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According to ancient views,

abnormalities were caused by?

evil spirits

According to to the Greeks and Romans


during 500 B.C. to 500 A.D., what were
humors?

bodily chemicals that influence


mental and physical functioning

Although asylums were initially created


with good intentions, they eventually
became?

prisons

Behavior that breaks legal norms


is considered to be _______.

criminal

Behavior, thoughts, and emotions that


break norms of psychological functioning
are considered to be ________.

abnormal

Benjamin Rush is considered the


father of what?

American psychiatry

Besides the contributions of Emil


Kraepelin, what else led to the resurgence
of the somatogenic perspective?

new biological discoveries

During what years did the renaissance


and mass usage of asylums occur?

1400 to 1700

How many people were institutionalized


in mental hospitals in the U.S. during
1955 compared to today?

approximately 600,000, compared


to approximately less than 40,000

If a clinician views abnormality as a


problem of living, they are likely to view
therapists as?

teachers of more functional


behavior and thought

If a clinician views abnormality as an


illness, they are likely to view therapy as
what?

a procedure that helps cure the


illness

In a study of eccentrics, how many


common characteristics did David Weeks
develop?

15

In which years was the usage of


moral treatment most prevalent?

late 1700's to late 1800's


(nineteenth century)

A major issue in defining abnormal


behavior is distinguishing between what
two types of behavior?

abnormal behavior and eccentric


behavior

Norms differ from individual


________.

societies

The psychological perspective did


not demonstrate potential until?

studies of hypnosis began

Thomas Szasz believed that deviations


from societal norms were not
abnormalities, but rather?

problems in living

Two key features of Europe during the


middle ages was distrust of _______
and a powerful ______.

science; clergy

What are antidepressant drugs


used for?

lift the mood of depressed people

What are antipsychotic drugs used


to treat?

correct extremely confused and


distorted thinking

What are asylums?

a type of institution that first became


popular in the sixteenth century to provide
care for people with mental disorders

What are norms?

a society's stated and unstated


rules for proper conduct

What are psychotropic


medications?

drugs that mainly affect the brain and


reduce many symptoms of mental
dysfunctioning

What are state hospitals?

state-run public mental health


institutions in the U.S.

What are the "four Ds" which are most


common across most definitions of
abnormality?

deviance, distress, dysfunction,


and danger

What are the common characteristics of


eccentrics as developed by David Weeks?

nonconformity, creativity, strong curiosity, idealism, extreme interests


and hobbies, lifelong awareness of being different, high intelligence,
outspokenness, noncompetitiveness, unusual eating and living habits,
disinterest in others' opinions or company, mischievous sense of humor,
nonmarriage, eldest or only child and poor spending skills

What are the three most common


types of psychotropic medications?

antipsychotic drugs, antidepressant


drugs and antianxiety drugs

What changed in the 1950's that allowed


the somatogenic perspective to payoff for
patients?

effective medications were


discovered

What did Europeans believe caused


deviant behavior during 500 A.D. to 1350
A.D?

satan's influence

What did Hippocrates believe was


the causes of abnormal behaviors?

physical (natural) causes

What did Johann Weyer become


to the first physician to do?
What is abnormal psychology?

specialize in mental illness

the scientific study of abnormal behavior in


an effort to describe, predict, explain and
change abnormal patterns of functioning

What is an approximate yearly percentage of U.S.


adults who suffer serious psychological
disturbances and are in need of clinical treatment?

30%

What is an approximate yearly percentage of U.S.


children who suffer serious psychological
disturbances and are in need of clinical treatment?

