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IT221-Mobile Communications

UNIT-4
(Network Protocols/Mobile IP)

SUGUMAR.D,
Lecturer,
ECE Department,
Karunya University.

7/1/2015

Karunya University

Karunya University

Unit-4 Mobile IP

IT 221 Mobile Communications

Motivation for Mobile IP

Routing
based on IP destination address, network prefix (e.g. 129.13.42) determines
physical subnet
change of physical subnet implies change of IP address to have a topological
correct address (standard IP) or needs special entries in the routing tables
Specific routes to end-systems?
change of all routing table entries to forward packets to the right destination
does not scale with the number of mobile hosts and frequent changes in the
location, security problems
Changing the IP-address?
adjust the host IP address depending on the current location
almost impossible to find a mobile system, DNS updates take to long time
TCP connections break, security problems

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Unit-4 Mobile IP

IT 221 Mobile Communications

Requirements for Mobile IPv4 (RFC 3344, was: 3220, was: 2002 , updated by:
4721)

Transparency
mobile end-systems keep their IP address
continuation of communication after interruption of link possible
point of connection to the fixed network can be changed
Compatibility
support of the same layer 2 protocols as IP
no changes to current end-systems and routers required
mobile end-systems can communicate with fixed systems
Security
authentication of all registration messages
Efficiency and scalability
only little additional messages to the mobile system required (connection
typically via a low bandwidth radio link)
world-wide support of a large number of mobile systems in the whole Internet

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Unit-4 Mobile IP

IT 221 Mobile Communications

Terminology

Mobile Node (MN)


system (node) that can change the point of connection
to the network without changing its IP address

Home Agent (HA)


system in the home network of the MN, typically a router
registers the location of the MN, tunnels IP datagrams to the COA

Foreign Agent (FA)


system in the current foreign network of the MN, typically a router
forwards the tunneled datagrams to the MN, typically also the default router for
the MN

Care-of Address (COA)


address of the current tunnel end-point for the MN (at FA or MN)
actual location of the MN from an IP point of view
can be chosen, e.g., via DHCP

Correspondent Node (CN)


communication partner
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IT 221 Mobile Communications

Unit-4 Mobile IP

Example network
HA
MN

router
home network

mobile end-system
Internet

(physical home network


for the MN)

FA foreign
network
router

(current physical network


for the MN)

CN
end-system
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router
5

Data transfer to the mobile system


HA

MN

home network

receiver

Internet

FA

CN
sender
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foreign
network

1. Sender sends to the IP address of MN,


HA intercepts packet (proxy ARP)
2. HA tunnels packet to COA, here FA,
by encapsulation
3. FA forwards the packet
to the MN
Karunya University

Data transfer from the mobile


system
HA
1

home network

MN

sender

Internet

FA

foreign
network

1. Sender sends to the IP address


of the receiver as usual,
FA works as default router

CN
receiver
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Overview
COA
home
network

router
FA

router
HA

MN

foreign
network

Internet

CN

router

3.
home
network

router
HA

router
FA

2.

MN
4.
foreign
network

Internet

1.
CN

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router

Karunya University

Karunya University

Unit-4 Mobile IP

IT 221 Mobile Communications

Network integration

Agent Advertisement
HA and FA periodically send advertisement messages into their physical
subnets
MN listens to these messages and detects, if it is in the home or a foreign
network (standard case for home network)
MN reads a COA from the FA advertisement messages

Registration (always limited lifetime!)


MN signals COA to the HA via the FA, HA acknowledges via FA to MN
these actions have to be secured by authentication

Advertisement
HA advertises the IP address of the MN (as for fixed systems), i.e. standard
routing information
routers adjust their entries, these are stable for a longer time (HA responsible
for a MN over a longer period of time)
packets to the MN are sent to the HA,
independent of changes in COA/FA
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IT 221 Mobile Communications

Unit-4 Mobile IP

Agent advertisement
0
7 8
15 16
23 24
type
code
checksum
#addresses addr. size
lifetime
router address 1
preference level 1
router address 2
preference level 2

31

...
type = 16
type = 16
length
length = 6 + 4 * #COAs
registration lifetime
R: registration required
COA 1
B: busy, no more registrations
COA 2
H: home agent
F: foreign agent
M: minimal encapsulation
G: GRE encapsulation
r: =0, ignored (former Van Jacobson compression)
T: FA supports reverse tunneling
reserved: =0, ignored

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sequence number
R B H F M G r T reserved

...

