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Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:

http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gcec20

PHASE FLOW

a

Published online: 30 Mar 2007.

To cite this article: V. SPECCHIA , G. BALDI & S. SICARDI (1980) HEAT TRANSFER IN PACKED BED REACTORS WITH ONE PHASE

FLOW, Chemical Engineering Communications, 4:1-3, 361-380

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00986448008935916

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0098-6445/80/0402-0361 S04.50/0

Gordon

Printed in the U.S.A.

WITH ONE PHASE FLOW

V. SPECCHIA, G. BALDI AND S. SICARDI

Politecnico, 10100 Torino, Italy

An extensive array of literature data on the heat transfer from a reactor wall to a fluid flowing through a

packed bed and those obtained from some experimental runs were interpreted with a model containing two

parameters: k, (effective radial thermal conductivity within the bed) and h. (heat transfer coefficient at the

wall).

Both parameters were considered in terms of a stagnant contribution (due to the heat conduction through

the solid particles and the fluid in the void space) and a radial mixing contribution (due to the heat

convection by turbulent mechanism.

The stagnant contribution was interpreted with a model similar to that proposed by Kunii and Smith

(1966) for heat transfer in a packed bed with motionless fluid.

General correlating equations for calculating the stagnant and the turbulent contributions of both k, and

h. are proposed.

INTRODUCTION

Radial heat transfer in tubular, fixed bed, catalytic, reactors is of the utmost

importance with regard to yield, stability, process selectivity and catalyst deactivation.

Much research work has been carried out on this subject and several models have been

proposed. These can be grouped according to their aim: models for interpreting the

heat transfer rate from the wall, and models for explaining the intimate heat transfer

mechanisms in the bed.

The first examples of the former were one-parameter models characterized by an

overall heat transfer coefficient (Colburn, 193\; Leva, \947; Leva and Grummer,

1948; Leva et al.. 1948; Leva, \950; Maeda, 1950; Maeda, 1951) or an effective radial

thermal conductivity (Singer and Wilhelm, 1950; Hougen and Piret, 1951). The

current model however, uses two parameters: an effective radial thermal conductivity

in the bed, k" and a heat transfer coefficient in the wall zone h; (Coberly and

Marshall, \95 l ; Felix, 1951; Campbell and Huntington, 1952; Plautz and Johnstone,

1955; Quinton and Storrow, 1956; Calderbank and Pogorski, 1957; Vagi and Wakao,

1959; Vagi and Kunii, \960; Kunii et al., 1968; De Wasch and Froment, 1972),

introduced because a strong decrease in k, was observed near the wall (Kwong and

Smith, 1957). Such model describes the radial temperature profile much better than

the one-parameter model based on an effective radial conductivity only. Some workers

(Agnew and Potter, 1970; Gunn and Khalid, \975; Dixon et al., 1978) took axial

thermal conductivity into consideration (three-parameter model), but found that this

parameter plays a considerable role in the case of shallow beds and low fluid velocity

only. Dixon et al. (1978), in fact, by using ceramic beads and steel spheres with

5.6"" D,jDp "" I 1.2, found that for ZjDp ;;;" 10-15 the radial thermal conductivity

362

calculated with the two-parameter model is practically coinciding with that determined with the three-parameter model, at least for 70 .. Re .. 380.

All these models can be defined as pseudo-homogeneous, since they consider the

two-phase system (fluid and solid particles) through which heat is transferred as

homogeneous: no temperature differences, in fact, are assumed between the two

phases. It is generally accepted that heat in the bed is transferred partially by

turbulent mixing (convective mechanism) and partially by conduction through the

solid phase and the fluid itself (conductive mechanism), the former being greatly

predominant at relatively high fluid velocities.

Many models for k, have been proposed. These fall into two classes: those of one

class are pseudo-homogeneous models and convection and conduction mechanisms are

assumed to be independent of each other. Models of this kind have been adopted by

several workers (Yagi and Wakao, 1959; Vagi and Kunii, 1960; Kunii et al.. 1968; De

Wasch and Froment, 1972; Vagi and Kunii, 1957; Bauer and Schliinder, 1978a;

Bauer and Schliinder, 1978b) and are based on the experimental evidence that k,

Increases linearly as the fluid velocity VG increases, but does not ~anish at VG = 0; as a

consequence, k, is expressed as the sum of one term independent of and another term

dependent on VG'

The models of the other class, on the contrary, postulate local temperature

differences between the two phases; as a result, the rate of heat conduction through the

solid is affected by the solid-fluid heat transfer and this depends on the fluid velocity.

