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# Session 8

PREDICATE CALCULUS
PREDICATES
Predicates are simple statements which turn out to be propositions involving
the variables whose values are not well specified. Every Predicate tells
something about one or more objects.
Predicates generally denoted by capital letters and the objects by the
variables denoted by small letters in paranthesis.
The statement X is greater than 7 has two parts, the first part, the variable
x is the subject of the statement and the second part ,the Predicate is
greater than 7.We can denote the statement X is greater than 7 by p(x)
where P: greater than 7(Predicate) and x is the variable.
The statement p(x) is also said to be the value of the proposition function at
x. x is an integer is denoted by I(x), where the Predicate is I:is an integer.
If a predicate involves m variables or attached with m names (m>0) is
called m- Place predicate.
Ex : I(x) is a one-place Predicate.
TWO PLACE PREDICATE
x is less than y is a two phase Predicate denoted by L(x,y) where the
predicate is L: is less than.
Example Three place predicate
Sheela stands between Ram and Mohan.
S : stands between
s:Sheela r:Ram m:Mohan

The

## symbolized form is S(s,r,m) .

Equivalent Predicate
If two Predicates possess the same truth value for all values of their
variables ,then they are said to be equivalent.
Valid Predicate
If all values satisfy a Predicate ,then it is called Valid Predicate.
Statement Function.
A simple statement function of one variable is a kind of expression
containing the predicate and an individual variable. The statement is obtained
from the statement function by replacing the variable by the name(s) of
objects .The statement So obtained is called a substitution instance of the
statement function.
Compound Statement
A compound statement is on which can be obtained by combining one or
more statement functions and using logical connective as follows:
P(x) ^ Q(x) ,((P(x)), P(x) v Q(x), P(x) Q(x) etc..,
Example :
Let A(x) :x is an animal.
M(x) : x is mortal
A(x) ^ M(x) : x is an animal & x is mortal
Statement function of two variables:
The statement function of two variables can be viewed as an extension of
one variable and is class from the following example.

## Let F(x,y) : x is shorter than y.

Quantifiers
When all the variables in a propositional function are assigned values, the
resulting statement has a truth value. There is an another important way
called quantification to create a statement from a statement function. There
are two types of quantifications.
1.Universal Quantification
2. Existential Quantification
Universal Quantifier
For all x, x is an integer is written as ( x) I(x) or (x) I(x)
Here for all x is called universal quantifier .It is represented by .
Existential Quantifier
" There exists an integer x which is prime " can be written as ( x) P(x) ,
Where P(x) : x is prime.
Here the phrase, there exists is called an existential quantifier.
Meaning of Quantifier
( x) Q(x) means the Predicate Q(x) is true for all values in the universe of
x.
(x) q(x) means that the predicate Q(x) is satisfied ,if there exists at least

## one values in the universe of the variable x.

Universe of discourse
It is defined as a set of all values taken by a variable.

## The universe of discourse specifier the possible values of the variable

x..Therefore it is defined as the domain of the variable in a propositional
function.
Consider a Predicate P(x) : x is greater than 6.Let there be two
statements written in symbolic forms ( x) P(x) and x P(x) ( a
combination of a variable and a Predicate )
Further if we limit ourselves to denote the universe of discourse by the
sets.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

{ -1,7,8,11,12 }
{-3,8,9,-2 }
{2,3,4}
{11,13,20}

( x) P(x) is false for the universe (i),(ii) ,(iii) & ( x) P(x) is true for the
universe (iv) alone.
The statement f(x) p(x) is true for the universe of discourse for
(i),(ii),(iv) but false for ( iii)
Free and Bound Variables
Consider the open statements P(x):The number (x+2) is an even integer and
R(x) :2x is an even integer.
The variable x in each of the above open Statements P(x) and R(x) is called
a Free variable ( of the open statements).
Over the universe of all integers, x P(x) has fixed truth value True and R(x)
becomes a true statement for every replacement for x.
In the Symbolic representation x P(x),the variable x is said to be bound
variable x is said to be bound variable .It is bounded by a existential
quantifier .