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Unit-4 Mobile IP

IT 221 Mobile Communications

Registration
MN

FA

HA

MN

HA

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IT 221 Mobile Communications

Unit-4 Mobile IP

Mobile IP registration request


0
7 8
15 16
23 24
S B D M G r T x lifetime
type = 1
home address
home agent
COA

31

identification
extensions . . .

S: simultaneous bindings
B: broadcast datagrams
D: decapsulation by MN
M mininal encapsulation
G: GRE encapsulation
r: =0, ignored
T: reverse tunneling requested
x: =0, ignored
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Mobile IP registration reply


0
7 8
type = 3
code
home address
home agent

15 16
lifetime

31

identification
Example codes:
extensions . . .
registration successful
0 registration accepted
1 registration accepted, but simultaneous mobility bindings unsupported
registration denied by FA
65 administratively prohibited
66 insufficient resources
67 mobile node failed authentication
68 home agent failed authentication
69 requested Lifetime too long
registration denied by HA
129 administratively prohibited
131 mobile node failed authentication
133 registration Identification mismatch
135 too many simultaneous mobility bindings
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IT 221 Mobile Communications

Encapsulation
original IP header original data

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new IP header

new data

outer header

inner header

original data

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Unit-4 Mobile IP

IT 221 Mobile Communications

Encapsulation I

Encapsulation of one packet into another as payload


e.g. IPv6 in IPv4 (6Bone), Multicast in Unicast (Mbone)
here: e.g. IP-in-IP-encapsulation, minimal encapsulation or GRE (Generic Record
Encapsulation)
IP-in-IP-encapsulation (mandatory, RFC 2003)
tunnel between HA and COA
ver. IHL DS (TOS)
IP identification
TTL
IP-in-IP
IP address of HA
Care-of address COA
ver. IHL DS (TOS)
IP identification
TTL
lay. 4 prot.
IP address of CN
IP address of MN

length
flags fragment offset
IP checksum
length
flags fragment offset
IP checksum

TCP/UDP/ ... payload

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Encapsulation II

Minimal encapsulation (optional)


avoids repetition of identical fields
e.g. TTL, IHL, version, DS (RFC 2474, old: TOS)
only applicable for non fragmented packets, no space left for fragment identification
ver. IHL DS (TOS)
length
IP identification
flags fragment offset
TTL
min. encap. IP checksum
IP address of HA
care-of address COA
lay. 4 protoc. S reserved IP checksum
IP address of MN
original sender IP address (if S=1)
TCP/UDP/ ... payload

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Generic Routing Encapsulation


RFC 1701
ver.
IHL
DS (TOS)
IP identification
TTL
GRE
IP address of HA
Care-of address COA
C R K S s rec. rsv.
ver.
checksum (optional)
key (optional)
sequence number (optional)
routing (optional)
ver.
IHL
DS (TOS)
IP identification
TTL
lay. 4 prot.
IP address of CN
IP address of MN

outer header

GRE
header

new header

new data

original
header

original data

original
header

original data

length
flags fragment offset
IP checksum

RFC 2784 (updated by 2890)


protocol
offset (optional)

C reserved0
checksum (optional)

ver. protocol
reserved1 (=0)

length
flags fragment offset
IP checksum

TCP/UDP/ ... payload

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IT 221 Mobile Communications

Optimization of packet forwarding

Problem: Triangular Routing


sender sends all packets via HA to MN
higher latency and network load
Solutions
sender learns the current location of MN
direct tunneling to this location
HA informs a sender about the location of MN
big security problems!
Change of FA
packets on-the-fly during the change can be lost
new FA informs old FA to avoid packet loss, old FA now forwards remaining
packets to new FA
this information also enables the old FA to release resources for the MN