The models of this kind proposed by some workers (Agnew and Potter, 1970; Dixon et

al.. 1978; Bhattacharyya and Pei, 1975; Balakrishnan and Pei, 1974; Balakrishnan

and Pei, 1979a; Balakrishnan and Pei, 1979b) are probably closer to the actual

phenomena, but are clearly more complicated. On the other hand, it is not certain that

significant temperature differences between fluid and particles exist (Bunnel et al.,

1948).

Very few works have been devoted to explaining hw ; it has been suggested (Yagi and

Kunii, 1960; Kunii et al.. 1968; De Wasch and Froment, 1972) that this parameter too

should be expressed as the sum of two terms, one dependent on and the other

independent of the fluid velocity.

From a practical point of view, it is important to be able to evaluate the gross

parameters k, and hw The empiric correlations proposed by many workers are

generally based on their own data and very often do not fit those of other workers.

The aim of this work is to propose general correlations for the evaluation of k, and

two-parameter model for a gas flow

through a packed bed. The sources examined are listed in Table I, together with the

keys for the figures that follow. Almost all k, and h; data were obtained with a bed

height to particle diameter ratio (ZjDp ) ranging from 14 to 600 about; for only one

series of data this ratio has a value of 12. No influence of the bed height on the two

parameters value can be observed in this range of Zj D p

We have also determined data for beds of 6.10- 3 m and 12.9.10- 3 glass and

porcelain spheres and 6.10- 3 m porcelain Raschig rings; the experimental apparatus

and procedure are described elsewhere (Specchia and Baldi, 1979).

The radial temperature profile was measured at the end of the packed bed with

363

TABLE I

References

key

Packing

D xlO'

P

Coberly and

(1951)

Marshall

Iil!I

Celi te Cylinders

D , 100

c

D , 10'

e

'D , 10'

3.2x3.2

115

3.9

3.7

"

"

6.4,6.4

"

7.8

7.3

tiiI

"

"

9.5,12.7

"

12.9

12.0

3.2x3.2

127

3.9

3.7

Fe l i x

(19511

AJ::,

"

"

6.4,6.4

"

7.8

7.3

V

'

"

9.5xl2.7

"

12.9

12.0

"

"

6.4,6.4

76

7.8

7.3

'V

"

"

9.5,11.7

"

12.9

12.0

3.2

"

3.2

3.2

6.4

"

6.4

6.4

50.8

4.9

4.6

11.7x13.5

152

16.3

14.8

6.4,7.4

152

8.2

7.7

6.5,6.7

102

8.0

7.5

7.2

\02

7.2

7.2

19.1

152

19.1

19.1

15.4

"

25.4

25.4

11.1

"

\1. 2

11.1

12.7

103

11.7

11.7

19.1

"

19.1

19.1

4.4

41.3

4.4

4.4

101

3.9

3.7

"

7.8

7.3

e

Q

Campbell and

Huntington

(1952)

Celite Cylinders

Glass Spheres

"

<#

SiIi ea Alumina

Aiuminulfl Cylin.

Johnstone(1955

Sob

C>

Glass Spheres

OUInton and

St or r ov

(1956)

Pcqcr s k i

(1957)

Hydrated Alumina

Cylinders

...

Plautz and

"

"

()

3.9, 4.1

Cylinders

"

Tabular Alumina

"

"

Tabular Alumina

Sph.

