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According to ancient views,

abnormalities were caused by?

evil spirits

According to to the Greeks and Romans

during 500 B.C. to 500 A.D., what were

bodily chemicals that influence

mental and physical functioning

Although asylums were initially created

with good intentions, they eventually


Behavior that breaks legal norms

is considered to be _______.


Behavior, thoughts, and emotions that

break norms of psychological functioning
are considered to be ________.


Benjamin Rush is considered the

father of what?

American psychiatry

Besides the contributions of Emil

Kraepelin, what else led to the resurgence
of the somatogenic perspective?

new biological discoveries

During what years did the renaissance

and mass usage of asylums occur?

1400 to 1700

How many people were institutionalized

in mental hospitals in the U.S. during
1955 compared to today?

approximately 600,000, compared

to approximately less than 40,000

If a clinician views abnormality as a

problem of living, they are likely to view
therapists as?

teachers of more functional

behavior and thought

If a clinician views abnormality as an

illness, they are likely to view therapy as

a procedure that helps cure the


In a study of eccentrics, how many

common characteristics did David Weeks


In which years was the usage of

moral treatment most prevalent?

late 1700's to late 1800's

(nineteenth century)

A major issue in defining abnormal

behavior is distinguishing between what
two types of behavior?

abnormal behavior and eccentric


Norms differ from individual



The psychological perspective did

not demonstrate potential until?

studies of hypnosis began

Thomas Szasz believed that deviations

from societal norms were not
abnormalities, but rather?

problems in living

Two key features of Europe during the

middle ages was distrust of _______
and a powerful ______.

science; clergy

What are antidepressant drugs

used for?

lift the mood of depressed people

What are antipsychotic drugs used

to treat?

correct extremely confused and

distorted thinking

What are asylums?

a type of institution that first became

popular in the sixteenth century to provide
care for people with mental disorders

What are norms?

a society's stated and unstated

rules for proper conduct

What are psychotropic


drugs that mainly affect the brain and

reduce many symptoms of mental

What are state hospitals?

state-run public mental health

institutions in the U.S.

What are the "four Ds" which are most

common across most definitions of

deviance, distress, dysfunction,

and danger

What are the common characteristics of

eccentrics as developed by David Weeks?

nonconformity, creativity, strong curiosity, idealism, extreme interests

and hobbies, lifelong awareness of being different, high intelligence,
outspokenness, noncompetitiveness, unusual eating and living habits,
disinterest in others' opinions or company, mischievous sense of humor,
nonmarriage, eldest or only child and poor spending skills

What are the three most common

types of psychotropic medications?

antipsychotic drugs, antidepressant

drugs and antianxiety drugs

What changed in the 1950's that allowed

the somatogenic perspective to payoff for

effective medications were


What did Europeans believe caused

deviant behavior during 500 A.D. to 1350

satan's influence

What did Hippocrates believe was

the causes of abnormal behaviors?

physical (natural) causes

What did Johann Weyer become

to the first physician to do?
What is abnormal psychology?

specialize in mental illness

the scientific study of abnormal behavior in

an effort to describe, predict, explain and
change abnormal patterns of functioning

What is an approximate yearly percentage of U.S.

adults who suffer serious psychological
disturbances and are in need of clinical treatment?


What is an approximate yearly percentage of U.S.

children who suffer serious psychological
disturbances and are in need of clinical treatment?


What is culture?

a people's common history, values,

institutions, habits, skills, technology and

What is deinstitutionalization?

the practice of releasing hundreds of

thousands of patients from mental
hospitals (began in 1960)

What is hypnosis?

a procedure that places people in a

trance-like mental state during which
they become extremely suggestible

What is Johann Weyer considered

the founder of?

the modern study of


What is meant by feature of danger

in defining abnormal behavior?

behavior which could be dangerous

for the individual and/or others

What is meant by feature of deviance in

defining abnormal behavior?

different, extreme, unusual and

even bizarre behavior

What is meant by feature of distress in

defining abnormal behavior?

behavior which is unpleasant and

upsetting to the person

What is meant by feature of dysfunction

in defining abnormal behavior?

behavior which interferes with the

person's ability to conduct daily activities
in a constructive way

What is moral treatment?

a nineteenth-century approach to treating people

with mental dysfunction that emphasized moral
guidance and humane and respectful treatment

What is multicultural psychology?

the field of psychology that examines the impact of culture, race,

ethnicity, gender, and similar factors on our behaviors and
thoughts and focuses on how such factors may influence the origin,
treatment and nature of abnormal behavior

What is positive psychology?

the study and enhancement of

positive feelings, traits and abilities

What is prevention?

interventions aimed at determining

mental disorders before the can develop

What is private psychotherapy?

an arrangement in which a person

directly pays a therapist for counseling

What is psychoanalysis?

the theory and treatment of abnormal mental

functioning that emphasizes unconscious
psychological forces as the cause of psychopathology

What is the desired affect of treating

someone with antianxiety drugs?

reduce tension and stress

What is the first essential feature that all

forms of therapy have as theorized by
Jerome Frank?

a sufferer who seeks relief from the


What is the managed care


a system of health care coverage in which the

insurance company largely controls the nature,
scope, and cost of medical or psychological services

What is the psychogenic


the view that the chief causes of abnormal

functioning are psychological

What is the second essential feature that

all forms of therapy have as theorized by
Jerome Frank?

a trained, socially accepted healer, whose

expertise is accepted by the sufferer and
his or her social group

What is the somatogenic


the view that abnormal psychological

functioning has physical causes

What is the third essential feature that all

forms of therapy have as theorized by
Jerome Frank?

a series of contacts between the healer and the

sufferer, through which the healer tries to produce
certain changes in the sufferers' emotional state,
attitudes and behavior

What is Trephination?

an ancient operation in which a stone instrument

was used to cut away a circular section of the skull,
perhaps to treat abnormal behavior

What two things is abnormality

dependent upon?

specific circumstances and cultural


What type of common medication first

came into circulation in the 1950's and is
still used today?

psychotropic medications

What was Dorothea Dix's major

contribution to mental health in the U.S.
from 1841 until 1881?

made humane care a public and political concern in

the U.S. by speaking to congress and state legislatures
about the horrors she observed in asylums and the
need for reform

What was Johann Weyer's belief

about mental illness?

the mind was susceptible to

illness, just as the body is

What was mass madness during

the European middle ages?

large numbers of people sharing

delusions and hallucinations

What was the form of almost all

outpatient care prior to the 1950's?

private psychotherapy

What was the most common treatment

for abnormal behaviors in Europe during
the middle ages?


What was the purpose of


to release the evil spirits cause problems

within the individuals skull

What were some of the weaknesses

of the moral treatment application?

not all patients could be cured by just being treated

with dignity, a lack of funding for the lengthy process,
overcrowding, and a new prejudice against people
with mental disorders

What were the four types of

humors according to Hippocrates?

yellow bile, black bile, blood and


What were the two most commonly used

treatments for abnormal behavior in
ancient cultures?

trephination and exorcism

Where do societal norms grow



Who developed the hypnosis


Fredrich Anton Mesmer

Who developed the moral

treatment approach?

Philippe Pinel and William Tuck

Who developed the theory of


Sigmund Freud

Who is most responsible for the spread of

moral treatment in the U.S. from 1745 to

Benjamin Rush

Why is it so difficult to create one

definition for abnormal behavior?

This type of behavior is vague and


Why was Emil Kraepelin influential in the

rebirth of the somatogenic perspective?

published an influential textbook in 1883,

which argued that physical factors (fatigue)
are responsible for mental dysfunction