telemetry


Leading Edge wind turbines and our off-grid wind and solar hybrid systems
are used extensively for low energy telemetry systems around the world,
where power supply from the grid is not possible.

Small Wind Turbines for Homes


Leading Edge's small wind turbines for homes are frequently used for
Residential Battery Charging and Grid Connection. If youre living in windy
spot and the wind is whistling around you, your home could be the perfect
spot for a wind turbine.

Wind Turbines for Motorhomes and Caravans


With more and more of us using Caravans and Recreational Vehicles to
enjoy our leisure time, it soon becomes apparent how much we need power.

Wind Turbines for Telecoms


With more and more mobile communications and broadband technology
being deployed in rural and remote areas, providing power for the
transmission equipment can often be a real headache. Here at Leading Edge,
we are very experienced with providing off-grid power solutions needed to
support telecoms infrastructure.

Wind Turbines for Off-grid Lighting


Leading Edge's small wind turbines are ideal for providing efficient and
reliable lighting in off-grid locations. Our wind powered solutions generate
free renewable energy which is stored in a battery ready for when it gets
dark to power public street lights, car parks and playgrounds.

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Chapter 2

HOW WIND POWER WORKS?


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It's hard sometimes to imagine air as a fluid. It just seems so ... invisible. But
air is a fluid like any other except that its particles are in gas form instead of
liquid. And when air moves quickly, in the form of wind, those particles are
moving quickly. Motion means kinetic energy, which can be captured, just
like the energy in moving water can be captured by the turbine in a
hydroelectric dam. In the case of a wind-electric turbine, the turbine blades
are designed to capture the kinetic energy in wind. The rest is nearly
identical to a hydroelectric setup: When the turbine blades capture wind
energy and start moving, they spin a shaft that leads from the hub of the
rotor to a generator. The generator turns that rotational energy into
electricity. At its essence, generating electricity from the wind is all about
transferring energy from one medium to another.

Figure 2-2 (Another Project of Wind Mill)

Wind powers all starts with the sun. When the sun heats up a certain area of
land, the air around that land mass absorbs some of that heat. At a certain
temperature, that hotter air begins to rise very quickly because a given
volume of hot air is lighter than an equal volume of cooler air. Faster11 | P a g e

moving (hotter) air particles exert more pressure than slower-moving


particles, so it takes fewer of them to maintain the normal air pressure at a
given elevation. When that lighter hot air suddenly rises, cooler air flows
quickly in to fill the gap the hot air leaves behind. That air rushing in to fill
the gap is wind.
If you place an object like a rotor blade in the path of that wind, the wind
will push on it, transferring some of its own energy of motion to the blade.
This is how a wind turbine captures energy from the wind. The same thing
happens with a sailboat. When moving air push on the barrier of the sail, it
causes the boat to move. The wind has transferred its own energy of motion
to the sailboat.

The simplest possible wind-energy turbine consists of three


crucial parts:

Rotor blades - The blades are basically the sails of the system; in their
simplest form, they act as barriers to the wind (more modern blade designs
go beyond the barrier method). When the wind forces the blades to move, it
has transferred some of its energy to the rotor.

Shaft - The wind-turbine shaft is connected to the center of the rotor.


When the rotor spins, the shaft spins as well. In this way, the rotor transfers
its mechanical, rotational energy to the shaft, which enters an electrical
generator on the other end.

Generator - At its most basic, a generator is a pretty simple device. It


uses the properties of electromagnetic induction to produce electrical voltage
a difference in electrical charge. Voltage is essentially electrical pressure
it is the force that moves electricity, or electrical current, from one point to
another. So generating voltage is in effect generating current. A simple
generator consists of magnets and a conductor. The conductor is typically a
coiled wire. Inside the generator, the shaft connects to an assembly of
permanent magnets that surrounds the coil of wire. In electromagnetic
induction, if you have a conductor surrounded by magnets, and one of those
parts is rotating relative to the other, it induces voltage in the conductor.
When the rotor spins the shaft, the shaft spins the assembly of magnets,
generating voltage in the coil of wire. That voltage drives electrical current
(typically alternating current, or AC power) out through power lines for
distribution. (See How Electromagnets Work to learn more about
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electromagnetic induction, and see How Hydropower Plants Work to learn


more about turbine-driven generators.
MODERN WIND-POWER TECHNOLOGY
When you talk about modern wind turbines, you're looking at two primary
designs: horizontal-axis and vertical-axis. Vertical-axis wind turbines
(VAWTs) are pretty rare. The only one currently in commercial production is
the Darrieus turbine, which looks kind of like an eggbeater.

Figure 2-2 (Darrieus Turbine)

In a VAWT, the shaft is mounted on a vertical axis, perpendicular to the


ground. VAWTs are always aligned with the wind, unlike their horizontalaxis counterparts, so there's no adjustment necessary when the wind
direction changes; but a VAWT can't start moving all by itself -- it needs a
boost from its electrical system to get started. Instead of a tower, it typically
uses guy wires for support, so the rotor elevation is lower. Lower elevation
means slower wind due to ground interference, so VAWTs are generally less
efficient than HAWTs. On the upside, all equipment is at ground level for
easy installation and servicing; but that means a larger footprint for the
turbine, which is a big negative in farming areas.

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Figure 2-3 (Working of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine)

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Figure 2-4 (Large Scale Project of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine)

VAWTs may be used for small-scale turbines and for pumping water in rural
areas, but all commercially produced; utility-scale wind turbines are
horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs).
As implied by the name, the HAWT shaft is mounted horizontally,
parallel to the ground. HAWTs need to constantly align themselves with the
wind using a yaw-adjustment mechanism. The yaw system typically consists
of electric motors and gearboxes that move the entire rotor left or right in
small increments. The turbine's electronic controller reads the position of a
wind vane device (either mechanical or electronic) and adjusts the position
of the rotor to capture the most wind energy available. HAWTs use a tower
to lift the turbine components to an optimum elevation for wind speed (and
so the blades can clear the ground) and take up very little ground space since
almost all of the components are up to 260 feet (80 meters) in the air.

