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Saline Layer: It is the outer most layer of the bacterial cell. This layer is an accumulation of poly saccharide around the cell. When the saline layer has regular thickness,
it is known as capsule. The presence of large quantity of saline around bacteria indicates an old system of low metabolic activity.
Cell Wall: Cell wall lies below the saline layer and is responsible for the shape of the cell. Chemically, cell wall is a protein, poly saccharide, polymer of low chemical
activity. The molecular structure of cell wall is such that relatively large molecules are unable to pass through cell wall. Thus, cell wall acts as a sieve to control the size of
molecules entering the cell.
Cytoplasmic Membrane: Cytoplasmic membrane lies below cell wall. It is lipo protein complex, which control the passage of all the materials into and out of cell. Control
of materials into the cell is accomplished by physical screening as well as by electrical charge. It is the site of surface charge of bacteria.
Cytoplasm: The mass of bacterial cell is made up of colloidal suspension of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates known as cytoplasm. The aqueous phase is a mobile
phase, in which the soluble chemicals move. The end products of metabolism are released from the colloidal surface into aqueous phase and then out of cell.
DNA / Nucleus: It is composed of nucleo proteins and is responsible for all chemical reactions, which occur within the cell. The enzymes with catalyse, all bio chemical
reactions within cell have their origin in nucleus. As long as nucleus remains intact, cell can continue to function as it still retain the ability to repair damage and to create
new cellular components.
Inclusions: Inclusion within the cytoplasm varies from cell to cell and varies with certain environmental limits. The more common inclusions are poly saccharides, lipids,
volutin, sulphur. Volutin is a pantose nucleic acid. Which can be used as reserve for pantose nucleic acid for synthesis of nucleus.
Poly saccharides inclusions are either glycogen or starch and are found in presence of excess organic matter or in a deficient of nitrogen.
Lipid or fatty inclusions spear when there is an excess of high energy food such as carbohydrates, both poly saccharides and lipid inclusion act as food reserve when
needed or energy metabolism. The sulphur metabolism bacteria often accumulate free sulphur within the cell.
Flagella: The majority of bacteria are free swimming. The organ associated with motility has been term as flagella.
Recent studies have been shown that flagella are basically protein. Flagella have their origin within the cell and are definite structures.
Spores: To survive under adverse environmental conditions has resulted in the formation of spores by some species of bacteria. The spore results when nucleus
becomes surrounded by a very tough poly saccharide protein. This poly saccharide protein protects the nucleus until favourable environmental conditions are established.
Pillia: small hair line structure out side the cell wall is known as Pillia. It is not present in all bacterial cells. These are used for adhering food molecule
The Gram-positive cocci are grouped together based on their Gram-stain reaction, thick cell wall composition, and spherical shape. Most of the organisms in these groups
are members of the Micrococcaceae family. All of the organisms in these groups are non-endospore forming chemosynthetic heterotrophs. We will discuss only the
clinically relevent bacteria from Micrococcus and Staphylococcus of the Micrococcaceae family. Streptococcus and Enterococcus (formerly a species of
Streptococcus) are discussed as well. The chart below shows the paths to identification of the genera discussed.

The Gram-Negative Cell

Unlike Gram-positive bacteria, which assume a violet color in Gram staining, Gram-negative bacteria incorporate the counterstain rather than the primary stain.
Because the cell wall of Gram(-) bacteria is high in lipid content and low in peptidiglycan content, the primary crystal-violet escapes from the cell when the decolorizer is
added. This is because primary stains like to bind with peptidoglycan- something the G(-) cell lacks. The pathogenic nature of Gram (-) bacteria is usually associated with
certain components of their cell walls, particularly the lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) layer. The Black Plague, which wiped out a third of the population of Europe, was
caused by the tiny G(-) rod, Yersinia pestis. Most enteric (bowel related) illnesses can also be attributed to this group of bacteria.