Glass Spheres

"

"

Glass Spheres

"

"

5.4)(

6.4

(continued)

364

TABLE I (continued)

ReEer enc es

Packing

ke y

, 103

P

Calderbank and

P090"ki

(1957)

( 1959)

c:

~

IJ

AlundulIl Sph,

"

Glass Spheres

I!l

"

"

"

B3

G

3

10

*

e

3

10

6.4

102

6.4

6.4

12.7

"

12.7

12.7

0.76

36

0.76

0.75

0.91

"

0.91

0.91

2.6

2.6

2.6

6.0

"

"

6.0

6.0

1.28

"

1.28

1.28

"

1.81

1.81

"

"

"

1. 97

1. 97

1. 97

"

2.57

2.57

2.57

"

"

4.31

"

"

"

4.31

4.31

Leat Shot,

0.76

"

0.76

0.76

1;1

"

"

1.08

"

1.08

1.08

~

EI

"

"

1.5

"

"

1.5

1.5

3.1

3.1

ED

St .. l 8.1ls

3.1

Glass Beads

0.57

48*

0.57

0.57

"

0.94

0.94

0.94

"

"

2.75

"

"

2.75

2.75

5.1

"

5.1

5.1

12.3

"

"

"

12.3

12.3

3.0

3.0

11.2

11.2

"

"

"

Glass 8.11.

@,)

Lead Shots

3.0

<

9:.. 1 B.ll.

11.2

Celite Sphere

2B

140

2B

2B

"

Va

42

"

42

42

\l

and Ono (1968)

T

( 0 )

1.81

Kunii. Suzuki

(1972)

"

(9

Fr c ae n t

x:' 1 0

"

De Wash and

181

~

!5iI

(1960)

"

"

"

des

[I

"

2 5

"

P,11,t.

5.0,5.0

"

"

"

f,

3 4

Pellets

8.3,8.3

99

157.5

99

6.1

5.7

"

"

10.2

9.S

(continued)

365

TABLE I (continued)

References

De Wasch and

Fr-cae nt

(1972)

a>

10J

x 10'

10'

o ,

e

10'

OPellet

3 4

8.3,8.3

157.5

10.2

9.5

V 0 Pellets

2 5

5.2,5.2

99

6.3

5.9

"

157.5

"

"

fe

"

"

Q

Our data

Packing

key

Glass Spheres

6.0

141

6.0

6.0

Ceramic Spb .

12.9

"

12.9

12.9

Ceramic Rings

6 , 6

"

8.4

6,7

I

I

c .;

C,

=

Values of k

several thermocomples; the mixing-cup temperature To of the outlet fluid was also

measured. The heat was supplied to the bed at a constant wall temperature T w

By assuming a uniform velocity of the gas phase through the reactor section,

disregarding the temperature differences between the gas and the solid particles in any

point of the bed, and neglecting the axial heat dispersion, a heat balance on a volume

element of the bed leads to:

aT ~ k (~aT + a

az 'r ar ar

2T)

Gc

(I)

T- T,

aT

ar

-~O

z = 0,

2:

z 0,

z > 0,

r - R

(2)

366

By assuming k, and n; as constant along the packed bed for the given operating

conditions, integration of Eq. (I), with T; = constant, leads to:

(3)

were:

Bi = h~1 k,

(Biot number)

(4)

(5)

(6)

By integration of the temperature profile in the outlet section, the mixing cup

temperature To can be determined with the following equation (Tsang et al .. 1976):

T w - To = ~

T; - T, Bi

._1 b

Jo(b.)[ I + (b.1 Bi)2]

(7)

n "

measurement of the axial or the radial profile (or both) within the bed, together with

T" To and T w These methods were critically analyzed in the work of Tsang et al.

(1976). In the present work, k, and h; were evaluated with an optimization method

described elsewhere (Speechia and Baldi, 1979), which consisted in minimization of

the relative errors between the experimental and the calculated radial temperature

profiles; the agreement between the calculated and experimental To was also considered. The literature data indicate that the values of k, and h; are not affected by the

identification method employed. Figure I compares the experimental temperatures

and the "best" radial temperature profile calculated with the two-parameter model

(solid lines); the agreement between the experimental data and the calculated curve is

satisfactory. The best profile calculated with the one-parameter model based on the

effective conductivity is also shown (broken lines), using the equations developed by

De Wasch and Froment (1972); as can be seen, this model is less accurate.