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Figure 2-5 Working of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine)

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LARGE HAWT COMPONENTS

Rotor blades - capture wind's energy and convert it to rotational


energy of shaft

Shaft - transfers rotational energy into generator

Nacelle - casing that holds:

Gearbox - increases speed of shaft between rotor hub and


generator

Generator - uses rotational energy of shaft to generate


electricity using electromagnetism

Electronic control unit (not shown) - monitors system, shuts


down turbine in case of malfunction and controls yaw mechanism

Yaw controller (not shown) - moves rotor to align with


direction of wind

Brakes - stop rotation of shaft in case of power overload or


system failure

Tower - supports rotor and nacelle and lifts entire setup to higher
elevation where blades can safely clear the ground

Electrical equipment - carries electricity from generator down


through tower and controls many safety elements of turbine
From start to finish, the process of generating electricity from wind -- and
delivering that electricity to people who need it -- looks something like this:
Unlike the old-fashioned Dutch windmill design, which relied mostly
on the wind's force to push the blades into motion, modern turbines use more
sophisticated aerodynamic principles to capture the wind's energy most
effectively. The two primary aerodynamic forces at work in wind-turbine
rotors are lift, which acts perpendicular to the direction of wind flow; and
drag, which acts parallel to the direction of wind flow.

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Figure 2-6 Figure illustrate How to make the Blades of


Wind Turbine More Aerodynamic

Turbine blades are shaped a lot like airplane wings -- they use an airfoil
design. In an airfoil, one surface of the blade is somewhat rounded, while the
other is relatively flat. Lift is a pretty complex phenomenon and may in fact
require a Ph.D. in math or physics to fully grasp. But in one simplified
explanation of lift, when wind travels over the rounded, downwind face of
the blade, it has to move faster to reach the end of the blade in time to meet
the wind traveling over the flat, upwind face of the blade (facing the
direction from which the wind is blowing). Since faster moving air tends to
rise in the atmosphere, the downwind, curved surface ends up with a lowpressure pocket just above it. The low-pressure area sucks the blade in the
downwind direction, an effect known as "lift." On the upwind side of the
blade, the wind is moving slower and creating an area of higher pressure that
pushes on the blade, trying to slow it down. Like in the design of an airplane
wing, a high lift-to-drag ratio is essential in designing an efficient turbine
blade. Turbine blades are twisted so they can always present an angle that
takes advantage of the ideal lift-to-drag force ratio. See How Airplanes Work
to learn more about lift, drag and the aerodynamics of an airfoil.
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Aerodynamics is not the only design consideration at play in creating an


effective wind turbine. Size matters -- the longer the turbine blades (and
therefore the greater the diameter of the rotor), the more energy a turbine can
capture from the wind and the greater the electricity-generating capacity.
Generally speaking, doubling the rotor diameter produces a four-fold
increase in energy output. In some cases, however, in a lower-wind-speed
area, a smaller-diameter rotor can end up producing more energy than a
larger rotor because with a smaller setup, it takes less wind power to spin the
smaller generator, so the turbine can be running at full capacity almost all
the time. Tower height is a major factor in production capacity, as well. The
higher the turbine, the more energy it can capture because wind speeds
increase with elevation increase -- ground friction and ground-level objects
interrupt the flow of the wind. Scientists estimate a 12 percent increase in
wind speed with each doubling of elevation.
To calculate the amount of power a turbine can actually generate from the
wind, you need to know the wind speed at the turbine site and the turbine
power rating. Most large turbines produce their maximum power at wind
speeds around 15 meters per second (33 mph). Considering steady wind
speeds, it's the diameter of the rotor that determines how much energy a
turbine can generate. Keep in mind that as a rotor diameter increases, the
height of the tower increases as well, which means more access to faster
winds.
At 33 mph, most large turbines generate their rated power capacity, and at 45
mph (20 meters per second), most large turbines shut down. There are a
number of safety systems that can turn off a turbine if wind speeds threaten
the structure, including a remarkably simple vibration sensor used in some
turbines that basically consists of a metal ball attached to a chain, poised on
a tiny pedestal. If the turbine starts vibrating above a certain threshold, the
ball falls off the pedestal, pulling on the chain and triggering a shut down.
Probably the most commonly activated safety system in a turbine is the
"braking" system, which is triggered by above-threshold wind speeds.
These setups use a power-control system that essentially hits the brakes
when wind speeds get too high and then "release the brakes" when the wind
is back below 45 mph. Modern large-turbine designs use several different
types of braking systems:

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Pitch control - The turbine's electronic controller monitors the


turbine's power output. At wind speeds over 45 mph, the power output will
be too high, at which point the controller tells the blades to alter their pitch
so that they become unaligned with the wind. This slows the blades' rotation.
Pitch-controlled systems require the blades' mounting angle (on the rotor) to
be adjustable.

Passive stall control - The blades are mounted to the rotor at a fixed
angle but are designed so that the twists in the blades themselves will apply
the brakes once the wind becomes too fast. The blades are angled so that
winds above a certain speed will cause turbulence on the upwind side of the
blade, inducing stall. Simply stated, aerodynamic stall occurs when the
blade's angle facing the oncoming wind becomes so steep that it starts to
eliminate the force of lift, decreasing the speed of the blades.

Active stall control - The blades in this type of power-control system


are pitch able, like the blades in a pitch-controlled system. An active stall
system reads the power output the way a pitch-controlled system does, but
instead of pitching the blades out of alignment with the wind, it pitches them
to produce stall.

Globally, at least 50,000 wind turbines are producing a total of 50


billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) annually. In the next section, we'll examine the
availability of wind resources and how much electricity wind turbines can
actually produce.

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HOW DOES A WIND TURBINE WORK?

Figure 2-7 (Working of a Wind Turbine)

WIND-POWER RESOURCES AND ECONOMICS


On a global scale, wind turbines are currently generating about as much
electricity as eight large nuclear power plants. That includes not only utilityscale turbines, but also small turbines generating electricity for individual
homes or businesses (sometimes used in conjunction with photovoltaic solar
energy). A small, 10-kW-capacity turbine can generate up to 16,000 kWh per
year, and a typical U.S. household consumes about 10,000 kWh in a year.

