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BIOLOGICAL PLANT

SIZING
Ing. Alberto Scaunich

EXISTING PLANT

(or available data flowrate


and pollutants concentration)

- Number of values

- Average Value

- Standard Deviation

STATISTIC
ELABORATION

- Typical Values

WHICHEVER

NORMAL

DISTRIBUTION

DISTRIBUTION

M+

Generally are available data for:


Flow
Pollutant concentration

68.3%

M+2

75%

95.4%

M+3

91%

99,7%

Q
c

[m3/d]
[mg/l]

[kg/d]

Pollutant Load

= Q*c/1000

EXISTING PLANT

(or available data flowrate


and pollutants concentration)

When are available a lot of data, its better to eliminate single data (only flow
or only concentration).
Hence you proceed in statistic elaboration.
At the end, when you have average values of flow and loads, calculate the
value ratio:

average load
average flow

(concentration)

which generally is different from concentration average values and is more


significant, representing the weighted average of concentrations.

1.

NOT EXISTING PLANT

MUNICIPAL WASTE WATER


You have to refer your design to the SPECIFIC CONTRIBUTION PER
CAPITA, which generally result prudential values.

2.

INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER


You have to refer your design to the available SPECIFIC CONTRIBUTION
PER UNIT OF PRODUCTS, adopting some security factors.

POLLUTANTS BALANCE

In biological plant sizing the ratio COD/BOD and BOD/TKN (or


COD/TKN) are very important
In Denitrification you need organic load to remove Nitrogen.
assume:
3 kgBOD/kg(NkgBOD/kg(N-NO3)DEN
4 kgBOD/kg(NkgBOD/kg(N-NO3)DEN

sizing oxidation
sizing postpost-denitrification
(methanol requirements)

Calculate Pollutants balance for these following cases (to verify


verify section
sizing):
M (BOD) + M(TKN)
M(BOD) + M+2
M+2 (TKN)
M+2
M+2 (BOD)
(BOD) + M(TKN)

NITROGEN BALANCE

TKNin+(N+(N-NO2)in+(N+(N-NO3)in =
= TKNSED+(N+(N-NO3)DEN+TKNox+TKNout+(N+(N-NO2)out+(N+(N-NO3)out
Where:
TKNin
(N(N-NO2)in
(N(N-NO3)in
TKNSED
TKNin(N(N-NO3)DEN
TKNox
TKNout
(N(N-NO2)out
(N(N-NO3)out

= inlet Nitrogen (organic ed ammonia)


= inlet Nitrogen (nitrite):
generally absent
= inlet Nitrogen (nitrate):
present only in industrial wastewater
= organic Nitrogen removed in primary sedimentation: 10
1015% TKNin
= nitrogen to remove by denitrification
= TKN removed by bacterial metabolism (5% BOD removed in
biological treatment = 0,05 (BODi
(BODin Den BODout)
= outlet Nitrogen (organic ed ammonia) - assume: 1 mg/l
= outlet Nitrogen (nitrite) - negligible
= outlet Nitrogen (nitrate) - project requirement(10
requirement(1015 mg/l)

Normally you can


(N-NO3)out
cant have in the same time significant values of (N(N-NH3)out and (N-

DENITRIFICATION DESIGN

DENITRIFICATION VELOCITY (municipal effluents)


(D)T = (
(D)20 * T-20
Where:
(D)T [gN[gN-NO3/kgVSS*d] = Denitrification velocity:actual operative conditions
(temperature = T);
(D)20 [gN[gN-NO3/kgVSS*d] = Denitrification velocity: max value at T = 20 C,
without any limiting factor;
= Temperature correction coefficient (higher value, higher T dependence)
dependence)
Process parameter
Max Denitrification velocity
Temperature correction
coefficient

Symbol

M.U.

(D)20

g N-NO3/

(Kg VSS*d)
/

Value

Reference

80100

Ekama Beccari

1,061.08

Ekama - Beccari

DENITRIFICATION VELOCITY
INTERNAL CARBON

DENITRIFICATION

VOCE

Unit di misura

Organic fraction

SSV/SST

Temperature correction coefficient


Denitrification velocity

Denitrification velocity

Scaunich
vecchio

Scaunich
attuale

PRE-DEN
Inizial
velocity

PRE-DEN
Average
vel.

POSTDEN
Average
vel.

