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1. Introductory Paragraph
- Paraphrase the question
- Outline the feature: Introduce how the data is organized, then state the most noticeable features?
Look for significant features such as trends, which stand out in a graph, key stages in a process or
procedure, important characteristics of an object.
Flow chart/ process: It is easier to summarize how many stages involved in the figure.

It is clear that there are six distinct stages in this process, from the initial collection of waste paper
to the eventual production of usable paper.
Completing the following six stages results in the requirements fulfillment.
The enrolments are for two years, 2003 and 2004.
Two diplomas increased their share of total enrolments (Business and Science), while three
(Commerce, Design and IT) decreased.

Other graphs: Describe the most general trends, including the most striking characteristics, highest, lowest,
2. Body Paragraphs
- Para. 1: Main feature 1 + supporting details + comparison where relevant.
- Para. 2: Main feature 2 + supporting details + comparison where relevant.
A grouping work may be needed to limit the number of paragraphs not greater than 3. In general,
grouping based on items of the horizontal axe is more comfortable for making comparison.

Just learn one or two different ways to write the same thing. For example:

shows = illustrates / compares (if the graph is comparing)

graph = line graph/ column graph/ bar graph...
chart = bar chart / pie chart....
the number of = the figure for
increased = rose / saw an increase / there was a rise
Many = more and more, an increasing/growing number of people, many a person
Think = believe, presume, take the view that, hold a view
proportion = percentage
information = data
people in the USA = Americans
from 1999 to 2009 = between 1999 and 2009 = over a period of 10 years
how to produce = the process of producing
spending =spent=paid out

More and more people believe that living in a city is slightly better than living in a countryside
An increasing number of people presume living in a city is slightly better than living in a country side.
The graph below shows the proportion of the population aged 65 and over between 1940 and 2040 in
three different countries.
---> (Graph = line graph)(Shows = compares, illustrates)(Proportion of = percentage of, the figure
for)(The population = people, the elderly)(Between 1940 and 2040 = from 1940 to 2040, over a period of
100 years)
---> The line graph compares the percentage of people aged 65 and over from 1940 to 2040 in three
---> The line graph illustrates the figure for the elderly aged 65 and over in three countries over a period
of 100 years
1. How many
If the introduction contains the phrase the number of or the quantities of, you can reword it by
changing the phrase to how many.
{An example introduction from the official IELTS Practice Materials}
The graph below shows the number of
---> The graph illustrates how many noise
complaints made about noise to Environmental
complaints were made to Environmental Health
Health authorities in the city of Newtown
authorities in Newtown from 1980 to 1996.
between 1980 and 1996.

{An example introduction from the book Cambridge IELTS 8}
The graph shows the quantities of goods
---> The graph provides information about how
transported in the UK between 1974 and 2002 by many goods were transported in the UK by road,
four different modes of transport.
water, rail and pipeline from 1974 to 2002.
2. What proportions of
If the introduction contains the phrase the proportions of, you can reword it by changing the phrase to
what proportions of.
{ An example introduction from the official IELTS Practice Materials:}
The charts show the proportions of the worlds
---> The charts show what proportions of the
oil resources held in different areas, together
worlds oil resources are held, and what
with the proportions consumed annually in the
proportions are used annually, in different
same areas.
3. How __ changed
If the introduction contains the phrase the changes in (e.g. the changes in annual spending), you can
reword it by changing the phrase to how __ changed (e.g. how annual spending changed).
{An example introduction from the book Cambridge IELTS 8}
The three pie charts show the changes in annual
---> The three pie charts illustrate how annual
spending by a particular UK school in 1981, 1991
spending by a school in the UK changed every 10
and 2001.
years from 1981 to 2001.
{An example introduction from the book Cambridge IELTS 6}
The table gives information about changes in
---> The table shows how the types of travel
modes of travel in England between 1985 and
changed in England from 1985 to 2000.
4. The process of
If the introduction contains the phrase the stages in, you can reword it by changing the phrase to the
process of and vice versa.
{An example introduction from the book Cambridge IELTS 8}
The diagrams show the life cycle of the silk worm ---> The diagrams show the different stages in the
and the stages in the production of silk.
life of the silk worm and the process of producing
silk cloth.
{An example introduction from the Official IELTS Practice Materials }
The diagram shows the process of using water to ---> The diagram illustrates the stages in the
produce electricity.
production of hydroelectricity.

