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Jul 01, 2015

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Graph Theory - Session 36

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Graph Theory - Session 36

© All Rights Reserved

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PREDICATE CALCULUS

PREDICATES

Predicates are simple statements which turn out to be propositions involving

the variables whose values are not well specified. Every Predicate tells

something about one or more objects.

Predicates generally denoted by capital letters and the objects by the

variables denoted by small letters in paranthesis.

The statement X is greater than 7 has two parts, the first part, the variable

x is the subject of the statement and the second part ,the Predicate is

greater than 7.We can denote the statement X is greater than 7 by p(x)

where P: greater than 7(Predicate) and x is the variable.

The statement p(x) is also said to be the value of the proposition function at

x. x is an integer is denoted by I(x), where the Predicate is I:is an integer.

If a predicate involves m variables or attached with m names (m>0) is

called m- Place predicate.

Ex : I(x) is a one-place Predicate.

TWO PLACE PREDICATE

x is less than y is a two phase Predicate denoted by L(x,y) where the

predicate is L: is less than.

Example Three place predicate

Sheela stands between Ram and Mohan.

S : stands between

s:Sheela r:Ram m:Mohan

The

Equivalent Predicate

If two Predicates possess the same truth value for all values of their

variables ,then they are said to be equivalent.

Valid Predicate

If all values satisfy a Predicate ,then it is called Valid Predicate.

Statement Function.

A simple statement function of one variable is a kind of expression

containing the predicate and an individual variable. The statement is obtained

from the statement function by replacing the variable by the name(s) of

objects .The statement So obtained is called a substitution instance of the

statement function.

Compound Statement

A compound statement is on which can be obtained by combining one or

more statement functions and using logical connective as follows:

P(x) ^ Q(x) ,((P(x)), P(x) v Q(x), P(x) Q(x) etc..,

Example :

Let A(x) :x is an animal.

M(x) : x is mortal

A(x) ^ M(x) : x is an animal & x is mortal

Statement function of two variables:

The statement function of two variables can be viewed as an extension of

one variable and is class from the following example.

Quantifiers

When all the variables in a propositional function are assigned values, the

resulting statement has a truth value. There is an another important way

called quantification to create a statement from a statement function. There

are two types of quantifications.

1.Universal Quantification

2. Existential Quantification

Universal Quantifier

For all x, x is an integer is written as ( x) I(x) or (x) I(x)

Here for all x is called universal quantifier .It is represented by .

Existential Quantifier

" There exists an integer x which is prime " can be written as ( x) P(x) ,

Where P(x) : x is prime.

Here the phrase, there exists is called an existential quantifier.

Meaning of Quantifier

( x) Q(x) means the Predicate Q(x) is true for all values in the universe of

x.

(x) q(x) means that the predicate Q(x) is satisfied ,if there exists at least

Universe of discourse

It is defined as a set of all values taken by a variable.

x..Therefore it is defined as the domain of the variable in a propositional

function.

Consider a Predicate P(x) : x is greater than 6.Let there be two

statements written in symbolic forms ( x) P(x) and x P(x) ( a

combination of a variable and a Predicate )

Further if we limit ourselves to denote the universe of discourse by the

sets.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

{ -1,7,8,11,12 }

{-3,8,9,-2 }

{2,3,4}

{11,13,20}

( x) P(x) is false for the universe (i),(ii) ,(iii) & ( x) P(x) is true for the

universe (iv) alone.

The statement f(x) p(x) is true for the universe of discourse for

(i),(ii),(iv) but false for ( iii)

Free and Bound Variables

Consider the open statements P(x):The number (x+2) is an even integer and

R(x) :2x is an even integer.

The variable x in each of the above open Statements P(x) and R(x) is called

a Free variable ( of the open statements).

Over the universe of all integers, x P(x) has fixed truth value True and R(x)

becomes a true statement for every replacement for x.