As already stated, the experimental results indicate that k, varies with VG in a linear

manner and does not disappear when V G ~ O. This pattern is clear from our k, data

(Fig. 2). Yagi and Kunii (1957) therefore regard k, as the sum of a stagnant (k,)o and

a radial mixing contribution (k')G:

k, - (k,)o

(k')G

(8)

367

Glass Spheres 6 mm

1

.8

.6

f::, vG =1.60 "

I

1-----+----+------.~9__-__t_rl_______\

T-T'I

TW -TI

.2

.2

.4

.8

.6

r/R

FIGURE I Radial temperature profile for 6.10-' glass spheres; full lines, two-parameter model; broken

lines,one-parameter model.

3

~

:=.::

-E

....

....

mm

12.9

"

"

Rings 6x6

Spheres 6

o Glass

<> Ceramic

"

til

'----'

II

o

o

.4

.8

FIGURE 2

k, versus

1.2

[m/sJ

VG for

1.6

368

conduction contribution (through the solid and the fluid) to heat' transfer; (k')G

represents the convective contribution of the radial mixing and depends, above all, on

the hydrodynamics and the physical properties of the gas.

Several models-some of considerable complexity-have been proposed for (k,)o

(Balakrishnan and Pei, 1974; Balakrishnan and Pei, 1979a; Balakrishnan and Pei,

1979b; Kunii and Smith, 1960; Bauer and Schliinder 1978b).

The simplest of these (though it has not escaped criticism) is that of Kunii and

Smith (1960).

This model provides for conduction through:

a) the fluid in the void space

b) the solid particles

c) the fluid near the contact points between the particles.

Heat transfer through the contact points of the solid particles was disregarded, since

the contact area was regarded as negligible.

Mechanisms b) and c) are in series and mechanism a) is in parallel with b) + c);

accordingly, Kunii and Smith wrote:

_(

k,_)o _ < + ,--(3.:....(1---:-,--<..:....)

kG

(9)

kG

cf> +-'Y

ks

where kG and k s are the thermal conductivities of the fluid and the solid particles

respectively.

(3, 'Y and cf> are the ratios between characteristic lengths and the particle diameter

(the particles are assumed to be spheres): (3 represents the dimensionless distance

between the centers of two neighbouring particles; 'Y is the dimensionless thickness of a

slab of solid material that would offer the same resistance to heat transfer as the

particle; is the dimensionless thickness of a slab of fluid which would offer the same

resistance to heat transfer as the stagnant fluid near the contact points.

On the basis of geometrical considerations, Kunii and Smith (1960) proposed (3 - I,

'Y = 2/3, and a rather complicated equation for cf>. While (3 - I may be acceptable, the

theoretical approach leading to the determination of 'Y and cf> would seem open to

criticism. The model, in fact, gives (k,)o values that are not in agreement with the

experimental values obtained by extrapolation from k, at V G = 0 (it should be noted

that Kunii and Smith checked their model primarily on the basis of (k,)o data obtained

with motionless fluid).

369

An empiric approach to the evaluation of l' and cf> has thus been attempted. This is

based on Kunii and Smith's suggestion that (k.)o depends on the number of contact

points between the particles (and hence on f), and on k s / kG'

By rearranging Eq. (9), one obtains:

(10)

Jines all had a slope of about 2/3 and the intercepts increased in function of f. Since

the slope of the straight lines is equal to l' [Eq. (10)], this parameter seems to be

gr----;-----,---,---r---r-----,-----,

f------+----+--+-----+---f---------7"'l""-~._.j

7 j----+----+-----I----t-7,r------b~'-I"'----____l

6

N

"l'""

[] =0.37

0.38

o

0.40

D.

0.43

3

2

FIGURE J

370

actually independent on e and constant. Its empiric value is equal to that assumed by

Kunii and Smith, showing that their physical intuition was not too far from the truth.

Assurning v - 2/3, tf> was calculated from the experimental (k,)o values and plotted

vs. ~ in Fig. 4. It is apparent that tf> can be considered as solely dependent on e, and

independent of the shape and size of the particles and k s; the examined (k,)o values

cover a ks/k G range between 10 and 8000.