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Figure 2-8

A typical large wind turbine can generate up to 1.8 MW of electricity, or 5.2


million KWh annually, under ideal conditions -- enough to power nearly 600
households. Still, nuclear and coal power plants can produce electricity
cheaper than wind turbines can. So why use wind energy? The two biggest
reasons for using wind to generate electricity are the most obvious ones:
Wind power is clean, and it's renewable. It doesn't release harmful gases
like CO2 and nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere the way coal does (see
How Global Warming Works, and we are in no danger of running out of
wind anytime soon. There is also the independence associated with wind
energy, as any country can generate it at home with no foreign support. And
a wind turbine can bring electricity to remote areas not served by the central
power grid.

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But there are downsides, too. Wind turbines can't always run at 100 percent
power like many other types of power plants, since wind speeds fluctuate.
Wind turbines can be noisy if you live close to a wind plant, they can be
hazardous to birds and bats, and in hard-packed desert areas there is a risk of
land erosion if you dig up the ground to install turbines. Also, since wind is a
relatively unreliable source of energy, operators of wind-power plants have
to back up the system with a small amount of reliable, non-renewable energy
for times when wind speeds die down. Some argue that the use of unclean
energy to support the production of clean energy cancels out the benefits, but
the wind industry claims that the amount of unclean energy that's necessary
to maintain a steady supply of electricity in a wind system is far too small to
defeat the benefits of generating wind power.
Potential disadvantages aside, the United States has a good number of wind
turbines installed, totaling more than 9,000 MW of generating capacity in
2006. That capacity generates in the area of 25 billion kWh of electricity,
which sounds like a lot but is actually less than 1 percent of the power
generated in the country each year. As of 2005, U.S. electricity generation
breaks down like this:

Coal: 52%

Nuclear: 20%

Natural gas: 16%

Hydropower: 7%

Other (including wind, biomass, geothermal and solar): 5%

The current total electricity generation in the United States is in the area of
3.6 trillion kWh every year. Wind has the potential to generate far more than
1 percent of that electricity. According to American Wind Energy
Association, the estimated U.S. wind-energy potential is about 10.8 trillion
kWh per year -- about equal to the amount of energy in 20 billion barrels of
oil (the current global yearly oil supply). To make wind energy feasible in a
given area, it requires minimum wind speeds of 9 mph (3 meters per second)
for small turbines and 13 mph (6 meters per second) for large turbines.
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Those wind speeds are common in the United States, although most of it is
unharnessed.

Figure 2-9

When it comes to wind turbines, placement is everything. Knowing how


much wind an area has, what the speeds are and how long those speeds last
are the crucial deciding factors in building an efficient wind farm. The
kinetic energy in wind increases exponentially in proportion to its speed, so
a small increase in wind speed is in fact a large increase in power potential.
The general rule of thumb is that with a doubling a wind speed comes an
eight-fold increase in power potential. So theoretically, a turbine in an area
with average wind speeds of 26 mph will actually generate eight times more
electricity than one set up where wind speeds average 13 mph. It's
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"theoretically" because in real-world condition, there is a limit to how much


energy a turbine can extract from the wind. It's called the Betz limit, and it's
about 59 percent. But a small increase in wind speed still leads to a
significant increase in power output.
As in most other areas of power production, when it comes to
capturing energy from the wind, efficiency comes in large numbers. Groups
of large turbines, called wind farms or wind plants, are the most costefficient use of wind-energy capacity. The most common utility-scale wind
turbines have power capacities between 700 KW and 1.8 MW, and they're
grouped together to get the most electricity out of the wind resources
available. They are typically spaced far apart in rural areas with high wind
speeds, and the small footprint of HAWTs means that agricultural use of the
land in nearly unaffected. Wind farms have capacities ranging anywhere
from a few MW to hundreds of MW. The worlds largest wind plant is the
Raheenleagh Wind Farm located off the coast of Ireland. At full capacity (it's
currently operating at partial capacity), it will have 200 turbines, a total
power rating of 520 MW and cost nearly $600 million to build.
Many large energy companies offer "green pricing" programs that let
customers pay more per kWh to use wind energy instead of energy from
"system power," which is the pool of all of the electricity produced in the
area, renewable and non-renewable. If you choose to purchase wind energy
and you live in the general vicinity of a wind farm, the electricity you use in
your home might actually be wind-generated; more often, the higher price
you pay goes to support the cost of wind energy, but the electricity you use
in your home still comes from system power. In states where the energy
market has been deregulated, consumers may be able to purchase "green
electricity" directly from a renewable-energy provider, in which case the
electricity they're using in their homes definitely does come from wind or
other renewable sources.