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Change of foreign agent


CN

HA
Data
Update

FAold

FAnew

Data

MN

Data

ACK
Data

Data

MN changes
location
Update
ACK
Data

Data

Warning

Registration

Data

Request
Update
ACK
Data

Data

t
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Reverse tunneling (RFC 3024, was:


2344)
HA
2

MN

home network
Internet

sender

FA foreign
network

CN
receiver
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1. MN sends to FA
2. FA tunnels packets to HA
by encapsulation
3. HA forwards the packet to the
receiver (standard case)
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IT 221 Mobile Communications

Mobile IP with reverse tunneling

Router accept often only topological correct addresses (firewall!)


a packet from the MN encapsulated by the FA is now topological correct
furthermore multicast and TTL problems solved (TTL in the home network
correct, but MN is to far away from the receiver)

Reverse tunneling does not solve


problems with firewalls, the reverse tunnel can be abused to circumvent
security mechanisms (tunnel hijacking)
optimization of data paths, i.e. packets will be forwarded through the tunnel via
the HA to a sender (double triangular routing)

The standard is backwards compatible


the extensions can be implemented easily and cooperate with current
implementations without these extensions
Agent Advertisements can carry requests for reverse tunneling

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IT 221 Mobile Communications

Mobile IP and IPv6 (RFC 3775)

Mobile IP was developed for IPv4, but IPv6 simplifies the protocols
security is integrated and not an add-on, authentication of registration is
included
COA can be assigned via auto-configuration (DHCPv6 is one candidate), every
node has address auto-configuration
no need for a separate FA, all routers perform router advertisement which can
be used instead of the special agent advertisement; addresses are always colocated
MN can signal a sender directly the COA, sending via HA not needed in this
case (automatic path optimization)
soft hand-over, i.e. without packet loss, between two subnets is supported
MN sends the new COA to its old router
the old router encapsulates all incoming packets for the MN and forwards
them to the new COA
authentication is always granted

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IT 221 Mobile Communications

Problems with mobile IP

Security
authentication with FA problematic, for the FA typically belongs to another
organization
no protocol for key management and key distribution has been standardized in
the Internet
patent and export restrictions
Firewalls
typically mobile IP cannot be used together with firewalls, special set-ups are
needed (such as reverse tunneling)
QoS
many new reservations in case of RSVP
tunneling makes it hard to give a flow of packets a special treatment needed for
the QoS
Security, firewalls, QoS etc. are topics of research and discussions

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IT 221 Mobile Communications

Security in Mobile IP

Security requirements (Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol, RFC 4301,
was: 1825, 2401)
Integrity
any changes to data between sender and receiver can be detected by the
receiver
Authentication
sender address is really the address of the sender and all data received is really
data sent by this sender
Confidentiality
only sender and receiver can read the data
Non-Repudiation
sender cannot deny sending of data
Traffic Analysis
creation of traffic and user profiles should not be possible
Replay Protection
receivers can detect replay of messages
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IP security architecture I

Two or more partners have to negotiate security mechanisms to setup a security


association
typically, all partners choose the same parameters and mechanisms
Two headers have been defined for securing IP packets:
Authentication-Header
guarantees integrity and authenticity of IP packets
if asymmetric encryption schemes are used, non-repudiation can also be
guaranteed
IP-Header
IP
header

Authentification-Header
authentication
header

UDP/TCP-Paket
UDP/TCP
data

Encapsulation Security Payload


protects confidentiality between communication partners
not encrypted

IP header

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encrypted

ESP header

encrypted data

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IT 221 Mobile Communications

IP security architecture II

Mobile Security Association for registrations


parameters for the mobile host (MH), home agent (HA), and foreign agent
(FA)
Extensions of the IP security architecture
extended authentication of registration
MH-FA authentication
FA-HA authentication
MH-HA authentication
registration request

MH

registration reply

registration request

FA

registration reply

HA

prevention of replays of registrations


time stamps: 32 bit time stamps + 32 bit random number
nonces: 32 bit random number (MH) + 32 bit random number (HA)

