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Jul 01, 2015

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Graph Theory

© All Rights Reserved

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Graph Theory

© All Rights Reserved

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CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS

A recurrence relation of the form

+

+..

+F(n).

(A)

Where

,.

are real numbers and F(n) is a function not identically zero

depending only on n,is called a non-homogeneous recurrence relation with

constant coefficient.

Here ,the recurrence relation

+

+..

+F(n).

(B)

NOTE:

(B) is obtained from (A) by omitting F(n) for example ,the recurrence relation

+

associated

Homogeneous linear equation is

[ By omitting F(n) = 2n ]

PROCEDURE TO SOLVE NON-HOMOGENEOUS RECURRENCE

RELATIONS:

The solution of non-homogeneous recurrence relations is the sum of two

solutions.

1.solution of Associated homogeneous recurrence relation (By considering

RHS=0).

2.Particular solution depending on the RHS of the given recurrence relation

STEP1:

a) if the RHS of the recurrence relation is

n r,

then substitute

2

+

+.. (n-1)r in place of

LHS of the given recurrence relation

then we have

Case1:if the base a of the RHS is the characteristric root,then the solution is of the

,can-1 in place of c(n-1) an-1 etc..

cann .therefore substitute can in place of

Case2: if the base a of RHS is not a root , then solution is of the form can therefore

substitute can in place of an , can-1 in place of an-1 etc..

STEP2:

At the end of step-1, we get a polynomial in n with coefficient c0,c1on

LHS

Now, equating the LHS and compare the coefficients find the constants c0,c1,.

Example 1:

Solve

+2n with a1 =3

Solution:

Give the non-homogeneous recurrence relation is

-2n=0

Its associated homogeneous equation is

=0 [omitting f(n) =2n]

Its characteristic equation is

r-3=0

=> r=3

n

Since F(n) =2n is a polynomial of degree one,then the solution is of

the from

+d (say) where c and d are constant

Now, the equation

+2n becomes

+d =3(c(n-1)+d)+2n

[replace an by

+d an-1 by c(n-1)+d]

+d =3cn-3c+3d+2n

2cn+2n-3c+2d=0

(2+2c)n+(2d-3c)=0

2+2c=0 and 2d-3c=0

Saving we get c=-1 and d=-3/2 therefore cn+d is a solution if c=-1 and

d=-3/2

=-n-3/2

Is a particular solution.

General solution

=

(n)+

n

(p)

-n-3/2 ..(A)

Given

1

3=3

1-5/2

-1-3/2

1=11/2

1=11/6

Substituting

1=11/6

in (A) we get

General solution

n=-n-3/2+(11/6)3

Example:2

Solve s(k)-5s(k-1)+6s(k-2)=2

With s(0)=1 ,s(1)=-1

Solution:

Given non-homogeneous equation can be written as

n =5

n-1

+6

n-2 -2=0

r2-5r+6=0

roots are r=2,3

the general solution is

n

1(2) +

2 (3)

As RHS of the recurrence relation is constant ,the solution is of the

form C , where C is a constant

Therefore the equation

n -5

n-1

c-5c+6c=2

-6

n-2 -2=2

2c=2

c=2

the particular solution is

sn(p)=1

the general solution is

sn= sn(n)+ sn(p)

n

1(2) +

2 (3)

+1.(A)

0

1(2) +

1+

+1

2 +1

(A) =>

=1 =

1+

Given

2 (3)

1+

2 +1

2 =0(1)

S1 = 1(2)1+ 2 (3)1+1

(A) -1= 1(2)+ 2 (3)+1

1+

2 =-2.(1)

1+

1+

2=0

2 =-2.(2)

1=2,

Substituting

2=-2

1=2,

2=-2

in (A) we get

Solution is

S(n) = (2)n-2. (3)n+1

Example :3

Solve

=

+2n

=1

Solution:

The given recurrence relation is non-homogeneous

Now, its associated homogeneous equation is,

+

=0

r2-4r+4=0

r=2,2

solution ,

1(2)

n

2 (2)

+

1+

2 )2

The first term in RHS of the given recurrence relation is 3n.therefore ,the solution

is of the form + n

Replace

And

by

by

+ n,

+

n-1)

n-2) we get

( + n)-4( +

by

n-1))+4( +

+ n-4 =3n

n-

n+

n-2))=3n

n+

=3n

- =0 and =3

=12 and =3

Given =1 using in (2)

(2) => 1+ =1

Given =1 using in (2)

(2)=>

1+ 2)2+12+3+1/2 .2=1

=>

1+

2)+16=1..(14)

(3)

1=-11

Using in (4) we have 2=7/2

Solution

n

2 n

n =(-11+7/2n)2 +12+3n+1/2n 2

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