19%

What is culture?

a people's common history, values,


institutions, habits, skills, technology and
arts

What is deinstitutionalization?

the practice of releasing hundreds of


thousands of patients from mental
hospitals (began in 1960)

What is hypnosis?

a procedure that places people in a


trance-like mental state during which
they become extremely suggestible

What is Johann Weyer considered


the founder of?

the modern study of


psychopathology

What is meant by feature of danger


in defining abnormal behavior?

behavior which could be dangerous


for the individual and/or others

What is meant by feature of deviance in


defining abnormal behavior?

different, extreme, unusual and


even bizarre behavior

What is meant by feature of distress in


defining abnormal behavior?

behavior which is unpleasant and


upsetting to the person

What is meant by feature of dysfunction


in defining abnormal behavior?

behavior which interferes with the


person's ability to conduct daily activities
in a constructive way

What is moral treatment?

a nineteenth-century approach to treating people


with mental dysfunction that emphasized moral
guidance and humane and respectful treatment

What is multicultural psychology?

the field of psychology that examines the impact of culture, race,


ethnicity, gender, and similar factors on our behaviors and
thoughts and focuses on how such factors may influence the origin,
treatment and nature of abnormal behavior

What is positive psychology?

the study and enhancement of


positive feelings, traits and abilities

What is prevention?

interventions aimed at determining


mental disorders before the can develop

What is private psychotherapy?

an arrangement in which a person


directly pays a therapist for counseling
services

What is psychoanalysis?

the theory and treatment of abnormal mental


functioning that emphasizes unconscious
psychological forces as the cause of psychopathology

What is the desired affect of treating


someone with antianxiety drugs?

reduce tension and stress

What is the first essential feature that all


forms of therapy have as theorized by
Jerome Frank?

a sufferer who seeks relief from the


healer

What is the managed care


program?

a system of health care coverage in which the


insurance company largely controls the nature,
scope, and cost of medical or psychological services

What is the psychogenic


perspective?

the view that the chief causes of abnormal


functioning are psychological

What is the second essential feature that


all forms of therapy have as theorized by
Jerome Frank?

a trained, socially accepted healer, whose


expertise is accepted by the sufferer and
his or her social group

What is the somatogenic


perspective?

the view that abnormal psychological


functioning has physical causes

What is the third essential feature that all


forms of therapy have as theorized by
Jerome Frank?

a series of contacts between the healer and the


sufferer, through which the healer tries to produce
certain changes in the sufferers' emotional state,
attitudes and behavior

What is Trephination?

an ancient operation in which a stone instrument


was used to cut away a circular section of the skull,
perhaps to treat abnormal behavior

What two things is abnormality


dependent upon?

specific circumstances and cultural


norms

What type of common medication first


came into circulation in the 1950's and is
still used today?

psychotropic medications

What was Dorothea Dix's major


contribution to mental health in the U.S.
from 1841 until 1881?

made humane care a public and political concern in


the U.S. by speaking to congress and state legislatures
about the horrors she observed in asylums and the
need for reform

What was Johann Weyer's belief


about mental illness?

the mind was susceptible to


illness, just as the body is

What was mass madness during


the European middle ages?

large numbers of people sharing


delusions and hallucinations

What was the form of almost all


outpatient care prior to the 1950's?

private psychotherapy

What was the most common treatment


for abnormal behaviors in Europe during
the middle ages?

exorcism

What was the purpose of


trephination?

to release the evil spirits cause problems


within the individuals skull

What were some of the weaknesses


of the moral treatment application?

not all patients could be cured by just being treated


with dignity, a lack of funding for the lengthy process,
overcrowding, and a new prejudice against people
with mental disorders

What were the four types of


humors according to Hippocrates?

yellow bile, black bile, blood and


phlegm

What were the two most commonly used


treatments for abnormal behavior in
ancient cultures?

trephination and exorcism

Where do societal norms grow


from?

culture

Who developed the hypnosis


procedure?

Fredrich Anton Mesmer

Who developed the moral


treatment approach?

Philippe Pinel and William Tuck

Who developed the theory of


psychoanalysis?

Sigmund Freud

Who is most responsible for the spread of


moral treatment in the U.S. from 1745 to
1813?

Benjamin Rush

Why is it so difficult to create one


definition for abnormal behavior?

This type of behavior is vague and


subjective

Why was Emil Kraepelin influential in the


rebirth of the somatogenic perspective?

published an influential textbook in 1883,


which argued that physical factors (fatigue)
are responsible for mental dysfunction