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Key distribution

Home agent distributes session keys


FA

HA

MH

response:
EHA-FA {session key}
EHA-MH {session key}

foreign agent has a security association with the home agent


mobile host registers a new binding at the home agent
home agent answers with a new session key for foreign agent and mobile node

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IP Micro-mobility support

Micro-mobility support:
Efficient local handover inside a foreign domain
without involving a home agent
Reduces control traffic on backbone
Especially needed in case of route optimization

Example approaches (research, not products):


Cellular IP
HAWAII
Hierarchical Mobile IP (HMIP)

Important criteria:
Security Efficiency, Scalability, Transparency, Manageability

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Cellular IP

Operation:
CIP Nodes maintain routing
entries (soft state) for MNs
Multiple entries possible
Routing entries updated based on
packets sent by MN

CIP Gateway:

Internet
Mobile IP
CIP Gateway
data/control
packets
from MN 1

Mobile IP tunnel endpoint


Initial registration processing

Security provisions:
all CIP Nodes share
network key
MN key: MD5(net key, IP addr)
MN gets key upon registration

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BS

MN1

BS

BS

packets from
MN2 to MN 1

MN2

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Cellular IP: Security

Advantages:
Initial registration involves authentication of MNs
and is processed centrally by CIP Gateway
All control messages by MNs are authenticated
Replay-protection (using timestamps)

Potential problems:
MNs can directly influence routing entries
Network key known to many entities
(increases risk of compromise)
No re-keying mechanisms for network key
No choice of algorithm (always MD5, prefix+suffix mode)
Proprietary mechanisms (not, e.g., IPSec AH)

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Cellular IP: Other issues

Advantages:
Simple and elegant architecture
Mostly self-configuring (little management needed)
Integration with firewalls / private address support possible

Potential problems:
Not transparent to MNs (additional control messages)

Public-key encryption of MN keys may be a problem


for resource-constrained MNs
Multiple-path forwarding may cause inefficient use of available bandwidth

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Operation:

HAWAII

MN obtains co-located COA


and registers with HA
2
Handover: MN keeps COA,
new BS answers Reg. Request
4
and updates routers
MN views BS as foreign agent

IT 221 Mobile Communications

Unit-4 Mobile IP

Internet
HA

Backbone
Router
Crossover
Router

Security provisions:
MN-FA authentication mandatory
Challenge/Response Extensions mandatory

4
BS

BS

Mobile IP
3
MN

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2
Mobile IP
BS

MN

DHCP
Server

DHCP

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HAWAII: Security

Advantages:
Mutual authentication and C/R extensions mandatory
Only infrastructure components can influence routing entries

Potential problems:
Co-located COA raises DHCP security issues
(DHCP has no strong authentication)
Decentralized security-critical functionality
(Mobile IP registration processing during handover)
in base stations
Authentication of HAWAII protocol messages unspecified
(potential attackers: stationary nodes in foreign network)
MN authentication requires PKI or AAA infrastructure

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HAWAII: Other issues

Advantages:
Mostly transparent to MNs
(MN sends/receives standard Mobile IP messages)
Explicit support for dynamically assigned home addresses

Potential problems:
Mixture of co-located COA and FA concepts may not be
supported by some MN implementations
No private address support possible
because of co-located COA

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Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (RFC


4140)

Internet

Operation:
Network contains mobility anchor point (MAP)
mapping of regional COA (RCOA) to link COA (LCOA)

Upon handover, MN informs


MAP only

HA

RCOA
MAP

gets new LCOA, keeps RCOA

HA is only contacted if MAP


changes

binding
update

AR

AR

LCOAnew LCOAold

Security provisions:
no HMIP-specific
security provisions
binding updates should be
authenticated
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MN

MN

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Hierarchical Mobile IP: Security

Advantages:
Local COAs can be hidden,
which provides at least some location privacy
Direct routing between CNs sharing the same link is possible (but might be
dangerous)

Potential problems:
Decentralized security-critical functionality
(handover processing) in mobility anchor points
MNs can (must!) directly influence routing entries via binding updates
(authentication necessary)

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Hierarchical Mobile IP: Other


issues

Advantages:
Handover requires minimum number
of overall changes to routing tables
Integration with firewalls / private address support possible