The best fit line of the data points in Fig. 4 has the following expression:

(II)

Vagi and Kunii (1957), too, analyzed (k,)o data experimentally determined with a

motionless fluid by means of an equation similar to Eq. (9) and found tf> to depend on ~

raised to 1.84.

Krupiczka (1966) also used data from a motionless fluid to propose an empirical

correlation for (k,)o as a function of ~ and k s / kG' We tested this correlation with the

(k,)o values obtained by extrapolation at VG - O. The agreement was poor, however,

except for beds with high ks .

RADIAL MIXING CONTRIBUTION (k')G

Since, as we have seen, k, increases linearly with VG, (k')G/vG is a constant [see Eq.

(8)].

To correlate the (k,)G data (Coberly and Marshall, 1951; Campbell and Huntington, 1957; Plautz and Johnstone, 1955; Quinton and Storrow, 1956; CaJderbank and

Eq.(11) .

=-~ ~::-

4

... ,\~Q~- -

-- -_;.J --:::-

,.....

0- -

-:t!j~~~--

~~ ~'- --~-I

I- -

-_,\~QIQ

.4

FIGURE 4

as a function of e.

.5

.6

371

Pogorski, 1957; Vagi and Wakao, 1959; Vagi and Kunii, 1960; Kunii et al.. 1968; De

Wasch and Froment, 1972), for packings of different shape and size, a modified Peclet

number based on (k,)c: PeH ~ vcPccPGD,/(k,)c was introduced, in which D, is the

diameter of a sphere with the same surface as the particle.

PeH was found to be independent of the Reynolds number Re - vePeD,/J.l.c, as

expected from the linear trend of k, vs. Ve, but dependent on the ratio between the

reactor diameter D, and D, when D,/D, :5 13. Fig. 5 shows PeH as a function of

DJD,.

A similar behaviour has been observed for the radial mass dispersion data plotted as

Peclet number (PeM - vcD,/DR) as a function of D,/D, (Fahien and Smith, 1955;

Dorrweiler and Fahien, 1959); introduction of the empiric parameter:

B ~ 1

+ 19.4 (D,/D.)'

(12)

B was then used to correlate the PeH values; the full line in Fig. 5 in fact, represents

the equation:

PeH

8.65 B

(13)

All the data are well correlated by this equation, with a mean relative quadratic

error of 5.8%.

For the radial mass dispersion, Smith (1970) shows a PeM/B range of 7-10,

irrespective of the Reynolds number; this range is in good agreement with the value

PeH / B ~ 8.65 obtained with the mixing contribution of the radial' heat dispersion

data.

4

- ---

.,

.~

~ ......

1')

~~

. Eq.(13)

~j

('i)

T"<.I"

FIGURE 5

Pe as a function of DJ De-

372

The influence of D, on (ke)a for low values of DelDe is probably connected with the

increase of the bed void fraction near the wall, and hence with the variation in the fluid

velocity profile. The effect of the wall on the bed void fraction extended for about two

particle diameters into the bed (Shaffer, 1953). When Del De is large, this effect is

confined to a thin zone (as compared with the reactor section) near the wall; for low

Del De values, it may affect significantly the velocity profile in a wide zone of the

reactor section.

The empiric correlations for h; proposed by various workers on the basis of their own

data, usually do not fit those of others very well.

Hanratty (1954) proposed a theoretical model that fitted some of the data from the

works listed in Table I well, but was in complete disagreement with other data,

especially at low Reynolds numbers. This is probably due to the fact that h; has

generally been regarded as a hydrodynamic parameter only, whereas heat transfer in

the wall zone may be due to different mechanisms; of these, the conductive mechanism

cannot be neglected.

It has been observed (Yagi and Kunii, 1960; Kunii et al., 1968; De Wasch and

Froment, 1972) that h; does not seem to vanish when Va ~ O. This pattern is clear in

our plot for h; (Fig. 6).

As for k.. therefore, h; can be expressed as the sum of a stagnant (or conductive)

cotribution (hw)o and a turbulent (or convective) contribution (hw)o:

(14)

We used the same simplified approach as that proposed for (ke)o by Kunii and Smith

( 1960).