Forte
influenza
T

Esercizio
attuale

Debole
influenza
T

0,7

0,7

0,7

0,7

0,7

1,12

1,065

1,200

1,080

1,030

a C

20

gN-NO3/kgSSTxd

70,0

56,0

504,0

70,7

50,4

a C

18

gN-NO3/kgSSTxd

55,8

49,4

350,0

60,6

47,5

a C

16

gN-NO3/kgSSTxd

44,5

43,5

243,1

52,0

44,8

a C

14

gN-NO3/kgSSTxd

35,5

38,4

168,8

44,6

42,2

a C

12

gN-NO3/kgSSTxd

28,3

33,8

117,2

38,2

39,8

a C

10

gN-NO3/kgSSTxd

22,5

29,8

81,4

32,7

37,5

a C

20

gN-NO3/kgSSVxd

100,0

80,0

720,0

101,0

72,0

a C

18

gN-NO3/kgSSVxd

79,7

70,5

500,0

86,6

67,9

a C

16

gN-NO3/kgSSVxd

63,6

62,2

347,2

74,2

64,0

a C

14

gN-NO3/kgSSVxd

50,7

54,8

241,1

63,6

60,3

a C

12

gN-NO3/kgSSVxd

40,4

48,3

167,4

54,6

56,8

a C

10

gN-NO3/kgSSVxd

32,2

42,6

116,3

46,8

53,6

DENITRIFICATION VOLUME CALCULATION

V=

(N(N-NO3)DEN
------------------(D)T * X

Where:
V [m3] = Minimum design Denitrification volume
T [
[C] = Minimum design Temperature
(NN-NO3/d] = nitrogen to remove by denitrification
(N-NO3)DEN [kg NX

[kgSSV/m3]: = Volatile Suspended Solids


(Denitrification Nitrification)

concentration in biological

basins
basins

Note:
Note: It
Its opportune to assure a minimum residential time of 3
34 h at the maximum flow, to
give to mixed liquor enough time to reduce its O2 content (DO concentration of 0,5
mg/l reduce denitrification efficiency to 10%)

MIXED LIQUOR TO RECYCLE CALCULATION

QML =

1000 * (N(N-NO3)DEN
------------------------- - QR
24 * N-NO3 out

Where:
QML [m3/h] = flowrate of recirculated Mixed Liquor
QR [m3/h] = return sludge flowrate
(N(N-NO3)DEN [kg NN-NO3/d] = nitrogen to remove by denitrification
N-NO3 out [g/m3] = concentration of nitrogen in outlet stream (design value)
1000 = conversion factor (kg g)
24 = conversion factor (d h)

MIXING - DENITRIFICATION
Above 810 W/m3 energy density is required (normal submersible mixers)
Mixer rotation velocity must be chosen as low as possible (< 700 rpm)

OXIDATION DESIGN
PRELIMINARY SIZING
V=

BODin
--------------X * F/M

Where:
BODin [kgBOD/d]
kgBOD/d] = Inlet BOD, coming from Denitrification
X [kgSST/m3]

= Total Suspended Solids concentration in biological basins


(Denitrification Nitrification): Values: 4
46

SSV/SST

= Organic fraction: typical

F/M [kgBOD/kgSST
*d] = Ratio Food/Mass:
[kgBOD/kgSST*d]
- extended aeration
- nitrification (according T)
- carbon removal only ( =85=85-90%)

= 0,7
Typical values
0,075
0,15

range
(0,06
(0,060,09)
(0,12
(0,120,18)

0,25

(0,2
(0,20,35)

OXIDATION DESIGN
NITRIFICATION VERIFING

Where:
];
(n)T = Nitrification velocity: actual operative conditions (temperature
(temperature = T [gTKN/kgSSV/d
[gTKN/kgSSV/d];

(n)20

= Nitrification velocity: max value at T = 20 C, without any limiting factor;


[gTKN/kgSSV/d];
gTKN/kgSSV/d];

= Temperature correction coefficient;


KTKN, KO = semisaturation constants, relating to TKN and DO [mg/l];
TKN, O.D.= TKN and Oxygen concentrations in biological basins [mg/l]
[mg/l]

OXIDATION DESIGN
NITRIFICATION VERIFING

OXIDATION DESIGN
CALCULATION OF NITRIFICANT
BACTERIA FRACTION

Where:
yN
y
S0
Se
TKN0
TKNe

= nitrificant bacteria cellular yield coefficient [kgSSV


/kg/TKN]
[kgSSV/kg/TKN]
= heterotrophic bacteria cellular yield coefficient [gSSV/gBOD]
gSSV/gBOD]
= inlet organic matter [mg/l]
= outlet organic matter [mg/l]
= inlet TKN [mg/l]
= outlet TKN [mg/l]

y/yN = 4,72 (Bonomo


(Bonomo,, 2008)

OXIDATION DESIGN
NITRIFICATION VOLUME CALCULATION

Where:
x

= Total Suspended Solids concentration in biological basins [kgSST/m3]