Potential problems:
Not transparent to MNs
Handover efficiency in wireless mobile scenarios:
Complex MN operations
All routing reconfiguration messages
sent over wireless link

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IT 221 Mobile Communications

DHCP: Dynamic Host


Configuration Protocol

Application
simplification of installation and maintenance of networked computers
supplies systems with all necessary information, such as IP address, DNS
server address, domain name, subnet mask, default router etc.
enables automatic integration of systems into an Intranet or the Internet, can be
used to acquire a COA for Mobile IP
Client/Server-Model
the client sends via a MAC broadcast a request to the DHCP server (might be
via a DHCP relay)
DHCPDISCOVER
DHCPDISCOVER
server

client
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client

relay
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DHCP - protocol mechanisms


server
(not selected)
determine the
configuration

client
initialization
DHCPDISCOVER

DHCPDISCOVER

server
(selected)
determine the
configuration

DHCPOFFER
DHCPOFFER
collection of replies
selection of configuration
DHCPREQUEST
(reject)

DHCPREQUEST
(options)

confirmation of
configuration

DHCPACK
initialization completed

release
DHCPRELEASE
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delete context
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DHCP characteristics

Server
several servers can be configured for DHCP, coordination not yet standardized
(i.e., manual configuration)
Renewal of configurations
IP addresses have to be requested periodically, simplified protocol
Options
available for routers, subnet mask, NTP (network time protocol) timeserver,
SLP (service location protocol) directory, DNS (domain name system)

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Unit-4 Mobile IP

Mobile ad hoc networks

Standard Mobile IP needs an infrastructure


Home Agent/Foreign Agent in the fixed network
DNS, routing etc. are not designed for mobility
Sometimes there is no infrastructure!
remote areas, ad-hoc meetings, disaster areas
cost can also be an argument against an infrastructure!
Main topic: routing
no default router available
every node should be able to forward

A
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C
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Solution: Wireless ad-hoc networks

Network without infrastructure


Use components of participants for networking

Examples
Single-hop: All partners max. one hop apart
Bluetooth piconet, PDAs in a room,
gaming devices
Multi-hop: Cover larger distances,
circumvent obstacles
Bluetooth scatternet, TETRA police network,
car-to-car networks

Internet: MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Networking) group

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Manet: Mobile Ad-hoc Networking


Mobile
Router
Manet
Mobile
Devices
Mobile IP,
DHCP
Fixed
Network

Router

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End system

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Unit-4 Mobile IP

Problem No. 1: Routing

Highly dynamic network topology


Device mobility plus varying channel quality
Separation and merging of networks possible
Asymmetric connections possible
N7

N6

N6

N7

N1

N1

N2

N3
N4

N3

N2

N4

N5

time = t1

N5

time = t2
good link
weak link

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Traditional routing algorithms

Distance Vector
periodic exchange of messages with all physical neighbors that contain
information about who can be reached at what distance
selection of the shortest path if several paths available
Link State
periodic notification of all routers about the current state of all physical links
router get a complete picture of the network
Example
ARPA packet radio network (1973), DV-Routing
every 7.5s exchange of routing tables including link quality
updating of tables also by reception of packets
routing problems solved with limited flooding

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Routing in ad-hoc networks

THE big topic in many research projects


Far more than 50 different proposals exist
The most simplest one: Flooding!

Reasons
Classical approaches from fixed networks fail
Very slow convergence, large overhead
High dynamicity, low bandwidth, low computing power

Metrics for routing


Minimal
Number of nodes, loss rate, delay, congestion, interference
Maximal
Stability of the logical network, battery run-time, time of connectivity

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Problems of traditional routing


algorithms

Dynamic of the topology


frequent changes of connections, connection quality, participants

Limited performance of mobile systems


periodic updates of routing tables need energy without contributing to the
transmission of user data, sleep modes difficult to realize
limited bandwidth of the system is reduced even more due to the exchange of
routing information
links can be asymmetric, i.e., they can have a direction dependent transmission
quality

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DSDV (Destination Sequenced


Distance Vector, historical)

Early work
on demand version: AODV

Expansion of distance vector routing

Sequence numbers for all routing updates


assures in-order execution of all updates
avoids loops and inconsistencies

Decrease of update frequency


store time between first and best announcement of a path
inhibit update if it seems to be unstable (based on the stored time values)

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Dynamic source routing I

Split routing into discovering a path and maintaining a path

Discover a path
only if a path for sending packets to a certain destination is needed and no path
is currently available

Maintaining a path
only while the path is in use one has to make sure that it can be used
continuously

No periodic updates needed!