Accordingly, the heat flux from the wall can be written (see Fig. 7):

(15)

where 'w is the bed void fraction in the wall zone, t:J.r is the thickness of this zone

(which may be considered as equal to D: 12), t:J. T is the temperature gradient

(considered as equal for both the solid phase and the fluid), and Qs is the heat

is the diameter of a sphere with

transferred by conduction through the solid phase.

the same volume as the particle; this equivalent diameter has been suggested by Kunii

and Smith, since the particle volume is involved in the phenomenon of heat conduction

through the solid.

D:

373

2.5 r----------.......,.----;----r---,

o Glass Spheres 6 mm

o Ceramic " 12.9"

c

"

Rings 6x6 "

1.51---f-------1----+---+~,-+-~-~~___i

11--+---Ic-~+_::~~=---+--+--+-______I

OL....-----J_---I._----I._---l._---l.._---l.._---L..._---'

.2

.4

vG

FIGURE 6

.6

.8

.1

1.2

1.4

1.6

[m/s]

h. versus VG for the tested packings.

FIGURE 7 Heat transfer model for the stagnant contribution in the wall zone. (l) heat conduction

through the fluid in the void space; (2) heat conduction through the solid phase in series with lhatthrough

the stagnant fluid near the particle-wall contact points.

374

particle-wall contact surface, and by conduction through the solid phase; these two

mechanisms are in series with each other, so that we can write:

(16)

where 1, is the thickness of a slab of solid material which would offer the same

resistance to heat transfer as one half sphere, and If is the thickness of a slab of fluid

which would offer the same resistance as the fluid near the contact points between the

solid particles and the wall.

By substituting Eq. (16) in Eq. (15) one obtains: .

( 17)

D:

D:

and <Pw = If l

are dependent on the geometry of the contact

between the particle and the wall. In this connection it may be observed that If is a

function of the curvature radii of both the wall and the particle (at constant D:, If

would decrease by decreasing Dc), so that it may be influenced by Del D:.

By rearranging Eq. (17), one obtains:

1- E

w- (h ) D*

wO~_2E

kG

'Yw

+ <Pw

(18)

kG

Figure 8 shows a plot of H; as a function of kGI k s at constant Del D: values.

Straight lines have been obtained all with the slope of about 113 (equal to 'Yw) and

intercepts which increase with Del D:. It is interesting to note that 'Yw = 'Y/2: for (hw)o,

in fact, half a sphere is involved in the conduction mechanism through the solid (Fig.

7), while for (k,)o two half spheres must be considered.

<Pw was then calculated according to Eq. (17) by using our data and those in the

literature for (hw)o (Coberly and Marshall, 1951; Felix, 1951; Plautz and Johnstone,

1955; Quinton and Storrow, 1956; Vagi and Wakao, 1959; Vagi and Kunii, 1960;

Kunii et al . 1968; De Wasch and Froment, 1972). The calculated <Pw values actually

depend on Del D: only, as can be seen from Fig. 9, where the best fit line has the

following expression:

(19)

f):, <Pw values for particles of different shape are satisfactorily in agreement.

375

.25

~e-

-r.

e-e-

c/O:=17.5

.2

it>-A_A-

.15

I-"

c/ O:=14

.1

1...-0-

--

.05

4-

FIGURE 8

oU-pr\

OC/O: =10.7 -

'""

o

o

J---

..[]-

D~

nI

Oc/O:= 8

J,...--- ~-

:=4.3

Oc/ O

4

The Nusselt number (hw)GD./k G for our data and those in the literature (Coberly and

Marshall, 1951; Felix, 1951; Plautz and Johnstone, 1955; Quinton and Storrow, 1956;

376

~~

<Pw

~I

~~v

Eq.(19)

-,

10

7

1,<:1

~ ,,

'J

1ft

/

J~~

:'1

Ifj~

10.1

7

/~

11;I

/J,

/

~!/

_c~

,t:o

1 1

/,',

~

,

7 101 2

Oc/O:

FIGURE 9

Vagi and Wakao, 1959; Vagi and Kunii, 1960; Kunii et al. 1968; De Wasch and

Froment, 1972) has been correlated as a function of the Reynolds number Re vGPGD,/ IJ.G; this correlation is shows in Fig. 10 (For the keys, see Table I).