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Figure 2-10

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Chapter 3

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Wind Turbine Dynamic Model


The wind energy is a low cost energy source only if it is designed in a proper
scheme we have utilized all engineering aspects we worked and researched
on all of the parameters regarding the blades design, induction generator,
circuitry ,modeling, fabrication the blades we have selected are not that like
commonly used 3 spooked blade hence for reducing the maximum wind
turbulence and enhancing maximum air flow we are using cupped shaped
blades composed of PVC for flexibility placed horizontally and coupled with
the light-weight aluminum rods and joined with the shaft this method is
helpful in increasing the diameter of blades span and enhancing the torque
the shaft is fixed with the fly wheel of 10 inches of diameter and weighing
10 kg of weight the flywheel will follow the principle of gyro as mentioned
above for uniform circular momentum the gyro is coupled with the dc
dynamo with a gear of 1 inch diameter so the dc dynamo alternation
increases with a gear ratio of 1:10 means one complete rotation of gyro fly
wheel revolute the dc dynamo 10 times and hence the RPM are multiplied
for more efficiency the wind turbine must be frictionless so for decreasing
the friction two bearing plates are also coupled with the shaft for maximum
alignment and reducing friction so in this way we have completed the
mechanical works now lets discuss some of the electronic components our
turbine is innovative and designed for mobilized commercial use we
intended a sophisticated inverter circuit that converts 12V dc into 240V ac
capable of drawing 500W of power and output of pure sine wave the inverter
will charge the battery the whole system is designed on a square table of 33
feet and 33 height very easy to carry, mobilize and place according to the
wind direction the blades and shaft are detachable. We will further elaborate
each of the part we used in detail.
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Aerodynamic Blades
The aero dynamics is the most valuable thing to be painstaking while
working on the project related to the wind turbine energy generation as the
aerodynamics would be good the air friction will be less and the torque will
be more and energy generation will be more potent, the shape of blades are
not that horizontal oriented The current work focuses strictly on the analysis
and optimization of wind turbine blades. Two of the most signicant
disciplines are the aerodynamics and structures. It is common practice to use
the aerodynamic forces to perform structural analysis. This however, doesnt
strictly constitute a proper aero structural analysis. A sound analysis is only
possible when the structural deformation is returned to the aerodynamics and
the coupled solution converged. The types of structural displacements that
eect the aerodynamics are: the twist distribution, the coning angle
distribution, and in general, the change in blade length due to both bending
and centrifugal forces. The blades we are using is horizontally oriented
blades made of PVC for flexibility and light weight the blades in mega wind
turbine has a break sensor to reduce the speed of blade to oppose the
malfunctioning power generation to reduce the cost of this sensor and brake
we simply selected a cup shaped blade that remain spin on high wind
pressure within its speed limit because the rotating blade will continuously
opposing and blocking the cross wind direction due to its shape
specialization on the other hand this shape is also essential while in very
small wind the cup shape blade absorb a very little amount of air and start
rotating this innovative design is also effective in wind turbulence and wind
friction the blades has a length of 57.5 inches and the inner circumference of
6.5 inches this specific measurements are helpful in maximum air absorption
and the shape is helpful in automatically maintaining the speed of blades.

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Shafts and Coupler


A shaft is a rotating machine element which is used to transmit power from
one place to another. The power is delivered to the shaft by some tangential
force and the resultant torque (or twisting moment) set up within the shaft
permits the power to be transferred to various machines linked up to the
shaft. Various members such as pulleys, gears etc., are mounted on it.
A shaft is used for the transmission of torque and bending moment. The
shafts are usually cylindrical, but may be square or cross-shaped in section.
These shafts transmit power between the source and the machines absorbing
power. The counter shafts, line shafts, overhead shafts and all factory shafts
are transmission shafts. Since these shafts carry machine parts such as
pulleys, gears etc., therefore they are subjected to bending in addition to
twisting.
A shaft is a rotating member, usually of circular cross section, used to
transmit power or motion. It provides the axis of rotation, or oscillation, of
elements such as gears, pulleys, flywheels, cranks, sprockets, and the like
30 | P a g e

and controls the geometry of their motion. Shaft is used to transmit


mechanical energy linearly into the rotating objects in design it is usually
possible to locate the critical areas, size these to meet the strength
requirements, and then size the rest of the shaft to meet the requirements of
the shaft-supported elements.
They are a function of inertia. Inertia is a function of Geometry. For this
reason, shaft design allows a consideration of stress first. Then, after
tentative values for the shaft dimensions have been established, the
determination of the deflections and slopes can be made, we are using solid
iron shaft of 60 inches of length weighing 6kg the shaft is connected with a
fly wheel through bearing couplers the reason for choosing heavy shaft is to
increase the uniform circular motion form the center of the blades span the
shaft is also detachable and moveable part of our project.

Figure 3-3

Bearings
The bearing makes many of the machines we use every day possible.
Without bearings, we would be constantly replacing parts that wore out from
friction. In this article, we'll learn how bearings work, look at some different
kinds of bearings and explain their common uses, and explore some other
interesting uses of bearings. The use of bearings are very important because
we have to minimize the friction in shaft coupler and flywheel.

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Figure 3-4 Bearing

Dynamos
In simplest terms, a dynamo is essentially an electric motor run in reverse.
The electric motor uses magnets spinning in a metal coil to spin an axle.
Conversely, spinning the axle causes the magnets to rotate in the coil and
generates an electric current moving away from the motor. A cool
experiment to try is to buy a small motor from radio shack and put it to your
tongue. Spin it and you will feel a slight tingle coming from the connectors.
This is known as the Faraday Effect. Look up this effect to gain a fuller
understanding of motors and dynamos.

In physics, a simple generator or machine for transforming mechanical


energy into electrical energy. A dynamo in basic form consists of a powerful
field magnet between the poles of which a suitable conductor, usually in the
form of a coil (armature), is rotated. The magnetic lines of force are cut by
the rotating wire coil, which induces a current to flow through the wire. The
mechanical energy of rotation is thus converted into an electric current in the
armature.
Present-day dynamos work on the principles described by English physicist
Michael Faraday in 1830, that an electromotive force is developed in a
conductor when it is moved in a magnetic field. The dynamo that powers the
32 | P a g e

lights on a bicycle is an example of an alternator, that is, it produces


alternating current (AC).

How Does Dynamo Work?


But at the lowest level, if you move a conductor such as wire across a
magnetic field, it generates a current in the wire. All dynamos are just
different way of packaging up a lot of wires and moving them fast in a
magnetic field. There are lots of subtleties, but the underlying physics is the
same uses a permanent magnet which is rotated by a crank. The spinning
magnet is positioned so that its north and south poles passed by a piece of
iron wrapped with wire. It was discovered that the spinning magnet
produced a pulse of current in the wire each time a pole passed the coil.
Furthermore, the north and south poles of the magnet induce currents in
opposite directions. By adding a commutator, it is possible to convert the
alternating current to direct current.
In my view, and in the view of many bicycle safety experts, dynamos are
usually not an attractive option. This is for reasons of both cost and
performance. Decent dynamo light sets are much more costly than decent
battery powered lights, and the battery powered lights have vastly superior
illumination than even the most expensive dynamo powered system. The
problem is that a dynamo driven by a bicycle is very limited in the amount
of power that can be generated.

