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SHRI VISHNU ENGINEERING COLLEGE FOR WOMEN: BHIMAVARAM

(AUTONOMOUS)
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
Class: IV B.Tech I Semester

Branch: EEE - A

Sub: Energy Audit, Conservation & Management


HANDOUT
Unit -I Basic Principles of Energy Audit
Energy audit definitions, Concept, Types: Good energy management begins with an energy audit.
As per the Energy Conservation Act, 2001, Energy Audit is defined as the verification, monitoring and
analysis of use of energy including submission of technical report containing recommendations for
improving energy efficiency with cost benefit analysis and an action plan to reduce energy consumption.
The type of Energy Audit to be performed depends on: Function and type of industry, Depth to which
final audit is needed and potential and magnitude of cost reduction desired
Type-1: Macro Audit, Micro Audit, Billing Audit, Field Audit
Type-2: Preliminary Energy Audit (PEA), Detailed Energy Audit (DEA)
Various steps in energy audit are Planning/ Pre-Audit study, Basic data collection, Equipment test data,
Data analysis, No/ low cost recommendations, Capital investment, Action plan, Report.

Pie charts, Sankey diagrams, Load Profiles: A pie chart is another type of chart that can be used for
graphical analysis of historical energy use and cost data. A pie chart can be used to show the share of
various types of energy use and their costs graphically.
In a Sankey diagram, the energy losses/outflows, the energy gains/inflows, as well as the useful energy in
a given energy system are represented quantitatively and in proportion to the total energy inflow,
according to existing data from energy bills and invoices, calculations and in -site measurements in the
plant. Presenting the energy flows visually with the aid of the Sankey diagram helps to locate the more
critical energy-consuming areas of the energy system and, at the same time, to identify the sources that
lead to energy losses.
A graph showing the load shape of a device or equipment over time is known as load/demand profile or
diagram. If such a diagram is plotted for the load requirements of all the electricity -using equipment in a
plant, it can be useful for determining the characteristics of the power requirements and for understanding
the power supply economics.
Energy conservation schemes: Short term, medium term and long term schemes.
Short term: Involves no or little capital expenditure
Medium term: Low cost investments to improve existing equipment & pay back period< 2 years
Long term: Involve high capital costs leading to implementation of new technologies.
References: Energy Management by W.R. Murphy & G. McKay Butterworth-Heinemann Publications
http://www.em-ea.org/Guide%20Books/Book-1/1.3%20Energy%20management%20&%20Audit.pdf

SHRI VISHNU ENGINEERING COLLEGE FOR WOMEN: BHIMAVARAM


(AUTONOMOUS)
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
Class: IV B.Tech I Semester

Branch: EEE

Sub: Energy Audit, Conservation & Management


HANDOUT
Unit II Energy Management
Principles of energy management: The strategy of adjusting and optimizing energy, using systems and
procedures so as to reduce energy requirements per unit of output while holding constant or reducing
total costs of producing the output from these systems. The objective of Energy Management is to
achieve and maintain optimum energy procurement and utilisation, throughout the organization and:

To minimise energy costs / waste without affecting production

To minimise environmental effects.

& quality

Organizing energy management program: Planning is one of the most important parts of the energy
management program. By planning to have events periodically through the year, a continued emphasis
will be placed on energy management. Such events can be training programs, audits, planning sessions,
demonstrations, research projects, lectures etc.
Energy manager qualities and functions: The energy manager provides leadership in the development of
policy on energy management action plan and plays a key role in the formulation of corporate energy
policy. Energy managers also perform the activities related with plant energy management, project
management, personnel management, and financial management at the plant level.
The essential qualification for a certified energy manager and certified energy auditor would be the
passing of a national level certification examination which will be conducted under the aegis of Bureau of
Energy Efficiency.
Responsibilities and Duties of Energy Manager are highlighted below:
Establish an energy conservation cell & prepare an annual activity plan
Develop and manage training programme for energy efficiency at operating levels
Develop integrated system of energy efficiency and environmental improvement
Initiate activities to improve monitoring and process control to reduce energy costs
Co-ordinate implementation of energy audit/efficiency improvement projects through external
agencies
Establish / participate in information exchange with other energy managers of the same sector
through
association
Provide information to BEE and Designated Agency of the respective States as demanded in
the Act
Check list for top management: EA Report, Action Plan, Implementation after checking the technical
feasibility and economical viability etc.