The data points agree very satisfactorily in the wide range of Reynolds numbers

investigated. Only the data of De Wasch and Froment (1972) for a larger diameter

reactor are higher than the average. Felix (1951), too, like De Wasch and Froment,

carried out runs by using the same cylindrical particles packed in two reactors of

different diameters; his data however, agree with the others.

Two correlating equations can be obtained from Fig. 10: one, valid for 10 .. Re ..

1200, has the following expression with a mean relative quadratic error of 9,9%:

377

(h.",~;D, ~

0.0835 (Re)091

(20)

The other, valid for 1200 ,,; Re < 10000, has the following expression, with a mean

relative quadratic error of 6.3%:

(21 )

It must be noted that the use of D, leads to a satisfactory agreement between the

data for spherical, cylindrical, granular particles and Raschig rings; moveover, the two

proposed correlations fit the experimental data of many different workers (240 data

points).

Unfortunately, all the data examined were obtained with air only, so that the

influence of the Prandtl number could not be investigated.

CONCLUSION

Examination of many experimental data for heat transfer in packed beds, permitted

the proposal of general correlations for the a priori evaluation of k, (the effective

IO'\J~

.....~ ..

I

I

Eq.(21 J

...~~

,l\."i.

'

fP-",., -

loP I.~~'

~

.

.rr

.

:~

Ct

~

~

.t:.

'-"

10

"

,Jit

:rR!

~.

7

5

~.

~<D')

~.

..''to'" Eq.(20J

./j"

5 7 102

5 7 103

Re

FIGURE 10

5 7 10

378

radial thermal conductivity in the bed) and h; (the heat transfer coefficient at the

wall).

Both parameters have been expressed in terms of the contribution of the stagnant

heat conduction through the solid and the fluid in the void space, and the radial mixing

contribution of the fluid.

The proposed correlations cover a wide range of operative conditions, packing shape

and size, solid particle thermal conductivity and reactor diameter. Unfortunately, all

the examined data have been obtained with air only, so that data determined with

other gas phases are needed to check the reliability of the correlations.

Very few data of (k,)o and (k,)G concerning other gases have been found (Agnew

and Potter, 1970), but they have been not considered since determined with a

three-parameter model.

A few concluding remarks may be made with respect to the model used to interpret

the conductive contribution. This is clearly a radical simplification of the phenomenon

and relies on assumptions that are open to criticism. However, the fact that it leads to

the correlation of so many data obtained by so many different workers with a wide

range of variations in the shape, size, and above all the conductivity of the solid

material suggests that it is based on a presentation of the phenomenon that is not far

from the true one.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This research was partially supported by NATO grant n01474. Our thanks are due to prof. A. Gianello for

helpful discussions.

NOTATION

Bi = hwR/k,

CpG

o,

reactor diameter, m

D,

the particle, m

D*,

particle, m

nominal packing diameter, m

radial mass dispersion coefficient, m 2/s

gas superficial mass velocity, kg/rn" s

parameter defined by Eq. (10), dimensionless

parameter defined by Eq. (18), dimensionless

wall heat transfer coefficient, Watt/m 2 K

turbulent contribution, Watt/m' K

379

stagnant contribution, Wau/rn! K

zero-th order Bessel function, first kind

first order Bessel function, first kind

(k')G

(k,)o

kG

ks

If

contact points, m

I,

thickness of a slab of solid material with the same resistance as one half spherical particle, m

Pe H

vGPGcpGD,/(k,)G

Q,

Reynolds number, dimensionless

radial coordinate, m

t:.r

temperature.vC

t:.T

D:12,m

inlet temperature, C

mixing-cup temperature, C

temperature at r - R,oC

wall temperature, C

gas superficial velocity, tn]

axial coordinate, m

Greek Letters

fJ

in the bed referred to the particle diameter, dimensionless

'Y

diameter, dimensionless

'Y~ -

1,1 D:

dimensionless

average bed void fraction, dimensionless

380

bed void fraction in the wall zone, dimensionless

ILG

PG

thickness of a slab of fluid near the particle-particle

contact points referred to the particle diameter, dimensionless

dimensionless

REFERENCES

Agnew, J.B. and Potter O.E., Trans.lnst. Chern. Eng. 48, T 15 (1970).