The Attraction to Dynamo Powered Lights


The attraction of dynamo powered lights is obvious; you are self-sufficient
and there is no limit to the duration that the lights can be used. Some
individuals believe that having to rely on mains power for bicycle lighting is
33 | P a g e

somehow cheating. Purists may be willing to spend the additional money for
a high end, 6 watt, dynamo system, or live with the lower performance and
lower safety provided by a 3 watt dynamo powered system. Of course a few
of these people will hotly dispute the contention that a 3 watt system is less
safe than a higher power system, but the bicycle safety experts do not agree
with this contention.
In well-lit cities where the cyclist is familiar with their route, a dynamo
system is often sufficient. However due to the power generation limits of a
bicycle dynamo, it simply is not possible to generate enough power for
lights that are bright enough for use on dark or unfamiliar routes. Another
factor is that as we age, our night vision deteriorates, and brighter lighting is
necessary for safety. Personally, I do own a dynamo. It's fine for going
around a familiar town at night, and eliminates the need to worry about
batteries. However I would never use it on dark or unfamiliar routes.

Introduction
The main purpose to explain how to construct a high performance battery
powered lighting system. Promote dynamo powered bicycle lighting
systems. While I also use dynamo lights on occasion, I believe that it's
important to understand the facts regarding dynamo systems and battery
based systems, so you can choose the most appropriate lighting system for
your needs.
These e-mails and posts show that there are some dynamo users whose
views on dynamo lights center on the idea that "I use them, so they must be
fine, and anyone that disagrees with me is wrong because I say so." When
people are so defensive, it's because they are insecure about their own
choices. I decided to add this section on dynamo powered lights, so the
reader can get an unbiased evaluation of the pros and cons of dynamo
powered lights.

34 | P a g e

Figure 3-3

Description
The generating of a current by means of a dynamo-electric machine was
briefly considered. The reversal of the direction of the current induced by the
motion of the coil of wire, as illustrated in Fig. 25, is true of all the coils of
wire comprising in part the armature of a dynamo. This is further illustrated
in Fig. 26, which shows the ends of the wire coil C - C connected with two
semicircular pieces of brass, A and B, representing the commutator, which
are in contact with flat pieces of copper, E and F, representing the brushes of
a dynamo. Assuming that the coil of wire is revolving clockwise, and cutting
the lines of force from the N to the S poles of the magnet, a current induced
in the part of the coil C is in the reverse direction from that in the part C, and
only requires a closed circuit to flow around the coil in the direction shown
by the arrows. As the coil continues to revolve until the position of the parts
35 | P a g e

C and C are reversed, the current still flows around the circuit L in the same
direction. The direction of the current in the coil has been reversed, but the
pieces E and F are now in contact with different brushes, so the current still
flows in the same direction around the main circuit. By having a large
number of coils of wire in the armature and a corresponding number of
sections in the commutator, the current in the main circuit is made
practically uniform, the current from one coil rapidly succeeding that from
the preceding coil.

Figure 3-4

In commercial dynamos the practice is to have from 24 to 50 coils, each coil


having several turns of wire, or the equivalent to several turns, as, to save
labor, several lengths of insulated wire are wound together and the ends
soldered at the proper section of the commutator. The greater the number of
coils the more uniform the current, but the size of the machine and its uses
regulate the number that are mechanically desirable.
The sections of the commutator are insulated from each other by mica or
other nonconductor.
In addition to the coils of wire in the armature of a dynamo is an iron core,
the purpose of which is to make a good magnetic path for the lines of force
passing through it from the N to the S pole of the field magnets, as the core
concentrates these lines of force, so increasing the number cut by the coils of
wire, and consequently increasing the efficiency of the dynamo. The
36 | P a g e

magnets between which the armature revolves are called the field magnets.
The function of the field magnets is to provide the magnetic lines of force,
through which the armature coils revolve. They may be permanent magnets
or electro-magnets, the latter being universally used when other than very
light work is required. The reason for this is that electro-magnets are capable
of giving a much more powerful current than permanent magnets.

Figure 3-5

In the earliest forms of dynamos the field magnets were excited by a current
from an outside source; but this form was soon superseded by the selfexciting dynamo. One form, known as the series dynamo, is shown in Fig.
27. The iron cores of the field magnets, after being once excited, retain a
certain amount of magnetism, termed residual magnetism. While small in
amount, it is yet sufficient to produce some electro-motive force, so that
when the armature revolves, a feeble current is produced, which, passing
through the field coils, increases the magnetism, which, in turn, increases the
magnetic lines of force and the resulting current from the armature coils.
This continues until the armature core and field cores are thoroughly
saturated with magnetism, and the dynamo reaches its maximum efficiency.
By experiment and calculation the size and wiring of the several parts of a
dynamo are carefully determined, the greatest output may be obtained from
a given expenditure of power, and yet not reach a point where excessive or
37 | P a g e

injurious E. M. F. is generated. The series dynamo is a form not much used,


as it is not self-regulating under a varying load. If under loaded, the E. M. F.
increases excessively; if overloaded, it decreases rapidly, - the reverse of
which is desirable under those conditions.

Figure 3-6

The wiring of the field coils is in series with the outside circuit, and the
armature and the whole current passes through them. This necessitates a few
turns of large wire for the fields. The load of a series dynamo is usually
connected in series.
Another form of wiring which overcomes certain of the objections of the
series dynamo is that known as the shunt-wound dynamo, shown in Fig. 28.
In this type the field coils form a shunt to the main circuit, only a portion of
the current from the armature passing through them. The current, therefore,
is divided or shunted, the larger part going directly to the outside circuit, and
the balance around the field coils. As this latter current is small in amount,
the wire for the field coils of a shunt-wound dynamo is small in size, but
consists of many turns. The magnetism produced by the field coils is
proportional to the current and the turns of wire, ampere turns, as they are
38 | P a g e

called. Thus 10 turns of a large wire carrying 10 amperes is the equal of 100
turns of smaller wire carrying 1 ampere, and each will exert the same
magnetizing force. By reducing the size of the wire, the ampere turns of a
shunt-wound dynamo is made equal to the ampere turns of a series dynamo
of the same size. The amount of energy required to magnetize the fields, and
the efficiency of the two types of dynamos under a normal load, should be
the same.