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Dynamic source routing II

Path discovery
broadcast a packet with destination address and unique ID
if a station receives a broadcast packet
if the station is the receiver (i.e., has the correct destination address) then return the
packet to the sender (path was collected in the packet)
if the packet has already been received earlier (identified via ID) then discard the
packet
otherwise, append own address and broadcast packet

sender receives packet with the current path (address list)

Optimizations
limit broadcasting if maximum diameter of the network is known
caching of address lists (i.e. paths) with help of passing packets
stations can use the cached information for path discovery (own paths or paths for
other hosts)

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Unit-4 Mobile IP

DSR: Route Discovery


P

Sending from C to O

H
L

D
F

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DSR: Route Discovery

Broadcast

[O,C,4711]
C

[O,C,4711]

H
L

D
F

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DSR: Route Discovery


P

[O,C/G,4711]
C

[O,C/B,4711]
B

[O,C/G,4711]
I

[O,C/E,4711] H
L

D
F

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DSR: Route Discovery


P
C

[O,C/G/I,4711]

[O,C/B/A,4711]

[O,C/E/H,4711]

D
F

[O,C/B/D,4711]
(alternatively: [O,C/E/D,4711])

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Unit-4 Mobile IP

DSR: Route Discovery


P
C

[O,C/G/I/K,4711]

H
L

D
F

J
[O,C/E/H/J,4711]

[O,C/B/D/F,4711]

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DSR: Route Discovery


P
C

[O,C/G/I/K/M,4711]

H
L

D
F

J
[O,C/E/H/J/L,4711]

(alternatively: [O,C/G/I/K/L,4711])

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DSR: Route Discovery


P
C

H
L

D
F

N
[O,C/E/H/J/L/N,4711]

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DSR: Route Discovery


P
C

Path: M, K, I, G

H
L

D
F

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Dynamic Source Routing III


Maintaining paths
after sending a packet
wait for a layer 2 acknowledgement (if applicable)
listen into the medium to detect if other stations forward
the packet (if possible)
request an explicit acknowledgement

if a station encounters problems it can inform the


sender of a packet or look-up a new path locally

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Interference-based routing

Routing based on assumptions about interference between signals


N1

N2
R1

S1

N3
N4

N5

N6

R2

S2

N7

N8

N9

neighbors
(i.e. within radio range)
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Examples for interference based


routing

Least Interference Routing (LIR)


calculate the cost of a path based on the number of stations that can receive a
transmission
Max-Min Residual Capacity Routing (MMRCR)
calculate the cost of a path based on a probability function of successful
transmissions and interference
Least Resistance Routing (LRR)
calculate the cost of a path based on interference, jamming and other
transmissions
LIR is very simple to implement, only information from direct neighbors is
necessary

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Overview of ad hoc routing


protocols

Flat

proactive
FSLS Fuzzy Sighted Link State
FSR Fisheye State Routing
OLSR Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (RFC 3626)
TBRPF Topology Broadcast Based on Reverse Path Forwarding

reactive
AODV Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector (RFC 3561)
DSR Dynamic Source Routing (RFC 4728)
DYMO Dynamic MANET On-demand

Hierarchical

CGSR Clusterhead-Gateway Switch Routing


HSR Hierarchical State Routing
LANMAR Landmark Ad Hoc Routing
ZRP Zone Routing Protocol

Two promising
candidates:
OLSRv2 and
DYMO

Geographic position assisted

DREAM Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility


GeoCast Geographic Addressing and Routing
GPSR Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing
LAR Location-Aided Routing

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Further difficulties and research


Auto-Configuration
areas
Assignment of addresses, function, profile, program,
Service discovery
Discovery of services and service providers

Multicast
Transmission to a selected group of receivers

Quality-of-Service
Maintenance of a certain transmission quality

Power control
Minimizing interference, energy conservation mechanisms

Security
Data integrity, protection from attacks (e.g. Denial of Service)

Scalability
10 nodes? 100 nodes? 1000 nodes? 10000 nodes?

