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PCBRAKE TEMPERATURE 2013

Rudy Limpert, Ph. D.


Franco Gamero, M.S.
PC-BRAKE, Inc.
www.pcbrakeinc.com

Brake System Design - Brake Temperature Analysis


2. Computes Brake Temperatures for:
Single Stop,
Repeated Braking or Fade,
Continued Braking
Contents:

Click on the link or


to go to the respective module.
Or navigate using the Tabs.

2.1.1Data

Single Stop - Simplified Analysis. Input Data.

2.1.1Table

Single Stop - Simplified Analysis. Table.

2.1.1Chart

Single Stop - Simplified Analysis. Chart.

TBD

Single Stop - Detailed Analysis [In Development]

2.2

Repeated Braking.

2.3Data

Continued Braking (Down Hill). Data.

2.3Table

Continued Braking (Down Hill). Table.

2.3Chart

Continued Braking (Down Hill). Chart.

Brake Temperature Analysis


2.1. Single Stop - Simplified Analysis
Project ID:
Swept Surface Temperature without Ambient Cooling.
Braking Power of One Brake per Unit Swept Area.
For a Disc Brake: per the area of swept surfaces of both sides of one rotor.
Input Data:

AS =

100

Swept surface area of brake, in2

ag =

0.8

Deceleration, g's

k=
s=
V =
W =

1
0.08
117.28

Correlation factor for rotating masses


Tire slip (vehicle forward speed:tire circumferential speed)
Vehicle velocity, ft/s

4500

Weight, lb

0.28

Brake Force Distribution

FR=

0.72

Fraction of Total Braking Generated on Axle

Ti=

100

Initial Temperature of Brake, oF

Distribution of Braking Power to Lining and Drum, or Pad and Rotor)


Input Data:

cP =
cR =
kP =
kR =
P=
R=
=
q"O=

0.35

Pad Specific Heat, BTU/lbm oF

0.1

Rotor Specific Heat, BTU/lbm oF

0.7

Pad Thermal Conductivity, BTU/hft oF

28

Rotor Thermal Conductivity, Nm/mh K (BTU/hft oF)

127

Pad Density, lbm/ft3

455

Rotor Density, lbm/ft4

0.865
931756

Braking Power Distribution,

See: 2.1.1Table
(Eq. 3-18)

Braking Power at Onset of Braking per Unit Area, BTU/h-ft2

Brake Thermal Analysis


2.1.1. Table
Swept Surface Brake Temperature as a Function of Time.

tst,h =

0.001265 Time to Stop, h

tst,sec =

4.55

Time to Stop, sec

tbrakingt

Tst

Swept Surface Brake Temperature as a Function of Braking Time (t braking time)

0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
4.6

100
375.7
459.1
502.1
520.7
521.7
508.6
483.7
448.6
404.4
394.5

4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6

394.5
394.5
394.5
394.5
394.5
394.5
394.5
394.5
394.5
394.5

Note: Tst repeats itself when tbrakingt=tST,sec

TSMax =

523.1

Maximum Swept Surface Brake Temperature (Equation 3-25) (T sMax), oF

(Eq. 3-24) In book replace small circle by minus sign.

See:

Swept Surface Brake Temperature as a Function of Time


Project ID: _
1000
900
800
700
600
Ts(t), 500
*F
400
300
200
100
0
0

time, sec

10

2.1.2.
2.1.2.1.
2.1.2.2.
2.1.2.3.

Single Stop - Detailed Analysis


Solid Rotor Disc Brake
Drum Brake
Ventilated Disc Brake
Most complicated rotor geometries and non-regular heat flux will be analyzed
with finite difference method. See workshop on website www.pcbrakeinc.com.

Brake System Design - Temperature Analysis


2.2 Repeated Braking Applications
Project ID: Test1
Average Braking Power of One Brake (qo)

ag =
k=
s=
V =
W =
=
FR =

0.2
Deceleration, g's
1
Correlation factor for rotating masses
0
Tire slip (vehicle forward speed/tire circumferential speed)
88
Vehicle velocity, ft/s
56450
Weight, lb
na
Brake Force Distribution
0.272
Fraction of Total Braking Generated on Axle
Distribution of Braking Power to Lining and Drum, or Pad and Rotor.)
Input the following data:

AP =
hP =
kS =
P=
cP =
kP =
S=
cR =
kR =
AR =
hR =

0.2

Pad surface area, ft2

Pad convective heat transfer coefficient, BTU/hr oF ft2

28

Pad Support Thermal Conductivity, Nm/mh K (BTU/hft oF)

0.03

Pad Material Thickness, ft

0.35

Pad Material Specific Heat, Nm/kg K (BTU/lboF)

0.7

Pad Thermal Conductivity, Nm/mh K (BTU/hft oF)

0.03

Pad Support Thickness, ft

0.1

Rotor Material Specific Heaty, Nm/kg K (BTU/lboF)

28

Rotor Thermal Conductivity, Nm/mh K (BTU/hft oF)

Area of Cooling Surface, ft2

18

Convective heat transfer coefficient, BTU/h oF ft2

Calculated Data:
= 0.995
qO = 310959

Braking Power Distribution.)


