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Jul 01, 2015

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Graph Theory

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Graph Theory

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One of the basic methods of proof is Mathematical Induction, which is a method to establish the

truth of the statement about all the natural numbers. It will often help us to prove a general

mathematical statement involving positive integers when certain instance of that statement

suggest a general pattern .

STATEMENT OF THE PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION:

Let P(n) br a STATEMENT or POPOSITION i volvi g the atural u bers

2.Under the assumption that when P(k) is true,P(k+1) is true, then , we conclude that a

state e t P is true for all atural u ber .

Steps to prove that a statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers.

Step 1: We must prove that P(1) is true

Step 2: By assuming P(k) is true, we must prove that P(k+1) is also true.

NOTE:

Step 1: is known as the BASIC STEP.

Step 2: is known as the INDUCTIVE STEP.

EXAMPLE: Using Mathematical Induction ,Prove that

ni=1 i2 =

SOLUTION:

Let P(n) : 12 +22 +32 +..+

1. P(1) : 12 =

= =

is true

2. Assume

P(k) : 12 +22 +32 +..+k2 = =

Now, P(k+1) =

+(k+1)2 (using 1)

=

=

=

=

=

=

P(k+1) is true

By principle of mathematical induction,

ni=1 i2 =

Is true for all

SOLUTION:

Let P(n) :n3+2n is divisible by 3 .

1.P(1): 13+2.1 = 3 is divisible by 3 is true .

2.ASSUME

P(k):k3+2k is divisible by 3 is true

Claim : P(k+1) is true.

Now,P(k+1)3+2(k+1)

=k3+3k2+3k+1+2k+2

=k3+3k3+3k+1+2k+2

=k3+3k2+3k+2k+3

=(k3+2k) + 3(k2+k+1)

2 ->

->2

3(k2+k+1)is a multiple of 3.

So it is divisible by 3.

P(k+1)=(k3+2k)+3(k2+k+1)is divisible by 3.

Therefore P(k+1)is true

By the principle of mathematical induction ,P(n):n3+2n is divisible by 3.

EXAMPLE 3 : Prove that 8n-3n is a multiple of 5 .

SOLUTION:

Let p(n):8n-3n be a multiple of 5 .

1.p(1) = 81 - 31=5 is a multiple of 5 which is true.

2.ASSUME

P(k) = 8k - 3k is a multiple of 5 is true .

8k - 3k= 5m ,where m z-1

8k = 5m + 3k

-> 1

Now, p(k+1) = 8k+1 - 3k+1

=8k .8 - 3k . 3

=(5m + 3k) . 8k .8

(using 1)

=5.8m + 5.3k

=5(8m + 3k)

Which is a multiple of 5 for all m.

P(k+1) is true .

By the principle of mathematical induction ,

P(n): 8n - 3n is a multiple of 5 for all n.

EXAMPLE 4 : Show that an - bn is divisible by a-b .

SOLUTION:

let p(n): an - bn is divisible by a-b .

1.P(1): a1 b1 is divisible by a-b is true.

2.ASSUME

P(k): ak bk is divisible by a-b is true.

=> ak bk = m (a - b)

=> ak = bk + m(a - b)

CLAIM : P(k+1) is true.

P(k+1) = ak+1 - bk+1

-> 1

= ak .a - bb . b

= [ m (a-b) + bk ].a - bb . b

using 1

= am (a - b) + abk - bbk

= (a - b) ma + (a b)bk

= (a - b) [ma + b] , which is multiple of a-b.

P(k+1)is divisible by a-b is true

P(k+1) is true.

BY THE PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION.

an - bn

P(n):

is divisible by a-b.

SOLUTION:

Let p(n) : n < 2n

1.P(1):

1 < 21 is true .

2.ASSUME

P(k):

k < 2k

is true .

-> 1

k < 2k

1 ->

K+1 < 2k + 1

=

< 2k + 2 k

2 . 2k

2k+1

K + 1 < 2k +1

P(k+1)is true.

P(n):

SOLUTION:

Let p(n): 2n < n!

1.P(4) : 24 < 4! Is true

2.ASSUME

P(k):

2k < k! is true

-> (1)

1 -> 2k < k !

-> (2)

2k+1 < ( k+1) !

P(k+1) is true

By the principle of mathematical induction.

P(n) :

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