Cam 8 Test 1
The pie chart below shows the main reasons why agriculture land become less productive. The table
shows how these causes affected three regions of the world during the 1900s.
---> The pie chart illustrates the major reasons caused the reduction in agricultural products from land.
These impacts on three areas of the world are then specified in a table.
Cam 8 Test 3
The diagrams below show the stages and equipment used in the cement-making process, and how
cement is used to produce concrete for building purposes.
---> The two figures illustrate the processes of making cement and producing concrete for construction.
Cam 9 Test 1
The two maps below show an island, before and after the construction of some tourist facilities.
---> (drawings) (illustrated)(an island)(changes)(installation)(amenities for tourism)
---> Significant changes due to installation of amenities for tourism are illustrated in the two drawings of
an island.
Cam 9 Test 2
The chart below shows the total number of minutes (in billions) of telephone calls in the UK, divided into
three categories, from 1995-2002.
---> (The column chart)(illustrate)(how many minutes of communication performed by telephone calls,
which are categorized into three types, in the UK for a period from 1995 to 2002)

The column chart illustrates how many minutes (in billions) of telephone calls, which were
categorized into three types, were made between 1995 and 2002 in the UK.
The column chart illustrates the time spent by UK residents on different types of telephone calls
between 1995 and 2002.

Cam 9 Test 3
The charts below give information on the ages of the populations of Yemen and Italy in 2000 and
projections for 2050.
---> The pie charts show the age structures of populations of Yemen and Italy in the year 2000 and a
estimate for 2050.
Cam 9 Test 4
The graph below gives information from a 2008 report about consumption of energy in the USA since
1980 projections until 2030.
---> The line graph illustrates how energy consumed in the USA changed from 1980 to 2008, and
projected changes to 2030.

IELTS Practice Tests Plus 1 Test 1
The charts below show the results of a survey of adult education. The first chart shows the reasons why
adults decide to study. The pie chart shows how people think the costs of adult education should be
---> The column chart illustrates some reasons of adults decision for study. After that peoples thought
about a shared cost for adults education is demonstrated by a pie chart.
IELTS Practice Tests Plus 1 Test 2
The diagram below shows how the Australian Bureau of Meteorology collects up-to-the-minute
information on the weather in order to produce reliable forecasts.
---> The figure illustrates the way for collecting weather information in minute resolution of the
Australian Bureau of Meteorology so as to forecast reliably.
IELTS Practice Tests Plus 1 Test 3
The chart below shows the amount of money per week spent on fast foods in Britain. The graph shows
the trends in consumption of fast foods.
---> The column chart illustrates how much money was used to buy fast food every week by British
citizens. How the consumption of this product changed from 1970 to 1990 is then demonstrated by a
line graph.
IELTS Practice Tests Plus 1 Test 4
Chorleywood is a village near London whose population has increased steadily since the middle of the
nineteenth century. The map below shows the development of the village.
---> The drawing illustrates how Chorleywood, a village not far from London and having a rising number
of inhabitants, was developed from 1868 to 1994.
IELTS Writing 50 - Sample 1
The charts below show the main reasons for study among students of different age group and the
amount of support they received from employers.
---> The first column chart illustrates the major reasons why students of difference age groups study and
the second one presents how much their employers support them.
IELTS Writing 50 - Sample 2
The graph and table below give information about water use worldwide and water consumption in two
different countries.
---> The line graph shows how the amount of water was used around the world during the twentieth
....(about the graph)
Water consumed in two particular countries is illustrated in the table.

...(about the table)
IELTS Writing 50 - Sample 3
The diagram below shows how a central heating system in a house works.
---> The figure illustrates the operation principle of a central heating system installed at a house.
IELTS Writing 50 - Sample 5
The table below provides information on rental charges and salaries in three areas of London.
---> The table shows two data sets: weekly cost and yearly income required for renting one, two or three
bedrooms in three regions of London.

You need to add linker to help improve cohesion and coherence; in other words, its flow. Here are some
useful expressions: in addition, furthermore, however, although.

Over this span of 28 years, the quantities of goods transported by road, water and pipeline have
all increased while the quantity transported by rail has remained almost constant at about 40
million tones. (Cam 8 test 4).
In fact there is considerable fluctuation from country to country.
In term of staff numbers, the figures are fairly similar, although the fifth company has a much
higher number of staff than the other four.


Look at examples below.

Main feature: men liked playing most, while women liked shopping in the sparse time.
Organized data: Group 1 with more men than women (computer games, watching TV, cinema, and gym),
group 2 with more women than men (shopping, going out with friends, listening to music, and reading).

There are two groups should be considered: the first ten years from 1978 to 1988: fluctuation, the
remaining time from 1988 to 2000: the overall trend is gradual decline.

There are two groups: Group 1 with huge amount of carbon dioxide generation: Industry, Consumer, and
Transportation. Group 2 with waste combustion and other sectors generates much lower proportion.
In each group, the order should start from the highest to lowest proportion.

Look at the following table: Group 1: highest + second, Group 2: middle, Group 3: the lowest