Integration with fixed networks


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Clustering of ad-hoc networks


Internet
Cluster head

Base station

Cluster
Super cluster

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The next step: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)

Commonalities with MANETs


Self-organization, multi-hop
Typically wireless, should be energy efficient

Differences to MANETs
Applications: MANET more powerful, more
general WSN more specific

Example:
www.scatterweb.net

Devices: MANET more powerful, higher data rates, more resources

WSN rather limited, embedded, interacting with environment

Scale: MANET rather small (some dozen devices)

WSN can be large (thousands)

Basic paradigms: MANET individual node important, ID centric

WSN network important, individual node may be dispensable, data centric

Mobility patterns, Quality-of Service, Energy, Cost per node


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Properties of wireless sensor networks

Sensor nodes (SN) monitor and control the environment


Nodes process data and forward data via radio
Integration into the environment, typically attached to other networks over a
gateway (GW)
Network is self-organizing and energy efficient
Potentially high number of nodes at very low cost per node

GW

SN

SN

Bluetooth, TETRA,

SN

SN

SN

SN

GW
SN

SN

SN

SN
GW
GW
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SN
SN
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Promising applications for WSNs

Machine and vehicle monitoring


Sensor nodes in moveable parts
Monitoring of hub temperatures, fluid levels

Health & medicine


Long-term monitoring of patients with minimal restrictions
Intensive care with relative great freedom of movement

Intelligent buildings, building monitoring


Intrusion detection, mechanical stress detection
Precision HVAC with individual climate

Environmental monitoring, person tracking


Monitoring of wildlife and national parks
Cheap and (almost) invisible person monitoring
Monitoring waste dumps, demilitarized zones

and many more: logistics (total asset management, RFID), telematics

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WSNs are quite often complimentary to fixed networks!


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Robust HW needed - example: ScatterWebs


Modular Sensor Board
Modular design
Core module with controller, transceiver,
SD-card slot
Charging/programming/GPS/GPRS module
Sensor carrier module

Software

Firmware (C interface)
TinyOS, Contiki
Routing, management, flashing
ns-2 simulation models
Integration into Visual Studio, Eclipse, LabVIEW, Robotics Studio

Sensors attached on demand


Acceleration, humidity, temperature, luminosity, noise detection, vibration, PIR
movement detection
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Example: ScatterWebs Industrial


Components
Nodes

Fully certified according to international regulations


Range > 1.5 km (LOS), > 500m in buildings
< 100A while still running (no sensors, no RF)
Can drive external sensors up to 500mA (analog/digital)
SPI, serial, IC, display, camera, joystick interfaces

Gateways
Bluetooth, WLAN, Ethernet, serial, USB,
RS485, GSM/GPRS

Software
Auto-configuration, GPS tracking,
over-the-air programming, building monitoring,

Evaluation board

Examples from www.scatterweb.com


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New hardware platforms


MSB430H

New chips available plus many


lessons learned
ARM7TDMI, MSP430
Chipcon CC1100 Transceiver
Same sensors and I/O

Optimized, more robust radio and routing


Low Power Wake-On-Radio (WOR)
MAC: CSMA/CA (no time-sync)
Very simple routing

MSB2148H

Firmware
Very low footprint
Platform independent
Minimal power consumption (5A stand-by)
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Features
Tickless timer/clock (interrupts only if necessary)
Uses 3 kbyte RAM, 28 kbyte Flash (on MSP430)
Highly modular, rule-based programming possible
99% ANSI C, platforms LPC2148, MSP430, i386