Figure 3-7

The shunt dynamo is more nearly self-regulating under a varying load than a
series dynamo, the load being usually in parallel. Therefore, as additional
branches in parallel in the main circuit are closed, the resistance falls, and
more current is supplied by the armature. This decreases the amount
received in the shunt or field coils, thus reducing the magnetism, which in
turn slightly reduces the current of the armature, and so regulates the output
of the dynamo. A low resistance in the armature is desirable in this type, and
also an even strength of magnetism in the fields. To regulate the voltage of a
shunt dynamo, a rheostat is generally inserted in the shunt circuit. A rheostat
is an instrument containing circuits of varying resistance, with a switch for
disconnecting any or all of them.
Another type of dynamo which is self-regulating under wide variations of
load is that known as the compound dynamo, shown in Fig. 29. This is a
39 | P a g e

combination of the two previous forms of winding. In addition to the shunt


winding of the fields, a few coils of thick wire in series with the main circuit
are added. The effect of this is to make the current in the field winding, and
consequently the magnetism produced proportional to the current flowing
from the armature. The shunt winding maintains the proper voltage and the
series winding the volume of current. It is customary, when using this form
of dynamo for electric lighting work, to have the series winding slightly in
excess of the theoretical requirements, that the voltage of the current may be
fully maintained at all parts of the main circuit. This is called over
compounding. The various parts of the above types of dynamos will be more
fully considered in subsequent chapters. We have selected the auto mobile
dynamo that is capable of generating 24V DC and power of 15 A on 450
rpm.

40 | P a g e

Figure 3-8

Gyroscopic Fly wheel

The flywheel is a heavy gear with a larger diameter the fly wheel is used to
transmit energy from one gear to another the fly wheel obeys the principle
of gyro scope the gyroscope works on a principle of inertia A flywheel is a
mechanical device with a significant moment of inertia used as a storage
device for rotational energy. Flywheels resist changes in their rotational
speed, which helps steady the rotation of the shaft when a
fluctuating torque is exerted on it by its power source such as a piston-based
(reciprocating) engine, or when an intermittent load, such as a piston pump,
is placed on it. Flywheels can be used to produce very high power pulses for
experiments, where drawing the power from the public network would
produce unacceptable spikes. A small motor can accelerate the flywheel
between the pulses.
Recently, flywheels have become the subject of extensive research as power
storage devices for uses in vehicles and power plants, the flywheel when
connected to any engine or drive dissipate more friction while in our wind
turbine the fly wheel is used for decreasing friction using the bearing the fly
wheel itself emits the maximum frictionless inertial momentum, our fly
wheel is of 10 inches of diameter and weighing 8 kg possess more uniform
acceleration through this flywheel the blades are able to revolute even in
very small wind pressure because of gyroscopic principle Mechanical
41 | P a g e

gyroscopes typically comprise a spinning wheel or disc in which the axle is


free to assume any orientation. Although the orientation of the spin axis
changes in response to an external torque, the amount of change and the
direction of the change is less and in a different direction than it would be if
the disk were not spinning. When mounted in a gimbals (which minimizes
external torque), the orientation of the spin axis remains nearly fixed,
regardless of the mounting platform's motion.

Figure 3-9

DC Inverter

42 | P a g e

The dc inverter is capable of converting the input 12-13 DC volts into 240
volts AC the inverter is proficient in generating sine wave of 50-60HZ. This
means that the current flows continuously from the negative terminal of the
battery, through the completed circuit and back to the positive terminal of
the battery. The flow is in one direction only, hence the name direct current.
The ability to provide direct current power is inherent to the nature of
batteries. Direct current is very useful, but batteries can generally only
provide relatively low-voltage DC power. Many devices need more power to
function properly than DC can provide. They're designed to run on the 120volt AC power supplied to homes in the U.S. Alternating current or AC,
constantly changes polarity, sending current one way through the circuit,
then reversing and sending it the other way. It does this very quickly 60
times per second in most U.S. electrical systems. AC power works well at
high voltages, and can be "stepped up" in voltage by a transformer more
easily than direct current. An inverter increases the DC voltage, and then
changes it to alternating current before sending it out to power a device.
These devices were initially designed to do the opposite to convert
alternating current into direct current. Since these converters could basically
be run in reverse to accomplish the opposite effect, they were called
inverters. The earlier dc inverters were composed of electromagnetic devices
these when the DC voltage applied on magnet it changes the flow of current
by pulling the conducting arm this generates the buzzing sound, now a days
the inverters are made of oscillator circuit. Theyre made with transistors or
semiconductors, so there's no longer the need for a spring arm flipping back
and forth to alternate the current. Its not quite as simple as that, however.
Alternating current forms a sine wave. The output of an inverter is a very
square wave, not like the smooth, round wave of a perfect sine. Some
devices are inherently sensitive to the signal produced by an AC wave.
Typically, these are devices that receive or broadcast some kind of signal,
such as audio or video equipment, navigation devices or sensitive scientific
equipment. You can see or hear the square waveform on a television as lines
on the screen or a steady buzz or hum. Cleaning up the sine wave requires a
series of filters, inductors and capacitors. Inexpensive inverters have little or
43 | P a g e

no filtering. The alternating current they produce has a very square wave,
which is fine if you just want to make coffee or run something with a simple
electric motor. If you need a smoother sine wave, you'll need an inverter
with better filtering. Of course, better filtering also costs a little more.
Inverters can get extremely expensive, even costing thousands of dollars,
that is, if you're looking for an inverter with a smooth sine. The good news:
Given a large enough budget, you can purchase an AC power inverter that
produces virtually perfect AC sine wave. In fact, some high-end DC to AC
inverters can make sine waves that are even smoother than the AC power
supplied to your house. The dc inverter is powered up with the standard dry
automobile battery the inverter is MOSFET based sine wave generator the
inverter can draw 500W of current the inverter is secured by 30A circuit
breaker to prevent circuit.