References: Energy Management by W.R. Murphy & G. McKay Butterworth-Heinemann


Publicationshttp://www.em-ea.org/Guide%20Books/Book-1/1.3%20Energy%20management%20&
%20Audit.pdf
http://www.energymanagertraining.com/new_faq.php

SHRI VISHNU ENGINEERING COLLEGE FOR WOMEN: BHIMAVARAM


(AUTONOMOUS)
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
Class: IV B.Tech I Semester

Branch: EEE

Sub: Energy Audit, Conservation & Management


HANDOUT
UNIT - III Lighting
The aim of artificial light is to supplement day light or to replace it, in homes, offices, factories or
recreation centres good illumination increases production, reduces fatigue, increase efficiency and safety.
Introduction
Modification & Replacement of existing systems from the energy conservation point of view
Terms used in illumination & Definitions
Calculation of Illumination level
llumination: When light falls upon any surface, the phenomenon is called illumination. It is defined on
the no. of lumens falling on the surface per unit area. Symbol is E and is measured in lumen per square
meter or Lux or meter candle.
Illumination =

(lumen)
F

A
( Area )

Lumens = Candle Power Solid angle


Solid angle =

Area
r2

Illumination

Candle Power Area


2
Area
r

CandlePower
r2

Candle Power
Square of dis tan ce

ie

CP
d2

Types of lamps: MV and SV lamps, Comparison between tungsten filament lamps and
fluorescent tubes
Basic principles of light control
Types and design of lighting
Types light fittings
Flood lighting , White light LED & conducting polymers
Energy conservation measuresReferences: Utilization of Electrical Power including Electric drives and
Electric traction by N.V.Suryanarayana, New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers, 1996.
Generation, Distribution and Utilization of electrical Energy by C.L. Wadhwa, New Age International
(P) Limited, Publishers, 1997.
www.nptel.ac.in

SHRI VISHNU ENGINEERING COLLEGE FOR WOMEN: BHIMAVARAM


(AUTONOMOUS)
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
Class: IV B.Tech I Semester

Branch: EEE

Sub: Energy Audit, Conservation & Management


HANDOUT

Unit - IV Power Factor


Most of the plant or practical loads are Inductive and require a magnetic field to operate such as Motors,
Transformers, Florescent lighting etc. The magnetic field is necessary, but produces no useful work. The
utility must supply the power to produce the magnetic field and the power to produce the useful work and
the pay is for all of it!
Power factor improvement methods: A power factor reading close to unity means that electrical power is
being utilized effectively, while a low power factor indicates poor utilization of electrical power. Power
Factor Correction Capacitors (PFCC) provides an economical means for improving Energy utilization.
Location of capacitors: Capacitors installed near the loads in a plant are the most economical and
efficient way of supplying these kilo VARs. Low voltage capacitors is traditionally a high reliability
maintenance-free device. After careful consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of the various
installation options below, care must be taken in sizing and placing power factor correction capacitors.
Leading power factor, greater than 100%, must be avoided.
Power factor with non linear loads: Almost anything electronic produces non linear current; hence they
are called as non-linear loads. These non-linear loads include: adjustable speed drives, programmable
controllers, induction furnaces, computers, and uninterruptible power supplies.
Effect of harmonics on power factor: System harmonics should be considered when applying power
factor correction capacitors. Although capacitors do not generate harmonics, under certain conditions they
can amplify existing harmonics. Capacitors can be used successfully with nonlinear loads when harmonic
resonant conditions are avoided. To minimize the occurrence of harmonic resonance, the resonant
harmonic of the system including the capacitor should be estimated. The resonant frequency can be
calculated by:

Where, h = calculated system harmonic, kVAsc = short circuit power of the system
kVAR = rating of the capacitor
Motor controller: Improves energy efficiency.
References: Utilization of Electrical Power including Electric drives and Electric traction by
N.V.Suryanarayana, New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers, 1996.
Generation, Distribution and Utilization of electrical Energy by C.L. Wadhwa, New Age International
(P) Limited, Publishers, 1997.
www.nptel.ac.in

SHRI VISHNU ENGINEERING COLLEGE FOR WOMEN: BHIMAVARAM


(AUTONOMOUS)
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
Class: IV B.Tech I Semester