No threads, no dynamic memory management


Power consumption
API makes all power modes available
MSP
ARM + PA

Sleep

5A

TX

11-26mA 600mA

RX

19mA

Range (LOS) >200m

3mA
80mA
>3km

User data rate: 200kbit/s


Latency per hop: min. 4ms,
typ. 270ms
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Sensor
Networks:
Research
Areas
Real-World Integration
Gaming, Tourism
Emergency, Rescue
Monitoring, Surveillance

Self-configuring networks
Robust routing
Low-power data aggregation
Simple indoor localization

Managing wireless sensor networks


Tools for access and programming
Update distribution

Long-lived, autonomous networks


Use environmental energy sources
Embed and forget
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Routing in WSNs is different

No IP addressing, but simple, locally valid IDs


Example: directed diffusion
Interest Messages
Interest in sensor data: Attribute/Value pair
Gradient: remember direction of interested node
Data Messages
Send back data using gradients
Hop count guarantees shortest path

Sink

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Energy-aware routing
Only sensors with sufficient energy forward
data for other nodes
Example: Routing via nodes with enough solar
power is considered for free

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Solar-aware
routing
Solar-powered node
Send status updates to neighbors
Either proactive or when sniffing ongoing traffic
Have neighbor nodes reroute the traffic

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Example Application: Habitat Monitoring/Skomer Island UK

Manx
Shearwater

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Combination of RFID and


ScatterWeb

Main challenge: robustness, reliability, easy-to-use


Joint project with Oxford University and MSRC

More information: research.microsoft.com/habitats/


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Project FeuerWhere the extreme challenge


TETRA

Mobile, self-organizing WSN


TETRA trunked radio network

Berliner
Feuerwehr
4450 fire fighters
300000 incidents/year (8000 fires)
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Data transmission
& localization

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Step
detection
Part of the fire fighter project
Precise 3D indoor localization without any infrastructure
Sensor fusion, particle filter
RF ToA, RSSI, step detection, compass
Outdoor: GPS
(522721.19N - 131747.76O)

Indoor?
(522721.22N
- 131748.81O)

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Real path
GPS values

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GPS and buildings

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Many different steps

Walking
At least one foot on the ground
Low step frequency

Running
Periods without ground contact
Similar to jumping
Higher step frequency, wider steps

Sprinting
Similar to running
Highest step frequency
Only short distances

What about crawling, jumping, stumbling


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Example: Running at 8 km/h - 15 km/h


200

Filtered
acceleration

150

100

50

0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

time [ms]

8 km/h
12 km/h
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9 km/h
13 km/h

10 km/h
14 km/h

11 km/h
15 km/h
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Realistic WSN simulation

Ok, only reality is real


But
Real power consumption figures
Real firmware reflected in
simulator
Realistic wave propagation with
limitations due to computing power

Integration of real nodes possible


BSD license
page.mi.fu-berlin.de/
hillebra/simulator/

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Cooperative event detection

Use the potential of WSNs


Everything from centralized to decentralized evaluation feasible
Less communication, autonomous computation

Better decentralized than centralized?

Hardware: ScatterWeb MSB430, -S, -T

Automatic calibration, automated training,


variable patterns

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Experiment: fence monitoring


ALARM!

ALARM!
ALARM!

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Event detection
Different Types of Events (Raw Data)
Kicking

Climbing
Peeking

1000

Shaking

900
800

Intensity
Intensity

700

Leaning

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
90.00

100.00

110.00

120.00

130.00

140.00

150.00

160.00

170.00

180.00

190.00

Time(s)
(s)
Time
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The Future of WSNs


Fundamental requirements today only
partially fulfilled

Unit-4 Mobile IP

Long life-time with/without batteries


Self-configuring, self-healing networks
Robust routing, robust data transmission
Management and integration

Think of new applications


Intelligent environments for gaming
<your idea here>

Still a lot to do

Integration of new/future radio technologies


Cheap indoor localization (+/- 10cm)
More system aspects (security, middleware, )
Prove scalability, robustness
Make it cheaper, simpler to use

Already today: Flexible add-on for existing


environmental monitoring networks
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References

Chapter # 8 from Mobile Communications, Second Edition, By Prof. Dr.


Jochen H. Schiller.

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