Balakrishnan, A.R., and Pei D.C.T., Ind. Eng. Chern. Process Des. Dev., 13,441 (1974).

Balakrishnan, A.R., and Pei D.C.T.,lnd. Eng. Chern. Process Des. Dev., 18,40 (l979a).

Balakrishnan, A.R., and Pei D.C.T., Ind. Eng. Chern. Process Des. Dev., 18,4 (1979b).

Bauer, R., and Schlunder E.U., Int. Chern. Eng.. 18, 181 (1978a).

Bauer, R., and SchlUnder E.U., Int. Chern. Eng.. 18, \89 (1978b).

Bhatlacharyya, D., and Pei D.C.T., Chern. Eng. Sci .. 30, 293 (1975).

Bunnel, D.G., Irvin H.G., Olson R.W., and Smith J.M., Ind. Eng. Chern.. 41, 1977 (1948).

Calderbank, P.H., and Pogorski L.A., Trans.lnst. Chern. Eng.. 35,195 (\957).

Campbell, J.M., and Huntington R.L., Petroleum Refiner, 31, 123 (1952).

Coberly, C.A., and Marshall W.R. Jr., Chern. Eng. Prog.. 47, 141 (1951).

Colburn, A.P., Ind. Eng. Chern. 23, 910 (1931).

De Wasch, A.P., and Froment G.F., Chern. Eng. Sci .. 27, 567 (1972).

Dixon, A.G., Cresswell D.L., and Paterson W.R., ACS Sym. Series 65, "Chern. Reaction Eng---diouston."

p. 237, (1978).

Dorrweiller, V.P.. and Fahien R.W., AIChE Journal, 5, 139 (1959).

Fahien, R.W., and Smith J.M., AIChE Journal, 1,28 (1955).

Felix, J.R., Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin, June (1951).

Gunn, DJ., and Khalid M., Chern. Eng. Sci., 30, 261 (1975).

Hanratty, T.J., Chern. Eng. Sci .. 5, 209 (1954).

Hougen, 1.0., and Piret E.L., Chern. Eng. Prog., 47, 295 (1951).

Krupiczka, R., Chim. Ind. Genie Chim., 95, 1393 (1966).

Kunii, D., and Smith J.M., AIChE Journal, 6, 71 (1960).

Kunii, D., Suzuki M., and Ono N., J. Chern. Eng. Japan, 1,21 (1968).

Kwong, S.S., and Smith J.M.,lnd. Eng. Chern.. 49, 854 (1957).

Leva, M., Ind. Eng. Chem., 39, 853 (1947).

Leva, M., and Grummer M., Ind. Eng. Chern.. 40,415 (1948).

Leva, M., Weintraub M., Grummer M., and Clarke E.L., Ind. Eng. Chem., 40, 747 (1948).

Leva, M., Ind. Eng. Chern.. 42, 2498 (1950).

Maeda, S., Chern. Eng. Japan, 14, 110 (1950).

Maeda, S., Chern. Eng. Japan, 15,5 (195\).

Plautz, D.A., and Johnstone H.F., AIChE Journal, I, 193 (1955).

Quinton, J.H., and Storrow J.A., Chern. Eng. Sci.. 5, 245 (1956).

Schwartz, C.E., and Smith J.M., Ind. Eng. Chern., 45,1209 (1953).

Shaffer, M.R., M.S. thesis, Purdue University, June (1953).

Singer, E., and Wilhelm R.H., Chern. Eng. Progr., 46, 343 (1950).

Smith, J.M., "Chemical Engineering Kinetics," 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hili, N.Y., p. 504, (1970).

Specchia, V., and Baldi G., "Chern. Eng. Comm., " 3, 483 (1979).

Tsang, T.H., Edgard T.F., and Hougen J.O. Chern. Eng. Journal, 11,57 (1976).

Yagi, S., and Kunii D., AIChE Journal, 3, 373 (1957).

Yagi, S., and Wakao N., AIChE Journal,S, 79 (1959).

Yagi, S., and Kunii D., AIChE Journal, 6, 97 (1960).

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