Branch: EEE

Sub: Energy Audit, Conservation & Management


HANDOUT
Unit V Energy Instruments
The energy audit such as identification and quantification of energy necessitates
measurements. These measurements require the use of instruments. The parameters generally
monitored during energy audit may include the Basic Electrical Parameters in AC & DC systems
such as Voltage (V), Current (I), Power factor, Active power (kW), apparent power (demand)
(kVA), Reactive power (kVAr), Energy consumption (kWh), Frequency (Hz), Harmonics, etc.
Parameters of importance other than electrical such as temperature & heat flow, radiation, air
and gas flow, liquid flow, RPM, air velocity, noise and vibration, dust concentration, TDS, PH,
moisture content, relative humidity, flue gas analysis CO2, O2, CO, SOx, NOx, combustion
efficiency etc.
The term Energy Audit is now common currency, with most understanding what it means but
perhaps not knowing and how to perform one; the aim of this document is to explain an
Electricity Energy Audit using the Electrocorder range of data loggers. The ultimate aim of an
Energy Audit should be to reduce usage.
Key instruments for energy audit are listed below.
Wattmeters, Dataloggers, Thermocouples, Pyrometers, Lux meters, Tongue testers, Power
analysers & recorders, Ultrasonic flow meters, Flue gas analysers, Multifunction kits,
Stroboscopes, Digital thermometers, Fyrite kits, Temperature & RH recorders

References: Handbook of Energy Audits by Albert Thumann, William J. Younger, Terry Niehus

SHRI VISHNU ENGINEERING COLLEGE FOR WOMEN: BHIMAVARAM


(AUTONOMOUS)
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
Class: IV B.Tech I Semester

Branch: EEE

Sub: Energy Audit, Conservation & Management


HANDOUT
Unit VI Space Heating and Ventilation
When thinking about energy efficiency, one of the most important decisions to be made regarding a new
home is the type of heating and cooling system to install. Equally critical to consider is the selection of
the heating and cooling contractor.
The operating efficiency of a system depends as much on proper installation as it does on the
performance rating of the equipment.
Improper design and improper installation of the HVAC system have negative impacts on personal
comfort and on energy bills. Improper design and installation of a HVAC system can dramatically
degrade the quality of air in a home.
Poorly designed and poorly installed ducts can create dangerous conditions that may reduce comfort,
degrade indoor air quality, or even threaten the health of the homeowners.
Many heating & cooling systems have certain supporting equipment in common, such as thermostats and
ducts, which provide opportunities for saving energy
The size of a heating or cooling system for a building is determined on the basis of the desired indoor
conditions that must be maintained based on the outdoor conditions that exist at that location.
Energy efficiency measures for buildings are approaches through which the energy consumption of a
building can be reduced while maintaining or improving the level of comfort in the building. They
can typically be categorized into:
Reducing heating demand;
Reducing cooling demand;
Reducing the energy requirements for ventilation;
Reducing energy use for lighting;
Reducing energy used for heating water;
Reducing electricity consumption of office equipment and appliances;
Good housekeeping and people solutions.
References: Handbook of Energy Audits by Albert Thumann, William J. Younger, Terry Niehus

SHRI VISHNU ENGINEERING COLLEGE FOR WOMEN: BHIMAVARAM


(AUTONOMOUS)
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
Class: IV B.Tech I Semester

Branch: EEE

Sub: Energy Audit, Conservation & Management


HANDOUT
Unit VII & VIII Energy Economics
Introduction
Most investments involve an initial payment in return for future income. This is especially true of
investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy systems, both of which typically require an upfront investment in equipment in order to derive future savings or future income. In order to evaluate
these investments, it is necessary to understand how the value of money changes over time. Energy
Economics describes the methods used to evaluate investments which contain cash flows at different
times.
Depreciation methods: There are several methods for calculating depreciation, generally based on either
the passage of ime or the level of activity (or use) of the asset. The following five methods are commonly
used.
Simple payback method: The simplest index of economic feasibility, and one that is very widely used, is
simple payback. Simple payback, SP, is the time period required for an investment to create a positive
cash flow.
Concept of time value of money: The notion of economic growth, of investing in capital to generate
future profit is a central concept in capitalism. Entrepreneurs and growing companies are interested in
acquiring money today to make a profit with it tomorrow. Thus, in the right hands Rs.100 today is worth
more than Rs.100 tomorrow. Money has time value. A rupee today is more valuable than a year hence. It
is on this concept the time value of money is based.
Life cycle costing analysis: The most comprehensive way to make investment decisions is to consider
the total cost of a system over its entire life. Because the costs or revenues during these phases occur at
different times, time-value of money equations can be used to calculate the present value of all costs and
revenues over the lifecycle of a product. The net present value is the sum of the present values of the costs
and revenues of a system over its lifetime. A positive net present value indicates that an investment is
more cost-effective than investing the money at the discount rate used in the calculations.
Different methods of replacement analysis: Variations of replacement problems, such as abandonment,
retirement, improvements of defender or keeping defender as spare, can be considered as potential new
challenger. Since replacement problems usually are considered with fixed output, only costs of
defender and challengers are analyzed.
References: Handbook of Energy Audits by Albert Thumann, William J. Younger, Terry Niehus
www.newagepublishers.com/samplechapter/001945.pdf