Figure 3-10

44 | P a g e

Chapter 4

45 | P a g e

Testing results

The testing is a procedure occurs when all of the designing implementation


and assembling completed to test the project we have to first test each and
every component individually including mechanical, electronic, fabrication,
blade arrangements

Mechanical Testing

The mechanical components required proper arrangement and less friction


such as the shaft, when selecting shaft this is necessary to select the shaft
according to the size of blades also keeping the shaft aligned and adjusting
weight of shaft the shaft was aligned in a single way but then it is divided
into two parts the upper part of the shaft is for setting up the blades and rods
and the lower part of the shaft is for installing the gyroscopic flywheel the
bearings are also centered along the shaft

Electronic Testing:

The inverter circuit is also tested several times because of improper sine
wave generation the sine wave is necessary for AC supply the most devices
will work just fine without a pure sine wave inverter, but it is a good idea to
think about the issue before making a purchase anyway. First, its important
to understand why the differences between pure sine wave inverters
46 | P a g e

and modified sine wave inverters can cause problems. The two main issues
at hand are efficiency and undesired interference from the additional
harmonics present in a modified sine wave. That means that a pure sine
wave inverter is good at two things: efficiently powering devices that use the
alternating current input without rectifying it first, and powering devices like
radios that can suffer from interference. This is necessary for the inverter to
generate the sine wave because most electronic devices run just fine on a
modified sine wave. For example, laptop computers, cell phone chargers,
and all other equipment that uses a rectifier or AC/DC adapter to take an AC
input and output DC to the device will typically work just fine without a
pure sine wave inverter. Of course, with a lot of those devices you can just
cut out the middleman and use a DC to DC converter that steps the 12v DC
from your trucks electrical system either up or down without first
converting it to AC before converting it back to DC. This is the more
efficient route to go, so it might be worth looking into if DC adapters are
available for any of your electronic devices. The sine wave can be obtained
by placing oscillator circuit and MOSFET.

Fabrication

The fabrication is attempted for the table that occupies the whole
equipments including all the mechanical and electronic wiring the
fabrication is done on steel and electrode welded and have a very light
weight and easy to carry

Normal Testing

47 | P a g e

The final testing happened after a lot of changing, alteration and replacing
components for the final testing we assured that each and every mechanical,
electronic and wiring components are in proper working condition and able
to deliver the best output after checking the final mechanical lubrication we
at first run the turbine without magnetic load means without connecting
dynamo this test is for checking the rotation of blades and rotation per
minute in no load conditions by checking in no load we determined that
mechanical components are in proper condition ,then we test the turbine in
normal wind pressure conditions the result was a success by the grace of
Almighty Allah the turbine can swivel even in very small wind pressure.

Final Testing

The final testing is done under all conditions like normal wind pressure and
high wind pressure in the final testing we also have to check the output
power generation and analyze the variation according to the change occur in
wind direction and speed , in final testing the biggest problem we faced was
the magnetic load the flywheel after coupled by dynamo would about to
produce more magnetic friction to reduce the friction we decided to twist the
blades and loosen the gear friction by increasing the distance between the
flywheel and the dynamo gear this result in better performance, after
connecting the inverter and battery we finally start analyzing the power
generation the battery started charging on 13Volts and also capable of
drawing load of 500 watts the normal RPM of fly wheel was 53 rotation per
48 | P a g e

minute by converting the gear ratio the dynamo is rotating on 530 RPM
these results occurred in normal wind pressure.

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Chapter 5

Wind Power Resources & Economics


Introduction:
The demand for energy has increased in tremendous proportions in the last
few decades in Pakistan and is expected to increase further in the coming
50 | P a g e

years. The primary sources of energy available in Pakistan are oil, natural
gas, hydro and nuclear power. At present oil accounts for approximately
45% of total commercial energy supply. The share of natural gas is 34%
while that of hydro power remains roughly at 15%. The increase in cost of
fossil fuel and the various environmental problems of large scale power
generation have led to increased appreciation of the potential of electricity
generation from non-conventional alternate sources. This has provided the
planners and economists to find out other low cost energy resources.
Wind and Solar energies are the possible clean and low cost renewable
resources available in the country. Wind power provides opportunity to
reduce dependence on imported fossil fuel and at the same time expands the
power supply capacity to remote locations where grid expansion is not
practical.

The Benefits of Wind Energy


Wind energy is an ideal renewable energy because:
It is a pollution-free, infinitely sustainable form of energy
It doesnt require fuel as an input for its operators.
It doesnt create greenhouse gasses and doesnt produce toxic or
radioactive waste.
When large arrays of wind turbines are installed on farmland, only
about 2% of the land areas required for the wind turbines and the rest
is available for farming, livestock, and other uses.
Wind Energy increases the land value as the landowners often receive
payment for the use of their land, which enhances their income and
increases the value of the land.
Ownership of wind turbine generators by individuals and the
community allows people to participate directly in the preservation of
our environment.
Each megawatt-hour of electricity that is generated by wind energy
helps to reduce 0.8 to 0.9tons of greenhouse gas emissions that are
produced by coal or diesel fuel generation each year.
Wind energy is environmental friendly and does not present any
significant hazard to birds or other wildlife.

International Scenario
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The graph below (values taken from Global Wind Energy Council Data)
shows the list of countries according to the total installed capacity. China is
top on which had installed capacity of almost 75,324 MW in 2012 and as
compared to 404 MW in 2001. Similarly USA had installed capacity of
60,007 MW in 2012 in comparison of 2001 that was only 4,275. Spain has
always inclined towards environmental protection and wide spread use of
wind turbine technology restates the nations requirements of green energy.
It started with almost 3,337 MW in 2001installed capacity and increased up
to 22,796 MW in 2012. Indias percentage used to increase in every year as
per the below table and jumped from 1,456 MW in 2001 to almost 18,421
MW in 2012. In future it is projected that India could actually surpass bigger
and more developed nations that use alternative energy.

