c;f
(14)
q = Gs^fj
(15)
(16)
Q = 0.141 G,(4)
/
\ 12/5
(17)
TABLI 4.Compiled U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Geotechnical Data and Extrapolated and Computed Soil Parameters
ber
Geographic
location
(state)
ZAVC slope,
G s (l + e0/Gsf
(corrected
column 13)
(D
(2)
(3)
ber
(4)
1.176
1.682
1.398
0.987
1.274
1.239
1.845
0.848
1.480
1.162
1.754
1.907
1.374
1.282
1.886
1.366
1.315
1.319
1.249
1.155
1.122
1.049
0.927
0.931
1.109
1.547
1.513
0.953
0.942
1.622
6.963
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
1
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Test
num
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
Georgia
Louisiana
Mississippi
Michigan
Test
num
Geographic
location
(state)
ZAVC slope,
G s (l + eJGsf Test
num(corrected
column 13)
ber
(5)
New Mexico
Delaware
(6)
(7)
1.397
0.675
1.080
1.156
1.074
0.949
1.070
0.965
1.245
0.863
1.725
1.439
0.720
1.093
0.664
1.268
0.706
0.742
0.515
0.536
0.694
0.954
1.897
2.007
1.185
1.709
1.554
1.224
1.275
1.037
4.524
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Geographic
location
(state)
(8)
Delaware
West Virginia
New Jersey
Colorado
ZAVC slope,
G s (l + eB/G,f
(corrected
column 13)
(9)
5.555
5.311
8.850
5.330
4.929
7.588
6.140
2.765
5.180
2.938
0.845
0.965
0.950
0.810
0.863
0.889
0.865
0.865
0.798
0.794
2.113
1.938
7.125
5.802
1.127
1.032
0.969
1.032
1.093
1.093
0.821
0.916
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AlKhafaji, et al., points out that for e = 1.0, Fig. 3 indicated that Cc
ranged from 0.28 to 0.70, whereas Eq. 7 yielded a compression index
value equal to 0.24. (This, however, is the kind of result that one would
get using any of the available correlations; i.e., a single estimate of Cc.)
The writer had only asserted (not proven) that field consolidation curves
are parallel. The writer had also pointed out that "further experimentation may show, however, that for a value of void ratio and specific
gravity, the compression index may increase by a small amount as particle size
decreases. Consideration of the effect of variation in specific gravity or in
average particle size on the concept of parallelness, is disregarded in this
study." (Emphasis is added.) Some of the "scatter" in the data about a
regression curve like Fig. 15 may be found to be attributed to average
particle size effects. That is, the finer a soil is, the greater the value of
Cc is likely to be for a given value of the normalized ZAVC slope. Thus,
Eq. 15 could be modified as follows:
Cr A/I
aGs '
, +
'
Y l
(15)
HI
LW/P
_

ki
III 1
^/8 >
LEGEND
L
LG
P
E
o
o
a
o
o
*
e
o
Linear regression
Logarithmic curve fit
Power curve fit
Exponential curve fit
Georgia
Louisiana
Mississippi
Michigan
New Mexico
Delaware
West Virginia
New Jersey
Colorado
LG
FIG. 15.Correlation between "Virgin" Compression Index and Normalized ZeroAirVoids Curve Slope
757
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1.21 iw G.
= 0.0323 w
100
(18)
Often, authors do not indicate whether a compression index correlation pertains to the virgin or "field" slope, i.e., C'c or C c , respectively.
Eq. 18, and some of the equations that follow, are simply reported as
they appear in the literature.
Koppula had evaluated the relationship between Cc and eight independent variables (e.g.: multicolinearity) and found that a simple linear
regression
Q = 0.01 xv
(19)
yielded the lowest values of the sum of the absolute errors, the sum of
758
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(20)
Figure 16 (Fig. 10 with additions) shows the relationship between Koppula's equation (Eq. 20) and the writers Eq. 21 (Table 5).
As suggested by AlKhafaji, et al., a reexamination of the relationship
between compression index and normalized ZAVC slope, indicates that
a "linear" regression yields a higher coefficient of determination than
does a logarithmic, power, or exponential function. These findings are
summarized in Table 5 and Fig. 15. Based on the findings in the relatively recent work of Koppula (27) and Azzouz, et al. (25), linear regressions were also made between C'c and the initial water content and void
ratio. (These regressions are also shown on Table 5.)
