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6 views4 pagesGraph Theory

Jul 01, 2015

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Graph Theory

© All Rights Reserved

6 views

Graph Theory

© All Rights Reserved

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The number of edges incident at the vertex vi is called the

degree of the vertex with self loops counted twice and it is

denoted by d (vi).

Example 1:

d (v1) = 5 d (v4) = 3

d (v2) = 2 d (v5) = 1

d (v3) = 5 d (v6) = 0

In-degree and out-degree of a directed graph:

In a directed graph, the in-degree of a vertex V, denoted by

deg- (V) and defined by the number of edges with V as their

terminal vertex.

The out-degree of V, denoted by deg+ (V), is the number of

edges with V as their initial vertex.

the out-degree of this vertex.

Theorem 1: (The Handshaking Theorem)

Let G= (V, E) be an undirected graph with e edges.

Then

deg(v)= 2e

graph is twice the number of edges of the graph and

hence even.

Proof:

Since every degree is incident with exactly two vertices,

every edge contributes 2 to the sum of the degree of the vertices.

Therefore, All the e edges contribute (2e) to the sum of the

degrees of vertices.

Therefore,

deg(v)= 2e

Theorem 2:

In an undirected graph, the numbers of odd degree

vertices are even.

Proof:

Let V1 and V2 be the set of all vertices of even degree and set

of all vertices of odd degree, respectively, in a graph G= (V, E).

Therefore,

d(v)=

d(vi)+ d(vj)

Since each deg (vi) is even, is even.

As left hand side of equation (1) is even and the first

expression on the RHS of (1) is even, we have the 2nd expression

on the RHS must be even.

Since each deg (vj) is odd, the number of terms contained in

i.e., The number of vertices of odd degree is even.

Theorem 3:

The maximum number of edges in a simple graph with

n vertices is n(n-1))/2.

Proof:

We prove this theorem by the principle of Mathematical

Induction.

For n=1, a graph with one vertex has no edges.

Therefore, the result is true for n=1.

For n=2, a graph with 2 vertices may have at most one

edge.

Therefore, 22-12=1

Assume that the result is true for n=k. i.e., a graph

with k vertices has at most kk-12 edges.

When n=k+1. Let G be a graph having n vertices

and G be the graph obtained from G by deleting one

vertex say v V (G).

Since G has k vertices, then by the hypothesis G has at

Therefore, the total number of edges in G is,

Therefore, the result is true for n=k+1.

Hence the maximum number of edges in a simple

graph with n vertices is nn-12.

Theorem 4:

of degree k, show that the number of edges of the

graph is a multiple of k.

Proof:

Let 2n be the number of vertices of the given graph.

By Handshaking theorem, we have

Therefore, the number of edges of the given graph is

amultiple of k.

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