[kgSST/m3]

XN

= Total nitrificant bacteria in nitrification basins [kgSST


[kgSST]]

OXIDATION DESIGN
RETURN SLUDGE FLOWRATE

Where:
xr = Total Suspended Solids concentration in return sludge [kgSST/m3]

OXIDATION DESIGN
RETURN SLUDGE FLOWRATE IMHOFF CONE

(Q + Qr)Va = Qr Vr
Va (l/l)

Qr

Va

-------------- =
Q

--------------Vr - Va

Vr (l/l)

If Vr = 1 l/l
Qr
-------------- =
Q

Va
--------------1 - Va

OXIDATION DESIGN
RETURN SLUDGE FLOWRATE SVI (sludge volume index)
Imhoff cone 30 min [ml/l] or [cc/l]

SVI =

Imhoff
--------------x

Where:
x = Total Suspended Solids concentration in biological basins [g/l
[g/l]]
Qr
-------------- =
Q

x
--------------1000/SVI - x

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OXIDATION DESIGN
EXCESS SLUDGE FLOWRATE CALCULATION

OXIDATION DESIGN
ACTUAL OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS (AOR) & STANDARD OXYGEN
REQUIREMENTS (SOR)

Where:
a = Carbon removal coefficient = 0,5 kgO2/kgBOD
b = Endogenous respiration coefficient = 0,08 kgO2/kgSST/d
N da nitrificare = N to remove in nitrification [kgN[kgN-NH4/d]
2,86 KgO2/KgNDEN = Oxygen recovery

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OXIDATION DESIGN
ACTUAL OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS (AOR) & STANDARD OXYGEN
REQUIREMENTS (SOR)

Where:
a
= rapporto tra il coefficiente di trasferimento relativo al liquido reale a 20
20C e
quello relativo alle condizioni standard, fissato pari a 0,70;
b
= rapporto tra la concentrazione di ossigeno a saturazione nel liquido reale in
condizioni di esercizio e quella in acqua pulita in condizioni di esercizio;
esercizio;
Cs,T
= concentrazione di ossigeno a saturazione in acqua pulita alla temperatura di
esercizio T;
Cw,T
= concentrazione di ossigeno nel liquido reale alle condizioni di esercizio,
esercizio, fissata
pari a 2 mg/l;
Cs,*
= concentrazione di saturazione in acqua pulita in condizioni standard (20 C);
T
= Temperatura nelle condizioni di esercizio

OXIDATION DESIGN
AIR DEMAND

Where:
24 = days

hours;

0,28 = Kg O2 / mc air in standard conditions (20


(20C 0 m a.s.l.);
a.s.l.);
h = transfer efficiency O2 = 5% / m depth.

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SEDIMENTATION DESIGN

Hydraulic head
(mc/mqxh
(mc/mqxh))

Solid load
(kg SST/mqxd
SST/mqxd))

Ci=Q/A
=Q/A

0,20 0,30

Cs = G/A

< 5 a Q24
<9 a Qmax

Height (m)

Bridge

- Q (mc/h), flowrate
- A (mq), area
- G (kgSST
/d), solid
(kgSST/d),
flowrate = 2,5 Qr X
- X (kgSST
/mc), activated
(kgSST/mc),
sludge concentration
- Qr (mc/h), return sludge
flowrate = 1 1,5 Q24

3m
Suction bridge

WASTEWATER TREATMENT
PLANT

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

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BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

PIATTELLI PER AERAZIONE AD ALTA


EFFICIENZA

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

PIATTELLI PER AERAZIONE AD ALTA


EFFICIENZA

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BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

PIATTELLI PER AERAZIONE AD ALTA


EFFICIENZA

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

PIATTELLI PER AERAZIONE AD ALTA


EFFICIENZA

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BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

DENITRIFICAZIONE - OSSIDAZIONE

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

OSSIDAZIONE E TUBAZIONI RICIRCOLO

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BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

OSSIDAZIONE

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

OSSIDAZIONE

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BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

DENITRIFICAZIONE - OSSIDAZIONE

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

OSSIDAZIONE - OKI

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BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS
OSSIDAZIONE

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

OSSIDAZIONE - OKI

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BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

OSSIDAZIONE A BOLLE MEDIE

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

BIODISCHI

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BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

SEDIMENTAZIONE

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

SEDIMENTAZIONE

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BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

SEDIMENTAZIONE CARROPONTE ASPIRATO

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS
SEDIMENTAZIONE

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BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

SEDIMENTAZIONE

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

SEDIMENTAZIONE

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BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS

SEDIMENTAZIONE

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