Based solely on a comparison of coefficient of determinaton (R2) for
FIG. 16.Correlations between Compression Index and Void Ratio (Fig. 10 Modified)
759
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Equation
number
(1)
21
22
23
24
25
26
Regression
type
(2)
Linear
Logarithmic
Power
Exponential
Linear
Linear
Sample
size {N)
(4)
94
94
94
94
76
94
Coefficient of
determination
(R2)
(5)
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.72
0.96
0.94
Eqs. 2126, it appears that Eqs. 21 and 25 possess the highest values;
i.e., 0.95 and 0.96, respectively.
According to Ostle, the choice of functional relation between two or
more variables is based on "(1) an analystical consideration of the phenomenon concerned, and (2) an examination of scatter diagrams plotted
from the observed data . . . When it is evident that some degree of
curvature is present in the data but no clearcut choice of mathematical
model is possible, a reasonable approach is to systematically examine
polynomials of increasing order." (29) Although it has been claimed (24,27)
that nonlinear compression index correlations are not warranted, a visual examination of scatter diagrams plotted from the observed data in
this study indicates otherwise. Figure 15 subtly shows that a straight
line can be "fitted by eye" through the data above C'c = 0.25; the remaining data below C'c = 0.25 appears to "drift" to the left of this line.
By analogous reasoning, one would note a subtle "curvature" above C'c
= 1.0. This curvature is not unexpected when one considers that the
resistance to the expulsion of interparticle water during consolidation
will vary nonlinearly according to the everincreasing effects of interparticle interaction as void ratio decreases. The writer asserts, therefore,
that based on an examination of Fig. 15, the plotted data indicate that
it is best fitted by relationships like Eqs. 21 or 23. Eq. 25 yields negative
TABLE 6.Nonlinear Compression Index Correlations
Equation
number
(D
27
28
29
Equation
(2)
Comment
Reference
(3)
(4)
Finnish muds and clays Helenelund (26)
Cc = 0.85V(w/100)3
Cc = 0.0001766 w\
Chicago subsoils (w is Peck and Reed (28)
+ 0.00593 xv  0.135 natural moisture
content)
Cc = 0.0051 w\
BlakeBahama Outer
Beverly (25)
+ 0.1328 wL  6.412
Ridge Area deepsediments (wL is liquid
limit and is saltcorrected)
760
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values of C'c for e 0 values less than 0.336. For e0 = 0.336, Eq. 21 yields a
value of C'c = 0.097 which appears to be more realistic; this w o u l d account for t h e " c u r v a t u r e " of t h e d a t a . O t h e r available n o n l i n e a r
compression index correlations are s h o w n in Table 6.
The material for portions of this closure was obtained from a study
conducted (198182) at the Marine Geomechanics Laboratory, University
of Rhode Island (URI). The study was funded by a fellowship administered by the National Research Council (NRC) and sponsored by the
Ford Foundation. The writer gratefully acknowledges the assistance given
by URI, NRC, and the Ford Foundation.
APPENDIX.REFERENCES
24. Azzouz, A. S., Krizek, R. J., and Corotis, R. B., "Regression Analysis of Soil
Compressibility," Soils and Foundations, Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics
and Foundations Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 2, June, 1976, pp. 1929.
25. Beverly, B. E., "Consolidation Characteristics of DeepSea Sediments Recovered with a Giant Piston Corer: BlakeBahama Outer Ridge Area," thesis
presented to the Department of Civil Engineering, at Worchester Polytechnic
Institute, in Worchester, Mass., in 1975, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science.
26. Helenelund, K. V., "On Consolidation and Settlement of Loaded SoilLayers," thesis presented to the Finland Technical Institute, at Helsinki, Finland,
in 1951, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy.
27. Koppula, S. D., "Statistical Estimation of Compression Index," Ceotechnical
Testing Journal, GTJODJ, Vol. 4, No. 2, June, 1981, pp. 6873.
28. Peck, R. B., and Reed, W. C , "Engineering Properties of Chicago Subsoils,"
Bulletin 423, Engineering Experiment Station, University of Illinois, Urbana,
111., 1954.
29. Ostle, B., Statistics in Research, 2nd ed.. The Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames,
Iowa, 1974.
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