In the Symbolic representation x P(x),the variable x is said to be bound

variable x is said to be bound variable .It is bounded by a existential

quantifier .

is bound by the universal quantifier .

x) R(x),the variable x

For the open statement q(x,y) we have two free variables each is bound by

the quantifier in either of the statement x y q(x,y) (or) y x q(x,y)

Example

We consider the quantified statements (x) A(x) and ( x) A(x)

(x) A(x) and ( x) A(x) are defined as the x-bound part of the formula and x

appearing in it is called bound occurrence of x. If x doesnt occur in xbound part , then its occurrence is called free occurrence.

A(x) is called as scope of the formula.

The scope of a quantifier in a formula is the formula for which the

quantifier applies.

Example

In ( x) P(x) ,the scope of quantifier ( x) is P(x).

Symbolic Representation of Expressions using Quantifiers

Problems

1. Write in symbolic form the statement, All the lions are dangerous

Soln:

P(x) : x is dangerous

Q(x) : x is lion

Universe of discourse : set of all living things.

Symbolic Form : (x) (Q(x) P(x))

Soln:

A(x) : x is an animals

B(x) : x is dangerous

Universe of discourse : set of some living things.

Symbolic Form : ( x) (A(x) ^B(x))

3. Symbolize the stamen

(i)

All dogs bark

(ii) All man should be educated

(iii) All complex numbers composed of real and imaginary parts.

Soln:

i)

ii)

iii)

P(x) : x is a dog

Q(x) : x barks

Universe of discourse : set of animals

Symbolic Form : ( x)( P(x) Q(x))

For all x ,if x is a man, then x should be educated.

M(x) : x is a man

E(x) : x is educated.

Symbolic Form : ( x)(M(x) E(x))

For all x, if x is a complex number, then x is composed of real

and imaginary parts.

C(x) : x is a complex number

D(x) : x is composed of of real and imaginary parts

Symbolic Form : ( x)( C(x) D(x))

F(x) : x is a fruit

V(x) : x is the vegetable

S(x,y) : x is sweeter than y.

Symbolize the following statements

i)

Some vegetables are sweeter than all fruits

ii)

Every fruits is sweeter than all vegetables

iii) Every fruits is sweeter than some vegetables

Soln:

Symbolic form:

i)

ii)

iii)

( x) (F(x) ( y)) (v(y) s(x,y))

( x) (F(x) ( y)) (v(y) s(x,y))

Truth values of Quantifies statements

1. Let Q(x,y) denote x+y = 0 .What are the truth values of the

quantified statements.

( y) ( x) Q(x,y) and ( x) ( y) Q(x,y) ?

Soln:

( y) ( x) Q(x,y) means , there is real number y such that for every real

number x, Q(x,y) is true. Since, there is no real number y such that x+y=0 for

all real numbers x,Q(x,y) is false.

Consider the quantification , ( x) ( y)Q(x,y).

It means that, for real number x there exists a real number y such that

x+y = 0 ( y= -x)

Q(x,y)

is true.

2. What is the truth value of (x) (P(x) v Q(x)), where P(x) : x =1 and

Q(x) : x=2 and the universe of discourse ={1,2}

Soln:

(x) (P(x) v Q(x)) means for every x,x=1 (or) x=2.This result for each of

the elements of the universe.

is true.

domain consisting of integers.

(i)

( x) ( y)(x+y=x)

(ii) ( y) ( x) )(x+y=x)

(iii) ( x) ( y)(x+y=0)

(iv) ( y) ( x) )(x+y=0)

Soln:

(i)

( x) ( y)(x+y=x) is true.The reason is y=0.

(ii)

( y) ( x) )(x+y=x) is true.The reason is y=0.

(iii) ( x) ( y)(x+y=0) is true. (y = -x)

(iv) ( y) ( x) )(x+y=0) is false.(only one y does not work for all x)

4. Over the set of real numbers, what is the truth values of ( x) (

y)(xy=1)

Soln:

( x) ( y)(xy=1) is true. For every real number x, there is real number y

such that xy=1 . i.e y=

1

.

x

The

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