Total International Installed Capacity

Wind Resources in Pakistan


In Pakistan, first wind power generation plant of 50 MW was inaugurated in
December 2012 and started full production in 2013. According to official
documents, the wind power potential in Pakistan that has been identified in
Sindh and Balochistan is more than 50,000 MW while Punjab has potential
of producing almost 1,000 MW.
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Recently conducted survey of Wind Power Potential along coastal areas of


the country by Pakistan. Meteorological Department (PMD), indicates that
potential exists for harvesting wind energy using currently available
technologies, especially along Sindh coast. Gharo, one of the sites in Sindh
where the wind data have been recorded and studied by PMD, has been
selected for this feasibility study. The wind measurements at Gharo have
been carried out during 24 months period. The annual mean wind speed is
estimated to be 6.86m/s at 50 meter above ground level. The annual power
density of area is 408.6 W/m2, which bring the site into good category of
power potential it also means this area is suitable for large economically
viable wind farm.
In recent years, the government has completed several small projects to
demonstrate that wind energy is viable in the country. In Mirpur Sakro, 85
micro turbines have been installed to power 356 homes. In Kund Malir, 40
turbines have been installed, which power 111 homes. The Alternative
Energy Development Board (AEDB) has also acquired 18,000 acres for the
installation of more wind turbines.

Use of Wind Energy in Pakistan


Lighting solution (micro wind turbines) to the poor people (individuals and
community based) of remote areas in mosques, schools, hospitals and public
places on need basis.
Supply of clean drinking water (wind mill water pumping systems) to the
poor communities living in remote areas for domestic and agriculture
purpose.

Incentive by Government for Wind Power Project Development in


Pakistan

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Government of Pakistan's "Policy for Development of Renewable Energy


for Power Generation" offers the following incentives for setting up Wind
IPPs:
Upfront tariff US Cents14.6628/Kwh.
Facilitation for procurement / lease of land for wind farms provided
by AEDB (unheard of another territories around the world) on
extremely cheap rates offered for land for Wind farms (Euro 7/- only
per acre per year.
Availability of land is guaranteed for fast track projects.
Wind Risk (risk of variability of wind speed).
Guaranteed Electricity Purchase.
Grid provision is the responsibility of the purchaser
Protection against political risk.
Attractive Tariff (Cost plus 15% ROE), indexed to inflation &
exchange rate variation (Rupee/ Dollar).
Euro / Dollar Parity allowed.
Carbon Credits available.
No Import Duties on Equipment.
Exemption on Income Tax / Withholding Tax and Sales Tax.
Repatriation of Equity along with dividends freely allowed.
Permission to issue corporate registered bonds.
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In order to attract more investment in this sector, Government of Pakistan is


in process of revising the existing policy which would be announced shortly.

Cost of the Project

S. No
1

Components
24 V DC Dynamo

Quantity
01

Price (PKR)
4,500

2
3
4
5
6
7

Shafts
Flywheel
Bearings
Bearing Mountings
Steel disc
Steel Channel

02
01
02
02
02
16

5,000
6,000
1,500
2,000
4,000
8,000

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

PVC Pipe (Blades)


DC Inverter
Battery (65 Ampere)
Wiring
Panel box
Fabrication
AC / DC Meters
Miscellaneous

08
01
01
01
01

4,200
3,500
5,500
2,600
5,200
20,000
4000
14,000

04

Total

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Rs. 70,000

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Chapter 6

Conclusion
In conclusion, a wind turbine is a machine that converts the wind kinetic
energy into electricity. The major components of a wind turbine are: the
rotor, the gearbox, the generator, the control and protection system, the
tower and the foundation. Wind turbines are classified into two types of
category: horizontal axis wind turbine and vertical axis wind turbine. The
major advantage for a HAWT is the high efficiency it has; the disadvantage
is the maintenance and repair at high altitude. The advantage of a VAWT is
that the wind can come from any direction; the disadvantage is the height
limitations. Aerodynamically, the wind turns the rotor blades of the HAWT
because of the pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the
airfoil. For the VAWT, it is the drag that acts on the blades and turns the
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rotor blades. Today, wind power is economically competitive compared to


traditional energy because the cost of wind turbines is getting cheaper
because of technology advancement and government incentives. It also
creates jobs and generates extra personal and tax income. Wind energy is
also a renewable and pollution-free energy which can help us reduce the
emissions of greenhouse gases. I believe that wind energy can become an
important asset to solve climate change and global warming issues in the
future.

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Chapter 7

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Future Innovation

Inflatable Alteros Device

The alteros device is based on a helium-filled cushion or an inflatable shell


to facilitate it to ascend towards the height and higher altitudes where wind
pressure is high , this gives it contact to stronger and more consistent winds
than tower-mounted turbines, and the power generated could be send to the
ground by tethers. This could reduce energy costs by up to 65% by those
high altitude winds, and due to the unique design, installation time can be
reduced from weeks to just days.

Figure 7-5
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Wind Harvester

The new wind Harvester is based on a reciprocating motion that uses


horizontal aero foils similar to those used on aero planes. It is virtually noisefree and can generate electricity at a low speed, which may result in less
opposition to new installations. It will also be operational at higher wind speeds
than current wind turbines.

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Figure 7-6

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Wind Stalk

The wind stalk is a new research wind energy method that doesnt need any
blades , it has a piezoelectric disk the disk connected by a wire and the wire
is further connected by electrodes as the wind blow these piezoelectric disk
forced in compression this generate electricity in electrodes.

Figure 7-7

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Wind Farms

The concept of wind farm is not very new but researches claims that it can
generate more power than nuclear energy the wind farm uses several of wind
turbine installed as a bank and connected to generate like the power bank
China has a capacity of over 5,000 MW of power with a goal of 20,000 MW
by 2020.

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Future Improvements
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In future we will try to promote awareness about wind turbine and


renewable energy, in future we will also increase and improve the size of
blades and diameter of fly wheel. This will increase more voltages and
current and Rotation Per Minute, the power will also be increased by
reducing magnetic friction the magnetic friction of dynamo can only be
decreased by increasing the die electric median between the armature and
magnets, the main purpose of improvement of design is to generate more
power the inverter circuit transformer efficiency will also improve the more
power consumption factor.

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Reference:
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5965503&url=http
%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber
%3D5965503
http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/3/1/015001
http://docs.wind-watch.org/panja-effectonclouds.pdf

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