Average Braking Power, BTU/h

(Eq. 3-21 and Figure 3-3)


(Eq. 3-13)

Average Temperature Increase During Braking (Tav).


Input the following data:

tb =
vR =
AC =
R=
na =
hR =
tc =
T =

13.7

Braking Time, sec

0.2

Active Drum or Rotor Volume, ft3

Active Cooling Area of Drum or Rotor, ft2

455

Rotor density, lbm/ft3

30

Number of Repeated Brake Applications from Specified Velocity V and Deceleration a.

Convective Heat Transfer (cooling) Coefficient of Brake, BTU/oF-ft2-h

300

Cooling Time During Which vehicle is driven at specific velocity V prior to next brake application, sec

100

Ambient Temperature, oF

Calculated Data:

TAV =
=
TBa =

130.0

Average Temperature Increase During One Brake Application (Tav), oF

0.165

Cooling Constant

950

Brake Temperature After nth Brake Applications, oF

(Eq. 3-34)

(Eq. 3-30)

Brake System Design - Brake Temperature Analysis


2.3. Continued (Down Hill) Braking.
Braking Power of One Brake.
V= 29.32 Vehicle velocity, ft/s
W= 80000 Weight, lb
FR= 0.22 Fraction of Total Braking Generated on Axle
G = 0.07 Road Gradient (Fraction)
fr = 0.0100 Coefficient of Tire Rolling Resistance
Distribution of Braking Power to Lining and Drum, or Pad and Rotor.
Input the following data:
AP =
1
Pad surface area, ft2
hP =
0
Pad convective heat transfer coefficient, BTU/hr oF ft2
kP = 0.7 Pad Material Thermal Conductivity, Nm/mh K (BTU/hft oF)
kS = 28 Rotor Thermal Conductivity, Nm/mh K (BTU/hft oF)
P= 0.02 Pad Material Thickness, ft
S= 0.04 Pad Support Thickness, ft
AR =
3
Area of Cooling Surface, ft2
hR = 13 Convective heat transfer coefficient, BTU/h oF ft2
Calculated Data:
= 1.000 Braking Power Distribution (Inter-rotor)
(Eq. 3-21)
qOC= 71,634 Average Braking Power (One Brake), BTU/h (Eq. 3-15)
Brake Temperature as Function of Time During Continued Brake Application
Input the following data:
tb = 0.05 Braking time, hours

R= 455
cR = 0.1
vR = 0.28
AC =
4
T = 50
Ti = 150
= 4.08163
Tbc = 385.8

Rotor density, lbm/ft3


Specific heat, BTU/lbm oF
Active Drum or Rotor Volume, ft3
Active Cooling Area of Drum or Rotor, ft2
Ambient Temperature, oF
Initial Temperature, F
Cooling Constant
o

Brake Temperature, oF

(Eq. 3-35)

See: 2.3Table

Brake System Design


Brake Thermal Analysis
2.3. Table: Brake Temperature as Function of Time (hours) During Continued Brake Application.

tb,hours
0
0.017
0.03
0.05
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.18
0.20
0.22
0.23
0.25
0.27
0.28
0.30
0.32
0.33
0.35
0.37
0.38
0.40
0.42
0.43
0.45
0.47
0.48
0.50

Tbc
150.0
234.0
312.5
385.8
454.4
518.4
578.2
634.0
686.2
735.0
780.5
823.1
862.8
900.0
934.7
967.1
997.4
1025.7
1052.1
1076.8
1099.9
1121.4
1141.5
1160.4
1177.9
1194.3
1209.7
1224.0
1237.4
1249.9
1261.6

(Eq. 3-35)

See:

Brake Temperature as a Function of Time During Continued Brake Application


Project ID: _
1400.0

1200.0

1000.0

800.0

Tbc
600.0

400.0

200.0

0.0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3
time

0.4

0.5

0.6