## Similarly for the statements ( x) R(x) and (

is bound by the universal quantifier .

x) R(x),the variable x

For the open statement q(x,y) we have two free variables each is bound by
the quantifier in either of the statement x y q(x,y) (or) y x q(x,y)
Example
We consider the quantified statements (x) A(x) and ( x) A(x)
(x) A(x) and ( x) A(x) are defined as the x-bound part of the formula and x
appearing in it is called bound occurrence of x. If x doesnt occur in xbound part , then its occurrence is called free occurrence.
A(x) is called as scope of the formula.
The scope of a quantifier in a formula is the formula for which the
quantifier applies.

Example
In ( x) P(x) ,the scope of quantifier ( x) is P(x).
Symbolic Representation of Expressions using Quantifiers
Problems
1. Write in symbolic form the statement, All the lions are dangerous
Soln:
P(x) : x is dangerous
Q(x) : x is lion
Universe of discourse : set of all living things.
Symbolic Form : (x) (Q(x) P(x))

## 2. Some animals are dangerous .Write in symbolic form.

Soln:
A(x) : x is an animals
B(x) : x is dangerous
Universe of discourse : set of some living things.
Symbolic Form : ( x) (A(x) ^B(x))
3. Symbolize the stamen
(i)
All dogs bark
(ii) All man should be educated
(iii) All complex numbers composed of real and imaginary parts.
Soln:
i)

ii)

iii)

P(x) : x is a dog
Q(x) : x barks
Universe of discourse : set of animals
Symbolic Form : ( x)( P(x) Q(x))
For all x ,if x is a man, then x should be educated.
M(x) : x is a man
E(x) : x is educated.
Symbolic Form : ( x)(M(x) E(x))
For all x, if x is a complex number, then x is composed of real
and imaginary parts.
C(x) : x is a complex number
D(x) : x is composed of of real and imaginary parts
Symbolic Form : ( x)( C(x) D(x))

## 4. Using predicate symbols,

F(x) : x is a fruit
V(x) : x is the vegetable
S(x,y) : x is sweeter than y.
Symbolize the following statements

## Taking the domain as whole world,

i)
Some vegetables are sweeter than all fruits
ii)
Every fruits is sweeter than all vegetables
iii) Every fruits is sweeter than some vegetables
Soln:
Symbolic form:
i)
ii)
iii)

## ( x) (V(x) ^ ( y)) F(y) S(x,y)

( x) (F(x) ( y)) (v(y) s(x,y))
( x) (F(x) ( y)) (v(y) s(x,y))

## Symbolic Form : ( x) (C(x) R(x))

Truth values of Quantifies statements
1. Let Q(x,y) denote x+y = 0 .What are the truth values of the
quantified statements.
( y) ( x) Q(x,y) and ( x) ( y) Q(x,y) ?
Soln:
( y) ( x) Q(x,y) means , there is real number y such that for every real
number x, Q(x,y) is true. Since, there is no real number y such that x+y=0 for
all real numbers x,Q(x,y) is false.
Consider the quantification , ( x) ( y)Q(x,y).
It means that, for real number x there exists a real number y such that
x+y = 0 ( y= -x)

Q(x,y)

is true.

2. What is the truth value of (x) (P(x) v Q(x)), where P(x) : x =1 and
Q(x) : x=2 and the universe of discourse ={1,2}

Soln:
(x) (P(x) v Q(x)) means for every x,x=1 (or) x=2.This result for each of
the elements of the universe.

is true.

## 3. What is the truth values of each of the following propositions over

domain consisting of integers.
(i)
( x) ( y)(x+y=x)
(ii) ( y) ( x) )(x+y=x)
(iii) ( x) ( y)(x+y=0)
(iv) ( y) ( x) )(x+y=0)
Soln:
(i)
( x) ( y)(x+y=x) is true.The reason is y=0.
(ii)
( y) ( x) )(x+y=x) is true.The reason is y=0.
(iii) ( x) ( y)(x+y=0) is true. (y = -x)
(iv) ( y) ( x) )(x+y=0) is false.(only one y does not work for all x)
4. Over the set of real numbers, what is the truth values of ( x) (
y)(xy=1)
Soln:
( x) ( y)(xy=1) is true. For every real number x, there is real number y
such that xy=1 . i.e y=

1
.
x

The